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Maritime work song in general

GUEST,Phil d'Conch 09 Mar 20 - 07:31 PM
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Subject: Folklore: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Mar 20 - 07:31 PM

State of the art:

“A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a type of work song that was once commonly sung to accompany labor on board large merchant sailing vessels. The term shanty most accurately refers to a specific style of work song belonging to this historical repertoire. However, in recent, popular usage, the scope of its definition is sometimes expanded to admit a wider range of repertoire and characteristics, or to refer to a maritime work song in general.” [wiki]

More standard narrative:
The Advent and Development of Chanties

and
“...There are also several less-established theories regarding the origins of the sea shanty. Although there is little evidence to support this, some historians argue that the maritime musical form can be traced as far back as Ancient Egypt...”
[Piratical Debauchery, Homesick Sailors and Nautical Rhythms, Reidler, 2017]

The 2400 year gap in evidence and theory is best explained by the modern standard shanty narrative's substitution of a genre label for a work practice. 19th century, English, merchant marine &c are not functional attributes. They are consumer preferences.

What follows is a list of references based on the thread title, beginning at the beginning*:


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Mar 20 - 07:37 PM

Paywalled & hard to get but a good place to start: 'Celeuma' in Christian Latin: Lexical and Literary Notes, Sheerin, 1982

*I use the 2400 year number in conversation not because nautical work song is that old, it's much older, rather because that's roughly where documented Western history picks up. It's a little late for 'Ancient' Egypt.

That said, the glossary and job titles were already well in place; it wasn't all that Greek in origins (just the vowels) and the Ptolemaic Kingdom (c.332 - 30BC) was Hellenistic. Alexander the Great was a Pharaoh of Egypt. Pharoah's Canals were the first 'Suez' canals.

i.e.: Pharaoh, great or high house. The Pharos of Alexandria was an Egyptian lighthouse. Latin for lighthouse is farus.

Most of the Old Testament was already firmed up by 300BC as well.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Mar 20 - 07:39 PM

“The rowers did not sit, but Stood in an inclining position. The practice was directed by a person called celeustes the Roman hortator remigum who was placed in the middle of them, and carried a staff, with which he gave the signal when his voice could not be heard. This signal was for the rowers to strike; and he encouraged them by a song or cry, called the celeusma. This was either sung by the rowers, or played upon instruments, or effected by a symphony of many or striking sonorous tones.”
[A Treatis on the Arts, Manf, Manners, Inst of the Greeks & Romans, Vol.I, Fosbroke, 1833, pp.211-212]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Mar 20 - 08:10 PM

“Next in turn are two "oar-masters" (toixarchoi), who are each responsible for the discipline and working of one of the long rowers' benches; and following in grade, though highly important, are the keleustes, and the trieraules, who, by voice and by flute respectively, will give the time and if needs be encouragement to the rowers. These are all the regular officers, but naturally for handling the sails and anchors some common sailors are desirable. The Invincible carries 17 of these….
[A Day in Old Athens, Davis, 1914, pp.131-132]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Jack Campin
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 07:03 AM

Rowing songs are all over but generally they aren't classed as shanties. Not sure why not.

Turangawaewae Regatta

Lots of Hebridean ones.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 10:20 AM

Gibb's researches show pretty conclusively that one of the contributory factors towards the advent of chanties was indeed slave rowing songs in the Caribbean, from about 1800 up to 1830. As I said in the other thread the major impetus came from the stevedores in the Gulf ports but there are a few textual connections with the earlier rowing songs like Sally Brown.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 10:43 AM

Origin is not necessarily identity. They got a special name because they often had a more elaborate form than had rowing songs, and because they seemed "new" to anglophone shipboard crews who sang them. (As the "Advent" thread shows, the word was not imposed from above, but came from "folk" speech.)

Are 19th-21st century "chanteys" so much like ancient Egyptian and other rowing songs that they don't "deserve" their own category?

Is it necessary or helpful to lump these phenomena together?

Their differences to me are obvious, but everyone's entitled to an opinion.

At what point does similarity become identity? The point is to communicate, in various contexts, what it is that we mean.

The futility of insisting on the "real" meaning of such categories is endlessly demonstrated on the "What is 'Folk'?" threads.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Jack Campin
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 11:11 AM

If you think of shanties as "songs to assist collective rhythmic coordination of work processes on board ship", rowing songs are surely part of that. Though obviously shanties can be much more varied in form than the rowing-song subgroup.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: RTim
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 11:44 AM

You all need to read Gibb Schreffler's newish book - "Boxing the Compass" - a Century and a Half of Discourse About Sailor's Chanties.

Occasional Papers in Folklore Number Six
Camsco Music and or Loomis House Press.

Not sure what the situation is now with Camsco since Dick's death.....but I suspect they are closed.
The book is NOT list at Loomis....??
Gibb may have some for sale...??

Tim Radford


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 01:28 PM

Hear, hear!

Still available and worth every penny:

https://tinyurl.com/slvgo7v


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 02:17 PM

Gibb is most certainly the current guru. Though rowing songs undoubtedly contributed to the chanty corpus, I would personally not include them simply from the point of view that historically the chanty is specific to merchant ships and nothing else. I would also leave out the stevedore songs that contributed unless they were also demonstrated to have been also sung on ship. I accept that the stevedores worked on board the ships whilst in port and yes that means there was crucial overlap.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 02:26 PM

One aspect I'm interested in that doesn't get much coverage, is which seas, which ships, which trades were chanties generally used in. There are some sea merchant trades where chanties are very sparse if they occur at all, and I'm talking about records of actual chanties and references to them having been used.

