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The Advent and Development of Chanties

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Gibb Sahib 16 Mar 11 - 04:08 AM
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Lighter 16 Mar 11 - 11:16 AM
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John Minear 27 Mar 11 - 08:01 AM
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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 16 Mar 11 - 04:08 AM

Don't forget about g-strings...and 'Commando.'


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 16 Mar 11 - 04:16 AM

Here's a few more quotes from Dana, _Two Years_, that didn't make it into this thread. They don't add much except,

--reinforce ubiquity of CHEERLY (used for catting anchor and halyards);
--"yo-ho-ing" as Dana's way of referring to singing-out;
--another mention of "Time for us to go";
--Dana was using "yo heave ho" at the windlass, rather than songs/chanties.

pg321
//
We pulled off with a will, saying to ourselves (I can speak for myself at least)—" Good-by, Santa Barbara! —This is the last pull here !—No more duckings in your breakers, and slipping from your cursed south-easters!" The news was soon known aboard, and put life into everything when we were.getting under weigh. Each one was taking his last look at the mission, the town, the breakers on the beach, and swearing that no money would make him ship to see them again; and when all hands tallied on to the cat-fall, the chorus of " Time for us to go!" was raised for the first time, and joined in, with full swing, by everybody.
//

pg349
//
For a few minutes, all was uproar and apparent confusion: men flying about like monkeys in the rigging; ropes and blocks flying; orders given and answered, and the confused noises of men singing out at the ropes. The top-sails came to the mast-heads with "Cheerily, men!" and, in a few minutes, every sail was set; for the wind was light. The head sails were backed, the windlass came round ' slip—slap' to the cry of the sailors ;—" Hove short, sir," said the mate;—" Up With him !"—"Aye, aye, sir."—A few hearty and long heaves, and. the anchor showed its head. "Hook cat!"—The fall was stretched along the decks;—all hands laid hold;—" Hurrah, for the last time," said the mate; and the anchor came to the cat-head to the tune of " Time for us to go," with a loud chorus.
//

pg396
//
Our spirits returned with having something to do; and when the tackle was manned to bowse the anchor home, notwithstanding the desolation of the scene, we struck up "Cheerily ho!" in full chorus.
//

pg413
//
When we came to mast-head the top-sail yards, with all hands at the halyards, we struck up "Cheerily, men," with a chorus which might have been heard half way to Staten Land.
//

Homeward bound in the Alert (pg. 428):
//
The very yo-ho-ing of the sailors at the ropes sounded sociably upon the ear.
//

On returning to moor in Boston, the following occurred (pg 458):
//
All hands manned the windlass, and the longdrawn "Yo, heave, ho!" which we had last heard dying away among the desolate hills of San Diego, soon brought the anchor to the bows…
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 16 Mar 11 - 11:16 AM

Bullen was well-known for "The Cruise if the Cachalot" (1898). I haven't compared the two, but it would be unlikely for a 1914 publication not to give him a byline - unless the passage was simply plagiarized. That too seems unlikely.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 19 Mar 11 - 03:04 AM

I just wanted to get these texts into this thread, for search/comparison purposes. The thread dealing with this article is, of course, here.

1909 Buryeson, Fred H. ['El Tuerto']. "Sea Shanties." _Coast Seamen's Journal_ 22(40) (23 June).

//
WINDLASS SHANTIES.

SHENANDOAH

Shenandoah, I love your waters;
And away, you rolling river
I love your clear and rushing waters
Ah, ah, ah, we're bound away, across the wide Missouri.

The ship sails free, a gale is blowing;
Her braces taut and sheet a-flowing.

Shenandoah, I love to hear you;
Shenandoah, I long to see you.

Black-eyed Sue is sure a beauty;
To sing her praise it is our duty.

Shenandoah, I'll ne'er forget you,
But think of you and love you ever.

Give me a good old Yankee clipper,
A bully crew and swearing skipper.

Shenandoah, my heart is longing
To see again your rolling waters.

Good shipmates always pull together,
No matter what the wind or weather.

Shenandoah, I'd love to see you,
And hear again your tumbling waters.

Shenandoah, my thoughts will ever
Be where you are, sweet rolling river.
//

Buryeson's note after the lyrics suggests the possible relationship between, or crossing with, ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN.
//
Note. -- This shanty is said to have originated with negro roustabouts on the Mississippi River boats, many of whom were from the Shenandoah
Valley. The saltwater interpolations in the text were no doubt inserted later by some white shantyman for the purpose of appropriateness. Indeed, many shantymen shipmates of mine, to give this shanty a still more pronounced saltwater tang, used the substitute "Western Ocean" for
"wide Missouri" in the second chorus.
//

//
SALLY BROWN

Sally Brown was a nice young lady,
'Way, heigh, roll and go.
Just as bright and pretty as they make 'em.
I spent my money on Sally Brown.

Sally wasn't either tall or slender,
But her eyes were both blue and tender.

Sally's father kept a little tavern
Just at the head of India basin.

Seven long years, I courted Sally,
But Sally didn't want no coasting sailor.

And so I shipped on a China packet
Just for to be a flyin' fish sailor.

Seven more years I did sail the seas, boys,
When, one day, I received a letter

Telling that Sally had married a tinker
With nary a shilling--and seven small children.

So it's me for the life of a sailor
And I'll spend no more money on Sally.
//

//
RIO GRANDE.

In Rio Grande I'll take my stand,
'Way, you Rio.
For Rio Grande's the place for me.
We are bound for the Rio Grande.
Oh, Rio, Rio; 'Way, you Rio.
Sing fare you well, my bonny young girl,
We are bound for the Rio Grande.

One day I espied a damsel fair
With cherry-red lips and nut-brown hair.

"Where are you going my pretty, fair maid."
"I'm going a-milking, kind sir," she said.

"May I go with you my pretty, fair maid?"
"Oh, no, sir; that never would do," she said.

"Why may I not come, my pretty, fair maid?"
"My father would be angry, sir," she said.

"We are bound for the Rio Grande," I said;
"And, please, won't you come along, fair maid?"

"Oh, no, sir, that never can be," she said,
"For roving is not for a poor young maid."

And away she walked, this pretty, fair maid.
"I must go a-milking, kind sir," she said.

So in Rio Grande I'll take my stand,
For Rio Grande's the place for me.
//

//
DIXIE'S ISLE.

Oh then Susie, lovely Susie, I can no longer stay,
For the bugle sounds the warning that calls me far away.
It ca11s me down to New Orleans, the enemy for to rile;
And to fight the Southern soldiers, 'way down upon Dixie's Isle.

The owners they gave orders no women they were to come.
The captain, likewise, ordered that none of them were to come;
For their waists they are too slender, and their figures are not the style
For to go fight the Southern soldiers, 'way down upon Dixie's Isle.

Oh, my curse attend those cruel wars when first they began;
They robbed New York and Boston of many a noble young man.
They robbed us of our wives, our sweethearts and brothers while
We went fighting the Southern soldiers, 'way down upon Dixie's Isle.

Note.-- The last line of each verse constitutes the chorus.
//

//
BLOW FOR CALIFORNIA.

We're bound for California I heard the old man say;
To me hoodah, to me hoodah.
We're bound for California this very good day.
To me hoodah, hoodah day.
Blow, boys, blow for California;
there is plenty of gold, so I've been told,
on the banks of the Sacramento.

As I was a-walking one day up and down
I spied a gay damsel she seemed outward bound.

I fired my bow-chaser, the signal she knew;
She backed her main topsail, for me she hove to.

I hailed her in English, she answered me thus:
My name is Sally Gubbins, and I'm bound on a cruise.

Then I gave her my hawser and took her in tow,
And into an alehouse together we did go;


And drank ale and brandy till near break of day,
When I went a-rolling down home Tigerbay.

She had rifled my lockers while I filled my hold,
And aboard of my packet I had for to scull.

With a hookpot and pannikin I got under weigh
Seven bells in the morning, the very next day.

And when I have finished a-singing my song
I hope you'll excuse me if I have sung wrong.

She was a fine frigate you must understand,
But one of those cruisers who sail on dry land;

A reg'lar old fire-ship, rigged out in disguise,
To burn jolly sailors like me, damn her eyes.

We're bound for California this very good day;
We're bound for California I hear them all say.

Note.-The "hoodah day," etc., I have spelt according to the way those words sounded to me when the chorus was sung, but I have no idea of their meaning or source, if, indeed, they ever had any meaning.
//

//
SANTA ANA.

Santa Ana has gained the day.
Hooray, Santa Ana.
From Vera Cruz to Manzanas Bay.
All along the plains of Mexico.

He marched his soldiers all o'er the land;
At Orizaba he took his stand.

He drove the gringoes into the sea,
And hung their leader to a gallows tree.

I wish I were in old Mobile Bay,
A-screwing cotton this blessed day.

Though Santa Ana has gained the day
A dollar a day is a nigger's pay.

But seven dollars is a white man's pay
For screwing cotton ten hours a day.

Then heave her up, boys, and let her go;
For now we're heading for Mexico.

I heard the skipper say yesterday
We're going to Matamoros Bay.

So heave a pawl, boys, the wind is fair,
Likewise the donnas who live down there.

For Santa Ana has gained the day
From Vera Cruz to Manzanas Bay.
//

//
MISTER "STORMALONG."

"Storma!ong" was a good old man,
Aye, aye, aye, Mister "Stormalong."
For he served his sailors grog by the can.
To me 'way, "Stormalong."

He gave us plenty of spud-hash, too,
And every Sunday we had black-ball stew;

With soup and boulli and lots of duff,
Of soft-tack, also, we got enough.

"Stormy" never put us on our whack;
No pound and pint "according to the Act."

Then shake her up and away we'll go;
We're bound to sail, blow high or low.

I wish I was with "Stormalong"
A-drinking of his rum so strong.

For "Stormalong" was a good old rip,
As good as ever sailed a ship.
//

//
MAID OF AMSTERDAM.

In Amsterdam there lived a fair maid.
Mark well what I do say;
In Amsterdam there lived a fair maid,
And this fair maid my trust betrayed.
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid;
A-roving, a-roving, since roving's been my ruin,
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid.

I asked this fair maid to take a walk,
That we might have some private talk.

Then I took this fair maid's lily-white hand,
In mine as we walked along the strand.

Then I put my arm around her waist,
And from her lips snatched a kiss in haste.

Then a great, big Dutchman rammed my bow,
And said, "Young man, dis bin mein vrow."

Then take a warning, boys, from me,
With other men's wives don't make too free.

For if you do you will surely rue,
Your act, and find my words come true.
//

//
HOMEWARD BOUND.

We are homeward bound, come, let us all sing.
Good-by, fare you well; good-by, fare you well.
We are homeward bound, strike up with a ring.
Hurrah, my boys, we are homeward bound.

Then I thought I heard our old man say
That our store of grog gave out yesterday.

So heave her up, we are bound to go
Around Cape Horn through frost and snow.

Hurrah, my boys, we are homeward bound;
We are homeward bound to Liverpool town.

And when we get there we'll have money to spend,
With lots of good cheer, boys, and lashings of rum.

The landlord will greet us with a bow and a smile,
A-saying, "Get up Jack and let John sit down."

But when your money it is all gone
Then in comes the landlord with a frown.

A-saying, "Young man, it is time you were gone,
1 have a ship for you bound out to Hongkong."

So shake her up, bullies; let us be gone,
And sing the good news, we are homeward bound.
//

//
HEAVE AWAY, LADS.

Then heave away, my bully boys; the wind is blowing fair.
Heave away, my bullies; heave away, lads.
Our ship will soon be rolling home to merry England's shores.
Heave away, my bully boys; we are all bound to go.

Then hreak her out and square away; we are all bound to go.
Our course lies through those latitudes where stormy winds do blow.

When I was young and in my prime I sailed in the Black Ball line.
They were the finest ships e'er seen upon the ocean brine.

One morning Bridget Donahue came down the dock to see
Old Tapscot 'bout a steerage berth, and presently said she:

"Good morning, Mr. Tapscot, sir." "Good morning, ma'am," says he.
"And have you got a packet ship to carry me over the sea?"

"Oh, yes. I've got a packet ship to carry you over the sea,"
"And, please yet Mr. Tapscot, sir, what may the fare then be?"

"It 'may be' fifty pounds," says he, "and it 'may be' sixty, too;
But eight pound ten we'll call enongh, my pretty dear, for you."

"And here's the money, sir," says she. "Step right onboard," says he;
"The tide is up, the wind is fair, and soon we'll tow to sea."

"At last," says Bridget, "I am off to the far away
Where Barney went two years ago, the land of Americay."

So shake her up, my bully boys, this day we're bound to go;
The anchor is a-weigh, and now for home we'll sing heigh-ho.
//

//
THE DREADNOUGHT.

I sing of a packet, and a packet of fame;
She's commanded by Samuels, the Dreadnought's her name.
She sails to the west'ard where the stormy winds blow;
Bound away in the Dreadnought to the west'ard we'll go.

It's now we are lying in the River Mersey,
Waiting for the Constitution to tow us to sea.
We'll tow 'round the black rock where the Mersey does flow;
Bound away in the Dreadnought to the west'ard we'll go.

It's now we are sailing on the ocean so wide,
Where the deep and blue waters dash by her black side;
With our sails set so neatly, and the red cross will show;
Bound away in the Dreadnought to the west'ard we'll go.

It's now we are sailing 'cross the Banks of Newfoundland,
Where the lead shows sixty fathoms and bottom of sand;
With icebergs all around and northwesters do blow,
Bound away in the Dreadnought to the west'ard we'll go.

It's now we are sailing by the Long Island shore,
Where the pilot he does board us as he [sic] often done before.
And it's "back your main topsail, your fore tack let it go";
She's a Liverpool packet, brave boys, let her go.

And now to conclude and to finish my song,
I hope you'll excuse me if I have sung wrong.
For the song was composed while the watch was below;
Bound away in the Dreadnought to the west'ard we'll go.
//

//
TEN THOUSAND MILES AWAY.

I sing of a brave and a gallant ship, a brisk and a lively breeze
A bully crew, and a captain, too, to carry me over the seas.
To carry me over" the seas, my boys, to my truelove so gay.
She has taken a trip in a government ship, ten thousand miles away.
Then blow you winds, heigh-ho, for it's roving I will go.
I'll stay no more on England's shore, so let your music play.
I'm off by the morning train to cross the raging main,
For I'm on the move to my own truelove, ten thousand miles away.

My truelove she is beautiful, and my truelove she is young,
Her eyes as bright as the stars at night, and silvery sounds her tongue.
And silvery sounds her tongue, my boys, but while I sing this lay
She is doing it grand in a distant land, ten thousand miles away.

It was a dark and a dismal morn when last she left the strand.
She bid good-by with a tear-dimmed eye, and waved her lily-white hand.
And waved her lily-white hand, my boys, as the big ship left the bay.
"Adieu," said she, "and remember me ten thousand miles away."

Then I wish I were a boatswain bold, or even a bombardier,
I'd hire a boat and hurry afloat, and straight to my truelove steer.
And straight to my truelove steer, my boys, where the dancing dolphins play,
And the whales and sharks are having their larks ten thousand miles away.

May the sun shine through a London fog; may the Thames run bright and clear;
May the ocean brine be turned to wine; may I forget my beer.
May I forget my beer, my boys, and the landlord his quarter-day,
If ever I part with my sweetheart, although so far away.

Note.--The last two shanties, as well as "Dixie's Isle," were sung more especially when pumping ship, and would therefore, perhaps, be more properly classed as pump shanties.
//

//
TOPSAIL HALYARDS SHANTIES.

TOM IS GONE TO ILO.

Tom is gone and I'll go to.
Away, Ilo.
Tom is gone and so may you.
Tom is gone to Ilo.

For times are hard and wages low;
It's time for you and me to go.

When I was young I served my time
On board the coasting brig "Sublime."

I had but sailed a voyage or two
When I fell in love with a sweet young maid.

Straight to my captain I did go
And told him of my sad grief and woe.

"I love one girl as I love my life,
And what wouldn't I give if she were my wife."

"Go along, go along, you foolish boy,
To love this girl you'll never enjoy.

"Your love's got sweethearts, it may be,
And she'll be married before you are free."

"Never mind, never mind, but I'll go and try;
Perhaps my love will fancy none but I.

"Perhaps her favor I may enjoy
Although I am but a 'prentice boy."

And when me and my shipmates went on the spree
I asked my love would she drink with me.

And she drank with me and was nowise shy.
Although I was but a 'prentice boy.

Note.--At this juncture the shantyman having, perhaps, run out on the shanty proper, and noting that the leaches of the topsail were yet slack,
would proceed somewhat as follows:

Then up aloft that yard must go,
And down on deck we'll coil this fall.

We're bound to go through frost and snow;
We're bound to go, blow high or low.

For growl we may but go we must;
It's on to Liverpool or bust.

Then I thought I heard our chiefmate say,
I thought I heard him say "Belay!"

This was a delicate hint to the mate that, in the opinion of the singer, the sail had been stretched sufficiently; and his "Belay!" was usually so well timed that the mate would then and there roar out, "Belay! Haul taut the lee brace."

The foregoing, and a number of others of a similar tenor, were the "stock verses" to which I referred in my introductory remarks. As many
of the shanties were composed in the same measure, these verses could be tucked in snug among the verses proper whenever "padding" might become necessary.
//

//
'RANZO, BOYS, 'RANZO.

'Way down in Anjou county.
'Ranzo, boys, 'Ranzo.
There lived one Reuben 'Ranzo.
'Ranzo boys, 'Ranzo

Oh 'Ranzo took a notion
That he'd cross the Western Ocean.

So he shipped onboard of a whaler
Along with Captain Taylor.

But 'Ranzo was no sailor,
And neither was he a whaler.

So they put him in the galley,
But he spoiled our morning coffee.

Then they took him to the gangway
And lashed him to a grating.

And gave him five and forty
Of stripes across his backside.

The captain was a good man;
He took him in his cabin

And gave him wine and brandy,
And taught him navigation.

Now 'Ranzo is a captain,
And navigates a whaler.

But he hasn't yet forgotten
When they lashed him to that grating.

So he treats his sailors kindly,
And gives them grog a-plenty.

Note.-'Ranzo is said to be a contraction of Lorenzo, formerly a common name among the whalemen of New Bedford. Mass., a majority of whom were either Portuguese or of Portuguese extraction.
//

//
WHISKEY, JOHNNY.

Oh, whiskey is the life of man,
Whiskey, Johnny.
For who can do what whiskey can?
Whiskey for me, Johnny.

Hard is our life and short our day,
So I'll drink whiskey while I may.

For whiskey is the friend of man,
So drink it down, boys, all you can.

It's whiskey hot and whiskey cold;
That's how we spend our hard-earned gold.

Oh, whiskey killed my father dead,
And whiskey broke my mother's heart.

It drove my sister on the street,
And sent my brother to the jail.

And whiskey made me leave my home
In foreign countries for to roam.

For whiskey is what brought me here;
It surely is the devil's cheer.

So drink it down, boys, good and strong,
And let us have another song.

Oh, whiskey is the life of man,
For who can do what whiskey can?
//

//
BLOW, BOYS, BLOW.

And it's blow, my boys, for I love to hear you.
Blow, boys, blow.
I love to hear you roll it, bullies.
Blow, my bully boys, blow.

Then blow, my boys, for finer weather
And for a fair wind. and blow together.

A Yankee ship came down the river
And proudly flew her Irish pennants.

And who d'ye think was the captain of her?
Why, "Bucko" Brown, that damned old driver.

And what d'ye think they had for breakfast?
A chunk of salthorse and deviled lobcouse.

And what d'ye think they had for dinner?
A monkey's lights and a bullock's liver.

And who d'ye think was "the chief mate of her?
'Twas "Lily" White, the big Georgia nigger.

And as we passed her by to leeward
Our skipper hailed that nigger chief mate:

"And how's things 'way down in Georgia?"
"Why, red hot, sah, an' still a-heating."

Then blow to-day and blow to-morrow
And blow away all care and sorrow. '

No matter what the wind or weather,
We are the boys can blow together.
//

//
BLOW THE MEN DOWN.

Oh, blow the men down, bullies, blow the men down.
To me 'way, heigh, blow the men down.
An~ blow the men down from Liverpool town.
Give me sometime to blow the men down.

Oh, blow the men down on board of this craft
For blow the men down is the word from aft.

As I was a-walking down South Castle street
A cheeky policeman I chanced for to meet.

He opened his gob, and he gave me some jaw,
And I laid him out stiff with me Erin go bragh.

I up with my helm and ran for Lime street,
And there an old skirt-rigged craft I did meet.

"Oh, Jack," says she, "will you stand a treat?"
"Oh yes, my dear, when next we meet."

She up with her fist and she knocked me down.
"I'll show you," says she, "how to blow the men down."

So blow the men down, bullies, blow the men down,
For that is the style of Liverpool town.
//

//
JOHN FRANCOIS.

Oh, Bonny was a warrior,
To me 'way, heigh-ho.
But we licked him at Trafalgar.
John Francois.

He tried to conquer all Europe,
But he couldn't, conquer old England.

Oh, Donny went to Russia,
To Austria, Spain and Prussia.

And Bonny went to Moscow,
But Moscow was a-burning.

There he lost a bunch of roses,
A bonny bunch of roses.

Twas a token of disaster;
Bold Wellington was his master.

At Waterloo we caught him
And sent him to Saint Helena.

Oh, Bonny was a warrior,
But he couldn't conquer old England.

For he lost his bunch of roses,
His bonny bunch of roses.
//

//
FORESHEET SHANTIES.

JOHNNY BOWKER.

Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, come, rock and roll me over;
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, do.

Come, rock and roll me over from Calais town to Dover.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, the ship she is a-rolling.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, the old man is a-growling.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, the wind it is a-howling.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, I'd like to marry your daughter,
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, and take her across the water.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, come, give us finer weather.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, come, let us pull together.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, the gale is still a-blowing.
Come, do. my Johnny Bowker, this sheet is still a-flowing.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, our arms are sore and aching.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, our hearts are nigh to breaking.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, the sheet is now a-straining.
Come, do, my Johnny Bowker, and nothing are we gaining.
(Belay!)
//

//
HAUL ON THE BOWLINE.

Haul on the bowline, the bonny, bonny bowline.
Haul on the bowline, the bowline, haul.

Haul on the bowline, for something is a-holding.
Haul on the bowline, we'll either bend or break her.
Haul on the bowline, and if she won't we'll make her.
Haul on the bowline, we are the boys so handy.
Haul on the bowline, but that one was a dandy.
Haul on the bowline, and fiddlest ring her braces.
Haul on the bowline, we'll give her merry blazes.
Haul on the bowline, the mate says, "Haul 'em tauter."
Haul on the bowline, and send her 'cross the water.
Haul on the bowline, she's making heavy weather.
Haul on the bowline, and buckle off together.
Haul on the bowline, and drive the ship along, boys.
Haul on the bowline, let's drive her good and strong, boys.
Haul on the bowline, a gale of wind is coming.
Haul on the bowline, and then she'll go a-humming.
Haul on the bowline, we'lI either bend or break her.
Haul on the bowline, and may the devil take her.
(Belay!)
//

Interesting here the "bunch of posies" lyric.
//
HAUL AWAY, JOE.

Away, haul away, boys, and haul away, my rosies.
Away, haul away, and haul away, Joe.

