It is interesting that the "eye for an eye" quote is from ancient Hebrew law and it certainly bears little resemblance ot the other often quoted Biblical statement, or admonition, "Turn the other cheek". Certainly many people who ground their lives in the New Testament in what they consider to be a return to biblical fundamentalism quote that particular statement as a way of justifying vengeance.
I also believe that the "eye for an eye" statement is very old and the concept goes back to Hamurabi although I don't know whether that predates the Hebrew statement. I am pretty sure that mainstream Jewish thought today does not endorse eye trading as social policy. I don't believe that it was an order from God that one should take an eye for a lost one. I will bet that social ideas such as that have changed over the centuries as societies have changed.