We're all aware of the tea clippers, the wool trade, the meat run and the packet ships, the American Atlantic coastal trade, the trade between America and Europe, but there is very little mention of chanties in the whaling trade. I'm not aware of them being evident in the Baltic trade or to any extent in the North Sea, though latterly the Swedish and German ships used them on the longer trips. Chanties were certainly evident in the Pacific before the Panama Canal was built but perhaps not as much as in the Atlantic.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 08:37 PM

c.200BC – Three versions of Polybius on the Phoenicians/Carthaginians & the birth of the Roman navy. The original keleustes is translated as boatswain, flugelman &c:

“21. Now, however, those to whom the construction of the ships was committed were busy in getting them ready, and those who had collected the crews were teaching them to row on shore in the following fashion. Making the men sit on rowers-benches on dry land, in the same order as on the benches of the ships themselves, and stationing the fugle-man in the middle, they accustomed them to fall back all at once bringing their hands up to them, and again to come forward stretching out their hands, and to begin and finish these movements at the word of command of the fugle-man. When the crews had been trained, they launched the ships as soon as they were completed, and having practised for a brief time actual rowing at sea, they sailed* along the coast of Italy as their commander had ordered.

*It is often necessary to use the word "sail." but it should be borne in mind that the ships were propelled chiefly by oars.”
[The Histories of Polybius, Vol.I, Paton ed., 1922, p.57]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 08:41 PM

“II. The Trumpet, and what they call'd the Lituus, were what they us’d to make Signals a-board their Veffels; and fo was alfo the Celeufma, which was a Shout or Noife made by the Mariners when they were doing any thing with united Force; which Cry, according to Ariftophanes, was Rhippapé and Oop; but they had without doubt other Cries befide this. Inftead of the Voice they fometimes alfo made ufe of Stones, according to Xenophon, and ftruck them againft one another; but this Signal was probably on fome particular Occafion only. The Rowers had alfo their Cries, to make them keep time with their Oars, and to pull either harder or fofter, as there was Occafion; which Signal was alfo given by finging, and fometimes by Mufical Inftruments: For fo Afconius Pedianus fays, that to animate the Rowers they us'd Symphonies, and fometimes the Voice alone, and fometimes the Guitar.

III. The manner of exercifing the Sailors and Rowers, as well as Marines, both by Greeks and Romans, but efpecially by the laft, was very remarkable: Nor was it without long Practice that they arriv'd at the Art of doing fuch difficult Work with Eafe and Order. Xenophon takes particular Notice of their Dexterity, and fays that when they were feated in their Ranks they never embarrafs'd one another, but manag'd their Oars with great Order, and kept Stroke with all the Exactnefs imaginable. Thucydides alfo relates with great Accuracy, and in a very particular manner, the Exercife us’d by the Syracufians, when they were to engage the Athenians at Sea, who at that time were thought to excel all the reft of the Greeks in Naval Affairs.

The Romans alfo took a great deal of Care to exercife their Seamen and Marines; the manner of which Exercife Polybius thus defcribes: “So long as they that had the Care of fitting out a Fleet, fays he, were employ'd in Ship-building, others were providing Sea-men and Rowers, and exercis'd them at Land in this manner, that they might be fit for the Service: The Rowers they feated upon the Sea-fhore in the fame Rank and Order, as they were difpos'd in when they were a-board, and plac'd an Officer in the middle of them to give the Word of Command, and inftruct them to plunge and recover their Oars all together, and to leave off rowing in an Inftant whenever the Word was given for that purpofe. For the Commanders had their Celeufmata, which were the Signals when they were to begin to row,and when to leave off; and the Rowers had alfo their Cry in their Turn for the fame purpofe.” As to thofe that gave the Signal to the Rowers by finging, let's hear what Plutarch fays in the Life of Alcibiades: “Callipedes, fays he, an Actor in the Play-houfe, and in his Tragick Drefs and Buskins, and with all the Ornaments us’d by Actors upon the Stage, had the Command of the Rowers, and gave them their Signals in Song.”
[Antiquity Explained and Represented in Sculptures, Vol.III, Montfaucon, 1722, Pt.II, Bk.IV, p.174]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 08:47 PM

Oops my bad. One was a duplicate but two should do for now. What the Romans built was a rowing simulator:
USS Recruit (TDE-1)
USS Marlinspike

The science (one of them) is called cybernetics: the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine.

Kybernetes, Gr. steersman or governor.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Joe Offer
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 09:10 PM

My friend Dick Holdstock has been working on a book since I met him in 1993. I think the book was about the British Merchant Marine at the time, since sailors in the British Navy didn't sing. But the subject of his book has always been elusive.

Now, he titles his project Songs of the Struggle for British Political and Social Reform from 1765 to 1865. Whatever the case, he has introduced me to all sorts of songs (mostly songs of the sea) over the years, and I have treasured every moment of the time I have been able to spend with him.
If you have any questions about maritime work songs, you will find Dick most knowledgeable. His Website says you can contact him at http://www.dickholdstock.com/contact.php

He is one of the most delightful people I know.