Away, haul away, boys, and haul, my bunch of posies.
Oh, once I loved an Irish girl, she damned near drove me crazy.
And then I loved a Deutscher girl, she was so fat and lazy.
And then I loved a Spanish girl, she was so proud and haughty.
And then I loved a French girl, oh my, but she was naughty.
And then I loved a Yankee girl, she was so tall and slender.
And then I loved an English girl, her eyes were blue and tender.
And then I loved a Scotch lass, she was so fair and bonny.
But she wouldn't look at me for either love or money.
Then away, hau1 away, boys, I'm through with all love-making;
And away, haul away, boys the game is too heart-breaking. '
(Belay!)

Note.--If more verses happened to be needed they were usually borrowed from Johnny Bowker or Haul on the Bowline.
//

Also mentions timber stowing songs "Miss Rosa Lee" "Somebody Told Me So" "Yankee John, Storm Along."
//
In addition to our sea shanties proper we also had timber shanties, sung when loading heavy timbers into a ship's hold. As, however they originated with, and were mostly sung by 'longshore timber stowers, I have not deemed it advisable to include them in the present collection.
The most popular of the timber shanties were Miss Rosa Lee, Somebody Told Me So, and Yankee John, Storm Along. They are still sung by the negro timber stowers in the seaports of the South.

Then, too, we used to sing a shanty -- if shanty it can be called -- when rolling the bunt of a heavy sail up on the yard. After all the slack of the sail had been gathered into the bunt, and we had gotten a firm hold of the "skin," the shantyman would sing:

"'Way, heigh, heigh-ho."

To which all hands chorused:

"And we'll pay Paddy Doyle for his boots."

This would be repeated at every toss until the bunt had finally been rolled up on the yard. Paddy Doyle, by the way, was a Liverpool shoemaker, known to a11 the "packet-rats" sailing out of that port for the excellency of his sea-boots, and beloved for his readiness to trust any of the boys for the price of a pair when they were outward bound across "the big pond."
//


His comment on the relative value of the solo lyrics is very quotable:
//
…with us sailors the tune and the chorus counted, in point of importance, as nine-tenths or the shanty, the remaining tenth being just a convenient peg on which to hang the other nine. To be sure, the more ornamental and handsome the peg, the better we
liked it. But on a pinch any old song would do, rhyme or no rhyme, relevancy or no relevancy, provided, of course, it would fit the tune. …
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 26 Mar 11 - 08:31 PM

1908        Williams, James H. "Joseph O'Brien, Irishman." _The Independent_ 64(3090) (20 Feb. 1908): 395.

Nothing new or exciting here. Just a logging of this writing by James H. Williams that came the year before his 1909 article devoted to chanties. He his relaying (perhaps embellished) and story from his experience (i.e. circa mid-1870s-1880s), in the context of which he takes the liberty to quote his version of HAUL AWAY JOE.

At the time of writing, Williams had "returned" to New York and was working as editor of a magazine for the Sailor's Union. Does anyone know what magazine that would be exactly?

Another question: F.P. Harlow quotes a few of Williams' chanties, which he vaguely attributes to an article published around 1920. I don't find any more specific info. I browsed The Independent for that year, but have not yet found anything. I am thinking it might be the Sailor's Union magazine that it was in (?).

//
We had belayed our braces and were hauling away on the fore-sheet to the strains of that good old fore-sheet chanty:

"Haul away the bowlin',
The packet ship's a-rolling';
Away haul away,
Haul away, Joe!

Haul away together,
We'll either break or bend her;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe!

Oh, haul away, my bully boys,
We're sure to make her render;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe!

Oh, once I had an Irish girl,
And she was fat and lazy;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe!

And now I've got a Yankee girl,
She almost sets me crazy;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe!"
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Mar 11 - 03:53 AM

Here's a sort of run-down of what's in (or what jumped out at me from in) Harlow's posthumously collected work. It does not do it justice, but it is all I can muster right now. Basically it is a list of the contents (song titles) with some identifying information of what the chanties were used for, who sang them or where Harlow learned them from, and some miscellaneous observations. Better to read to book, but perhaps this will serve some function in this thread for comparison and search purposes. At this point, I have been anxious at least to have some sort of break down of Harlow's chanties in order to fit them into the scheme of "trajectory of chantying development," so...

1962        Harlow, Frederick Pease. _Chanteying Aboard American Ships._ Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishing Co.

Footnotes indicate that Harlow had read: Dana, Smith, Masefield, Whall, Lubbock (Around the Horn), Luce, Clark (The Clipper Ship Era), Terry, Colcord, Buryeson, and Williams. Does anyone knowabout the Capt. Botterill and Capt Nye that he talks about? Some of the chanties came from them.

Harlow was son of a Methodist minister in Newport RI. December 1875 shipped out of Boston, to Austrtalia and Java, on the medium clipper Akbar of Peabody's Australian Line.

1928, The Marine Research Society published Harlow's account _The Making of a Sailor or Sea Life Aboard a Yankee Square-Rigger._

A section of the book appeared in installments in 1948 in the periodical _The American Neptune._

Harlow says: Chanties were so common in the 70s, that they were sung on all square riggers, even in brigs and topsail schooners.
Good chanteyman was often paid more.
Often dirty lyrics.
Some people "would string out a chantey by repeating every line, using words with no meaning and sometimes without regard to rhythme or metre. But if he were original, he would make up verses as he sang, bringing in incidents of voyage in such a vivid way that the crew redoubled their efforts…"

Classification of 4 different kinds of chanties:

CAPSTAN – capstan or windlass
LONG DRAG – topsail halyards
SHORT DRAG – sheets/tacks/bowline
HAND OVER HAND – hoisting light sails, 2-3 men on halyards. Includes Drunken Sailor in this.

Early chanties were more in minor keys. Mentions Antebellum cotton screwing of Negroes and give example:

WE'RE ALL SURROUNDED

Whites imitated "heavy" harmonious chorus of Blacks.

Chanties reached zenith in 1870s. Then declined under steam in 1880s.

Lots about sing-outs, w/ specific phrases.

Section: "Chanteying On the Akbar"

-HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (WE'RE ALL BOUND TO GO)
Jerry at the windlass. "Heave away my Johnnies, heave away/heave away, my Johnny boys, We're all bound to go"
-HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES II
"As sung by Fred. H. Burgeson, San Francisco"
-CLEAR THE TRACK, LET THE BULGINE RUN. Jerry at windlass sang at
pumps; Later, Brooks sings it at pumps.
"Ah-he, ah-ho, are you most done? So, clear the track, let the bulgine run"
-WHISKEY. Handsome Charlie begins with sing-out at topsail halliard.
Then Jerry came and sang this:"Oh, whiskey, Johnny!/Oh, whiskey for my Johnny!"
-THE DRUNKEN SAILOR (UP SHE RISES)
Jerry at main topgallant, hand over hand
- JOHN FRANCOIS (BONEY WAS A WARRIOR), fore topgallant.
-PADDY DOYLE AND HIS BOOTS, Jerry bunting.
-SOUTH AUSTRALIA, Dave at windlass.
-GOLDEN VANITEE (slower), windlass
-CAN'T YOU DANCE THE POLKA (faster), windlass
-SANTY, Brooks at windlass. "And hurrah! You Santy, my dear
honey/Hurrah! You Santy, I love you for your money.
-SANTA ANA (ON THE PLAINS OF MEXICO).
"Hurrah! Santa Ana!/On the plains of Mexico."
-ONE MORE DAY, An "ancient chantey"
Minor chanties sung in hot weather!
-HEAVE AWAY CHEERILY, Brooks, pumps.
-HANGING JOHNNY, Brooks at main topsail. "words were of Negro
extraction." Also fore topsail.
Footnote says Harlow heard this in June 1878 during a voyage to Barbados in the barque Conquest of Boston.
"The negro stevedores at the fall where the cargo was hoisted by hand, sang this chantey day after day, suing words for all relations, including hanging the baby as well as the bull pup, the pigs and the goats. The harmony of their voices outshone any college quartet ever heard. It was a standoff between Hanging Johnny and I Love the Blue Mountains of Tennessee as to which they liked best.
It was in the month of June and those negroes worked in the hot sun, singing away as they worked, until the leading chanteyman was out of breath, only to be relieved by another nearly his equal. Such singing I never expect to hear again under similar circumstances…
The leading chanteyman…The whites of his eyes shone brightly as he pulled at the fall and the whipcords in his neck stood out like a pair of swifters showing the strain he was under as he sang hour after hour. He improvised words as only a negro poet could, at times so comical as to cause his companions to laugh heartily when forced to use too many words in the metre to make up the rhyme…"
-A-ROVING (THE MAID OF AMSTERDAM), Pumps.
-A-ROVING II – "Words by Burgeson"
-THE SAILOR'S ALPHABET pumps, (not the version actually heard)
-THE HOG-EYE MAN, pumps
-CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, pumps
-ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN, Main topsail halliards:
-A LONG TIME AGO – "Capt. J. L. Botterill", Fore upper topsail:.
-A LONG TIME AGO II
-A LONG TIME AGO III, "Another set of words by the colored writer,
Williams:" It's like in his 1908 article.
-WHISKEY II, Topgallant halliards, walk away. "Capt. J.L. Botterill"
-WHISKEY III, reproduced from elsewhere – Crayfish theme
-BLOW BOYS BLOW, for light sails
-POOR OLD MAN, Fore upper topsail halyards.
-THE DEAD HORSE (with indication that it goes to same tune as previous).
Tells of the ceremony, quoting a writer (who is unclear to me), and seems to imply that he never saw this ceremony first hand.
-A FAL-DE-LAL-DAY, a "whistling chantey" performed by Brooks at the
pumps (also windlass).
-RIDING ON A DONKEY, Brooks at halliards. But the version given is
credited to Capt. J.L. Botterill.
-TOMMY'S GONE TO HILO. Main topgallant.
-SHORT DRAG, ("Corn broom…") Taking in slack of topsail sheet
-HAUL AWAY JOE, sung by second mate, Mr. Sanborn, while rousing home
the main sheet. Also for fore sheet.
-STORM ALONG JOHN at mizzen topsail halliards. It's MR. STORMALONG
in "flipped" form.
-STORM ALONG JOHN II. Halyards, hand over hand. It's STORMY ALONG
JOHN.
-STORM ALONG JOHN III. Halyards. Another version of MR.
STORMALONG, not flipped.
-STORMY, hand over hand, halyards. Also MR. STORMALONG, not flipped.
"Storm Along John was very popular on all merchantmen, but the 'Badian negroes took great delight in singing the words in many variations and when once started would sing one after another, changing the air to suit their mood."
-STORMY II, halyards, hand over hand. "Way-oh, Stormalong John."
-OLD STORMY hand over hand. Another STORMY ALONG JOHN.
-POOR OLD JOE, halyards, hand over hand. This is like Poor Old
Man/DEAD HORSE.
-SUN DOWN BELOW halyards. "Words by Masefield"
"Sun Down Below, Mobile Bay, Way Sing Sally and Hilo, My Ranzo Way, are purely West Indian negro chanteys sung while hoisting cargo from the hold of ships and seldom if ever sung by sailors at the halliards."
-MOBILE BAY, hand over hand, "Were you ebba in Mobile Bay?"
-WAY SING SALLY, hand over hand. "'Badian coon chantey"
-HILO, MY RANZO WAY, hand over hand
"Ranzo is purely a Southern negro term used in the cotton ships at Mobile and New Orleans, and also sung by the 'Badian negros at the fall."
-REUBEN RANZO, by Brooks at topsails, also used as hand over hand.
-BLOW THE MAN DOWN, topgallant halyards.
-BLOW THE MAN DOWN II (more lyrics)
"This chantey was usually sung by white sailors, ending the chorus on the key note. But the negroes in Barbados sang it, employing their harmonious functions by ending the chorus strong on the fourth above, which was very effective and pleasing to the ear."
-HAUL THE BOWLINE, Brooks at fore sheet
-JOHNNY BOKER, rousing home the tack
-SLAPANDER-GOSHEKA, tacks and sheets. "What would my mother say to
me, if I should come home with Big Billy?"
-LEAVE HER JOHNNY, LEAVE HER, pumps
-CRUISE OF THE DREADNAUGHT, capstan
-THE BLACK BALL LINE, capstan
-THE BLACK BALL LINE II. This is a version from Williams in a magazine
around 1920
-JOHNNY GET YOUR OATCAKE DONE (JAMBOREE), Capstan. These words
were given him by Captain Nye. "When I was a boy I used to sing it using the words, "Johnny get your hoe-cake done."
-EARLY IN THE MORNING – a set of words supposedly used to the tune of
Jamboree
-BANKS OF SACRAMENTO, Archie at the capstan.
-RIO GRANDE, capstan.
-SHENANDOAH, capstan, Archie
-FROM SURABAYA TO PASOEROEAN, capstan "Javanese Chantey"
-AH-HOO-E-LA-E, Rolling Sugar "Javanese Chantey"
-TEN THOUSAND MILES AWAY, capstan
-HOMEWARD BOUND (GOOD-BYE FARE YOU WELL), capstan, Archie
-SALLY BROWN (ROLL AND GO). Capstan
-FIRE DOWN BELOW, pumps with and "ohio", different parst of the ship
-FIRE DOWN BELOW II. This is from Williams (Get a bucket of water.)
-SHALLOW BROWN, "sung at the fall by the 'Badian negroes."
-LOWLANDS capstan
-BLOW YE WINDS IN THE MORNING Capstan.
-THE MERMAN – This comes from Luce
-ROLLING HOME, Capstan, Archie
-ROLLING HOME II – from Whall
-OUTWARD BOUND Capstan
-OH, POOR PADDY WORKS ON THE RAILWAY, Capstan
-SO HANDY, MY BOYS, SO HANDY, topsail halyards
-I LOVE THE BLUE MOUNTAINS topgallant "These words are of negro
origin and different from those used by our crew."
-ROLL THE COTTON DOWN, halyards
-SONG OF THE FISHES, halyards
-THE MERMAID, capstan, Archie
-A HUNDRED YEARS AGO, hand over hand, Williams

Section: "Chanties and Sea Songs"

-BOSTON, capstan, from Whall.
-THE BOS'UNS'S STORY, "walk away". Sung to Harlow by Captain J.L.
Botterill, who said it was sung on barque Samantha. Could only 1935. That version came from Capt. A.G. Cole of Isle of Wight. Harlow puts these lyrics with Botterill's tune. ""'Tis a hundred years," said the bo'sun bold, "since I was a boy at sea."
-NANCY LEE, capstan, attributed to Stephan Adams
-HIGH BARBAREE, capstan, from Luce?
-ALONG THE LOWLANDS, capstan
-BARNACLE BILL THE SAILOR, pumps
-THE PRIEST AND THE NUNS, pumps
-DO ME AMA, pumps, from Whall
-ADIEU TO MAIMUNA, capstan, sung in the early fifties American ships
-LET GO THE REEFY TACKLE – strictly speaking, not a chantey
-JAPANESE SHORT DRAG , heard when Japanese sailors were heaving
sacks of potatoes: "yoya sano sa!"
-THE PIRATE OF THE ISLE "Sung by Wm. R.B. Dawson, an old-time
chanteyman."
-MARRIED TO A MERMAID, capstan "English"
-THE YANKEE MAN-OF-WAR (Stately Southerner)
-THE YANKEE MAN OF WAR II, sung to Harlow by Wm. RB Dawson
-THE SHIP LORD WOLSELEY, tune of Yankee Man-of-War, composed by
Dawson
-THE CONSTITUTION AND THE GUERRIERE
-SHANNON AND CHESAPEAKE, from Whall
-YANKEE TARS, from Luce
-NANTUCKET P'INT, from the New York Sun
-THE NANTUCKET SKIPPER, by J.T. Fields
-THE FATE OF THE NANCY BELL, by W.S. Gilbery
-THE BARBER SONG, from Vineyard Gazette
-THE LIVERPOOL GIRLS, capstan, from Bone
-JOHN, JOHN CROW, hand over hand, "Barbadian negro chantey,
unloading cargo." "Every Sunday mornin' John, Hohn Crow. When I go a-courtin', John, John Crow."
-GWINE TO GIT A HOME BIME BY, 'Badian hand over hand
-LINDY LOWE, 'Badian hand over hand
-THE DARKY SUNDAY SCHOOL, 'Badian hand over hand
-DIXIE'S ISLE, from Buryeson
-ABOARD THE HENRY CLAY, O Susannah-like melody

Section: "Whaing Songs"

-IT'S ADVERTISED IN BOSTON, windlass, "Cheer up my lively lads"
-'TWAS A LOVE OF ADVENTURE
-A HOME ON THE MOUNTAIN WAVE, as his brother Wiley sang it
-OLD NANTUCKET WHALING SONG
-EDGARTOWN WHALING SONG, same tune as above
-THE COAST OF PERU
-THE WHALE, from Whall
-THE GREENLAND WHALE, capstan, sung by Black sailor Richard Duncan.
-THE HORN OF THE HIRAM Q, by L.E. Richards
-ROLLING DOWN TO OLD MAUI
-BAFFIN'S BAY, as sung by Fred Stone, to tune of Yankee Man-of-War
-THE WHALEMEN'S WIVES, by Capt. R.W. Nye of the barque Guy C. Goss,
given to Harlow


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 27 Mar 11 - 08:01 AM

Hey, Gibb, this jumped out at me on your list:

"It was a standoff between Hanging Johnny and I Love the Blue Mountains of Tennessee as to which they liked best."

I've never heard of "I Love the Blue Mountains of Tennessee"! Is this the "long-lost" possible connection of some Appalachian Mountain music with sea chanties? I'd be interested to know if anybody comes up with anything on this. And how did this get to Barbados!


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 27 Mar 11 - 08:17 AM

Well, apparently "I Love the Blue Mountains of Tennessee" was a minstrel song and was used as a chanty. Here is a snippet from a journal article in WESTERN FOLKLORE, Vol. 22:

http://books.google.com/books?id=p4wLAAAAIAAJ&q=%22The+Blue+Mountains+of+Tennessee%22&dq=%22The+Blue+Mountains+of+Tennessee%22&h

Roger Abrahams quotes the passage from Harlow in DEEP THE WATER, SHALLOW THE SHORE, (p. 9), but doesn't say anything about "I Love the Blue Mountains". Maybe somebody can look up the article in WESTERN FOLKLORE.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Mar 11 - 03:31 AM

Here are the full lyrics for Harlow's "I Love the Blue Mountains."

I LOVE THE BLUE MOUNTAINS
Halliards

Oh, I love the Blue Mountains
    The Blue Mountains of Tennessee.
That's the place for you and me,
    I'm bound for Tennessee.

In eighteen hundred and sixty-three,
That's where my mass set me free.

My wife is there with her pickaninny,
And soon I'll have him upon my knee.

The ship sails free for you and me,
When I get there I'll quit the sea.


The minstrel song medium does seem like the most likely way for this song about the Appalachians to have reach Barbados.

The style of the song reminds me of both "Poor Lucy Anna" / "Oh, Louisiana" (also in Abrahams) and "Good Morning Ladies All (Hugill's version 'A')". I guess I wouldn't be surprised if they were all (originally at least) minstrel songs create about the same time.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Mar 11 - 03:41 AM

John,
The Western Folklore article is just Abrahams' brief review of Harlow's posthumous collection. Not much to it. He doesn't say anything more about the song than you already noted -- he just quotes it and cites it alongside of Golden Vanitee to demonstrate the variety/range of songs in the collection.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 29 Mar 11 - 10:57 AM

Gibb, thanks for posting those lyrics. I don't know why I didn't think to actually look in Harlow! The "obvious"....! And thanks for checking out the Western Folklore article. Those snippets can drive you crazy. I would be interested to see if anyone turns up any other reference to this song. I couldn't find it in the minstrel collections, but it was a quick look.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 29 Mar 11 - 11:20 AM

There's something about this song that doesn't ring true for me. The sentimental attachment to the "Blue Mountains of Tennessee" sounds very post-minstrel, very 1890s or even later. The rest seems more believable - though the abundant internal rhymes of the last stanza seem awfully self-conscious.

Is this Harlow's unreliable reconstruction, in the 1920s or later, of something he only dimly remembered? It would seem so. What's this business about "These words are of negro origin and different from those used by our crew"? If they weren't used by the crew, where'd he get them? What does "negro origin" mean here, exactly?

I don't want to think about it.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Mar 11 - 02:36 PM

There's a typ-o in my lyrics transcription: "massa".

John M --

Nor have I been able to find anything on the song after poking around a little. And the usual translation to "minstrel language" phrases "I lub de blue mountains ob Tennessee" did nothing. Ha!


Lighter--

Thanks for booking a fare on my Doubting Harlow Train! :)

The lyrics really do sound "off." Actually, to put it in an unhelpful and subjective way: to me they just sound bad! You may be on to something in suspecting a later dating.

After this reading of Harlow, I got the feeling that perhaps most of his "negro" (not minstrel) shanties are labeled as such based on his profound experience and observations in Barbados on that one trip. Certainly all the songs labeled as "'Badian hand over hand" throughout the book are likely from that incident.

"Harlow's unreliable reconstruction" sounds like a good possibility. He wanted to give the song as he'd heard it in Barbados, but could not remember the exact wording. He used evocative lynchpins like "massa" and "pickaninny," but his efforts came out in his own, later language.

By his statement, "These words are of negro origin and different from those used by our crew", I'd guess that he presumed the song to be of Black origins due to its popularity with the Bajans. His own crew, I'd guess, picked up the song afterwards, but used different lyrics. Here, Harlow is attempting to recall what he believed were the original words.

FWIW the melody also sounds awkward to me in the way it fits the words. Certain melodic and rhythmic emphases don't seem as "natural" as they could be. Perhaps they are just unfamiliar, and from my current perspective I perceive them as less natural.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 23 Apr 11 - 03:07 AM

Here's my attempt to derive the contents of Davis & Tozer's 2nd edition (unseen), from circa 1890. The first edition (which I believe was not widely read) had 24 chanties. The second version added 16 "of a more modern character." The third added 10 more -- most or all adapted from LA Smith. By comparing texts and thinking which may have come from Smith, I was able to remove the Smith songs and derive this 2nd edition. Well, one of the songs I was unsure about.

1. Sally Brown
2. Away for Rio
3. We're All Bound to Go
4. The Wide Missouri
5. Leave Her, Johnnie
6. Can't You Dance a Polka?
7. The Black Ball Line
8. Hoodah Day
9. Homeward Bound
10. Hame, Dearie, Hame

I stand on deck, my dearie, and in my fancy see,
The faces of the loved ones that smile across the sea; 

Yes, the faces of the loved ones, but 'midst them all so clear, 

I see the one I love the best--your bonnie face, my dear."
And its hame, dearie, hame! oh, it's hame I want to be,
My topsails are hoisted, and I must out to sea;
For the oak, and the ash, and the bonnie birchen tree,
They're all a-growin' green in the North-a-countree."

11. As Off to the South'ard We Go

The wind is free and we're bound for sea,
Heave away, cheerily, ho, oh!

