Sure, I'll try. What I was trying to say was just that the chord shapes stay the same as other chords as you go up the neck. So if you make your d chord, starting there on the second fret, then slide it up to the seventh, those are now notes in G. and other notes in G would be relative to moving your open strings up the same distance. And the other notes you would use relative to that D-chord shape, would be relative to G instead. So that's what I meant about using an imaginary capo, you can find G chords in the other chord shapes you already know, anywhere on the neck.
Your c-chord, if you slide it on up so your first finger is on the 8th fret instead of the 1rst, is a g, but remember the open strings with that imaginary capo--and if you then go from that c-shape to the a-minor shape, that's an e-minor, except for your open a-string, so you have to finger it on the seventh fret. Since all the chord shapes are relative to where you do them on the neck, it's a way to use what you already know to find your way around.
G is probably a great place to start going up the neck with, because your open d, g, b, and also the minor e strings can be used with the high fingerings.
I'll try to do the g-maj scale, as you'd do it without any open strings, starting with G on your lowest string, the 6th, string # then the fret# : 6/3 6/5, 5/2 5/3 5/5, 4/2 4/4 4/5, 3/2 3/4 3/5, 2/3 2/5, 1/2 1/3. That's g a b c d e F# g a b c d e f# g. You could do those notes using the open strings but that pattern moves up the neck without regard to open strings. Two frets up, starting on the 5th, it's the A maj scale, and so on. It helps to draw it out in tab so you can see it as a shape, you just put all the notes down at once, though you'll play them one at a time, or whatever.
But the pentatonic scale is probably easier to start off with, because it skips some variables like whether to use the f# note or just f, for the gdom7 sound. I'll do that in Fm just so it has no open strings, you see how to move it for other keys. that starts: 6/1 6/4, 5/1 5/3, 4/1 4/3, 3/1 3/3, 2/1 2/4, 1/1 1/4. Those notes are F Ab Bb C Eb F Ab Bb C Eb F Ab--though someone might bust me about calling notes by sharp or flat, I don't pay attention--you know, a G# or Ab is the same note, you call it one or the other depending on the key. depending on It's just a fingering shape, or box, and there are notes above and below it you can use, but it's a framework for where you are, relative to a key.
I won't do all the strings, but for a reference, take the g string, it goes up the neck like this, note-name/ and fret number; G/open, A/2, b/4, c/5, d/7, e/9, f#/11, G/12.
The thing about the guitar having lots of the same notes are in different places on different strings, unlike piano where a note is just where it is, is when you're figuring something out by ear, it may work better in one spot or another, it may be impossible to play unless you figure out where and how they do it. Or you might find a way you like better--I do John Hiatt's Learning How to Love You in G instead of E, and like it better. And changing the key sometimes can give you a fuller-sounding solo bit for when you want to do the instrumental but playing by yourself. Hope something in there helps.