-Joe-


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 11:33 AM

Lest we get too focused on rowing & oar songs... from: Spanish sea shanties

"There were Roman/Hiberian maritime corporations & unions (codicarii & helciarii), and maritime work songs (chorus helciariorum) in the year zero.... Monte Testaccio"


Seneca the Younger(c.4 BC–AD65)
“Stridentum et moderator estedorum,
Curvorum, et chorus Helciariorum”
[The Epistles of Lucius Annæus Seneca, Vol.I, Morrel, 1786, p.199]

Marcus Valerius Martialis (c.40–AD101)
“Ne blando rota fit molefta fomno;
Quem nec rumpere nauticum celeufma
Nec clamor valet helciariorum.”
[Martial iv, 64]

So-called for the yokes they wore: helcium

See also:
towpath
hobbler
Steamboat coonjine songs
volga boatmen, stevedores, cotton screwers...ad infinitum


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Jack Campin
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 12:42 PM

There is a (possibly bogus) explanation of the Galician "alala" songs, that they derive from Greek and Phoenician rowing songs.

I wonder if anywhere in the vast unread corpus of Egyptian or Mesopotamian writings we have any boatmen's songs from the Nile or Euphrates 4000 years ago?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: An Buachaill Caol Dubh
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 02:36 PM

Would depend on whether anyone thought it worthwhile noting them down. Since it seems that as recently as c.1910 Chaliapin was surprised to be asked to make a recording of the Song of the Volga Boatmen, which could certainly be described as at least an aquatic work-song, it's unlikely there were any "folk song collectors" in Ancient Egypt &c. Just a wee joke.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 06:17 PM

If these walls could talk...

Hardest to come by is music; the lyrics are not easy; it's mostly, but not all, literary references, heavy on the dictionaries &c.

If there is one (1) word for it all down through the ages it's celeusma, and Martial is the go-to citation – typical: Chanties of Capt. Tho. Forrest

“Ceffatis, pueri, nihilque môftis?
Vatreno, Eridanoque pigriores?
Quorum per vada tarda navigantes,
Lentos figitis ad celeufma remos.
Jam prono Phaëthonte fudat Æthon;
Exarfitque dies, et hora laffos
Interjungit equos meridiana.
At vos tam placidas vagi per undas,
Tuta luditis otium carina:
Non nautas puto vos, fed Argonautas.


Why, my lads, more fluggifh go,
Than Vatrenus, or the Po?
Think ye through their ftill ye fteer,
Drawling-oars to wait the chear?
Phaeton begins to fire,
Ethon lo! in full perfpire;
Now the noon-tide hour proceeds,
To repofe the panting fteeds.
Ye, ferene upon the wave,
Sun, and wind, and water brave.
No mere navigators now,
Ye are Argonauts,* I vow.”

*Argonauts, (in one fenfe) fluggifh mariners.c.95AD – The Epigrams of Martial
[A Voyage to New Guinea, and the Moluccas, from Balambangan, Forrest, 1779, p.305)]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 06:18 PM

“Cessatis, pueri, nihilque nostis?
Vaterno, Rasinaque pigriores,
quorum per vada tarda navigantes
lentos tinguitis ad celeusma remos.
iam prono Phaethonte sudat Aethon
exarsitque dies et hora lassos
interiungit equos meridiana.
at vos tam placidas vagi per undas
tuta luditis otium carina,
non nautas puto vos, sed Argonautas.

Slack are ye, O youths, and no watermen, more sluggish than Vaternus and Rasina, along whose slow shallows ye float, and dip lazy oars in time to the boatswain's call. Already, while Phaethon slopes downwards, Aethon1 sweats, and the day has burst in flame, and the noontide hour unyokes weary steeds. But you, straying along waves so placid, play in idleness on a safe keel. Not tars do I hold you, but tarriers.2

1 One of the horses of the Sun.
2 Argonautas, which may be interpreted “Argonauts” or “lazy sailors”….”
[Martials Epigrams Vol.I, III. LXVII, Kerr, 1925, pp.206-207]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 06:20 PM

“THE LAZY BOATMEN

My lads, you naught of rowing know;
        You're lazy, I'm afraid.
More sluggish than the shallow tide
        Where dips your languid blade.

The sun has climbed to heaven's height,
        His steeds all panting seem
And now the hour of midday rest
        Unyokes the weary team.

You pull along the placid waves;
        But with instraightened back.
The boat is safe; you take your ease;
        Your tars not jack but slack.
[Martialis, The Twelve Books of Epigrams, Pott, Wright, 1925]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 06:22 PM

All the dictionary citations to follow notwithstanding Lazy Boatmen is not a celeusma. It's a novelty tourist complaint about slow service with a pun on argonaut for the punchline. Still works as a reference though.

As one can see from the spread of translations, heaven only knows how it might have rolled off the Latin tongue, or fidula, in AD100. Not as well as On Charinus one suspects:

On Charinus.
Charinus is perfectly well,
and yet he is pale;
Charinus drinks sparingly,
and yet he is pale;
Charinus digests well,
and yet he is pale;
Charinus suns himself,
and yet he is pale;
Charinus dyes his skin,
and yet he is pale;
Charinus indulges in... infamous debauchery,
and yet he is pale.”
[Martial, 77]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,David
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 07:22 PM

Chanteys are a class of deep water sailor work songs. Rowing songs are just that- work songs used for rowing but not chanteys.Farm and field songs and waulking songs are work songs but not chanteys.
Chanteys are used for basically two jobs; heaving & hauling. The exception is the furling or bunting chantey which involves a quick upward lifting thrust of the sail onto the yard.
Hugill explained it years ago in Shanties From the Seven Seas and he publicly lectured on it almost 'til the day he died.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Mar 20 - 04:42 PM

Longus (c.150AD?)