ETC

12. On the Plains of Mexico

Oh, Santa Anna won the day,
Away Santa Anna.
Santa Anna won the day
On the plains of Mexico

Oh, Santa Anna fought for fame,

ETC

13. Haul the Bowlin'
14. Whiskey for My Johnnie
15. Reuben Ranzo
16. Blow, Boys, Blow
17. Blow the Man Down
18. Tom's Gone to *'Ilo
19. What to Do with a Drunken Sailor

What shall I do with a drunken sailor,
What shall I do with a drunken sailor,
What shall I do with a drunken sailor,
Early in the morning
[Cho.] Aye, aye, up she rises,
Oh, aye, up she rises,
Aye, aye, up she rises,
Early in the morning.

ETC.

20. Boney Was a Warrior

Boney was a warrior,
Oh aye, oh,
Boney was a warrior,
John Franzo.

Boney marched to Moscow,

Moscow all a-blazing,

Boney had to turn again,

Boney went to Waterloo

Boney met a warrior,

Boney had to run away,

Boney was a warrior,

Boney was a prisoner,
Boney was a prisoner,

Boney broke his heart and died,
Boney broke his heart and died,

MIDI: http://www.contemplator.com/sea/bwarrior.html

21. Highland Laddie

There was a laddie came from Scotland,
Highland laddie, bonnie laddie.
Bonnie laddie from fair Scotland,
Highland laddie, ho!

22. Hanging Johnnie
23. The Sailor's Loves

The maiden, oh, the maiden, oh,
The sailor loves the maiden, oh!
So early in the morning,
The sailor loves the maiden, oh!
[cho.] A maid that is young, a maid that is fair,
A maid that is kind and pleasant, oh
So early in the morning, the sailor loves the maiden, oh!

ETC

24. So Handy, My Boys

Oh, up aloft the yard must go,
So handy, my boys, so handy.
Oh, up aloft from down below,
So handy, my boys, so handy.

ETC

25. Haul Away, Jo
26. I'm Bound Away to Leave You
27. Johnny Bowker

Oh do, my Johnnie Bowker,
Come rock and roll me over,
Do, my Johnnie Bowker, Do.

28. A Hundred Years Ago
Smith?
A hundred years is a very long time,
Ho, yes, ho!
A hundred years is a very long time,
A hundred years ago.

29. Paddy Doyle's Boots

30. One More Day for Johnnie

Only one more day for Johnnie,
One more day.
Oh! rock and roll me over,
Only one more day.

ETC.

31. A-Roving
32. Storm Along
33. The Saucy Sailor Boy

He was a saucy sailor boy
Who'd come from afar,
To ask a maid to be the bride
Of a poor Jack tar.

The maiden, a poor fisher girl,
Stood close by his side;
With scornful look she answered thus;
I'll not be your bride.

You're mad to think I'd marry you
Too ragged you are;
Begone, you saucy sailor boy,
Begone you Jack tar.

I've money in my pocket, love,
And bright gold in store;
These clothes of mine are all in rags,
But coin can buy more.

Though black my hands my gold is clean
So I'll sail afar,
A fairer maid than you, I ween,
Will wed this Jack tar.

Stay! Stay! you saucy sailor boy,
Do not sail afar;
I love you and will marry you,
You silly Jack tar.

'Twas but to tease I answered so,
I thought you could guess
That when a maiden answers no
She always means yes.

Begone you pretty fisher girl,
Too artful are you;
So spake the saucy sailor boy,
Gone was her Jack tar.

MIDI: http://www.contemplator.com/sea/saucy.html

34. Mobile Bay
35. Fire Down Below

Fire in the galley, fire in the house,
Fire in the beef kid, scorching the scouse.
Fire, fire, fire down below,
Fetch a bucket of water,
Fire down below.

Fire in the cabin, fire in the hold,
Fire in the strong room melting the gold.

Fire round the capstan, fire on the mast,
Fire on the main deck, burning it fast.

Fire in the lifeboat, fire in the gig,
Fire in the pig-stye roasting the pig.

Fire in the store room spoiling the food,
Fire on the orlop burning the wood.

Fire on the waters, fire high above,
Fire in our hearts for the friends that we love.

MIDI: http://www.contemplator.com/sea/fire.html

36. The Girl with the Blue Dress

A girl asleep with a blue dress on,
Shake her, Johnnie, shake her.
An unsafe couch she's resting on,
Shake her, and so wake her.

ETC.

37. The Ox-Eyed Man

The ox-eyed man is the man for me,
He came a sailing from o'er the sea
Heigh ho for the ox-eyed man.

Oh, May in the garden a shelling her peas,
And bird singing gaily among the trees.

Oh, May looked up and she saw her fate
In the ox-eyed man passing by the gate

The ox-eyed man gave a fond look of love,
And charmed May's heart which was pure as a dove,

Oh, May in the parlour a-sitting on his knee,
And kissing the sailor who'd come o'er the sea

Oh, May in the garden a-shelling her peas,
Now weeps for the sailor who sail'd o'er the sea.
Heigh ho for the ox-eyed man.

MIDI: http://www.contemplator.com/sea/oxeyed.html

38. Eight Bells
39. Salt Horse
40. The Dead Horse


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 23 Apr 11 - 11:12 AM

Gibb-

I'm curious if any one here has or can find more clues to the origin of the rowing shanty "Haul Awa." It's unclear if the reference by Thomas Burke to the song being "an old Malayan chanty" means that it was originally a traditional Malayan rowing song or sung by sailors who frequented that part of the world. The author of LIMEHOUSE NIGHTS, Thomas Burke, was not himself a deep-water sailor but a writer who grew up in London's sailortown. The fragment Burke transcribed is as follows:

Love is kind to the least of men . . .
Eee-awa! Eee-awa!

Here's the song as it's now sung with some notes:

HAUL AWA'

(Traditional after singing of Lucy Simpson and Robin Roberts (now Robin Howard)
Recorded by the Boarding Party on 'TIS OUR SAILING TIME, © 2000 Folk Legacy Records, Inc.)

Love is kind to the least of men,
Haul awa', haul awa',
Though he be but a drunken tar
Haul awa', awa'.

Once I had a star-eyed maid…
I was content with her to lay…

In the comfort of her bed…
Let me lay until I'm dead…

Take my body to the shore…
Star-eyed maid, I'll sail no more…

Here's my blessing (story) – let it be…
May you love as she loved me…*

Love is kind to the least of men…
Though he be but a drunken tar…*

* New verses added by Lucy Simpson

Notes edited from CD:

Robin learned the song from a Massachusetts woman, a Mrs. Walsh, who had gotten it in turn from "a retired clipper ship sailor." Robin recorded the chorus as "Ee awa."

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jun 11 - 05:11 PM

Hi Charlie!

I had poked into this when you posted it, but only now just getting time to sort out my notes and reply.

Your question about what Burke means by "Malayan chanty" is certainly the crux of it! If it was a chanty sung by Malays, why the English text? I haven't found an answer, however, I *think* he means to imply that it was indeed a song sung by gents of Malay ethnicity.

Burke mentions the chanty (twice) in his earlier book, _Nights in Town: a London Autobiography_ from 1915. Although this book (as opposed to Limehouse Nights) was of a more journalistic, non-fiction style, my understanding is that the idea Burke grew up in sailortown is something of a myth. However, I think he had been observing these haunts recently as an adult, so is writing from his actual observations. And I don't see any reason to doubt that he actually heard a chanty (or some song that he classed as a chanty) that said "Love is kind to the least of men". In fact, it seems to have really made an impression on him if he is to quote it twice in Nights in Town and twice in Limehouse Nights.

Nights in Town gives what seems to be the context in which he actually heard it, though it still doesn't answer our main questions about whether it was truly "Malay" and (my question) what sort of chanty it might have been (related to a steamship?). Here is the passage, from pg 207 of the American edition:

Sheer above the walls of East India Dock rose the deck of the Cawdor Castle, as splendidly correct as a cathedral. The leaping lines of her seemed lost in the high skies, and she stood out sharply, almost ecstatically. Against such superb forces of man, the forces of Nature seemed dwarfed. It was a lyric in steel and iron. Men hurried from the landing-stage, up the plank, vanishing into the sly glooms of the huge port-holes. Chains rang and rattled. Lascars of every kind flashed here and there: Arabs, Chinkies, Japs, Malays, East Indians. Talk in every lingo was on the air. Some hurried from the dock, making for a lodging-house or for The Asiatics' Home. Some hurried into the dock, with that impassive swiftness which gives no impression of haste, but rather carries a touch of extreme languor. An old cargo tramp lay in a far berth, and one caught the sound of rushing blocks, and a monotonous voice wailing the Malayan chanty: "Love is kind to the least of men, EEEE-ah, EEEE-ah!" Boats were loading up. Others were unloading. Over all was the glare of arclights, and the flutter of honeyed tongues.

Interesting that this earlier version was "EEEE-ah" rather than "Eee-awa". The "awa" seems like it might have inspired the "haul away" adaptation.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jun 11 - 06:18 PM

An interesting artifact of one of the ideas of chanty development here. In 1914, Bullen had come out with his collection in which he states, "...the majority of the Chanties are Negroid in origin." This issue of _The Crisis_ (NAACP Journal started by W.E.B. Dubois) took note, in October 1914:

According to Frank T. Bullen in London Tit Bits, the majority of chanties, sea-songs sung by sailors, come from the Negroes of the southern states, the crude songs being sung to lighten hours of labor.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 27 Jun 11 - 08:09 PM

A "Malayan" shanty? With the untraditional-sounding "Love is kind to the least of men"?

I doubt it.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 27 Jun 11 - 08:19 PM

Gibb-

Thanks for the additional notes on the "Malayan" shanty. I always assumed that the chorus phrase was Malayan but the verses were translations and add-ons.

I was hoping that someone would come up with Malayan words for the verses as well.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jun 11 - 09:01 PM

I always assumed that the chorus phrase was Malayan but the verses were translations and add-ons.

Yes, that's what I'm also assuming. But how would Burke translate? one wonders.

"Malayan" could refer to several different subjects, I suppose.

If Burke mentions it 4 times and calls it "Malayan," it seems odd there wouldn't be *some* kind of connection. Exoticizing I can understand, but why not just call it a "chanty" the other times? Why emphasize "Malayan" here, for instance?:

Pg252
Love, says an old Malayan chanty which I learned at West India Dock—Love is kind to the least of men. God will it so!


It seems to have become Burke's pet reference. Perhaps he was so struck by it that he asked someone the meaning when he heard it, and rendered it in his literary way.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jun 11 - 12:17 AM

Here's a corn-shucking reference, to a JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO form and other chanty-like call-and-response forms, that I missed up until now.

1863        Fedric, Francis. _Slave Life in Virginia and Kentucky._ London: Wertheim, Macintosh, and Hunt.

Escaped slave Fedric(/Frederick) lived circa 1805-1882. This passage would seem to refer to circa 1820s to 1833. There seem to be 3 different corn songs, among more details of what corn-shucking competitions were like. The choruses don't seem to coordinate any work; they are just a feature of the genre, I guess.

Pg47-50:
//
In the autumn, about the 1st of November, the slaves commence gathering the Indian-corn, pulling it off the stalk, and throwing it into heaps. Then it is carted home, and thrown into heaps sixty or seventy yards long, seven or eight feet high, and about six or seven feet wide. Some of the masters make their slaves shuck the corn. All the slaves stand on one side of the heap, and throw the ears over, which are then cribbed. This is the time when the whole country far and wide resounds with the corn-songs. When they commence shucking the corn, the master will say, "Ain't you going to sing any to-night?" The slaves say, "Yers, Sir." One slave will begin:--

"Fare you well, Miss Lucy. 
                        
ALL. John come down de hollow."

The next song will be:--

"Fare you well, fare you well. 
                        
ALL. Weell ho. Weell ho. 
                        
CAPTAIN. Fare you well, young ladies all. 
                        
ALL. Weell. ho. Weell ho. 
                        
CAPTAIN. Fare you well, I'm going away. 
                        
ALL. Weell ho. Weell ho. 
                        
CAPTAIN. I'm going away to Canada. 
                        
ALL. Weell ho. Weell ho."

       One night Mr. Taylor, a large planter, had a corn shucking, a Bee it is called. The corn pile was 180 yards long. He sent his slaves on horseback with letters to the other planters around to ask them to allow their slaves to come and help. On a Thursday night, about 8 o'clock, the slaves were heard coming, the corn-songs ringing through the plantations. "Oh, they are coming, they are coming!" exclaimed Mr. Taylor, who had been anxiously listening some time for the songs. The slaves marched up in companies, headed by captains, who had in the crowns of their hats a short stick, with feathers tied to it, like a cockade. I myself was in one of the companies. Mr. Taylor shook hands with each captain as the companies arrived, and said the men were to have some brandy if they wished, a large jug of which was ready for them. Mr. Taylor ordered the corn-pile to be divided into two by a large pole laid across. Two men were chosen as captains; and the men, to the number of 300 or 400, were told off to each captain. One of the captains got Mr. Taylor on his side, who said he should not like his party to be beaten. "Don't throw the corn too far. Let some of it drop just over, and we'll shingle some, and get done first. I can make my slaves shuck what we shingle tomorrow," said Mr. Taylor, "for I hate to be beaten."
       The corn-songs now rang out merrily; all working willingly and gaily. Just before they had finished the heaps, Mr. Taylor went away into the house; then the slaves, on Mr. Taylor's side, by shingling, beat the other side; and his Captain, and all his men, rallied around the others, and took their hats in their hands, and cried out, "Oh, oh! fie! for shame!"
       It was two o'clock in the morning now, and they marched to Mr. Taylor's house; the Captain hollowing out, "Oh, where's Mr. Taylor? Oh, where's Mr. Taylor?" all the men answering, "Oh, oh, oh!"

Mr. Taylor walked, with all his family, on the verandah; and the Captain sang,

"I've just come to let you know. 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. The upper end has beat. 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. But isn't they sorry fellows? 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. But isn't they sorry fellows? 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. But I'm going back again, 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. But I'm going back again. 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. And where's Mr. Taylor? 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. And where's Mr. Taylor? 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. And where's Mrs. Taylor? 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. I'll bid you, fare you well, 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. For I'm going back again. 
                        
MEN. Oh, oh, oh! 
                        
CAPTAIN. I'll bid you, fare you well, 
                        
And a long fare you well. 
                        

MEN. Oh, oh, oh!
       They marched back, and finished the pile.

//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 02:41 AM

Hi All,

I am trying to return to this project a bit after an absence.

With most of the [conveniently accessible] 19th century references covered, I think, I am going to keep working on analyzing/comparing works from the early 20th. This still leaves most of the major well-known collections. The articles have mostly been covered, I think (except for a few in the Folk Song Society journal) and what references I have seen casually tend to be derivative. They don't add anything original, so there are many that I have ignored. Again, the main focus of mine will be on the published collections. (Eventually, that will be followed by audio-recorded works.)

I've finally gotten the recent references in this thread into my notes, and put the data in my lists. I won't post the "timeline" just now. However, it may be interesting to see the update of the repertoire lists.

The usual disclaimers apply. The lists are "for what they are worth", to provide a broad sketch.

Here's the list of attested repertoire by decade:

c.1800s-1820s

CHEERLY (2)
FIRE FIRE (1)
Oh Sally Brown, Sally Brown, oh!"

1830s

Black although she be"
BOTTLE O (1)
Captain gone ashore!"
CHEERLY (2)
Heave round hearty!"
Heave, to the girls!"
HIGHLAND (1)
Hurrah! hurrah! my hearty bullies!"
Jack Cross-tree,"
Nancy oh!"
Pull away now, my Nancy, O!"
ROUND THE CORNER (2)
SALLY BROWN (1)
TALLY (1)
Time for us to go!"

1840s

ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN (1)
BOTTLE O (1)
CHEERLY (3)
DRUNKEN SAILOR (1)
GROG TIME (1)
Hah, hah, rolling John" (1)
HAUL HER AWAY (1)
Heave her away"
Heave him up! O he yo!"
Ho, O, heave O"
HUNDRED YEARS (2)
LOWLANDS AWAY (1)
O ee roll & go"
O! hurrah my hearties O!"
PADDY DOYLE (1)
PADDY ON THE RAILWAY (1)
ROUND THE CORNER (1)
STORMY (1)
TALLY (1)
WHISKEY JOHNNY (1)

1850s

ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN (1)
BOWLINE (3)
BULLY IN ALLEY (1)
CHEERLY (4)
FIRE FIRE (1)
HAUL AWAY JOE (1)
Highland day and off she goes"
HILO BOYS (1)
Miranda Lee"
MOBILE BAY (1)
MONEY DOWN (1)
MR. STORMALONG (1)
Oh, fare you well, my own Mary Ann"
ONE MORE DAY (1)
OUTWARD AND HOMEWARD BOUND (1)
PADDY ON THE RAILWAY (1)
REUBEN RANZO (1)
RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN (1)
SANTIANA (2)
SHENANDOAH (1)
STORMALONG JOHN (1)
STORMY (6)
STORMY ALONG (1)
WHISKEY JOHNNY (1)
Whisky for Johnny!"

1860s

And England's blue for ever"
BLACKBALL LINE (1)
BLOW BOYS BLOW (1)
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (2)
BLOW YE WINDS (1)
BONEY (3)
BOWLINE (3)
BUNCH OF ROSES (1)
Cheerily she goes"
CHEERLY (1)
CLEAR THE TRACK (1)
GOOD MORNING LADIES (1)
GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (1)
Hand ober hand, O"
HANDY MY BOYS (1)
HANGING JOHNNY (1)
HAUL AWAY JOE (2)
Heave and she goes, stamp and she goes"
HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (2)
HIGHLAND (1)
HILO BOYS (1)
HOOKER JOHN (1)
JOHN CHEROKEE (1)
John, John Crow is a dandy, O"
JOHNNY BOWKER (1)
Johnny's gone"
Ladies, fare-ye-well"
Land ho"
LOWLANDS AWAY (2)
Nancy Bell"
Oceanida"
OH RILEY (1)
OUTWARD AND HOMEWARD BOUND (1)
PADDY LAY BACK (1)
PADDY ON THE RAILWAY (2)
REUBEN RANZO (1)
RIO GRANDE (2)
SACRAMENTO (1)
SAILOR FIREMAN (1)
SALLY BROWN (2)
Sally in the Alley"
SANTIANA (3)
SHENANDOAH (5)
SLAPANDER (1)
ST. HELENA SOLDIER (1)
STORMY (2)
TOMMY'S GONE (1)
WALKALONG SALLY (1)
WHISKEY JOHNNY (4)

1870s

ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN (1)
A Fal-De-Lal-Day"
A-ROVING (3)
BLACKBALL LINE (4)+3
BLOW BOYS BLOW (4)+3
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (5)+3
BLOW YE WINDS (1)
BONEY (5)+4
BOTTLE O (1)
BOWLINE (6)+3
CAN'T YOU HILO (1)
CHEERLY (1)
CLEAR THE TRACK (1)
DANCE THE BOATMAN (1)
DEAD HORSE (4)+3
DERBY RAM (1)
DONKEY RIDING (1)
DREADNAUGHT (1)
DRUNKEN SAILOR (2)
CHEERLY (1)
FIRE DOWN BELOW (2)
FISHES (1)
GALS OF CHILE (1)
GOLDEN VANITY (1)
GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (6)+4
GOODBYE MY LOVE (1)
GOOD MORNING LADIES (1)
HANDY MY BOYS (3)+2
HANGING JOHNNY (3)
HAUL AWAY JOE (6)+3
Haul the Woodpile Down"
HEAVE AWAY CHEERILY (1)
HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (7)+4
HIGHLAND LADDIE (1)
HILO BOYS (1)
HOGEYE (2)
HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING (1)
HUNDRED YEARS (1)
I Love the Blue Mountains"
JAMBOREE (2)
JOHNNY BOWKER (5)+4
LEAVE HER JOHNNY (3)
LONDON JULIE (1)
LONG TIME AGO (2)
LOWLANDS AWAY (2)
MERMAID (1)
MR. STORMALONG (3)
NEW YORK GIRLS (3)
ONE MORE DAY (2)
OUTWARD AND HOMEWARD BOUND (2)
PADDY DOYLE (4)
PADDY LAY BACK (1)
PADDY ON THE RAILWAY (3)
RANDY DANDY (1)
RANZO RAY (1)
REUBEN RANZO (7)+4
RIO GRANDE (4)+3
ROLLING HOME (2)
ROLL THE COTTON DOWN (2)
ROLL THE OLD CHARIOT ALONG (1)
SACRAMENTO (3)
SAILOR'S ALPHABET (1)
SALLY BROWN (3)
SANTIANA (4)
SHALLOW BROWN (2)
SHENANDOAH (6)+4
SLAPANDER (1)
SLAV HO (1)
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (2)
STORMY (3)+2
STORMY ALONG JOHN (1)
TEN THOUSAND MILES AWAY (1)
TOMMY'S GONE (3)
WALKALONG SALLY (1)
Walk away" (1)
WHISKEY JOHNNY (8)+4

1880s

ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN (3)
A-ROVING (3)
Baltimore Bell"
BLACKBALL LINE (2)
BLOW BOYS BLOW (5)+2
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (8)+3
BONEY (5)+4
BOTTLE O (1)
BOWLINE (3)
California Gold"
CHEERLY (1)
CLEAR THE TRACK (1)
DEAD HORSE (2)
Dixie's Isle"
DREADNAUGHT (1)
DRUNKEN SAILOR (3)+2
FIRE DOWN BELOW (3)
GOLDEN VANITY (1)
GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (6)+2
GOODBYE MY LOVE (1)
HAME DEARIE (1)
HANDY MY BOYS (1)
HANGING JOHNNY (3)
HAUL AWAY JOE (5)+2
HEAVE AWAY CHEERILY (1)
HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (4)+3
HOGEYE (3)+2
HIGHLAND (1)
HILONDAY (1)
HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING (1)
HUNDRED YEARS (1)
JOHN BROWN'S BODY (1)
JOHNNY BOWKER (3)+2
JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO (1)
Largy Kargy"
LEAVE HER JOHNNY (4)
LONG TIME AGO (1)
LOWLANDS AWAY (2)
MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA (1)
MOBILE BAY (2)
MR. STORMALONG (7)
Nancy Rhee"
NEW YORK GIRLS (2)
ONE MORE DAY (1)
OUTWARD AND HOMEWARD BOUND (1)
PADDY DOYLE (4)
PADDY ON THE RAILWAY (2)
REUBEN RANZO (7)+3
RIO GRANDE (7)+3
ROLL THE COTTON DOWN (1)
RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN (2)
SACRAMENTO (5)+3
SALLY BROWN (6)+3
SANTIANA (7)+3
Saucy Sailor Boy"
SHALLOW BROWN (1)
SHENANDOAH (5)+2
SHINY O (1)
Sing, Sally, ho!"
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (3)+2
STORMY ALONG (1)
TEN THOUSAND MILES AWAY (1)
TOMMY'S GONE (4)+2
Up a Hill"
Way down low!"
WHISKEY JOHNNY (7)+3
YEO HEAVE HO (1)

1890s

A-ROVING (1)
BLACKBALL LINE (1)
BLOW BOYS BLOW (1)
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (2)
BONEY (1)
BOWLINE (3)
DEAD HORSE (2)
DRUNKEN SAILOR (1)
GALS OF DUBLIN TOWN (1)
GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (2)
HAME DEARIE (1)
HANGING JOHNNY (1)
HAUL AWAY JOE (1)
HEAVE AWAY CHEERILY (1)
JOHN BROWN'S BODY (1)
LEAVE HER JOHNNY (2)
LONG TIME AGO (2)
LOWLANDS AWAY (2)
MR. STORMALONG (3)
PADDY DOYLE (2)
REUBEN RANZO (1)
RIO GRANDE (2)
ROLL THE COTTON DOWN (1)
SACRAMENTO (3)
SALLY BROWN (1)
SANTIANA (3)
SHALLOW BROWN (1)
SHENANDOAH (1)
TOMMY'S GONE (2)
WHISKEY JOHNNY (2)

1900s

Australian Girl, The"
BLACKBALL LINE (3)
BLOW BOYS BLOW (4)
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (3)
BONEY (2)
BOWLINE (2)
Capstan Bar, The"
CHEERLY (1)
COME ROLL ME OVER (1)
DEAD HORSE (4)
DREADNAUGHT (2)
GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (1)
HANDY MY BOYS (2)
HAUL AWAY JOE (2)
HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (2)
HIGH BARBARY (1)
HUNDRED YEARS (1)
JOHN BROWN'S BODY (1)
JOHNNY BOWKER (1)
JOHNNY COME MARCHING HOME (1)
LEAVE HER JOHNNY (4)
LOWLANDS AWAY (4)
MR. STORMALONG (3)
PADDY DOYLE (2)
REUBEN RANZO (3)
RIO GRANDE (5)
ROLL ALABAMA ROLL (1)
ROLLING HOME (2)
ROLL THE COTTON DOWN (1)
ROLL THE OLD CHARIOT (1)
SACRAMENTO (4)
SALLY BROWN (5)
SANTIANA (2)
SEBASTOPOL (1)
SHENANDOAH (3)
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (1)
STORMY ALONG JOHN (1)
TOMMY'S GONE (2)
TOMMY'S ON THE TOPSAIL YARD (1)
TRAMP TRAMP TRAMP (1)
WHISKEY JOHNNY (4)
YANKEE MAN-O-WAR (1)

1910s

1920s

Along the Lowlands"
Barnacle Bill the Sailor"
Bos'uns's Story, The"
Married to a Mermaid"
Nancy Lee"
Priest and the Nuns, The"

The following list gives a sense of the cumulative repertoire through the 1880s, with the number of times each was cited. Lower case typeface means the song, for whatever reason and in my assessment, is less clearly established as an item of repertoire -- e.g. we don't know what exactly the song was or it was incidentally used.