“There was one amongst them, that was the Celeustes or the hortator to ply, and he had certain nautic-odes, or Sea-songs: the rest like a Chorus all together strained their throats to a loud holla, and catcht his voice at certain intervals. While they did thus in the open Sea, the clamor vanisht, as being diffused in the vast ayr. But when they came under any Promontore, or into a flexuous, horned, hollow bay, there as the voice was heard stronger, so the Songs of the Celeusmata, or hortaments to the answering Marriners, fell clearer to the Land. The hollow valley below received into it self, that shrill sound as into an Organ, and by an imitating voice rendered from it self all that was said, all that was done, and every thing distinctly by it self; by it self the clattering of the Oars: by it self the whooping of the Sea-men: and certainly it was a most pleasant hearing. The Sound coming first from the Sea, the Sound from the Land ended so much the later, by how much it was slower to begin. Daphnis therefore taking special notice of the Musick attended wholly to the Sea, and was sweetly affected, endeavouring while the Pinnace glided by like a bird in the ayr, to preserve to himself some of those tones to play afterwards upon his Pipe.”
[Longus, Daphnus & Chloe, Thornley ed, 1657]

Lesbos


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Mar 20 - 06:45 PM

Bit of naval architecture trivia.

Tessarakonteres: "...a very large catamaran galley reportedly built in the Hellenistic period by Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt (221-204BC.)" [wiki]

Note: Four thousand oarsmen, mostly for show. Probably the 'golden age' for rowing chorus size but at 16 million calories/day + beverage just for the propulsion, who can afford it? The Romans never went for the megaboat concept.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Mar 20 - 06:59 PM

It's the year 0200AD. Origins revisted -

Stan Hugill (1906-1992)

“Early shantying was, from what we know, little more than primitive chanting and wild aboriginal cries to encourage the seamen to keep time and work harder, and the fierce elemental yells on a rope known as 'sing-outs' were to be heard even in modern times aboard sailing vessels and occasionally aboard steamers while some sailing ship shellbacks still remain to sing them.
                ***
Many research workers have delved into the past endeavouring to find ancient references to seamen singing at their work, but their efforts have produced little. Undoubtedly early seamen did sing at their work, but I rather fancy that in Greek and Roman galleys, triremes, and whatnot any singing that was done would be at the oars—rowing songs rather than heaving and hauling chants. Miss Lucy E. Broadwood, in the Journal of the Folk Song Society, writes in similar vein. Sir Maurice Bowra, who has kindly waded through many exisitng Greek texts on my behalf, has produced two sailor songs only, both from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, and of these he writes: 'It is not certain that either of these pieces is a sea-shanty in the strict sense of the word, but the first looks as if it were sung by a group of sailors competing and the second is clearly a sailor's song.'”
[Hugill]

Safe to say Hugill & Longus disagree about the artistic mileage of the oar song.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Mar 20 - 07:04 PM

Pt.II

...although there is little evidence to support this, some historians argue that the maritime musical form can be traced as far back as Ancient Egypt...” [Reidler, see OP]

Wiki
Etymology
The phenomenon of using songs or chants, in some form, to accompany sea labor preceded the emergence of the term "shanty" in the historical record of the mid-19th century.

Emergence
Singing or chanting has been done to accompany labor on seagoing vessels among various cultural groups at various times and in various places. A reference to what seems to be a sailor's hauling chant in The Complaynt of Scotland (1549) is a popularly cited example.

Work chants and "sing-outs"
There is a notable lack of historical references to anything like shanties, as they would come to be known, in the entirety of the 18th century. In the second half of the 18th century, English and French sailors were using simple chants to coordinate a few shipboard tasks that required unanimous effort.”


Where we're at:
Martial et al should suffice for a “maritime musical form” in general being a part of the military, business and artistic communities, including Hellenistic Egypt, since the first century AD, romanticism and all. Sheerin's notes & bibliography alone will do the trick, if you can get at it.

And it's still only 200AD.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Mar 20 - 05:19 AM

See Hugill above: Oxyrhynchus Papyri (c.300AD)

Mudcat search draws a blank. Not much to go on:

Graeco-Egyptian Literary Papyri
Scroll #1383 – Sailor's Song (Late third century.)

“This interesting little poem, a prayer to the Rhodian winds for a calm voyage, apparently complete, is closely parallel to 425*, a brief invitation to sailors to compare the sea and the Nile, written in the second or third century...”

*Poetical Fragments:
Scroll #425 – No title – “...a short extract from some lyric poem copied out as a school exercise.”

Conchy note: Greek chorus has more phrases & tropes for 'enhorting the cohort' than the Eskimos do for 'it's cold outside.' In a later century the poet would be invoking St. Elmo.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Mar 20 - 05:32 AM

Homer, Virgil, Ovid &c get worn thin in the modern references. Save it for later.

wikis:
Vulgate
Septuagint

Strong's Hebrew: 1959. hedad - a shout, shouting, cheer.

Strong's Greek: 2752. keleusma - a word of command, a call, an arousing outcry.

"...from Aeschylus and Herodotus down, an order, command, specifically, a stimulating cry, either that by which animals are roused and urged on by man, as horses by charioteers, hounds by hunters, etc., or that by which a signal is given to men, e. g. to rowers by the master of a ship (Lucian, tyr. or catapl. c.19), to soldiers by a commander (Thucydides 2,92; Proverbs 24:62.)”

2753. keleuó - command, order, direct, bid.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Mar 20 - 05:37 AM

See also: Lyr Req: songs from 'Grapes of Wrath'

Book of Jeremiah (c.600BC)

25:30. Et tu prophetabis ad eos (vel, contra eos) omnia verba hæc, et dices illis, Jehova ab excelso rugiet, et ex habitaculo sanctitatis gase edet vocem suam; rugiendo rugiet super habitaculum suum; celeusma (clamorem potius generaliter) quasi prementium torcular respondebit super cunctos incolas terræ.