Cumulative (through 80s)

ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN (6)
A Fal-De-Lal-Day"
And England's blue for ever"
A-ROVING (6)
Baltimore Bell"
Black although she be"
BLACKBALL LINE (7)
BLOW BOYS BLOW (10)
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (15)
BLOW YE WINDS (2)
BONEY (13)
BOTTLE O (4)
BOWLINE (14)
BULLY IN ALLEY (1)
BUNCH OF ROSES (1)
CAN'T YOU HILO (1)
California Gold"
Captain gone ashore!"
Cheerily she goes"
CHEERLY (15)
CLEAR THE TRACK (3)
DANCE THE BOATMAN (1)
DEAD HORSE (6)
DERBY RAM (1)
Dixie's Isle"
DONKEY RIDING (1)
DREADNAUGHT (2)
DRUNKEN SAILOR (6)
FIRE DOWN BELOW (5)
FIRE FIRE (2)
FISHES (1)
GALS OF CHILE (1)
GOLDEN VANITY (2)
GOOD MORNING LADIES (2)
GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (13)
GOODBYE MY LOVE (2)
GROG TIME (1)
Hah, hah, rolling John" (1)
HAME DEARIE (1)
Hand ober hand, O"
HANDY MY BOYS (5)
HANGING JOHNNY (7)
HAUL AWAY JOE (13)
HAUL HER AWAY (1)
Haul the Woodpile Down"
Heave and she goes, stamp and she goes"
HEAVE AWAY CHEERILY (2)
HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (13)
Heave her away"
Heave him up! O he yo!"
Heave round hearty!"
Heave, to the girls!"
HIGHLAND (4)
Highland day and off she goes"
HILO BOYS (3)
HILONDAY (1)
HOGEYE (5)
Ho, O, heave O"
HOOKER JOHN (1)
HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING (2)
HUNDRED YEARS (4)
Hurrah! hurrah! my hearty bullies!"
I Love the Blue Mountains"
Jack Cross-tree,"
JAMBOREE (2)
JOHN BROWN'S BODY (1)
JOHN CHEROKEE (1)
John, John Crow is a dandy, O"
JOHNNY BOWKER (9)
JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO (1)
Johnny's gone"
Land ho"
Largy Kargy"
LEAVE HER JOHNNY (10)
LONDON JULIE (1)
LONG TIME AGO (1)
LOWLANDS AWAY (7)
MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA (1)
MERMAID (1)
Miranda Lee"
MOBILE BAY (2)
MONEY DOWN (2)
MR. STORMALONG (11)
Nancy Bell"
Nancy oh!"
Nancy Rhee"
NEW YORK GIRLS (5)
O ee roll & go"
O! hurrah my hearties O!"
Oceanida"
Oh fare you well, my own Mary Anne"
OH RILEY (1)
Oh Sally Brown, Sally Brown, oh!"
ONE MORE DAY (4)
OUTWARD AND HOMEWARD BOUND (5)
PADDY DOYLE (9)
PADDY LAY BACK (2)
PADDY ON THE RAILWAY (9)
Pull away now, my Nancy, O!"
RANDY DANDY (1)
RANZO RAY (1)
REUBEN RANZO (16)
RIO GRANDE (13)
ROLLING HOME (2)
ROLL THE COTTON DOWN (3)
ROLL THE OLD CHARIOT ALONG (1)
ROUND THE CORNER (3)
RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN (3)
SACRAMENTO (9)
SAILOR FIREMAN (1)
SAILOR'S ALPHABET (1)
SALLY BROWN (12)
Sally in the Alley"
SANTIANA (16)
Saucy Sailor Boy"
SHALLOW BROWN (3)
SHENANDOAH (16)
SHINY O (1)
SLAPANDER (2)
SLAV HO (1)
Sing, Sally, ho!"
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (5)
ST. HELENA SOLDIER (1)
STORMALONG JOHN (1)
STORMY (12)
STORMY ALONG (3)
TALLY (2)
TEN THOUSAND MILES AWAY (2)
Time for us to go!"
TOMMY'S GONE (8)
Up a hill"
Walk away"
WALKALONG SALLY (2)
Way down low!"
When first we went a-waggoning"
WHISKEY JOHNNY (19)
Whisky for Johnny!"
YEO HEAVE HO (1)


The above includes 137 items of repertoire. 63 of the items were cited at least twice - I think that gives a better sense of the size of the regular repertoire. In terms of what the most commonly mentioned chanties were, through the 1880s, I have this set:

Top (through 1880s):

WHISKEY JOHNNY (19)
REUBEN RANZO (16), SANTIANA (16), SHENANDOAH (16)
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (15), CHEERLY (15)
BOWLINE (14)
BONEY (13), GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (13), HAUL AWAY JOE (13), HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (13), RIO GRANDE (13)
SALLY BROWN (12), STORMY (12)
MR. STORMALONG (11)
***

A cumulative list, through the 1920s (tentative), looks like this:

Cumulative (through 1920s)

ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN (6)
A Fal-De-Lal-Day"
Along the Lowlands"
And England's blue for ever"
A-ROVING (7)
Australian Girl, The"
Baltimore Bell"
Barnacle Bill the Sailor"
Black although she be"
BLACKBALL LINE (11)
BLOW BOYS BLOW (15)
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (20)
BLOW YE WINDS (2)
BONEY (16)
Bos'uns's Story, The"
BOTTLE O (4)
BOWLINE (19)
BULLY IN ALLEY (1)
BUNCH OF ROSES (1)
CAN'T YOU HILO (1)
California Gold"
Capstan Bar"
Captain gone ashore!"
Cheerily she goes"
CHEERLY (16)
CLEAR THE TRACK (3)
COME ROLL ME OVER (1)
DANCE THE BOATMAN (1)
DEAD HORSE (12)
DERBY RAM (1)
Dixie's Isle"
DONKEY RIDING (1)
DREADNAUGHT (4)
DRUNKEN SAILOR (7)
FIRE DOWN BELOW (5)
FIRE FIRE (2)
FISHES (1)
GALS OF CHILE (1)
GALS OF DUBLIN TOWN (1)
GOLDEN VANITY (2)
GOOD MORNING LADIES (2)
GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (16)
GOODBYE MY LOVE (2)
GROG TIME (1)
Hah, hah, rolling John" (1)
HAME DEARIE (2)
Hand ober hand, O"
HANDY MY BOYS (7)
HANGING JOHNNY (8)
HAUL AWAY JOE (16)
HAUL HER AWAY (1)
Haul the Woodpile Down"
Heave and she goes, stamp and she goes"
HEAVE AWAY CHEERILY (3)
HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (15)
Heave her away"
Heave him up! O he yo!"
Heave round hearty!"
Heave, to the girls!"
HIGH BARBARY (1)
HIGHLAND (4)
Highland day and off she goes"
HILO BOYS (3)
HILONDAY (1)
HOGEYE (5)
Ho, O, heave O"
HOOKER JOHN (1)
HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING (2)
HUNDRED YEARS (5)
Hurrah! hurrah! my hearty bullies!"
I Love the Blue Mountains"
Jack Cross-tree,"
JAMBOREE (2)
JOHN BROWN'S BODY (3)
JOHN CHEROKEE (1)
John, John Crow is a dandy, O"
JOHNNY BOWKER (10)
JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO (1)
JOHNNY COME MARCHING HOME (1)
Johnny's gone"
Land ho"
Largy Kargy"
LEAVE HER JOHNNY (16)
LONDON JULIE (1)
LONG TIME AGO (3)
LOWLANDS AWAY (13)
MARCHING THROUGH GEORGIA (1)
Married to a Mermaid"
MERMAID (1)
Miranda Lee"
MOBILE BAY (2)
MONEY DOWN (2)
MR. STORMALONG (17)
Nancy Bell"
Nancy Lee"
Nancy oh!"
Nancy Rhee"
NEW YORK GIRLS (5)
O ee roll & go"
O! hurrah my hearties O!"
Oceanida"
Oh fare you well, my own Mary Anne"
OH RILEY (1)
Oh Sally Brown, Sally Brown, oh!"
ONE MORE DAY (4)
OUTWARD AND HOMEWARD BOUND (5)
PADDY DOYLE (13)
PADDY LAY BACK (2)
PADDY ON THE RAILWAY (9)
Priest and the Nuns, The"
Pull away now, my Nancy, O!"
RANDY DANDY (1)
RANZO RAY (1)
REUBEN RANZO (20)
RIO GRANDE (20)
ROLL ALABAMA ROLL (1)
ROLLING HOME (4)
ROLL THE COTTON DOWN (5)
ROLL THE OLD CHARIOT ALONG (2)
ROUND THE CORNER (3)
RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN (3)
SACRAMENTO (16)
SAILOR FIREMAN (1)
SAILOR'S ALPHABET (1)
SALLY BROWN (18)
Sally in the Alley"
SANTIANA (21)
Saucy Sailor Boy"
SEBASTOPOL (1)
SHALLOW BROWN (4)
SHENANDOAH (20)
SHINY O (1)
SLAPANDER (2)
SLAV HO (1)
Sing, Sally, ho!"
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (6)
ST. HELENA SOLDIER (1)
STORMALONG JOHN (1)
STORMY (12)
STORMY ALONG (1)
TALLY (2)
TEN THOUSAND MILES AWAY (2)
Time for us to go!"
TOMMY'S GONE (12)
TOMMY'S ON THE TOPSAIL YARD (1)
TRAMP TRAMP TRAMP (1)
Up a hill"
Walk away"
WALKALONG SALLY (2)
Way down low!"
When first we went a-waggoning"
WHISKEY JOHNNY (25)
Whisky for Johnny!"
YANKEE MAN-O-WAR (1)
YEO HEAVE HO (1)

Top (through 1920s):

WHISKEY JOHNNY (25)
SANTIANA (21)
REUBEN RANZO (20) BLOW THE MAN DOWN (20), BOWLINE (19), RIO GRANDE (20), SHENANDOAH (20)
SALLY BROWN (18)
MR. STORMALONG (17), BONEY (16), CHEERLY (16), GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (16), LEAVE HER JOHNNY (16), SACRAMENTO (16), HAUL AWAY JOE (16)
HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (15)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 07:14 AM

Thanks, Gibb. This really lays out the picture for us and is a good summary of the work so far. I'm glad to see you back at it. Happy 4th. J.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 11:53 AM

Gibb-

I think you're missing one of my oldest favorites "Fire Maringo."

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 03:29 PM

Hi, Charlie--

Wise or unwise, the decision I made way back was to restrict this list to "shanties" in the slightly more narrow but customary sense as songs for deep water sailing work. All of the related song references (cotton screwing, corn shucking, boat rowing, etc) are included in the more detailed "timeline", but not in these. "Maringo" didn't make the cut! :)

Gibb


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 05:37 PM

Looking at Whall's work here. I have not been able to see his earliest writings. However, with the exception of one or two songs, and with the exception of any bowdlerizing, I think his chanties represent what he heard during his time at sea, 1861-1872. His choice of what chanties to print, and what he says about them, does skew the overall impression, but that is a separate issue.

Whall first published chanties in two articles, neither of which I have seen. However, I presume that all the material from the articles was re-used for his later collection. The articles are:

1906        Whall, W.B. "Sea Melody." _The Nautical Magazine_ 76.

1906 [Whall, W.B.] "The Sea Shanty." _Yachting Monthly_ (October 1906).

The second article is reported to have contained 14 chanties. Among these were,

MR. STORMALONG
LOWLANDS AWAY
SANTIANA
"John's gone to Hilo"
HOGEYE
ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN
SHENANDOAH

I have not seen the first edition of Whall's collection,

1910        Whall, Captain W.B. Sea Songs and Shanties. Brown, Son and Ferguson.

Therefore, I cannot say whether he added any to those 14, though I assume there must have been a few more -- that is, more *chanties*. The addition of non-chanty songs is given.

The preface from this edition (Nov. 1910) stated that, he did not consult other texts, and these versions were as heard. Deliberate use of "shanty" spelling; doubting French origin. Songs were harmonised by Whall's brother, R.H. Whall (a trained musician).

The second edition, 1912, added more songs. The Preface, dated Feb 1912, mentioned the popularity of shanties among landsfolk as the reason for such a rapid reprint.

The third edition contains no new preface, and I gather it to be the same as the 2nd.

The 4th edition adds more material.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 05:42 PM

Here's an outline of the [chanty-focused] contents of Whall's 3rd edition.

1913        Whall, W.B. _Ships, Sea Songs and Shanties._ Third edition, enlarged. Glasgow: James Brown & Sons.

Intro:
Sea Songs are gone. Doesn't say that the ships are necessarily, gone, but that they are now manned by "Dutchmen and Dagos" and that the packet ships (and packet rats) are gone, and tha the current crop can't sing shanties that have no meaning for them.

Complaynt of Scotland, etc.

Mentions popularity of shanties (untimely) and books by Masefield, Christopher Stone, Navy Records Society

Obscenity and chanties:
//
xii) Now, seamen who spent their time in cargo-carrying sailing ships never heard a decent Shanty ; the words which sailor John put to them when unrestrained were the veriest filth. But another state of things obtained in passenger and troop ships; here sailor John was given to understand very forcibly that his words were to be decent or that he was not to shanty at all. (As a rule, when the passengers were landed and this prohibition was removed, the notorious "Hog-Eye Man" at once made its appearance.)
//

This passage suggests that all his chanties were learned in the 1860s-early 70s.
//
Going to sea then, in 1861, in the old passenger-carrying East Indiamen, these sailor Songs and Shanties struck me as worthy of preservation.
During my eleven years in those ships I took down the words and music of these songs as they were actually sung by sailors, so that what I present here may be relied upon as the real thing. Since 1872 I have not heard a Shanty or Song worth the name. Steam spoilt them. A younger generation of seamen took the place of the old sea dog. (In my
first year or two at sea I was shipmates with old men-of-war's men who had served at sea before 1815, the year of peace, and who were of the old school.) With the new generation true sea Songs and Shanties practically disappeared. Echoes of them, it is true, still exist, but that is all. The real thing has gone for ever.
//

Whall has strong biases that come through in the assumptions he makes about repertoire. Despite his vague claim that he did not consult chanty collections, his conclusions on a number of pieces (where, for example, he downgrades the role of America in the origination of chanties) seem to reflect the influence of reading. As a matter of fact, he might be the first author/collector (besides the English folklorists of a few years earlier) to try to explain origins and dating before presenting the song.

[SHENANDOAH] Whall claims to have heard sung in the late 1850s/early60s *on land*, and that it appeared in "old public school collections." It was originally a "song" before a chanty.
//
Shenandoah. [w/ score]
Missouri she's a mighty river.
Away you rolling river.
The redskins' camp lie on its borders.
Ah-ha I'm bound away 'cross the wide Missouri.
[etc]
//

After this, he notes that Dana supposedly quoted "Cheer up, Sam" as being used as a chanty—Though we have yet to locate this in Dana.

Next is supposedly in the same "class" as "Shenandoah," so I guess a capstan chanty?
//
ANOTHER of the same class as the preceding, which, down to quite a recent date, was a
favourite in American ships, was "Adieu to Maimuna," sung to an old German air,
" The Mill Wheel " :—

Adieu to Maimuna.

The boatmen shout, 'tis time to part,
No Longer can we stay;
'Twas then Maimuna taught my heart
How much a glance can say.
'Twas then Maimuna taught my heart
How much a glance can say.
[etc]
//

Discussion of [OUTWARD AND HOMEWARD BOUND] includes reference to "Pensacola town" (which appears elsewhere, some copying going on somewhere or other)
//
Homeward Bound.

At the Blackwall docks we bid adieu
To lovely Kate and pretty Sue;
Our anchor's weigh'd and our sails unfurl'd,
And we're bound to plow the wat'ry world,
And say we're outward bound,
Hurrah, we're outward bound.
//

[ROLLING HOME]
//
There are numerous versions both of words and music :
I have one such in an American book of sea songs dated 1876 ; Mr. Masefield gives another version in his "Garland"; two other versions appeared some time back in the Shipping Gazette; and I have still another. I have therefore—legitimately, I think—chosen from all these the lines common to all, and for the rest have taken those that seemed to me the best. The tune I give—out of several variants—is the one familiar to me, though, as I have said, there are others.

Rolling Home.

Call all hands to man the capstan,
See the cable run down clear,
Heave away, and with a will, boys
For old England we will steer;
And we'll sing in joyful chorus
In the watches of the night
And we'll sight the shores of England
When the grey dawn brings the light.
Rolling home, rolling home, rolling home across the sea;
Rolling home to dear old England, rolling home, dear land to thee.
//

[DREADNAUGHT] is given, but not indicated as a chanty. First Whall gives a "Dreadnaught" version, text only,
//
There's a saucy wild packet—a packet of fame—
She belongs to New York and the Dreadnought'''s her name,
She is bound to the westward where the strong winds do blow,
Bound away in the Dreadnought to the westward we'll go.
[etc]
//

Then comes "La Pique", with score.
//
O, 'tis of a fine frigate, La Pique was her name,
All in the West Indies she bore a great name;
For cruel bad usage of ev'ry degree,
Like slaves in the galley we ploughed the salt sea.
[etc]
//

"Doo Me Ama". Non-chanty.
//
Doo me Ama.
As Jack was walking thro' the square,
He met a lady and a squire.
Now Jack he heard the squire say,
Tonight with you I mean to stay.
Doo-me ama, Dinghy ama, Doo-me ama day.
[etc]
//

"Spanish Ladies", not presented as a chanty.
//
Farewell and Adieu.
Farewell and adieu unto you, Spanish ladies,…
…thirty-five leagues.
[etc]
//

//
Sling the Flowing Bowl.

Come, come, my jolly lads, the wind's abaft,
Brisk gales our sails shall crowd…
[etc]
//

[BLOW YE WINDS] as a "song of the midshipman's berth."
//
Blow Ye Winds, in the Morning.

As I walked out one sunny morn to view the meadows round,
I spied a pretty primrose lass come tripping o'er the ground,
Singing, Blow, ye winds, in the morning,
Blow, ye winds, Hi! Ho!
Brush away the morning dew.
Blow, ye winds, Hi! Ho!
[etc]
//

Supposedly this is a chanty (?) but no description is given.
//
THIS is an example of the purely professional song, dear to the old-time sailor, and full of
seamanship. It was a favourite with the prime old shellback, and was all the more
successful in that it had a good chorus about the girls.
Unmooring.
"All hands on board!" our boatswain cries…
…And we'll think on those girls when we're far, far away.
[etc]
//

"Boston" – "very popular between the years of 1860 and 1870":
//
Boston.

From Boston harbour we set sail,
When it was blowing a devil of a gale,
With our ringtail set all abaft the mizzen peak,
And our Rule Britannia ploughing up the deep.
With a big Bow-wow! Tow-row-row!
Fal de ral de ri do day!
[etc]
//

"The Female Smuggler"
//
O come, list awhile, and you soon shall hear,
By the rolling sea lived a maiden fair…
…Like a warlike hero that never was afraid.
[etc]
//

"The Voice of Her I Love."
"Come, Loose every Sail to the Breeze."
"Will Watch"
"Shannon" and "Chesapeake."

[SALLY BROWN]
//
THIS song is referred to by Marryat in his account of a visit to America in the '30's where he went as a passenger in a packet-ship. It was a great favourite when heaving up the anchor, but is not a hauling song. It has no regular story like some of the better shanties, and its musical range is rather large, so that the top notes were always yelled out fortissimo, while the second chorus was low down in the register. It is evidently of negro origin. The verses given are a fair specimen of those generally sung. What the "wild-goose nation" is I do not know ; the phrase occurs in other shanties. It is of a somewhat debased type, but that is to be
expected in a collection of songs used by rough uneducated men, as sailors were in the old days.

Sally Brown.

O Sally Brown she's a bright mullatta,
Way-ay, roll and go!
O she drinks rum and chews tobacca,
Bet my money on Sally Brown.
[etc]
//

[NEW YORK GIRLS] without description.
//
Can't you Dance the Polka?

As I walk'd down the Broadway, one ev'ning in July,
I met a maid who axed my trade, "A sailor John," says I;
And away you santee, my dear Annie.
O you New York girls, can't you dance the polka?
[etc]
//

[ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN] as a hauling song.
//
Across the Western Ocean.

O the times are hard, And the wages low,
Amelia, whar' you bound to?
The Rocky mountains is my home,
Across the Western Ocean.
[etc]
//

[LEAVE HER JOHNNY' is also acknowledged, with a few verses.
//
O, the times are hard and the wages low,
Leave her bullies, leave her;
I guess it's time for us to go,
It's time for us to leave her.
//

[GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL] for heaving anchor.
//
Good-bye, Fare You Well.

O, fare you well, I wish you well!
Good-bye, fare you well; good-bye, fare you well!
O, fare you well, my bonny young girls!
Hoorah, my boys, we're homeward bound!
[etc]
//

[TOMMY'S GONE], hauling song
//
John's Gone to Hilo.

O Johnny's gone; what shall I do?
Away you, Hee-lo.
O Johnny's gone; what shall I do?
John's gone to Hilo.
[etc]
//

[RIO GRANDE]
//
Bound for the Rio Grande.

O, say, was you ever in Rio Grande?
O, you Rio!
It's there that the river runs down golden sand,
For I'm bound to the Rio Grande.
And away, you Rio! O, you Rio!
Sing fare you well, my bonny yound girls,
For I'm bound to the Rio Grande.

Now, you Bowery ladies, we'd have you to know,
We're bound to the Southward, O Lord, let us go !

So it's pack up your donkey and get under way,
The girls we are leaving can take our half-pay.

We'll sell our salt cod for molasses and rum,
And get back again 'fore Thanksgiving has come.

And good-bye, fare-you-well, all you ladies of town,
We've left you enough for to buy a silk gown.
//

[ONE MORE DAY], a homeward bound shanty.
//
It has a plaintive, somewhat mournful melody, and is a windlass,
not a hauling, song.

One More Day.

Only one more day, my Johnny,
One more day!
Oh come rock and roll me over
One more day!
[etc]
//

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] for windlass and pumps.
//
We're All Bound to Go.

O, as I walked down the Landing Stage all on a Summer's morn,
Heave away…my Johnnies, heave away…ay
It's there I spied an irish gal a looking all forlorn,
And away, my Johnny boys, we're all bound to go.
[etc]
//

[LOWLANDS AWAY]
//
It is of American origin and comes from the cotton ports of the old Southern States.
This is, I think, certainly the first time it has been set in the least degree correctly to music.
I am aware of two previous attempts, both hopelessly in error.
It is also, like the previous song, a windlass shanty : and it was a favourite for pumping ship.

Lowlands.

Lowlands, Lowlands, Away, my John,
O my old mother she wrote to me,
My dollar and a half a day.
She wrote to me to come home from sea,
Lowlands, Lowlands, Away, my John.
She wrote to me to come home from sea.
My dollar and a half a day.
[etc]
//

[A-ROVING]. Mentions the Heywood/"Lape of Lucrece" idea.
//
A-Roving.
In Amsterdam there liv'd a maid
Mark well what I do say,
In Amsterdam there liv'd a maid, And she was mistress of her trade.
I'll go no more a-roving with you fair maids.
[cho.] A-roving, a-roving, Since roving's been my ruin,
I'll go no more a-roving with you fair maids.
[etc]
//

[REUBEN RANZO]
//
In the days I speak of, the shanty was always sung to
the regulation words, and when the story was finished there was no attempt at improvisation ; the
text was, I suppose, considered sacred. I never heard any variation from the words here given.

Reuben Ranzo.

Oh, pity poor Reuben Ranzo!
Ranzo, boys, Ranzo!
Oh, poor old Reuben Ranzo!
Ranzo, boys, Ranzo!
[etc]
//

[STAND TO YOUR GROUND] without description
//
Stand to your Ground.

Sally am de gal dat I lub dearly.
Way, sing Sally;
O, Sally am de gal dat I lub dearly.
Hilo, John Brown, stand to your ground.
[etc]
//

[MR. STORMALONG] "…seldom was any attempt made at improvisation."
//
Stormalong.

O Stormy, he is dead and gone;
Tom my way you storm along.
O stormy was a good old man;
Ay, ay, ay, Mister Stormalong.
[etc]
//

[PADDY ON THE RAILWAY]
//
Poor Paddy Works on the Railway.

O in eighteen hundred and forty-one,
My corduroy breeches I put on….
[etc]
//

[SANTIANA]
//
The Plains of Mexico.

O Santy Anna gained the day,
Hooray, Santy Anna;
He gained the day at Monteray,
All on the plain of Mexico.
[etc]
//

[BLOW BOYS BLOW]
//
Blow, Boys, Blow.

Oh, blow, my boys, I long to hear you!
Blow, boys, blow!
Oh, blow, my boys, I long to hear you!
Blow, my bully boys, blow!
[etc]
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
//
THIS comes from the old Atlantic sailing packet ships. " Blow " in those days was equivalent to "knock." The third mate in those ships was endearingly termed the third "blower and striker," the second mate being the "greaser."

Blow the Man Down.

O blow the man down, bullies, blow the man down!
Way-ay, blow the man down,
O blow the man down in Liverpool town!
Give me some time to blow the man down.
[Paradise street, policeman, etc]
//
Also the "Black Ball" version is given.

[FISHES], but not as a shanty.
//
The Fishes.

Oh, a ship she was rigg'd, and ready for sea…
…Windy weather! Stormy weather!
When the wind blows we're all together.
[etc]
//

However, Whall says that the song was later used as a shanty to the chorus of "Blow the Man Down." In other words, not this song, but its couplets were utilized.

"The Whale" (= Greenland Whale Fishery)

"Admiral Benbow".

Of [DRUNKEN SAILOR], Whall states that it was, with "Cheer'ly" a shanty allowed sometimes in the Royal Navy.
//
…particularly in revenue cutters and similar craft, and sotto voce in larger vessels. Both songs were used in the old Indiamen of "John Company."

Early in the Morning.

Hoorah! And up she rises;…
What shall we do with a drunken sailor?...
Put him in the long-boat and make him bale her…
Put him in the guardroom till he gets sober.

These were the only two verses.

…It was the only song used for a "stamp and go," and when crews were reduced and it was no longer possible to " walk away" with anything, the song at once dropped out of use.
//

"High Barbaree", not as a shanty.

[CHEERLY], without notes.
//
Cheer'ly Man.

O Nancy Dawson, Hio!
Cheer'ly man;
She'd got a notion, Hio-o
Cheer'ly man;
For our old bo'sun, Hio!
Cheer'ly man,
O! Hauley, Hio-o!
Cheer'ly man.
[etc]
//

[JOHNNY BOWKER], for sweating up.
//
Johnny Boker.

O do my Johnny Boker, Come, rock or roll me over.
O do, my Johnny Boker, do!
[etc]
//

[PADDY DOYLE]
//
Paddy Doyle.

To my way-ay-ay ah!
We'll pay Paddy Doyle for his boots.
[gin, chin, etc]
//

[BONEY], for short pulls. 2 pulls indicated for each chorus.
//
Boney.
O Bony [sic] was a warrior,
Away-ay-ah
A warrior, a terr(i)or,
Jean Français.
[etc]
//

[HAUL AWAY JOE], "used as a last short pull for sweating up." Major mode melody.
//
Haul Away, Jo.

Away [/you], haul away, O haul away together.
[cho.] Away, haul away, O haul away, Jo!
[Irish gal/nigger one, King Louis, etc]
//

[HOGEYE]
//
The Hog-Eye Man.

Oh, go fetch me down my riding cane,
For I'm goin' to see my darlin' Jane!
And a hog-eye
Railroad nigger, with his hog-eye!
Row de boat ashore, and a hog-eye O!
She wants the hog-eye man.
[etc]

As nautical readers know, much of this shanty is unprintable ; but it was so very much in evidence in the days of shanties that a collection would be imperfect without it.
//

[SHALLOW BROWN]
//
Challo Brown.

O Challo, in the morning,
O Challo, O Challo Brown!
Just as the day was dawning,
O Challo, O Challo Brown!
She was a bright mulatta,
O Challo, O Challo Brown!
She hailed from Cincinatta,
O Challo, O Challo Brown!
[etc]
//

'The Saucy "Arethusa"' – "a shore manufactured sea song."

"The Buffalo"

[HANDY MY BOYS], without description.
//
So Handy, My Girls.

So handy, my girls, so handy!
Why can't you be so handy, O?
Handy, my girls, so handy!
For we are outward bound, you know,
Handy, my girls, so handy!
O up aloft that yard must go,
Handy, my girls, so handy!
[etc]
//

[HANGING JOHNNY] without description.
//
Hanging Johnny.

O! they call me Hanging Johnny,
Hooray!
Because I hang for money,
So hang, boys, hang!
[etc]
//

[WHISKEY JOHNNY] without description.
//
Whisky.

O, whisky is the life of man,
O whisky, Johnny!
I'll drink whisky when I can,
O, whisky for my Johnny!

Whisky is the life of man,
Whisky from an old tin can.
[etc]
//

[RANZO RAY] without description.
//
We'll Ranzo-Way.

O, the boys and the girls went a huckleberry hunting,
To my way,…Ah!
O, the girls began to cry, and the boys they stop'd hunting,
To my hilo, we'll ranzo-way.
[etc]
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 06:11 PM

Whall's 4th edition adds yet more songs. It seems as though in earlier editions he sought to include only songs he deemed worthy of value. Note that he is prejudiced against what he calls "nigger songs", though it is not clear to me exactly when he means minstrel songs or songs sung by Black chanteymen. He mentioned in the 3rd edition that he deliberatly omitted "Sacramento". In the 4th edition, he seems chagrined to admit he is compeled, due to popular demand, to include "Sacramento" and other "nigger songs," of which he says there were hundreds. Incidentally, if there really were "hundreds" and our survey of the 19th century has turned up less than 150 shanties, even though the latter doesn't represent *all* shanties, "hundreds" would imply the majority of shanties.

**1920        Whall, W.B. Fourth edition.**

There is a section inexplicably called "Shakings." Several were reproduced by Hugill under the rubric of "sing-outs." The first song is not labeled, and it appears like a ballad, and not a work song. It begins,

//
On the twenty-fourth November, boys,
'Twas in the Channel we lay…
//

Then, "timber droghers would sing,"
//
Was you ever in Quebec…
//

"The West Indiaman had":
//
Give me the gal can dance fandango…
//

"the Calashie whine of"
//
Kis ki ma doo day calasie… (heard in Calcutta)
//

Kanaka "good-bye song"
//
Good-bye, my flennie…
//

French shanty (words only) given him by an ambassador:
//
C'est le capitaine du "Mexico,"
Hurrah, my boys, hurrah!
Qui donne á boire á ses matelots
A grands coup d'anspect sur le dos,
Hurrah, my boys, hurrah!
//

And, untitled, something of {HOOKER JOHN]:
//
O my Mary, she's a blooming lass
To my Ooker John, my Oo-John
O my Mary, she's a blooming lass
To my Ooker John, my Oo-John
Way, fair lady
O way-ay-ay-ay-ay
My Mary's on the high land
O yonder's Mary—yonder.
//

Then a section on "Nigger Songs."

//
The white seaman in smart ships seldom condescended to sing "nigger" songs. Perhaps the only one which gained anything like general acceptance was "Run, let the Bulgine run," one of the poorest of all. …Nigger shanties there were by the hundred. Some were better than others, but nearly all were of a poor class. … In nigger singing appeared many falsetto appoggiaturas, and a sharp rise to a "grace" note a fifth up, thus: (a sort of yelp; I can think of no other word to express it)… Both these musical tricks were freely used by untutored English ballad singers of folk-songs and such, and are not soley negro….In previous editions I have only given one example of the purely nigger shanty—"Stand to your ground." But it seems to be the wish of some of my readers that I should go further afield.
//

[SACRAMENTO]
//
The Banks of Sacramento.

The Camptown ladies sing this song,
And a hoodah and a hoodah!
The Camptown race track's five miles long,
And a hoodah, hoodah day!
Blow, boys, blow, for California, O!
[etc]
//

[CLEAR THE TRACK]
//
Clear de Track, Let de Bulgine Run.

O de worl' was made in six days and ended on de seven;
Ah he! ah, ho! are you most done
But accordin' to de contrac' it orter been eleven,
So clear de track, let de bulgine run.
//

[JAMBOREE]
//
Jamboree.

The pilot he looks out ahead,
O a hand in the chains, O a heaving of the lead!
The Union Jack at our masthead,
O I wonder if my clothes are out of pawn!
O Jamboree, O Jamboree!
O its get away, you black man, don't you come a-nigh me!
Jamboree, O Jamboree!
O I wonder if my clothes are out of pawn!
//

[BLACKBALL LINE] for windlass.
//
The Black Ball Line.

In the Black Ball I served my time
To my way, hoo-ro-ya!
In the Black Ball I served my time
Hoorah for the Black Ball Line!
//

A hauling song, favourite in London ships
//
O Fare-you-well, My Bonny Young Girls!

O fare you well, my bonny young girls
Hurrah! sing fare you well!
O fare you well! I wish you well
Hurrah! sing fare you well!
//

[HUNDRED YEARS]
//
A Hundred Years Ago.

A hundred years is a very long time!
O, yes, O!
A hundred years is a very long time,
A hundred years ago!
//

"Cawsand Bay"

"The Twenty-fourth of February"

[RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN]
//
It had no set of words, but was popular. It is of a debased kind, and was quite unworthy of its popularity.

Run, Let the Bulgine Run.

O a bulgine once was a heaving
O run, let the bulgine run
Way, Ah, oh…
Run, let the bulgine run.

O, New York town is a-burning, &c.
//

Not a shanty.
//
The Dead Horse.

They say, old man, your horse will die!
And they say so and they hope so.
They say, old man, your horse will die!
Oh, poor old man!
[etc]
//

"Maryland" – a Civil War song used as a shanty
//
I hear the distant thunder hum,
Maryland, my Maryland.
//

A variation of the familiar Dixie song.
//
Dixie.

Im wish I was in the land of cotton
Cinnamon seed and a sandy bottom
In the land, in the land, in the land, in the land.
[etc]
//

[ST. HELENA SOLDIER]
St. Helena Soldier.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 07:44 PM

Gibb,

Whall 1910 contains the following songs:

Shenandoah
Adieu to Maimuna
Homeward Bound
Rolling Home
La Pique
The Dreadnought
Doo Me Ama
Farewell and Adieu
Sling the Flowing Bowl
Blow, Ye Winds, in the Morning
Unmooring
Boston
The Female Smuggler
The Voice of Her I Love
Come, Loose Every Sail to the Breeze
Will Watch
Shannon and Chesapeake
Sally Brown
Can't You Dance the Polka
Across the Western Ocean
Goodbye, Fare You Well
John's Gone to Hilo
Bound for the Rio Grande
One More Day
We're All Bound to Go
Lowlands
A-Roving
Reuben Ranzo
Stand to Your Ground
Stormalong
Poor Paddy who Works on the Railway
The Plains of Mexico
Blow, Boys, Blow
Blow the Man Down
The Fishes
The Whale
Admiral Benbow
Early in the Morning
High Barbaree
Cheer'ly Man
Johnny Boker
Paddy Doyle
Boney
Haul Away, Jo
The Hog-Eye Man

By the 3rd Ed., both "La Pique" and "The Dreadnaught" are gone for some reason.

I haven't seen the 2nd Ed., which is said to be "enlarged." The 3rd, published in 1913 within a few months of the 2nd adds the following songs to the 1910 list (not in order):

The 24th of February
Hanging Johnny
Jamboree
Nigger Songs
Cawsand Bay
The Buffalo
So Handy, My Girls
Challo Brown
Dixie
St. Helena Soldier
O Fare-You-Well, My Bonny Young Girls!
Johnny Boker
Shakings
A Hundred Years Ago
Dead Horse
Whisky
Black Ball Line
We'll Ranzo Way!

In the 6th Ed. (1927) only the following have been added since the 3rd:

Boney
The Banks of Sacramento
Clear de Track, Let de Bulgine Run
Run, Let the Bulgine Run


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 09:52 PM

1918        Burton, Natalie Curtis, rec. _Hampton Series Negro Folk-songs._ Book III. New York: Schirmer.

A cotton-stowing song from Savannah Georgia, as remembered, was recorded and reproduced in this early 20th century work. At first glance, it is exciting to see the musical transciption. However, the form and workings of this song seems like they were different from the 'chants' of Nordhoff's days. This song, which contains 'grunts' that coincide with exertions *between* singing, is more like, say, the worksongs of prisoners that Lomax recorded. Basically, they don't have a sing-along chorus. I suppose the singing style of cotton stowers changed quite a bit from the 1830s to the end of the century. It's also possibly that the style varied regionally. We've had reference to cotton stowers singing in Savannah, but not to lyrics/style.

Pg28ff
//
COTT'N-PACKIN' SONG
Recorded front the singing of 
JAMES E. SCOTT
From Georgia comes this chant of the black laborers at the docks, brought to Hampton by a young Negro, James Scott…
In old times the City of Savannah was a great place for the shipping of cotton, and the wharves hummed and rattled as the wheeled hand-trucks, heaped with cotton-bales, were whirled by running Negroes to the side of the vessels. Then a derrick from the ship let down a great hook and hoisted a bale on which knelt a Negro to balance the load. Up went the hook, while cotton and Negro moved slowly through the air; then down through the open hatch into the hold the bale was lowered, to be seized by the waiting packers and stowed away while the hook swung up and out again with the dangling Negro clinging to it. Bale after bale with its human ballast was thus lifted and dropped.
The black packers in the hold, in gangs of from five to ten men, stowed the cotton by means of iron "screws" which squeezed the bales tightly and compactly into the smallest possible space. Each gang was directed by a "header," or head-man, for the labor required precision and skill as well as strength.
To the Negro, to work in unison means to sing; so as the men strained at their task, a laboring chant arose whose fine-toned phrases were regularly cut by a sharp high cry, "heh!", which emphasized the powerful twisting of the screws by the rhythmic muscular movement of the singers. Verses without number were made up, and many were the cotton-packing chants of which the one here recorded is a typical example. Though a song of such rudimentary simplicity as this—mere vocalized rhythm—is often intoned in unison without harmony, yet sometimes a singer, musically inclined, would strike in with a tenor or bass part of his own, or add a little embellishing melodic curve to the block-like crudity of the phrases…

Screw di cott'n,
heh!
Screw di cott'n,
heh!
Screw di cott'n,
heh!
Screw it tight—
heh!

Screw di cott'n,
heh!
Screw di cott'n,
heh!
Screw di cott'n,
heh!
Wid all yo' might—
Heh!

Here we come, boys,
heh!
Here we come, boys,
heh!
Here we come, boys,
heh!
Do it right—
heh!

Don't get tired,
heh!
Don't get tired,
heh!
Don't get tired,
heh!
Time ain't long—
heh!

Keep on workin'
heh!
Keep on workin'
heh!
Keep on workin'
heh!
Sing dis song—
heh!

(These last two verses are modern) 

Pay-day here, boys,
heh!
Pay-day here, boys,
heh!
Pay-day here, boys,
heh!

I hear dem say—
heh!

We'll have money,
heh!
We'll have money,
heh!
We'll have money
heh!

Dis yere day—
heh!

[Followed by musical score]
//

This is followed by a "CORN-SHUCKIN' SONG" from Virginia, which really comes from memories of Booker T. Washington (and which I will post separately). Not sure where they got the tune from, however (Washington only gave lyrics).


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 10:14 PM

Lighter--

Thanks for the contents of Whall's first ed.! That's very helpful.

I think we are mixed up on our third edition, however.

I am looking at the contents of the 3rd edition I have. After all the 1st edition songs, it adds:

Challo Brown
The Saucy Arethusa
Buffalo
So Handy, My Girls
Hanging Johnny
Whisky
We'll Ranzo Way!

Again, I'm guessing that these were the same songs that "enlarged" the 2nd edition.


The rest you mention, ...

The 24th of February
Jamboree
Nigger Songs (a section title)
Cawsand Bay
Dixie
St. Helena Soldier
O Fare-You-Well, My Bonny Young Girls!
Johnny Boker
Shakings (a section title)
A Hundred Years Ago
Dead Horse
Whisky
Black Ball Line

and,
The Banks of Sacramento
Clear de Track, Let de Bulgine Run
Run, Let the Bulgine Run

...Don't come until the 4th ed. La Pique/The Dreadnaught is there un the 3rd.

Here's an on-line version of 3rd ed.:
http://www.archive.org/stream/shipsseasongssha00whal#page/n17/mode/2up


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 10:35 PM

1909        Washington, Booker T. _The Story of the Negro._ Vol. 1. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co.

This contains a passage describing corn-sucking bees, and an example of lyrics. I presume this comes from Washington's experience, which would mean what is being desctibed pertains to a Virginia plantation in the early 1860s. The song lyrics quoted compare well with those in Fedric's "Slave Life in Virginia…"

Pp158-60
//
Hog-killing time was an annual festival, and the corn shucking was a joyous event which the whites and blacks, in their respective ways, took part in and enjoyed. These corn-shucking bees, or whatever they may be called, took place during the last of November or the first half of December. They were a sort of a prelude to the festivities of the Christmas season. Usually they were held upon one of the larger and wealthier plantations.

After all the corn had been gathered, thousands of bushels, sometimes, it would be piled up in the shape of a mound, often to the height of fifty or sixty feet. Invitations would be sent around by the master himself to the neighbouring planters, inviting their slaves on a certain night to attend. In response to these invitations as many as one or two hundred men, women, and children would come together.

When all were assembled around the pile of corn, some one individual, who had already gained a reputation as a leader in singing, would climb on top of the mound and begin at once, in clear, loud tones, a solo — a song of the corn-shucking season — a kind of singing which I am sorry to say has very largely passed from memory and practice. After leading off in this way, in clear, distinct tones, the chorus at the base of the mound would join in, some hundred voices strong. The words, which were largely improvised, were very simple and suited to the occasion, and more often than not they had the flavour of the camp-meeting rather than any more secular proceeding. Such singing I have never heard on any other occasion. There was something wild and weird about that music, such as I suspect will never again be heard in America.

One of these songs, as I remember, ran about as follows:
I.
Massa's niggers am slick and fat,
    Oh! Oh! Oh! 

Shine just like a new beaver hat,
    Oh! Oh! Oh!

Refrain:
Turn out here and shuck dis corn,
    Oh! Oh! Oh!
Biggest pile o' corn seen since I was born,
    Oh! Oh! Oh!

II.
Jones's niggers am lean an' po';
    Oh! Oh! Oh! 

Don't know whether dey get 'nough to eat or no,
    Oh! Oh! Oh!

Refrain:
Turn out here and shuck dis corn,
    Oh! Oh! Oh! 

Biggest pile o' corn seen since I was born,
    Oh! Oh! Oh!
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Q (Frank Staplin)
Date: 04 Jul 11 - 10:52 PM

Thanks, Lighter. Mine has the dates 1910, 1927, 1948 and 1963. The lists make it a copy of the 3rd edition, but I wasn't sure if the dates 1927, etc., were just reprint dates or more juggling had been done.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 05 Jul 11 - 12:46 PM

Thanks for the clarification, Gibb. What I'd thought to be the 3rd appears actually to have been the 4th ed. (I got it on interlibrary loan many years ago, but that doesn't excuse the error.)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Jul 11 - 04:16 PM

1843 [Dec.]        Unknown. "Sketches of East-Florida (Part Three)." _The Knickerbocker_ 22(6) (Dec. 1843). 560-567.

This section of these "sketches" is speaking generally about travel to St. Augustine, but from earlier parts one gets the sense that the author's experiences came from 1836, perhaps up through the publication date (1843).

There are references to Black workers singing while threshing, described as "sad and wild." In Savannah, the singing of cotton-stowers is mentioned. The author only mentions Black slave workers. In other words, the interaction with workers of other ethnicities, which might have led to the exchange giving birth to some chanties, is not there. One possible explanation is that Savannah was a different "scene" from the Gulf. However, another fascinating, possible explanation is that non-Blacks had yet to join this work. When Gosse wrote about 1838, he didn't mention other ethnicities. The observations of C. Erskine and Nordhoff, where European sailors were taking part, did not come until at least 1845. Here, the author is talking about 1836-1843. So one speculate that it was the early 1840s when Euro/American workers began to join in cotton-stowing.