25:30. Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them, The Lord shall roar from on high, and utter his voice from his holy habitation; he shall mightily roar upon his habitation; he shall give a shout, as they that tread the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth."


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Mar 20 - 05:43 AM

Alala
Antiphon

Augustine of Hippo (354–430AD)
Sidonius Apollinaris (430–489AD)

“CELEUSMA (?e?e?e??, to call). In antiquity the celeusma was the shout or cry of boatmen, whereby they animated each other in the work of rowing; or, a kind of song, or formula, rehearsed or played by the master or others, to direct the strokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour. The word is used by some early Christian writers in application to the hallelujah, which was sung in ecclesiastical assemblies. Apollinaris says, that the seamen used the word hallelujah as their signal, or celeusma, at their common labour; making the banks echo when they sung hallelujah to Christ. In the church, hallelujah was sung by all the people. St. Augustine says, it was the Christians' sweet celeusma, whereby they invited one another to sing praises to Christ.”
[An Ecclesiastical Dictionary, Explanatory of the History, Antiquities, Heresies, Sects, and Religious Denominations of the Christian Church, Farrar, 1853]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Mar 20 - 06:30 PM

The original, (also above:)

"Stridentum et moderator effedorum
Curuorum hinc chorus helciariorum,
Refponfantibus alleluja ripis,
AdChriftum leuat amnicum celeuma (leg.celeufma)
Sic, fic pfallite nauta vel viator.”
[Apollinarus, I. ep.10]


Jerome (347-420AD)

“It [Allelujah] was sung every day in Spain, except upon fast-days; though it was otherwise in the African Churches.” St. Jerome says it was used in private devotion, “For even the ploughman, at his labour, sung his Allelujahs.” And this was the signal, or call, among the monks' to their ecclesiastical assemblies: for one went about and sung Allelujah, and that was the notice to repair to their solemn meeting. Nay, Sidonius Apollinaris seems to intimate," that the seamen used it as their “signal,” or celeusma, at their common labour, making the banks echo while they sung Allelujah to Christ.”
[Origines Ecclesiasticae: or, The Antiquities of the Christian Church, Vol.IV, Bingham, 1840]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Mar 20 - 06:41 PM

It's 500AD. The capital of the Eastern Empire moved to Constantinople c.330AD. The Western Empire collapsed c.470AD. The 'Dark Ages' are going to start off… literally… dark:

wikis:
Lake Ilopango
Extreme weather events of 535–536
Late Antique Little Ice Age (c.600-700AD)

Imagine rowing or towing Ptolemy IV's Tessarakonteres upstream in the rainy season.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Mar 20 - 01:19 AM

It's a day early but here's one for the Irish:

Antiphonary of Bangor

Columbanus (540-614)?
oooor…
Colman nepos Cracavist (c.800)?

Connections with Bobbio
On the basis of similarity in prosody, he (Colman) has also been identified as the composer of certain poems traditionally assigned to Columban, the saint and founder of Bobbio Abbey. These are Columbanus Fidolio, Ad Hunaldum, Ad Sethum, Praecepta vivendi, and the celeuma.” [wiki, Herren (2000)]

Heads up: The footnotes were written a long while after (1894 & 1914) St. Columbanus... or whomever:

Boating Song.
Heia5 viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
        Arbiter6 effusi late maris ore sereno
        Placatum stravit pelagus posnitque procellam,7
        Edomitique vago sederuut pondere fluctus.
5 Heia, viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
        Annisu8 parili tremat ictibus acta carina.
        Nunc dabit arridens pelago concordia caeli
        Ventorum Inotu praegnanti9 eurrere velo.
Heia, viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
10         Aequora prora secet delphinis aemula saltu
        Atque gemat largum, promat seseque lacertis,
        Pone trahens canum deducat et orbita10 sulcum.
Heia, viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
        Aequore flet corus:11 “vocitemus nos tamen heia!
15         Convulsum remis spumet mare: nos tamen heia!
        Vocibus adsiduis litus resonet: tamen heia!

5 yoho!         6 the lord        7 blast.        8 pull                9 swelling.                10 track.                11north wind.

Heia, viri, etc. A boating song, of uncertain age, found in a Berlin MS. of the eighth century. There is frequent mention in the ancient writers of the nauticus cantus (e.g. Cic. Nat. Deor. ii. 35) of boatmen at the oar; and the practice of singing at work also appears to have been general. Thus Varro, cited by Nonius (56), speaks of the vine-dressers singing at the vintage, and the sarcinatrices in machinis, which one would like to translate, “the seamstresses over their sewing machines.” For the spirited lines given here, see Bährens, Poet. Lat. Min. iii. 167, and Peiper in the Rheinisches Museum, xxxii. 523.

nostrum. Agreeing with the second heia, “our yoho.””
[Roman Life in Latin Prose and Verse, Peck, Arrowsmith, 1894]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Mar 20 - 01:21 AM

More of the same:

Heia Viri

p.172
Provided by the king with a body of sturdy oarsmen, the pilgrims descended the Moselle to Coblenz, where their boats swung into the "wide and winding Rhine". When Columban saw how the rowers toiled at their oars to make head against the rapid current, the refrain of an ancient boat-song ran through his mind:

        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
        Courage, men! let the echo of our song reply courage!

He thought it would encourage the boatmen to bend more lustily to their work if the strokes of their oars were accompanied by some such strain. So in imitation of the old pagan song, and retaining in part its wording, he composed a Christian sailor's song, the only example of its kind that has come down to us.2 Just as the sailors—such is its theme—encourage one another to oppose stout hearts to wind and wave and shower, so should Christian men with firm faith and trust in God after the example of Christ resist and overcome the assaults of Satan:

                                1.
        En silvis caesa fluctu meat acta carina
        Bicornis Rheni,3 et pelagus perlabitur uncta.4
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

                                2
        Extollunt venti flatus, nocet horridus imber,
        Sed vis apta virum superat sternitque procellam.
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

p.173
                                3.
        Nam caedunt nimbi studio caeditque procella,
        Cuncta domat nisus, labor improbus omnis vincit.5
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

                                4.
        "Durate et vosmet rebus servate secundis,6
        O passi graviora, dabit Deus his quoque finem ".7
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

                                5.
        Sic inimicus agit invisus corda fatigans,
        Ac male temptando quatit intima corde furore.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

                                6.
        State animo fixi hostisque spernite strophas,
        Virtutum vosmet armis defendite rite.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

                                7.
        Firma fides cuncta superat studiumque beatum,
        Hostis et antiquus cedens sua spicula frangit.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

                                8.
        Rex quoque virtutum rerum f ons summa potestas
        Certanti spondet, vincenti praemia donat.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

Notes
p.172

2 The text of this Carmen Navale was discovered by Dr. W. Meyer, Secretary of the City Library of Munich in a Leyden MS. of the tenth century. He sent it to Ernst Diimmler, who immediately recognized it as an imitation of the ancient Boat-Song discovered by him in a Berlin MS. From the name of the author on the margin the first part is cut off; the second part—banus has led Krusch and Gundlach (N. Archiv., XV, 514) to ascribe it to St. Columbanus, with all the more probability as in the Berlin MS. the ancient boat-song is immediately followed by Columban's Verses to Fidolius.
3 Verg. Aen., 8, 727.
4 Ibid., 91.

p.173
5 Verg. Georg., I, 145.
6 Aen., I, 207.
7 Aen., I, 199.
[The Life and Writings of Saint Columbanus (542-614), Metlake, 1914]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Mar 20 - 01:26 AM

See Gibb on Lowlands and Hugill on origins (above.)

I'll say this for those wild & primitive pagan aboriginals… they clean up nice:

Lumen Vocale "Heia Viri"
Heia Viri – Anúna

“This version of the Roman rowing song was reputedly adapted by the Irish monk St. Columbanus (d. 615). This is one of his best known poems, and was probably inspired by his journey up the Rhine after his expulsion from Gaul.”
[McGlynn sheet music detail]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 09:42 PM

Earlier mention, refrain only:

“Dass dieses Verfahren unmethodisch ist, den Sinn des Gedichtes stört und die Entstehung der Verderbniss nicht erklärt, werde ich an anderm Orte ausführlicher zeigen. Die Collation de Handschriften, besonders die des so musterhaft schön gesschriebenen Bembinus, ist, wie mich eine Nachcollation derselben 1875 überzeugte, in so hohem Grade nachlässig ausgeführt, dass Bährens nicht einmal die Schreibung des Namens des Vergil richtig angibt; im Titel hat der Bembinus uirgilii, nicht wie Bährens behauptet Uergilii! Auch darüber an anderm Orte Näheres. – S.76ff. gibt Bährens drei Inedita. Mit Sicherheit ist davon nur dar Schifferlied aus dem codex Santenianus s. VIII – IX, 16 Hexameter mit dem viermaligen Refrain »heia, viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!« dem Alterthum angehörig; bei den Versen über Baiae und über Lucretia aus einem Manuscript des 15. Jahrhunderts scheint dies sehr zweifelhaft zu sein.”
[Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der classischen Alterumswissenschaft, Bursian, 1877]


Also: #62 in The Hundred Best Poems (Lyrical) in Latin (MacKail ed, 1906.) Same lyrics as Peck-Arrowsmith with no footnotes & credit to: “Incerti Auctoris.”


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 09:46 PM

Norwegian Bokmål & Nynorsk: heiarop
1. shout of "heia!", a cheer.

Swedish: heja
1. (with på) cheer (on someone/something)
                Jag hejar på Manchester United.
                I cheer on Manchester United.
2. to greet by saying "hi!"


"The Scots (originally Irish, but by now Scotch) were at this time inhabiting Ireland, having driven the Irish (Picts) out of Scotland; while the Picts (originally Scots) were now Irish (living in brackets) and vice versa. It is essential to keep these distinctions clearly in mind (and verce visa)."
[1066 and All That]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 09:54 PM

“Cani, inquit, remigibus celeuma per fymphoniacos folebat, & per affam vocem, id eft, ore prolatam, vt in Argo naui per cytharam. poffumus etiam intelligere ad hoc fymphoniacos capi folere, vt in claffe pugnantibus clafficum canant, vnde ipfi tubæ claffis nomen pofitum eft clafficum.”
[Ioannis Antonii Valtrini Romani, Societatis Iesv, de re Militari Veterum Romanorum Libri Septem, 1597]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 10:04 PM

More on Greco-Roman maritime job-titles & infrastructure:

“The person who steered the ship and directed its course was called GUBERNATOR, the pilot, sometimes also MAGISTER, Virg. Æn. v. 176. Sil. iv. 719, or RECTOR, Lucan. Viii. 167. Virg. Æn. iii. 161. 176. He sat at the helm, Cic. Sen. 6.; on the top of the stern, dressed in a particular manner, Plaut. Mil. iv. 4.41. 45., and gave orders about spreading and contracting the sails (expandere vel contrahere vela), plying or checking the oars (incumbere remis vel eos inhibere), &c. Virg, v. 12. x. 218. Cic. Orat, i. 33. Att. xiii. 21.