//
But we have forgotten St. Augustine.,,The pleasantest route is by way of Savannah, …
On the edge of the bluff, which looks down upon the rice-fields and the river, there is a small circular opening in the live-oaks; and standing about that circle, are fifty to a hundred blacks threshing out rice. There are old men and women, and young men and maidens, and all varieties of dress, …all with a head-dress of some kind, and all singing whatever happens to be the impromptu of the occasion The boys question and the girls answer in a kind of chant, and this is repeated opera-fashion once or twice, when the young and old all join in a regular break-down, and then the flails come down all as one, and exact as the bow-tip of an orchestra-leader. The young girl sings with a roguish cast of the eye, and a smile on her lip, but the old men, and the old hags of women, how frantic they look as they burst into the chorus! Here and there is an old African, who hardly knows what it all means, but with a guess at the subject, he joins in with his native lingo, and his notes are as well timed and unearthly as the best of them. The song may affect to be lively and joyous, but it is not so. There is something so sad and wild about it, that I defy any one who knows the tones of the heart, to look on and listen without something of a shudder. …and on the other side of the group is an old, blind, gray-headed negro sitting in the straw, …Occasionally he starts, as though he heard and understood the song of the threshers, and with a fling of his arms, as if there again at his old post, he breaks out with some old, forgotten ditty,…
In this lounging way a day or two passes pleasantly, during which the ship has drifted up to Savannah, …The wide street that opens to the south (every one knows how beautiful are the streets in Savannah) leads past a cemetery, where of course it is very still and solemn, but it is equally so in every other, save the one that skirts the river bank; and even there the cawing of the crows a mile distant over the river comes to the ear as distinctly as in the shut-up mountains of the Highlands. Fifty feet below are the outwardbound ships, stowing away their cotton for the East, and from their gloomy depths comes up the half-smothered, never-ending song of the negro slave. All day long you may hear the same monotonous, melancholy cry, a little exaggerated as the labor varies; …
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Jul 11 - 04:54 PM

1913        Douglas, Charles Noel. _Uncle Charlie's Story Book._ Brooklyn, NY: Charles Noel Douglas.

A story in this collection, "Ghosts of the Mississippi," makes passing reference to the idea of singing whilst stowing cotton. The year given is 1888 and the place is St. Louis on the Mississippi. The story is fiction, but based in some reality (the boat checks out), even if the time isn't accurate. It sounds like this cotton-stowing, on steamboats, is to carry the cotton down river to port, so it is not necessarily the cotton "screwing" we are generally concerened with.

Pg49
//
(The story narrated by the pilot is one of actual facts, the author having merely tried to record the various incidents as they fell from the lips of one who participated in one of the many grim tragedies enacted on the turbid bosom of the great Father of Waters.)
It was in the fall of the year i888 that I was a passenger on board the Mississippi steamer, Annie P. Silver, which in those days plied between St. Louis and New Orleans….

I found myself standing on the lower deck of the huge phantom-like steamer, surrounded by perspiring negroes who were crooning snatches of song, quaint melodies peculiar to their race, as they busily stowed away countless bales of cotton consigned to New Orleans and the markets of the old world.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Jul 11 - 05:24 PM

1864[1863]        Parton, James. _General Butler in New Orleans._ New York: Mason Brothers.

History of New Orleans before and leading up to the Civil War, describing earlier life (1850s and earlier), and specifically life at the time of the Union's Blockade in May 1861. Mentions cotton work and singing.

Pg255
//
The double blockade—blockade above and blockade below—struck death to the commerce of New Orleans, a city created and sustained by commerce alone. …Cotton ships, eight or ten deep; a forest of masts, denser than any but a tropical forest; steamboats in bewildering numbers, miles of them, puffing and hissing, arriving, departing, and threatening to depart, with great clangor of bells and scream of whistles; cotton-bales piled high along the levee, as far as the eye could reach; acres and acres covered with hogsheads of sugar; endless flotillas of flat-boats, market-boats, and timber-rafts; gangs of negroes at work upon every part of the levee, with loud chorus and outcry; and a constant crowd of clerks, merchants, sailors, and bandanna-crowned negro women selling coffee, cakes, and fruit. It was a spectacle without parallel on the globe, because the whole scene of the city's industry was presented in one view.
What a change was wrought by the mere announcement of the blockade! The cotton ships disappeared; the steamboats were laid away in convenient bayous, or departed up the river to return no more. The cotton mountains vanished; the sugar acres were cleared. The cheerful song of the negroes was seldom heard, and grass grew on the vacant levee. The commerce of the city was dead; and the forces hitherto expended in peaceful and victorious industry, were wholly given to waging war upon the power which had called that industry into being, defended it against the invader, protected and nourished it for sixty years, guiltless of wrong. The young men enlisted in the army, compelling the reluctant stevedores, impressing with violence the foreign born.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Jul 11 - 06:07 PM

1908        Hubbard, W.L., ed. _History of American Music._ Toledo: Irving Squire.

This volume contains a chapter on "Patriotic and National Music" (i.e. of America). In the description of chanties, it's interesting to see, the authors have taken the view that they were mostly born of cotton-stowers' and Black work-songs. They seem to have used sources like RC Adams, Alden, and Davis/Tozer. The perspective, I suspect, is mainly coming from Alden. This would have been before the time, I argue, that voices were putting chanties as a mainly British product.

Pp133-135
//
Though not properly coming under the heading of patriotic and national music, a word relative to American sea songs in general may here be appended. These songs are an essential feature toward the performance of good concerted work, and they are common to the sailors of all maritime nations. Although they may vary with individual characteristics of nationality, the theme is much the same and they are all sung to the accompaniment of the "thrilling shrouds, the booming doublebass of the hollow topsails, and the multitudinous chorus of ocean."

Most of the songs or chanties — the name being derived from a corruption of the French chansons or chantees — of the American sailor of today are of negro origin, and were undoubtedly heard first in southern ports while the negroes were in engaged in stowing the holds of the vessels with bales of cotton, while some few of them may be traced back to old English tunes. They were of two kinds — pulling songs and windlass songs. The pulling songs were used as an incentive to the men to pull together. One can better understand this from the rhythmic flow of the following stanza, which has its counterpart in the sailor songs of varied nationalities:

Haul on the bowlin', the fore and maintop bowlin', 

Haul on the bowlin', the bowlin', Haul!

At the close of each stanza the word "Haul" is given with marked emphasis, and the tug on the rope necessarily becomes stronger. The song imparts a unity of spirit and purpose to the work at hand.

The windlass songs beguile the men into temporary forgetfulness while working the pumps or weighing the anchor. One man, from his power of voice and ingenuity at improvisation, is looked upon as the leader. He begins by singing the chorus, as an intimation to the men of the manner in which it is to be sung; then he sings his solo, very seldom more than one line, and the men, from his musical intonation of the last word, catch the words and pitch with the inspiration intended. One of the best of windlass songs, in which the melody rises and falls in a manner suggestive of the swell of the ocean, runs:

I'm bound away this very day,
    (Chorus) Oh, you Rio!

I'm bound away this very day,
    (Chorus) I'm bound for the Rio Grande! 
   
And away, you Rio, oh, you Rio!
I'm bound away this very day,
(Chorus) I'm bound for the Rio Grande!

A favorite windlass song is that known as "Shanandore," the title being a corruption of Shenandoah, upon which river the song undoubtedly originated with the negroes:

You, Shanandore, I long to hear you;
      (Chorus) Hurrah, hurrah you rollin' river! 

You Shanandore, I long to hear you,
(Chorus) Ah, ha, you Shanandore.

In the West and South the chanties still may be heard. You may catch their strains upon the sweeping Mississippi, whose forest environment first caught the chansons of the French voyageurs. Even now the boat songs and working songs of the sailors in the neighborhood of St. Louis and New Orleans are suggestive of French influence. Along the Ohio, too, and other water-ways, these melodies in form of a low, hoarse chant, are still reminiscent of the old chanties.

On the Atlantic coast the fisher fleets are perhaps the only vessels which still make use of these almost forgotten melodies, for the steam-worked windlass, the pumps, the clatter of the cog-wheels, the shrieking whistles and hissing steam are not conducive to song, and the sailor of the Twentieth Century, like the landsman, has caught the spirit of rush and speed, and no one dare attempt to revive the old chanty songs on board the steamships of today…
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Jul 11 - 07:33 PM

1911        Morrison, K.E. "For a Scout's Honor." _Boys' Life_ 1(4) (June 1911).

A Play in Four Acts, Presented by Troop 2, Norwich, Conn., Boy Scouts of America.

In the middle of the play, the scouts are instructed to sing a specially arranged medley.

It is indicated that it should be sung to the tune of "Australia". It seems like the CAPE COD GIRLS form. Pg40:
//
Old Norwich City is a great old town.
(Chorus) Heave away! Heave away!
With its streets and alleys up and down.
(Chorus) Heave away! Heave away!
(All) Heave away, my bonny, bonny boys. Heave away; Heave away. Heave away, my bonnie, bonnie boys. We're out in the country…
//
Followed by couplets about "Norwich scouts" and "Norwich coin", etc.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Jul 11 - 09:15 PM

1902[April]        Parsons, W.D. "Charleston and the Exposition with Impressions of the South." _Inter-state Journal_ 4-5(6) (April 1902).        

Opinions/observations on Charleston at turn of century from a New Englander. Mentions stevedores singing, described as "peculiar."

//
The colored laborers do the manual toil in the South which the Dagoes and other European riff-raff do at the North, and a prominent wholesale merchant of Charleston expressed himself as unwilling to make an exchange if he could. Whatever we may say of him, the negro is not an Anarchist, nor a serious menace to society; the stevedores at the docks heave their loads to the accompaniment of a peculiar musical song or cry, and everywhere the negro is light-hearted and happy at his work; …
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Jul 11 - 09:49 PM

1936        Eisdell, J.W. _Back Country or the Cheerful Adventures of a bush parson in the eighties._ London: Oxford UP.

During a voyage to Melbourne 1882, on the SS NORTHUMBERLAND. Three chanties.

Haven't seen the book; getting this second hand through site of Warren Fahey, http://warrenfahey.com/maritime-3.htm.

[DEAD HORSE]
//
I came to a river but I couldn't get across
Chorus: And we say so & we hope so
Solo - so I gave ten bob for an old blind horse

Chorus: Oh poor man
[etc]
//

//
Old Dad

O my old Daddy, he went for a swim etc
Be hung his clothes on a hickory limb
Now there were some boys who thought it great fun etc
So they stole his clothes and away they did run etc
Now my old Mammy went fishing for chad etc
And the first thing she caught was my old dad etc
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 06 Jul 11 - 05:56 AM

The following source contains several original versions or variations of chanties. Many of these were later reproduced by Stan Hugill. The notes in the chanties are not very insightful; I've mainly broken out the lyrics here.

1914        Sharp, Cecil J., A.G. Gilchrist, and Lucy R. Broadwood. "Sailors' Chanties." _Journal of the Folk-Song Society_ 5(18):31-44.

Several chanties collected by the authors, from individuals who presumably learned them in the 2nd half of the 19th century.

From Charles Robbins (age 66): [HAUL AWAY JOE], sung in 1908.
//
1. Haul Away, Joe.

Away, audle away, O audle away my rosy,
O away, audle away, O audle away Joe

O once I had a nigger girl
She had a nigger baby;
O away, audle away,
O audle away Joe.

O now I've got an English girl,
I treat her like a lady;
O away, etc.

We sailed away for the East Indies,
With spirits light and gay;
O away, etc.

We discharged our cargo there, my boys,
And we took it light and easy;
O away, etc.

We loaded for our homeward bound,
With our minds so free and easy;
O away, etc.

We squared our yards and away we ran,
With the music playing freely;
O away, etc.

Now up aloft this yard must go,
We'll pull her free and easy;
O away, etc.

Another pull and then belay,
We'll make it all so easy;
O away, etc.

Now when we landed in English Town,
We landed free and easy;
O away, etc.

We made her fast and made her run,
And made her free and easy;
O away, etc.
//

[SANTIANA] Sung in 1909
//
2. Santy Anna.

O Santy Anna gained the day,
O away O Santy Anna;
O Santy Anna gained the day,
Ordle on the plains of Mexico.

Mexico is a place of renown, etc.

We'll spread her wings and let her go, etc.
O up aloft this yard must go, etc.

We're homeward bound with a pleasant gale, etc.

We're bound away for Liverpool Town, etc.

We gave three cheers and away we ran, etc.

We sailed away with our spirits light and gay, etc.
//

[BLACKBALL LINE] as capstan chanty. Sung in 1908.
//
6. The Black Ball Line.

O the Black Ball Line I served my time,
Haul a way, Haul away O,
The Black Ball Line I served my time,
Then Hurrah! for the Black Ball Line.

O the Black Ball line is the line for to shine, etc.

We sailed away from Liverpool Bay, etc.

We sailed away with spirits light and gay, etc.

We sailed away for Mobile Bay, etc.

It was there we discharged our cargo, boys, etc.

And we loaded cotton for the homeward bound, etc.

We sailed away with spirits light and gay, etc.

Up aloft this yard must go, etc.

And when we arrived at Liverpool Docks, etc.

We ran our lines unto the pier, etc.

We have around with the same ordle (old) song, etc.

We made her fast all snug and taut, etc.

Now the skipper said, " Now that will do my boys," etc.
//

[REUBEN RANZO], topsail hailyards. Sung in 1908.
//
Ranzo.

O Ranzo was no sailor,
O Ranzo, boys, Ranzo;
O Ranzo was no sailor.
O Ranzo, boys, Ranzo.

He shipped on board of a sailer, etc.

They took him to the gangway, etc.

They gave him five and twenty, etc.

They sailed to Mobile Bay, etc.

It was there they discharged their cargo, etc.

They shipped another cargo, etc.

We are homeward bound to Liverpool, etc.

Now the captain he being a good man, etc.

He took him to the cabin, etc.

He learned him navigation, etc.

O that was the end of Ranzo, etc.
//

[RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN] sung in 1908. Capstan.
//
9. The Bullgine.

O the Bullgine ran in the morning,
O run, let the Bullgine run;
We-O, Away, Ha! Ha!
Run, let the Bullgine run.

We sailed away for Mobile Bay, etc.

We spread our sales with a favourable gale, etc.

Now up aloft this yard must go, etc.

We're homeward bound for Liverpool docks, etc.

Now we gave three cheers and away we went, etc.
//

[SALLY BROWN] sung in 1909. With chromatic or blue note sort of melody.
//
12. Sally Brown.

I shipped on board of a Liverpool liner,
Way-Ho, a rolling go,
And we shipped on board of a Liverpool liner,
For I spent my money 'long with Sally Brown.

Now up aloft this yard must go, etc.

And we spread her wings and we let her go free boys, etc.

Now we sailed three days when a storm arose boys, etc.

We screw in cotton by the day boys, etc. (i.e. screw it in bales).

O Sally Brown was a bright mulatter, etc.

Now we spread her wings and away we sail boys, etc.

O seven years I courted Sally, etc.

And now we're married and we're living nice and comfor'ble, etc.
//

[FISHES] Sung by Wm. Wooley (aged 84) in 1908.
//
3. Blow the Wind Wester.

First Version.

It's up jumps the sprat, the smallest of them all;
She jumped on the foredeck, well done, my lads all.
So blow the wind wester, blow the wind blow!
Our ship she's in full sail, how steady she goes.

Then up jumps the eel, with his slippery tail;
He jumped on the fore deck and glistened the sail.

Then up jumps the nirl-log, with his pretty spots;
He jumped on the fore deck and looked on the top.

Then up jumps the shark, with his rolling teeth;
He said: " Mr. Captain, shall I cook your beef ?"

Then up jumps the roter, the king of the sea;
He jumped on the fore deck and turned the key.
//

Second Version. Sung by Mrs. L. Hooper, 1904.
//
Up jumps the salmon, The largest of 'em all;
He jumps on our foredeck, Saying: Here's meat for all.
O blow the wind whistling, O blow the winds all!
Our ship is still-hearted boys, How steady she go!

Up jumps the shark, The largest of all;
He jumps on our fore-deck: You should die all!

Then up jumps the sprat, The smallest of all;
He jumps on our fore-deck, Saying: We shall be drowned all!
//

[TALLY] Sung by Mr. Rapsey (age 58) in 1906.
//
4. Tiddy I-O

O now you forbid us to bid you adieu,
Tiddy i-o io;
We're homeward bound to Bristol town,
Tiddy i-o i-o i-o.

We're homeward bound with sugar and rum,
Tidy i-o, i-o;
We're homeward bound with sugar and rum,
Tidy i-o, i-o.

When we arrive in the Bristol Docks
Tidy i-o, i-o;
Now the people come down in flocks,
Tidy i-o, i-o.
//

[LEAVE HER JOHNNY], a capstan chanty
//
Leave Her, Johnny.

The times is hard and the wages low,
Leave her, Johnny, leave her;
The bread is hard and the beef is salt,
But it's time for us to leave her.

O the mill to the pump is our relief
I thought I hear our captain say.

Ten long months on salt beef all
O now I hear our captain say.
//

[REUBEN RANZO] Attributed to "Sailors at Liverpool" Quite a different and unusual tune.
//
Oh, Ramso was no sailor!
Ramso, boys, Ramso!
Oh, Ramso was no saior!
Ramso, boys, Ramso!
He shipp'd on board a whaler,
Ramso, boys, Ramso!
He shipp'd on board a whaler,
Ramso, boys, Ramso!

But he could not do his duty, etc.
So they gave him six and thirty, etc.

Now the captain was a very good man, etc.
He taught him navigation, etc.

Now Ramso got so handy, etc.
That he drank all the captain's brandy, etc.
//

[RANZO RAY] marked as 'Capstan Chanty' Sung by W. Bolton, retired sailor (age 66) in 1905.
//
Ranzo.
I'm bound away to leave you, But I never will deceive you,
Ranzo, Ranzo, away, away;
We're bound to Giberaltar And our cargo's bricks and mortar,
Ranzo, Ranzo, 'way.
//

Another [RANZO RAY], capstan chanty, sung by James Saunders (age 77) in 1910.
//
8. The Bully Boat is Coming.

The bully boat is coming, Don't you hear her paddles roaring?
Ranzo, Ranzo, away
We've ploughed the ocean over, And we're all bound for Dover,
It's my Ranzo, Ranzo away.
//

[HOGEYE]. sung in 1910.
//
11. The Hog-eyed Man.

O a hog-eyed man is the man for me
O a long black beggar and you don't ride me.
With his hog eye,
And you rowed about the shore, Says the hog-eyed man.

[HOGEYE] Sung by John Allen (age 67), in 1909. A "warping" chanty.
//
O who's been here since I've been gone,
A Yankee boy with his sea boots on,
Ha! Ha!
Ha! Ha!
//

//
13. Shanadar.

O Shanadar I'll have your daughter;
Way-o, you rolling ruin;
I love her as I love the water,
Ha! Ha!
I'm bound away across the wild Missouri.

O Shanadar what is the matter ?
Way O, you rolling ruin;
Your daughter's here and I am at her,
Ha ! ha!
I'm bound away across the wild Missouri.
//

Also quotes Whall's version of HOGEYE from his Yachting Monthly article. It's like his later collction, only says "rare old" instead of "railroad."


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 06 Jul 11 - 08:26 AM

Let me say again, under my own name this time, that I'm glad to see you back at it, Gibb. This is some good work and I appreciate having it available like this. And I do hope you had a good 4th. J.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 06 Jul 11 - 07:48 PM

Here's the last of the chanty articles by the Folk-Song Society crew, that I know of, to be discussed.

1916        Sharp, Cecil J., A.G. Gilchrist, Lucy E. Broadwood, Frank Kidson, and Harry E. Piggott. 1916. "Sailors' Chanties." _Journal of the Folk-Song Society_ 5(20):297-315.

Another batch of chanties, collected by Cecil J. Sharp and Harry E. Piggott.

[JAMBOREE], for capstan. Sung by Harry Perrey (age 61) in 1915. Perrey was a American who spent 40+ years in sailing ships. So, his songs may go back to the 1870s.
//
Whip Jamboree.

First version.

O now, my boys, we'll give three cheers,
For the Irish coast is drawing near;
Tomorrow we will sight Cape Clear,
O Jenny, get your oat cake done.
O Jamboree, whip Jamboree,
O you long-tailed black man step it up behind me,
O Jamboree, whip Jamboree,
O Jenny, get your oatcake done.

Now my boys, we're off Holyhead,
No more salt beef, no more salt bread,
One man in the chains for to heave the lead,
O Jenny get your oat-cake done.
O Jamboree, etc.
//

"Southern Ladies" is a song I've never seen elsewhere (except in Hugill's reprint). (Incidentally, I used it as the tune for my chanty dedicated to Barry Finn). Given as a capstan chantey, sung by Perrey in 1915.
//
19. Southern Ladies.

What will you fetch your Julia?
Way-ay-ay-ay,
What will you fetch your Julia?
She's a southern lady…all the day.

One bottle of Floridy water.
Way-ay-ay-ay.
One bottle of Floridy water,
She's a southern lady all the day.

This is a negro labour-song of the cotton stations of the Southern States which, like many others of a similar character, has been commandeered by the sailor.
-C. J. S.
//

[BANKS OF NEWFOUNDLAND] appears here, for the first time, I think, as a capstan chanty.
//
20. The Banks of Newfoundland.

You rambling boys of Liverpool, I'll have you to beware,
When you go a-packet sailing No dungarees don't wear;
But have a monkey jacket All unto your command,
For there blows some cold nor'westers On the banks of Newfoundland.
We'll wash her and we'll scrub her down, With holy stones and sand.
And we'll bid adieu to the Virgin Rocks On the banks of Newfoundland.

We had one Lynch from Balla na Lynch,
Jimmy Murphy and Mike Moor;
It was in the winter of sixty-two
Those sea-boys suffered sore.
They pawned their clothes in Liverpool
And sold them out of hand,
Not thinking of the cold nor'-westers
On the banks of Newfoundland.

We had one lady passenger on board,
Bridget Riley was her name;
To her I promised marriage
And on me she had a claim.
She tore up her flannel petticoats
To make mittens for our hands,
For she couldn't see the sea-boys frozen
On the banks of Newfoundland.

Now my boys, we're off Sandy Hook
And the land's all covered with snow;
The tug-boat will take our hawser
And for New York we will tow;
And when we arrive at the Black Ball dock
The boys and girls there will stand;
We'll bid adieu to packet-sailing
And the banks of Newfoundland.
//

Also here for the first time as a capstan chanty is [LIVERPOOL GIRLS].
//
21. Row, Bullies, Row.
[The Liverpool Girls.]

From Liverpool to 'Frisco a-roving I went,
For to stay in that country it was my intent;
But drinking strong whiskey, like other damned fools.
I was very soon shanghai'd back to Liverpool.
Singing row…row, bullies, row,
Those Liverpool girls they have got us in tow.

One day off Cape Horn, sure I ne'er will forget,
O it's O don't I sigh when I think on it yet;
The mate was knocked out and the sails was all wet
And she was running twelve knots with her main sky-sail set.
Singing row, row, etc.

O it's now we are sailing down on to the line,
When I think over it yet, sure we had a hard time;
The sailors was pulling the yards all around,
Trying to beat that flash clipper called the Thacka McGowan.
Singing row, row, etc.