It was his part to know the signs of the weather, to be acquainted with ports and places, and particularly to observe the winds and the stars, Ovid. Met. iii. 592. Lucan. viii. 172. Virg. Æn. iii. 201. 269, 513. For as the ancients knew not the use of the compass, they were directed in their voyages chiefly by the stars in the night-time, Horat. Od. ii. 16. 3., and in the day-time by coasts and islands which they knew. In the Mediterranean, to which navigation was then chiefly confined, they could not be long out of the sight of land. When overtaken by a storm, the usual method was to drive their ships on shore (in terram agere vel efficere), and when the danger was over, to set them afloat again by the strength of arms and levers. In the ocean they only cruised along the coast.

In some ships there were two pilots, Ælian. ix.40., who had an assistant called PRORETA, Plaut. Rud. iv. 3.75. i. e. Custos et tutela proræ, who watched at the prow, Ovid. Met. iii. 617.

He who had command over the rowers was called HORTATOR and PAUSARIUS (keleustes), Plaut. Merc. iv. 2. 4. Senec. Epist. 56. Ovid. Ibid., or Portisculus, Plaut. Asin. iii. 1. 15. Festus, which was also the name of the staff or mallet with which he excited or retarded them, (celeusmata vel hortamenta dabat), Plaut. Asin. iii. 1, 15. Isid. Orig. xix. 12. He did this also with his voice in a musical tone, that the rowers might keep time in their motions, Serv. ad Virg. Æn. iii. 128. Sil. v. 360. Valer. Flacc. i. 460. Martial. iii. 67. iv. 64. Quinctil. i. 10. 16. Stat. Theb. vi. 800. Ascon. in Cic. Divin. 17. Hence it is also applied to the commanders, Dio. l. 32. Those who hauled or pulled a rope, who raised a weight, or the like, called HELCIARII, used likewise to animate one another with a loud cry, Martial, ibid., hence Nauticus clamor, the cries or shouts of the mariners, Virg. Æn. iii. 128. v. 140. Lucan. ii. 688.
[Roman Antiquities, Adam, 1825]

Funerary Procession in the tomb of Qar (c.2350-2180BC)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 10:08 PM

“This active trade was maintained by well-organized ports on sea and river, with large fleets to serve them, and by a fine road network. From earliest times merchants and craftsmen organized themselves into corporations not unlike medieval guilds, and a the state came more and more to concern itself with commerce these became important features in an increasingly regimented society. In sea-ports like Narbonne and Arles the most imposing corporations were those of the traders by sea, the powerful navicularii; at river ports there were the nautae, the river shippers, barge owners, etc.—generally men of substance and weight in their city. Rather less august are the corporations of utricularii, lightermen, boatmen, etc., and the ratarii who were concerned in the building and use of rafts and may have worked ferries.

The utricularii seem to have been distinguished by their boats or rafts made buoyant by inflated skins, very useful in the navigation of the lagoons of the south. Such boats had been used by Hannibal when he crossed the Rhone. Many inscriptions of utricularii have been found, particularly in Provence, and at Narbonne and up the trubutaries of the Rhone (e.g. at Vaison on the Ouvèze). One intersting case is an identity disc from Cavaillon, with on one side the inscription Colle(gium) utri(clariorum) Cab(ellesnsium) L(uci) Valer(ii) Succes(si), and on the other a little model of an inflated skin.

Heavy traffic went as far as possible by river, and the nautae are extremely important all over Gaul and are known on the Rhone, Saône, Seine, Durance, Ardèche, Ouvèze, Loire, Aar, Moselle, Rhine. The nautae were responible for the portage of goods from one river to another, so owned wagons as well as ships and barges. A shipper from Vannes has left an inscription at Lyons showing that he belonged to the corporation of nautae both of Loire and the Saône.

There were also corporations of hauliers—helciarii whose painful task it was to tow barges upstream, and some attractive sculptures show them at work. Sidonius writes of the boatmen he heard singing as the towed their cargoes through Lyons.”
[Roman-Gaul, Brogan,1953]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Joe Offer
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 10:13 PM

Phil, this is great stuff. Can you get in touch with me?
joe@mudcat.org


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:11 AM

“Rowing oars have been used since the early Neolithic period. Wooden oars, with canoe-shaped pottery, dating from 5000–4500 BC have been discovered in a Hemudu culture site at Yuyao, Zhejiang, in modern China. In 1999, an oar measuring 63.4 cm (2 ft) in length, dating from 4000 BC, was unearthed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.” [Rowing wiki]

Man'yoshu (c.750AD)
"492 Hearing the song of a boatman rowing up the river, on the second day. [xix: 4150]

In my morning bed I listen–
        Afar on Imizu's stream
Sings a boatman,
Plying his morning oars.”

The mansion of Yakamochi, Governor of Etchi, probably stood on the hill near the river of Imizu.