O it's now we're arrived in Bramley-Moor Dock,
Where the fair maids and lasses around us will flock.
The barley's run dry and sixty dollars advance,
I think it's high time to get up and " dust." [i.e. " strike out for another
country."]
//

[SHALLOW BROWN], a "pulling" chanty.
//
Shallow Brown.
[I'm Going Away to Leave You.]

I'm going away to leave you,
Shallow, O Shallow Brown.
I'm going away to leave you,
Shallow, O Shallow Brown.

Get my clothes in order.

The steam-boat sails to-morrow.

I'm bound away for Georgia.

No more work on plantation.
I'll cross the wide Atlantic.

I'll cross the Chili mountains.

To pump them silver fountains. [i.e. work the silver mines.]
//

[FIRE DOWN BELOW] for capstan.
//
23. Fire! Fire!

First version.

Fire! Fire! Fire! My boys, Don't you kick up any noise,
To my way-ay-ay-ay-ay.
O it's fire in the foretop and in the hole below,
It's fire down below.
The Captain's on the poop with his spyglass in his hand,
To my way-ay-ay-ay-ay.
The mate is on the focosle head a-looking out for land,
O it's fire down below.
//

[JAMBOREE] sung by George Conway (age 70) in 1914. This melody in major mode.
//
Whip Jamboree. Second Version.

O Jamboree, O Jamboree,
Long time a-coming that pretty, little yaller girl,
O Jamboree, O Jamboree,
O Jenny get your oat-cake done.
//

[FIRE DOWN BELOW]
//
Second Version.

Fire up the middle door, Fire down below,
O Fire in the maintop, Fire down below.
[cho.] Fire! Fire! Fire! O here's an awful go!
Let's hope that we shall never see fire down below.

Fire in the mizen top.

Fire in the fore-top.
//

[HANDY MY BOYS], a "pulling" chanty, sung by Robert Ellison (age 78) in 1914.
//
O handy, my boys, we're bound away,
So handy, my boys, so handy,
O handy, my boys, we're bound away,
So handy, my boys, so handy.

I thought I heard the Captain say.

At daylight, boys, we're bound away.

Bound away for Botany (Hobson's) Bay.

Whenever you go to Playhouse Square.

Gipsy Pole she do live there.
//

A pulling chanty. Sure, it's similar to "Sally Brown," but not necessarily any more so than other chanties. My quick rendition:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MsHHHbnY9Vc
//
25. What is in the Pot A-boiling?

What is in the pot a-boiling?
O row, heave and go.
Two sheep's spunks and an apple dumpling,
O row, heave and go.
//

[RIO GRANDE] for windlass, sung by John Rerring in 1912.
//
26. Rio Grande.

I thought I heard our Captain say,
Oh Rio
I thought I heard our Captain say
"We are off to Rio Rande"
Then away Rio…Away Rio,
So fare you well my bonny young girl,
We are off to Rio Grande.

So heave up your anchor and let us away.

We've a jolly goo(I ship and a jolly good crew.
A jolly good mate and a good captain too.

So set all your sails, 'tis a favouring wind;
Say good-bye to the lass you are leaving behind.

For twelve long months we'll be away.
And then return with our twelve months' pay,
//

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] for windlass.
//
27. Heave Away, My Johnny.

As I was walking Liverpool streets a-wearing out my shoes,
Heave away, my Johnny, heave away…
I stepped into a shipping office, just to hear the news.
Heave away, my jolly boys, we're all bound to go.

"Good Morning, Shipping Master," " Good Morning, Jack," says he.
"O have you got a fine ship to carry me over the sea "

"Oh yes, I have a fine ship, a ship of noted fame;
She's lying in the Canning Dock, the Annie is her name.

The wages are a pound a month, and half a month's advance;
And whilst you haven't got a ship, you'd better take the chance."

So I went on board the Annie and I sailed to a foreign clime;
But I'll ne'er forget the girl I loved and left in tears behind.
//

[HEAVE AWAY CHEERILY] "hauling"
//
Off to the South'ard We'll Go.

Oh our ship is refitted, we are going for a trip,
Cheer'ly my lads, let her go
We're a jolly fine crew and a jolly fine ship,
As off to the south'ard we'll go.

So set all your sails, it's a favouring wind,
Say good-bye to the friends you are leaving behind,

We shall soon clear the Channel and be well off the land;
Then the steward will serve out the grog to each man.

But the wind is increasing, we must reduce sail.
Take a reef in the topsails and weather the gale.

Under low canvas four days we have been.
Four passing ships homeward bound we have seen.

But now we will set all our sails again.
And think nothing more of the wind and the rain.

The chanty of this name in Tozer's Sailors' Songs is a modern production both tune and words-but seems to have been founded on something older…A.G.G.
//

[HANDY MY BOYS], "hauling"
//
A Handy Ship.

A handy ship and a handy crew,
So handy, my boys, so handy.
A handy ship and a handy crew,
So handy, my boys, so handy.

A handy mate to pull us through.
A handy mate to pull us through.

The mate will tell us when to belay.
I think that's just what he's going to say

So up aloft on this yard we must go.
So up aloft on the yard we must go.
//

Piggott gives a note to acknowledge improvisation and stock verses, as explained by his informant.
//
… In connection with this and the chanties which follow, it must be remembered that the words are extemporized and often trans-
ferred from one chanty to another. Mr. Perring said to me " Of course, I can't think of words to sing now. I am out of practice. Besides it is so different singing in a room. If I were on board, with all the fellows round me, I should know their names and all about them and I was a good hand at making up little rhymes which would fit in; I should think of the next verse while they were singing the chorus." He went on to explain how he had certain rhymes or jingles which he fell back upon when he could no longer think of topical verses, such as:
" The captain is a-growling,
The wind it is a-howling."
" Haul and pull together,
Haul for better weather."
//

[HAUL AWAY JOE], a "setting up" chanty
//
Haul Away, Joe.

Away haul away, Haul away together,
Away, haul away, haul away Joe!

Away, haul away,
The gale it is a-brewing;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe!

Away, haul away,
Haul and pull together;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe !

Away, haul away,
The captain is a-growling;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe!

Away, haul away,
All for better weather;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe!

The "setting up " or " sweating up " chanties were sung as a solo or by a few voices; all joining in with a shout on the last word, as they fell back on the rope.
-H. E. P.
//

[JOHNNY BOWKER] for "setting up"
//
Johnny Poker.

Oh, do my Johnny Poker, Oh! will you not give over?
Oh do, my Johnny Poker, Do!

This is sung in the same manner as the last, with impromptu variations to the second strain, such as :

"The captain is a-growlin'."
"The gale it is a howlin'."
"We'll either break or bend her."
"My sweetheart young and tender." -H. E. P
//

[BOWLINE] "setting up"
//
Haul on the Bowline.

Haul on the owline, the main to'gallant bowline.
Haul on the bowline, the bowline, Haul.

Haul on the bowline, the captain is a-growlin',
Haul on the bowline, the bowline, haul.

and so on, with such variations as:

" Our ship she is a-rolling."
" Haul for better weather."
" Haul and pull together."
"The wind it is a-howlin'." etc.

The last note is sometimes indicated simply as a shout. This is probably one of our oldest English chanties….-A. G. G.

This is apparently the opening phrase of a variant of the tune made famous by Tom Moore's arrangement as " The Song of Fionnuala" (" Silent, oh Moyle "). Moore took his air from Holden's Irish Tunes, where it appears as " Arah, my dear Evleen." Holden's version is spoilt by its sharpened seventh; Moore retained this, and Sir Charles Stanford has changed it to what he believes to be the old form (see below). The Irish tune " Savourneen Deelish " (used by Moore for his song "'Tis gone, gone for ever," and by Thomas Campbell for his poem " There came
to the beach a poor exile of Erin "), seems allied to " Arah, my dear Evleen." The opening phrases of the songs are given here for comparison, and very interesting notes on them are in Moffat and Kidson's Minslrelsy of Ireland, pp. 224, 262, and Appendix, p. 341.-L. E. B.
[with tunes given for comparison]
//

Gilchrist and Broadwood, above, were keen on connecting the last chanty to earlier English or Irish sources.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 10 Jul 11 - 07:03 PM

1914        Sharp, Cecil K. 1914. _ English Folk-Chanteys._ London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co. Ltd.

60 chanteys. Majority heard from John Short of Watchet, Somerset.
The format is similar to Sharp's publication in issues of the Folk Song Society journal (e.g., sort sets of verses, lots of stringing out/half-couplets), but the entries have a dual purpose in that they are set to piano arrangements, as if they are to be performed. Indeed, the notes for the items are put (inconveniently, for our purposes) in a separate section at the end.

In his intro to the collection, Sharp reveals his basic intent and biases. His a priori assumption is that this repertoire primarily belongs to a song tradition of the English people. Therefore (for example), he seeks to connect the tunes to other English folk or popular songs – not necessarily a bad move in all cases, but an assumption, nonetheless, that closes the door on other possibilities. He talks about songs exhibiting "Negro influence", which seems to me a way of assuming again that some core English repertoire is at the center, which Black songs can only "influence"; Black song traditions cannot be at the center in this sort of discussion.

What is wonderful about Sharp's collected shanties is that we have them for posterity, and more so that he has recorded the musical and lyrical peculiarities of specific singers (i.e. he has been descriptive). This is as opposed by giving a 'generic' quasi-composite version of the chanties, such as some of the earlier authors had done. However, that benefit is somewhat diminished in this particular collection; unlike in his journal articles, Sharp does create composite/ideal/prescriptive versions to some extent.

One can also critique Sharp's relative ignorance of the subject. He had gained familiarity by this point, but I think that what he didn't know about shanties comes through now and again in misperceptions of what his informants sang. (Incidentally, when Hugill went on to re-present many of these items, he "corrected" some of the lyrics to reflect what one better acquainted with the subject would assume must have been the intended words.)

The opening of the intro reflects Sharp's assumption that chanties were at the core of some ~ancient~ English song tradition. He thought they were a hold-over from a larger body of English work songs…the rest of which mysteriously vanished. He does not think that the dearth of other work songs besides chanties might indicate that they were borrowed from non-English culture!
//
THE sailors' chantey is, I imagine, the last of the labour-songs to survive in this country. In bygone days there must have been an enormous number of songs of this kind associated with every rhythmical form of manual labour ; but the machine killed the landsman's work-song too long ago for it now to be recoverable. The substitution, too, of the steam-engine for the sail in deep-sea craft has given the death-blow to the chantey; …
//

Origin ideas, with little evidence. Does not distinguish "Complaynt" from more recent work songs, and yet the issue is "beyond question."
//
How old the chantey may be it is impossible to say, but that the custom
amongst sailors of singing in rhythm with their work was in vogue as far back at least as the fifteenth century, the vivid description of the voyage in " The Complaynt of Scotland" (c. 1450) places beyond question.
//

Etymology, orthography. Doesn't use much literature to make an argument; seems just like a random decision.
//
Notwithstanding the antiquity of the chantey the word itself is quite
modern ; indeed, the compilers of the Oxford Dictionary are unable to cite its use in literature earlier than 1869. Moreover, although the authorities are more or less in agreement regarding the derivation of the word (Fr. chante), its spelling is still in dispute. The Oxford Dictionary (1913) gives the preference to "shanty"; Webster's New International
Dictionary (1911) to "chantey"; while the Century Dictionary (1889) prints both forms "chantey" and " shanty." Clark Russell and Kipling write it " chantey," and Henley "chanty." As the balance of expert opinion appears to favour "chantey " that spelling is adopted here.
//

Prior writings consulted; he seems to have looked at collections mainly, and perhaps not other articles and sources.
//
Considering the interest which this subject must have for antiquaries,
musicians, folk-lorists and others, its bibliography is remarkably slender. //

Mentions LA Smith, Davis/Tozer, Whall, Bullen.
//
Of these, the last two are at once the most recent and, in my opinion, the
most authoritative. Each is the compilation of a professional sailor and
avowedly a one-man collection, containing those chanteys only which its
author had himself heard and learned at sea. Here, of course, Mr. Whall and Mr. Bullen have the advantage of me. I have no technical or practical knowledge whatever of nautical matters ; I have never even heard a chantey sung on board ship. But then I approach the subject from its aesthetic side my concern is solely with the music of the chantey and with its value as an art-product and this I contend is quite possible even for one who is as ignorant as I am of the technical details of the
subject.
//
So, he is mainly interested in tune-forms, and connecting them to other folk song tunes.

Personal sources.
//
Counting variants, I have collected upwards of 150 chanteys, all of which
have been taken down from the lips of old sailors now living in retirement at St. Ives, Padstow, Watchet, Bridgwater, Clevedon, Bristol, Newcastle and London.
//

Sharp's criteria for inclusion, which includes the funky decision not to include "popular" songs whose tunes are "not of folk-origin" – meaning that very many of the common shanties would have to be excluded…and also meaning that Sharp assumes shanties that are included do not have popular origins (for example, Haul Away Joe).
//
In making my selection for the purposes of this book I have been
guided by the following considerations. I have limited my choice to those
chanteys which I had definite evidence were actually used within living
memory as working-songs on board ship; I have excluded every example
of the sea-song or ballad, which is, of course, not a labour-song at all; I have omitted certain popular and undoubtedly genuine chanteys, such as
"The Banks of the Sacramento," " Poor Paddy works on the Railway," "Can't you dance the Polka," "Good-bye, Fare you Well," etc., all of which are included, I believe, in one or other of the Collections above enumerated on the ground that the tunes are not of folk-origin, but rather the latter-day adaptations of popular, "composed" songs of small musical value; and finally, to save space, I have excluded several well-known chanteys, e.g. "Farewell and Adieu to you, Ladies of Spain," "Cawsand Bay," "The Coasts of High Barbary," etc., all of which have been repeatedly published.
//

On Sharp's informants.
//
A reference to the Notes will show that thirty-nine of the chanteys in this
Collection have already seen the light in some form or other. The remaining twenty-one are, I believe, now published for the first time.
Fifty-seven of the chanteys in my Collection, and forty-six of those in this
volume, were sung to me by Mr. John Short of Watchet, Somerset. Although seventy-six years of age he is apparently, so far as physical activity and mental alertness go, still in the prime of life. He has, too, the folk-singer's tenacious memory and, although I am sure he does not know it, very great musical ability of the uncultivated, unconscious order. He now holds the office of Town Crier in his native town, presumably on account of his voice, which is rich, resonant and powerful, and yet so flexible that he can execute trills, turns and graces with a delicacy and finish that would excite the envy of many a professed vocalist. Mr. Short has spent more than fifty years in sailing-ships and throughout the greater part of his career was a recognised chanteyman, i.e. the solo-singer who led the chanteys. It would be difficult, I imagine, to find a more experienced exponent of the art of chantey-singing, and I account myself peculiarly fortunate in having made his acquaintance in the course of my investigations and won his generous assistance. Of the other singers who have been good enough to sing to me, Mr. Perkins of St. Ives and the late Mr. Robbins of London deserve especial mention. …
//

A word more on John Short (1839-1933), who our friend Tom Brown has helped us to know better through the Short Sharp Shanties project. Short ("Yankee Jack") started his deepwater career circa 1857/8 and retired from that circa 1873-75.

Many of the shanties which Sharp got from Short are ones rarely collected elsewhere. Quite often, the only other version is one supplied –miraculously?—by Hugill. TomB made the following observation on Mudcat in March '09:

"It's fascinating to find that, of those shanties that Sharp/Terry published from John Short, which were not in other publications, Stan almost invariably a his own version either from 'Harding the Barbadian' or 'picked up in the West Indies'. Makes you wonder!"

The next passage, which begins a theory of the origins of worksongs, includes a phrase matching what Harlow later included as a sing outs.
//
…A simple way of securing this end was explained to me by a practical seaman, who told me that on such occasions he would recite, slowly and impressively and to the following rhythm, this sentence,

[musical score w/ lyrics:]
I sell brooms, squeegees and swabs.

instructing the men to make their effort on the word swabs….
//

On the nature of lyrics, and how the present collection treats them:
//
In most chanteys, e.g. " Ranzo," it is one line only in each stanza that has to be improvised, so that the demands made upon the singer's powers of invention are not overwhelming. Every chanteyman, too, has a number of stock lines, or "tags," stored up in his memory, such as

"Up aloft this yard must go," "I think I heard the old man (i.e. the captain) say"

upon which he can always draw when inspiration fails him. The
paucity of singable words vitiates to some extent the practical
value of a Collection such as this; on the other hand it should not be difficult for the amateur to emulate the chanteyman and invent words of his own. It should, perhaps, be added that the words in the text are those that were actually sung to me. I have not "edited" them in any way beyond excising a few lines and softening two or three expressions.
//
So, he bowdlerized a bit.

On singing style—possibly reflects how his aged informants were singing to him:
//
Traditionally, the chantey is sung very slowly and deliberately and the
tune embellished especially by the chanteyman himself with numberless
trills and graces, with every now and again a curious catch in the voice (a
kind of hiccough), and numerous falsetto notes. These embellishments are highly characteristic, but they are very difficult, and the amateur would be well advised not to attempt to imitate them. He must remember, however, to sing the chanteys slowly and impressively and, the majority of them at any rate, without accompaniment. Accompaniments, it is true, are given in the text, but this is only that the melodies may, if required, be played as instrumental airs.
//

Origins again, and Sharp's assumptions about the inherently English nature of chanties, or the essentialized English sailor.
//
The origin of the chantey-tune is a question beset with difficulty. A great many of the airs I should be inclined to say a majority of them must originally have been drawn from the stock of peasant-tunes with which the memory of every country-bred sailor would naturally be stored. In most cases these have, in the process of adaptation, undergone many changes, although there are instances where the folk-ballad has been "lifted " bodily into the service of the chantey without any alteration whatever, as for example "Blow away the Morning Dew " (Whall, p. 35) and "Sweet Nightingale " (Songs of the West, No. 15). The latter was given me as a capstan-chantey by Mr. Short who told me that he had himself converted it into a chantey, and that it had always become a favourite with the crews he had sailed with. Very often too for the sailors' taste is comprehensive rather than particular popular street-songs were added to the sailors' repertory of chanteys, e.g. " Champagne Charlie," "Doo-dah-day," etc. Another source, too, from which the chantey seems to have been replenished is the hymn-book ; at any rate there are many chanteys that have hymn-tune characteristics, e.g. "Leave her Johnny" (No. 3), etc.
The resemblance may be adventitious, i.e. the short, concise phrases peculiar to the chantey may have led naturally to the construction of tunes of this character ; or, on the other hand, as the sailor is a great singer of hymn-tunes of the more emotional type, it may be that he has consciously or unconsciously introduced some of the phrases of his favourite tunes into the chantey.

Lastly, there is the vexed question of negro influence. Mr. Arnold, the musical editor of Mr. Bullen's Collection, holds that " the majority of the chanteys are negroid in origin." I cannot subscribe to this opinion, although I admit that the negro has undoubtedly left his impress upon a certain number of chantey-tunes. The technical peculiarities of negroid music are not easy to define with precision. Mr. A. H. Fox Strangways has, however, drawn my attention to the prevalence in negro music of the "melodic-third," i.e. of a shape of melody which implies a preference for harmonising in thirds, instead of the fourth, which is, of course, the basic interval of European folk-song … Then there is that characteristic form of syncopated rhythm, popularly known as "rag-time," which, however, although undoubtedly negro in origin, is found very rarely, if at all, in the chantey. … That the chantey should have been affected by the negro is not surprising when we remember that sailing-ships, engaged in the Anglo-American trade, commonly carried " chequered " crews, i.e. one watch of coloured men and one of white. It is necessary, however, to distinguish between music of negroid origin and European music that has been modified by the negro.
…However, I do not wish to be dogmatic. Sufficient material has not yet
been amassed upon which to found a sound theory of the origin of the chantey-tune ; and it may be that when further evidence is available the somewhat speculative opinions above expressed will need material modification.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 10 Jul 11 - 07:38 PM

[[CAPSTAN CHANTEYS]]

[SANTIANA] John Short.
//
1. Santy Anna.

Santy Anna run away;
Ho-roo, Santy Anna ;
Santa Anna run away all on the plains of Mexico

General Taylor gained the day,

Mexico you all do know,

The Americans'll make Ureta* [Huerta] fly,
//


[LEAVE HER JOHNNY] First Version. John Short.
//
2. Leave Her Johnny.

O the times are hard and the wages low;
Leave her Johnny leave her;
O the times are hard and the wages low,
It's time for us to leave her.


The bread is hard and the beef is salt,

O, a leaking ship and a harping crew,

Our mate he is a bully man,
He gives us all the best he can.

I've got no money, I've got no clothes,

O, my old mother she wrote to me

I will send you money, I will send you clothes.
//

Second Version. Richard Perkins.
//
3. Leave Her Johnny.

The times are hard and the wages low,
Leave her Johnny leave her,
O the times are hard and the wages low,
It's time for us to leave her.
//

[OLD MOKE] John Short.
//
… " Hoo-roo " may be a reminiscence of "Shule Agra," and the reference to "the railroad " a memory of " Poor Paddy works on the railway." Both words and tune show negro influence. The chantey is not included in any other collection…

4. He-back, She-back.

He-back, she-back, daddy shot a bear,
Shot him in the back and he Never turned a hair,
I'm just from the railroad, too-rer-loo,
Oh the old moke picking on the banjo.
Hoo-roo! What's the matter now?
I'm just from the railroad, too-rer-loo,
I'm just from the railroad, too-rer-loo,
Oh the old moke picking on the banjo.
//

[HOGEYE] John Short.
//
…The tune of this chantey shows negro influence, especially in the curious and characteristic rhythm of the chorus.

5. The Hog-eyed Man.

O who's been here since I've been gone?
Some big black nigger with his sea-boots on,
And a hog-eye, Steady up a jig and a hog-eye,
Steady up a jig, And all she wants is her hog-eyed man.

The hog-eyed man is the man for me,
He brought me down from Tennessee.
//

[CLEAR THE TRACK] George Conway. This may be the first to use contain the somewhat sketchy phrase "clear away", which I *think* earmarks some Revival versions sourced from Sharp.
//
… The tune, the final cadence of which is very similar to that of Santy Anna, is clearly related to that of Shule Agra…

6. Clear the Track.

I wish I was in London town
Ha-hee, ha-oo, are you most done
I wish I was in London town ;
So clear away the track and let the bullgine run.
With my hi-rig-a-jig and a low-back car,
Ha-hee, ha-oo, are you most done,
To My pretty little yaller girl fare thee well,
So clear away the track and let the bullgine run.

Twas there I saw the girls around.
//

[DRUNKEN SAILOR] James Tucker. The melody has the typical shape, and yet it's different – almost like a harmony part to the usual tune.
//
… The tune in the text — obviously a bagpipe air…

7. Drunken Sailor.

What shall we do with a drunken sailor?
What shall we do with a drunken sailor?
What shall we do with a drunken sailor
Early in the morning?
Way ay and up she rises,
Way ay and up she rises,
Way ay and up she rises
Early in the morning.

Put him in the long-boat till he gets sober.

Keep him there and make him bail her.
//

[DOODLE LET] Makes its first appearance. John Short.
//

… Mr. Short always sang " doodle let me go."…

8. Do Let Me Go.

It's of a merchant's daughter belonged to Callio;
Hooraw, my yaller girls, do let me go
Do let me go, girls, Do let me go,
Hooraw, my yaller girls, do let me go.
//

[JAMBOREE] John Short. I suspect The Spinners' interpretation was developed from this?
//
Now Cape Clear it is in sight,
We'll be off Holy head by tomorrow night,
And we'll shape our course for the Rock Light;
O Jenny get your oatcake done.
Whip jamboree, whip jamboree,
O you long- tailed black man poke it up behind me,
Whip jamboree, Whip jamboree,
O Jen-ny get your oatcake done.

Now my lads, we're round the Rock,
All hammocks lashed and chests all locked,
We'll haul her into the Waterloo Dock,
O, Jenny, get your oat-cake done.

Now, my lads, we're all in dock
We'll be off to Dan Lowrie's on the spot;
And now we'll have a good roundabout,
O, Jenny, get your oat-cake done.
//

This "Roll and Go" is distinct from the typical "Sally Brown". John Short.
[One of my favourite chanties! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9MrvUgTMMU]
//
10. Roll and Go.

Way ay roll and go.
O Sally Brown she promised me,
A long time ago.
She promised for to marry me;
Way ay roll and go
O she promised for to marry me,
A long time ago.

O, Sally Brown's the girl for me,
O, Sally Brown, she slighted me.

As I walked out one morning fair,
It's then I met her, I do declare.
//

[SHENANDOAH] John Short.
//
11. Shanadar.

O Shanadar I love your daughter,
Hooray you rolling river.
Shanadar I love your daughter
Ha Ha, I'm bound away to the wild Missouri.


O seven years I courted Sally.

And seven more I couldn't gain her.

She said I was a tarry sailor.

Farewell my dear I'm bound to leave you;
I'm bound away but will ne'er deceive you.
//

[ROLLER BOWLER] first time. John Short.
//
12. Roller, Bowler.

Hooray you roller, bowler;
In my hi-rig-a-jig and a ha ha.
Good morning ladies all.
O the first time that I saw her
'Twas down in
Playhouse Square,
To my hi-rig-a-jig and a ha ha.
Good morning ladies all.

As I walked out one morning,
As I walked out one morning,
Down by the river side,

O ladies short and ladies tall,
O ladies short and ladies tall
I love them all,
//

[RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN] John Short.
//
13. Let the Bullgine Run.

We'll run from night till morning.
O run, let the bullgine run.
Way yah, oo-oo oo-oo-oo,
O run, let the bullgine run.

We'll run from Dover to Calais.

We sailed away from Mobile Bay.

We gave three cheers and away we went.

Now up aloft this yard must go.

We're homeward bound for Liverpool Docks.
//

[HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING] John Short.
//
14. Huckleberry Hunting

The boys and the girls went a huckleberry hunting;
To my way-ay-ay-ay-ay-ay yah;
All the boys and the girls went a huckleberry hunting;
To my Hilo, my Ranzo-ray.
//

[ONE MORE DAY] John Short.
//
15. One More Day.

One more day, my Johnny,
For one more day;
O rock and roll me over
For one more day.

There is one thing more that grieves me
There is my poor wife and baby

I'm bound away to leave you
Don't let my parting grieve you
//

[JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO] John Short.
//
… Presumably, Hilo is the seaport of that name on the east coast of Hawaii Island…

16. O Johnny Come to Hilo.

O a poor old man came a-riding by,
Says I : old man your horse will die.
O Johnny come to Hilo,
O poor old man.
O wake her, O shake her,
O shake that girl with the blue dress on,
O Johnny come to Hilo;
Poor old man.
//

[GOOD MORNING LADIES] John Short.
//
17. Good Morning, Ladies All.

Aye yo o, aye yo o.
I thought I heard our captain say:
Aye yo. O, aye yo o.
O go on board your pilot boat And roll her down the bay.
Ha, ha, my yaller girls, Good morning, ladies all.

Our Captain on the quarter-deck
Was looking very sad.
//

[LOWLANDS AWAY] Henry Bailey.
//
… The words of the fourth verse were given me by Mr. Short. "Matelors "
means " sailors," as Mr. Short well knew ; and an "oozer," he said, was a
cotton stevedore…

18. Lowlands Away.

Lowlands, lowlands away, my John ;
I'm bound away, I heard him say,
My lowlands away, my John ;
A dollar and a half is a oozer's pay,
A dollar and a half a day.

A dollar and a half won't pay my way ;
A dollar and a half is a white-man's pay.

We're bound away to Mobile Bay ;

What shall we poor matelors do ?
//

[RANZO RAY] John Short.
http://www.wildgoose.co.uk/wildgoose-media/samples/WGS381CD-T10.mp3 (Tom Brown)
//
… Mr. Short always sang " rodeling " for " rolling."…

19. The Bully Boat.

Ah the bully boat is coming,
Don't you hear the paddles rolling?
Rando, rando, hooray, hooray
The bully boat is coming,
Don't you hear the paddles rolling?
Rando, rando, ray.

Ah! the bully boat is coming
Down the Mississippi floating.

As I walked out one May morning
To hear the steam-boat rolling.
//

[STORMY ALONG JOHN} John Short.
//
20. Stormalong John.

I wish I was old Stormy's son ;
To my way–ay Stormalong John.
I wish I was old Stormy's son,
Ha ha, come along get along, Stormy along John.

I'd give those sailors lots of rum.

O was you ever in Quebec?

A-stowing timber on the deck.

I wish I was in Baltimore.

On the grand old American shore.
//

[RIO GRANDE] John Short.
//
21. Rio Grand.

I think I heard the old man say:
o you Rio,
I think I heard the old man say:
We're bound for Rio Grand.
And away for Rio,
O you Rio,
So fare you well, my bonny young girl,
We're bound for Rio Grand.

O Rio Grand is my native land.

It's there that I would take my stand.

She's a buxom young maid with a rolling black eye.

She came from her dwelling a long way from here.

I wish I was in Rio to-day.

Buckle [bucko] sailors you'll see there,

With long sea-boats and close cropped hair.
//

[LUCY LONG] John Short.
//
22. Lucy Long.

Was you ever on the Brumalow,
Where the Yankee boys are all the go?
To my way-ay-ay ha, ha
My Johnny, boys, ha ha
Why don't you try for to wring Miss Lucy Long?

O! as I walked out one morning fair,
To view the views and take the air.

'Twas there I met Miss Lucy fair,
'Twas there we met I do declare.
//

[BLACKBALL LINE] John Short.
//
23. The Black Ball Line.

In Tapscott's line we're bound to shine ;
A way, Hooray, Yah;
In Tapscott's line we're bound for to shine,
Hooray for the Black Ball Line.

In the Black Ball Line I served my time.

We sailed away from Liverpool Bay.

We sailed away for Mobile Bay.

It was there we discharged our cargo, boys.

We loaded cotton for the homeward bound.

And when we arrived at the Liverpool Dock.

We ran our lines on to the pier.

We made her fast all snug and taut.

The skipper said: That will do, my boys.
//

[FIRE DOWN BELOW] John Short.
//
24. Fire! Fire!

There is fire in the galley, There is fire down below,
Fetch a bucket of water, girls, There's fire down below.
Fire! Fire!
Fire down below.
It's fetch a bucket of water girls, There's fire down below.

There is fire in the fore-top,
There's fire in the main;
Fetch a bucket of water, girls,
And put it out again.

As I walked out one morning fair
All in the month of June.
I overheard an Irish girl
A-singing this old tune.
//


[A-ROVING]
//
25. A-Roving.

In Plymouth town there lived a maid;
Bless you, young women;
In Plymouth town there lived a maid ;
O mind what I do say ;
In Plymouth town there lived a maid
And she was mistress of her trade;
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid.
A-roving, a-roving, Since roving's been my ru-i-in
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid.

I took this fair maid for a walk,
And we had such a loving talk.

I took her hand within my own,
And said: I'm bound to my old home.
//

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] John Short.
//
26. Heave Away, My Johnny.

It's of a farmer's daughter, so beautiful I'm told
Heave away my Johnny, heave away.
Her father died and left her five hundred pound in gold;
Heave away. my bonny boys, We're all bound away.

Her uncle and the squire rode out one summer's day.

Young William is in favour, her uncle he did say.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 10 Jul 11 - 07:40 PM

[[PULLING CHANTEYS]]

[HAUL AWAY JOE] John Short.
//
… Short described it as a "tacks and sheets" chantey…

27. Haul Away, Joe.

Haul away, haul away, haul away, my Rosie,
Way, haul away, haul away, Joe.
O you talk about your Aver [Havre] girls,
And round the corner Sally ;
Way, haul away, haul away, Joe.

But they cannot come to tea
With the girls in Booble Alley.

O ! once I loved a nigger girl,
And I loved her for her money.

O ! once I had a nice young girl,
And she was all a posy.

And now I've got an English girl,
I treat her like a lady.

We sailed away for the East Indies,
With spirits light and gay.

We discharge our cargo there, my boys,
And we took it light and easy.

We loaded for our homeward bound,
With the winds so free and easy.

We squared our yards and away we ran,
With the music playing freely.

Now, up aloft this yard must go,
We'll pull her free and easy.

Another pull and then belay,
We'll make it all so easy.
//

[SALLY BROWN] Charles Robbins. Chromatic tune. This was also in Sharp's 1914 JFSS article. Incidentally, I think this is the first "along with Sally Brown" that I've seen. Is this a place where Sharp "softened" the phrase (no pun intended)? It is likely the source of Sweeney's Men's (and Planxty's) popular, adapted version of the song.
//
28. Sally Brown.

I shipped on board of a Liverpool liner ;
Way, ho, rolling go;
And I shipped on board of a Liverpool liner,
For I spent my money 'long with Sally Brown.



Sally Brown was a Creole lady.

O Sally Brown was a bright mulatto.

O seven years I courted Sally.

And now we're married and we're living nice and comfor'ble.
//

[ISLAND LASS] Richard Perkins.
//
29. Lowlands Low.

Lowlands, Lowlands, Lowlands, lowlands, low.
Our Captain is a bully man;
Lowlands, Lowlands, lowlands, low.
He gave us bread as hard as brass;
Lowlands, Lowlands, lowlands, low.
//

[SHALLOW BROWN] First version. John Short.
//
30. Shallow Brown.

Shallow O, Shallow Brown,
Shallow O, Shallow Brown.
A Yankee ship came down the river;
Shallow O, Shallow Brown.
A Yankee ship came down the river ;
Shallow O, Shal-low Brown.

And who do you think was master of her ?

A Yankee mate and a lime-juice skipper.

And what do you think they had for dinner ?

A parrot's tail and a monkey's liver.
//

[MUDDER DINAH] George Conway.
//
31. Sing, Sally O.

O I say my Mammy Dinah, What is the matter?
Sing Sally O ; Fol lol de day.
O hurrah! hurrah ! My Mammy Dinah.
Sing Sally O ; Fol lol de day.

O have you heard the news to-day ?
For we are homeward bound.
//

[REUBEN RANZO] John Short.
//
32. Poor Old Reuben Ranzo.

Ranzo, boys, Ranzo.
O poor old Reuben Ranzo,
Ranzo, boys, Ranzo
O Poor old Reuben Ranzo,
Ranzo, boys, Ranzo.

O! Ranzo was no sailor.

He shipped on board a whaler.

He shipped with Captain Taylor.

The man that shot the sailor.

He could not do his duty.

He couldn't boil the coffee.

The Captain being a good man.

He taught him navigation.

We took him to the gratings.

And gave him nine and thirty.



O ! that was the end of Ranzo.
//

[GENERAL TAYLOR} John Short.
//
33. General Taylor.

General Taylor gained the day;
Walk him along, Johnny, carry him along.
General Taylor gained the day;
Carry him to the burying ground.
Oo oo oo.... oo you stormy,
Walk him along, Johnny, carry him along;
oo-oo you stormy,
Carry him to the burying ground.

Dan O' Connell died long ago;
Dan O' Connell died long ago
//

[MR. STORMALONG] John Short.
//
34. Old Stormey.

I wish I was old Stormey's son;
To my way, yah, stormalong,
I'd give those sailors lots of rum;
Aye, aye, aye, Mister Stormalong.

I'd build a ship both neat and strong
To sail the world around all round.

Old Stormey's dead, I saw him die.

We dug his grave with a silver spade.

We lowered him down with a golden chain.

And now we'll sing his funeral song.
//

[BULLY IN ALLEY] John Short.
//
35. Bully in the Alley.

So help my bob I'm bully in the alley ;
Way-ay bully in the alley,
So help my bob I'm bully in the alley;
Way-ay bully in the alley.
Bully down in our alley ;
So help my bob I'm bully in the alley,
Way-ay bully in the alley ;
Bully in Tin-pot alley
Way-ay bully in the alley.

Have you seen our Sally ?

She's the girl in the alley.
//

[YANKEE JOHN STORMALONG] John Short.
//
36. Liza Lee.

Liza Lee she promised me ;
Yankee John, Stormalong ;
She promised for to marry me;
Yankee John, Stormalong.
//

[BOWLINE] John Short.
//
37. Haul on the Bow-line.

Haul on the bowline, O Kitty you are my darling,
Haul on the bowline, the bowline, haul.
Because she had a foretop, fore and main to bowline;
Haul on the bowline, the bowline haul.

Because she had a main-top main and mizen to bowline ;
Haul the bowline, the bowline haul.

Haul on the bowline, O Kitty you are my darling,
Haul on the bowline, the bowline haul.
//

[PADDY DOYLE] John Short. bunting
//
38. Paddy Doyle.

To my way ay. ay ay ay yah,
We'll pay Paddy Doyle for his boots…

We'll order in brandy and gin.

We'll all throw dirt at the cook.

The dirty old man on the poop.
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN] John Short.
//
… I have supplemented Mr. Short's words — he could only remember two stanzas — with lines from other versions…

39. Knock a Man Down.

[Cho.] Knock a man down, kick a man down ;
way ay knock a man down,
knock a man down right down to the ground,
O give me some time to knock a man down.

The watchman's dog stood ten foot high ;

A lively ship and a lively crew.

O we are the boys to put her through

I wish I was in London Town.

It's there we'd make the girls fly round.
//

[JOHNNY BOWKER] John Short. bunting
//
40. Johnny Bowker.

Do my Johnny Bowker. Come rock and roll over
Do my Johnny Bowker, do.
//

[TALLY] Mr. Rapsey. Published in earlier journal article.
//
41. Tiddy I O.

O now you forbid us to bid you adieu ;
Tid-dy I - o, I - o;.
O now you forbid us to bid you adieu ;
Tiddy I-o, I-o, I-o.

We're homeward bound to Bristol Town.

We're homeward bound with sugar and rum

And when we arrive in Bristol docks.

O then the people will come down in flocks.
//

[ROUND THE CORNER] John Short.
//
42. Round the Corner, Sally.

O around the corner we will go;
Around the corner, Sally,
O Mademoiselle we'll take her in tow ;
Around the corner, Sally
We will take her in tow to Callio ;
Around the corner, Sally.

O ! I wish I was at Madame Gashees.

O ! it's there, my boys, we'd take our ease.
//

[HANDY MY BOYS] John Short.
//
43. So Handy.

So handy, my girls, So handy.
Be handy in the morning;
So handy, my girls, So handy,
Be handy in the morning;
So handy, my girls, So handy.

Be handy at your washing, girls.

My love she likes her brandy.

My love she is a dandy.

I thought I heard our Captain say :

At daylight we are bound away.

Bound away for Botany Bay.
//

[LONG TIME AGO] has an unusual 'tag' chorus at the end. James Tucker.
//
44. A Long Time Ago.

Away down south where I was born ;
To my way-ay-day, Ha !
Away down south where I was born ;
A long time ago.
'Twas a long, long time and a very long time,
A long time ago

O ! early on a summer's morn.

I made up my mind to go to sea.
//

[CHEERLY] John Short.
//
… Mr. Short told me this was the first chantey he learned and he thought it must have been the " first chantey ever invented." …

45. Cheerly Man.

O oly-i-o Cheerly Man.
Walk him up O
Cheerly man.
Oly-i-o, oly-i-o
Cheerly Man.
//

[BOTTLE O] John Short.
//
46. The Sailor Likes His Bottle O.

So early in the morning The sailor likes his bottle O.

A bottle of rum and a bottle of gin,
And a bottle of old Jamaica Ho!
So earIy in the morning The sailor likes his bottle O.
//

[DEAD HORSE] John Short.
//
47. The Dead Horse.

A poor old man came a-riding by,
And they say so, And I hope so,
A poor old man came a-riding by,
O poor old man.

Says I : Old man your horse will die.

And if he dies I'll tan his skin.

And if he don't I'll ride him again.

After very hard work and sore abuse.
They salted me down for sailors' use.

And if you think my words not true,
Just look in the cask and you'll find my shoe.

But our old horse is dead and gone,
And we know so, and we say so,
//

[WHISKEY JOHNNY] James Tucker.
//
48. Whisky for My Johnny.

Whisky is the life of man
Whisky, Johnny,
Whisky is the life of man,
Whisky for my Johnny.

I'll drink whisky while I can.

Whisky in an old tin can.

Whisky up and whisky down.

Pass the whisky all around.

Whisky polished my old nose.

Whisky made me go to sea.

My wife drinks whisky, I drink gin.

Whisky killed my mam and dad.

Whisky killed our whole ship's crew.

Whisky made me pawn my shirt.
//

[BONEY] John Short.
//
49. Bonny Was a Warrior.

Bonny was a warrior; Way-ay-yah
Bonny was a warrior, Jean François.

Bonny went to Moscow.

Moscow was on fire.

It took the Duke of Wellington

O to defeat old Bonny.

Hurrah, hurrah, for Bonny.

A bully, fighting terrier.
//

[BLOW BOYS BLOW] John Short.
//
50. Blow, Boys, Come Blow Together.

Blow, boys, come blow together ;
Blow, boys, blow.
Blow, boys, come blow together ;
Blow, my bully boys, blow.

A Yankee ship came down the river.


And who do you think was Master of lier ?

Why Bully Brag of New York City.

And what do you think we had for supper ?

Belaying-pin soup and a roll in the gutter.
//

[HANGING JOHNNY] John Short.
//
51. Hanging Johnny.

And they calls me hanging Johnny;.
Hooray, hooray.
And they calls me Hanging Johnny,
So hang, boys, hang.

They hanged my poor old father.

They hanged my poor old mother.

They say I hanged for money.

But I never hanged nobody.
//

[HUNDRED YEARS] John Short.
http://www.wildgoose.co.uk/wildgoose-media/samples/WGS381CD-T4.mp3 (Jeff Warner)
//
52. A Hundred Years on the Eastern Shore.

A hundred years on the eastern shore ;
O yes O
A hundred years on the eastern shore ;
A hundred years ago.

A hundred years have passed and gone.

And a hundred years will come once more.
//

[SHENANDOAH] Second version. James Thomas. 4 pulls are indicated in one chorus!
//
… This, a shortened form of No. 11, was one that Mr. Thomas often heard
on " The City of Washington," in which ship he sailed to America in 1870….

53. Shanadar.

Shanadar is a rolling river, E-o, I-o, E-o, I-o.
//

[LONG TIME AGO] Captain Hole.
//
54. In Frisco Bay.

In Frisco bay there lay three ships
To my way ay ay o,
In Frisco bay there lay three ships
A long time ago.

And one of those ships was Noah's old Ark,
And covered all over with hickory bark.

They filled up the seams with oakum pitch.

And Noah of old commanded this Ark.

They took two animals of every kind.

The bull and the cow they started a row.

Then said old Noah with a flick of his whip :
Come stop this row or I'll scuttle the ship.

But the bull put his horn through the side of the Ark ;
And the little black dog he started to bark.

So Noah took the dog, put his nose in the hole ;
And ever since then the dog's nose has been cold.
//

[SHALLOW BROWN] Second version. Robert Ellison.
//
55. Shallow Brown.

O I'm going to leave her
Shallow O Shallow Brown.
O I'm going to leave her
Shallow O Shallow Brown.

Going away to-morrow,
Bound away to-morrow.

Get my traps in order.

Ship on board a whaler.

Bound away to St. George's.

Love you well, Julianda.

Massa going to sell me.

Sell me to a Yankee.

Sell me for the dollar.
Great big Spanish dollar.
//

[WON'T YOU GO MY WAY] John Short. First time.
//
56. Won't You Go My Way.

I met her in the morning ;
Won't you go My way?
I met her in the morning ;
Won't you go My way?

In the morning bright and early.

O Julia, Anna, Maria.

I asked that girl to mairy,

She said she'd rather tarry.

Oh marry, never tarry.
//

[STORMY] Robert Ellison.
//
57. Wo, Stormalong.

Whenever you go to Liverpool ; Wo, stormalong;
When ever you go to Liverpool ; Stormalong, lads stormy.

And Liverpool that Yankee School.

And when you go to Playhouse Square,

My bonny girl she do live there.

We're bound away this very day.

We're bound away at the break of day.
//

John Short.
//
58. O Billy Riley.

O Billy Riley, little Billy Riley,
O Billy Riley O;
O Billy Riley, wake him up so cheer'ly.
O Billy Riley O.

O Mister Riley, O Missus Riley.

O Miss Riley, O Billy Riley.

O Miss Riley, screw him up so cheer'ly.
//

[TOMMY'S GONE] John Short.
//
59. Tom is Gone to Hilo.

My Tom is gone, what shall I do?
Oo - way, you I - o - o - o,
My Tom is gone, what shall I do?
My Tom is gone to Hilo.
//

John Short. A significantly different tune.
//
… Mr. Short said that this was used not only as a pulling chantey but also when they were screwing cotton into the hold at New Orleans …

60. Tommy's Gone Away.

Tommy's gone, what shall I do ?
Tommy's gone away,
Tommy's gone, what shall I do ?
Tommy's gone away.
//

[END]


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 10 Jul 11 - 08:27 PM

Gibb-

More good work.

Keep it coming.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 11 Jul 11 - 11:58 AM

Gibb, I really like your rendition of "Roll & Go" that you mention above. Somehow I missed that version of "Sally Brown" when I was going through your collection. And just so it stands out and is easily available for others, here it is again:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9MrvUgTMMU

Also, I was interested in what Sharp had to say about hymns and hymn tunes. To my - limited - knowledge, this is the only time in our discussion where hymns have been mentioned as a source for chanties. I have wondered about this in the past. And I have wondered why there seem to be no connections between Black "spirituals" as call/response songs and chanties.

I appreciate your treatment of Sharp and your making his collection available like this.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Jul 11 - 06:29 PM

Thanks, Charlie and John, for giving some company!

John--

Thanks for the link and your compliment. Making these links on Mudcat has always been a pain, and I forget to do 'em when I pasted my text from elsewhere.

The brief mention of hymn-tunes by Sharp is quite possibly a reference to what he had been reading. His intro to the book reads as a dialogue with or comment on what had recently been published. Masefield was one person that said a couple tunes (Shenandoah and Hanging Johnny) sounded like hymns. But it was Bullen (or perhaps Arnold, in that book) who said more. He did in fact make a connection. If I had to guess, Sharp was acknowledging that (he deferred to the 'experience' writers) rather than proposing an original idea. I hope to have notes up on Bullen, soon.

I would imagine that these authors, all English, were familiar with these "hymn" tunes from the "spirituals" of the touring Fisk Jubilee Singers and such.


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