749–51 Referring to various things.[xv: 3627-0]

...As daylight came and the flood-tide reached us,
Cranes called flying to the reedy coast;
To leave the shore with morning calm,
Both our boatmen and rowers,
Laboured with loud cheers ;
And like the grebes we pushed our way
To see the dim, far isle of 'Home.'”
[The Man'yoshu, Yakamochi, Gakujutsu Shinkokai ed., 1965]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:20 AM

The 'Dark' Ages are reflected in the sources, or lack thereof, for now.

c.900 – The Icelanders/Danes/Norwegians colonized south-western Greenland. The West's maritime ecomony stretches from the American mainland to Asia Minor.

c.1000 The beginning of the age of sail, but not the end of the age of the oar & yoke:
Galley
Cog (ship)

Were the maryners glad or wrothe,
He made them seyle and rowe bothe;
That the galley gede so swyfte,
So doth the fowle by the lyfte.

[Richard Coer de Lyon (c.1300AD)]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:29 AM

Salve Regina (c.1100)
Lyr Req: Salve Regina

“It was set down in its current form at the Abbey of Cluny in the 12th century, where it was used as a processional hymn on Marian feasts. The Cistercians chanted the Salve Regina daily from 1218. It was popular at medieval universities as evening song, and according to Fr. Juniper Carol, it came to be part of the ritual for the blessing of a ship. While the anthem figured largely in liturgical and in general popular Catholic devotion, it was especially dear to sailors.” [wiki]

Conchy note: There may be a measure of Adm. Columbus circular referencing re: "dear to sailors" connection. Still checking.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:40 AM

Jean de Joinville (1224-1317)
Erasmus (1466-1536)

“Peregrinatorium Religiosum – Manners and Customs on Shipboard – When the Priests and Clerks embarked, the Captain made them mount to the castle (round-top) of the ship, and chaunt psalms in praise of God, that he might be pleased to send them a prosperous voyage. They all with a loud voice sang the beautiful hymn of Veni Creator, from the beginning to the end, and while they were singing, the mariners set their sails in the name of God," [singing "Salve Regina,"] which was the Celeusma of the Middle Age. A Priest having said, that God and his mother would deliver them from all danger if processions were made three times on a Saturday, a procession round the mast was accordingly begun on that day.”
[British monachism, Fosbroke, 1817, p.441]


Conchy note: I'm having trouble getting at the Latin originals but... this is the first specific/exclusive mention of whatever a standard model heaving or hauling shanty might be. Compare/contrast the tone of the verbiage to Hugill on the Compostella 'peregrinatorium religiosum' of the same century (to follow.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 03:50 PM

Hi, Phil
I don't like interrupting your excellent research but I think someone should point out that your subject 'Maritime work song in general' appears to have very tentative links to what you are posting.

The idea behind all of these 'work songs' is that the singing or chanting is an aid to the actual work. 'I acknowledge your 'might be' but all I see here is that the mariners were actually singing for other reasons than assisting their work. Seemingly totally religious reasons in this case.

The use of singing/chanting whilst rowing is well documented in many cultures.

Keep up the good work anyway.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 05:30 PM

Steve: It's the saints & scholars era of the celeusma. From the Greeks until the steam age, the only decrease in rowing song will be the size of the chorus. The two will cross paths at T.W. Higginson's oarsmen. There's a capstan or anchor vesper coming up as well. Longus' bunch chanting an alala to the 'Rhodian winds' isn't really a stretch.

It's certainly praise song. How did you divine your way to “totally” though? A cheer is a cheer is a cheer...

It'll get weirder at Reidler's Wagner (Heia! Yo-jo!) & Pirates of the Caribbean.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 05:34 PM

The "Compostella" stuff is here: Lyr Add: Howe! Hissa! (Shanty)

Also found under Pilgrim's Journey & other titles.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 06:24 PM

Promptorium parvulorum (c.1440)

“CRYE. Clamor, vociferacio.

CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd haue howe (halowe, P.)1 Celeuma, C. F.
1“Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, ut heuylaw romylawe.” ORTUS. See hereafter HALOW, schypmannys crye.

HALOW, schypmannys crye.5 Celeuma, C. F.
5“Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, vel heuylaw romylawe (ut heue and howe, rombylow,” edit. 1518.) ORTUS. In the MS. of the Medulla in the Editor’s possession, “heualow, rummylow.’’ See Ritson’s Dissert. on Anc. Songs, p. li.
        “ They rowede hard, and sungge ther too,
        Withheuelow and rumbeloo.” Rich. C. de Lion, 2521.
        “ Your mariners shall synge arowe,
        Hey how and rumbylowe.” Squyre of lowe degree.

It occurs likewise in Skelton’s Bowge of Court; Cocke Lorelle’s bote, &c. This cry appears not to have been exclusively nautical, for it forms the burden of a ballad on the Battle of Bannocksburn, 1314, the alternate stanzas of which, as given in Caxton’s Chron. terminate thus, “ with heuelogh—with rombilogh;’’ or, as in Fabyan, “with heue alowe—with rumbylow.” A cor et à cry, by might and maine,with heaue and hoe.” COTG. Hence seems to be derived the surname of Stephen Rummelowe, Constable of Nottingham Castle, 45 Edw. III. mentioned in Issue Roll of Exch. 1369. Compare CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd haue howe.

HOLWYN', or cryyn’ as schypmen (halowen with cry, P.) Celeumo.

HOWTYN’, or cryyn as shepmenn (howten, K.P. howen, J.W.)2 Celeumo, CATH.
2 HOWCYN, MS. See the note on HALOW, schypmannys crye.

Plumbe, of schypmen. Bolidis, vel bolis, C.F.

SCHETE. Lintheamen, lintheum, C. F.

Schypmannys stone. Calamita, C. F.”
[Promptorium parvulorum sive Clericorum, Way, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 07:22 PM

I'm sure you must be aware of the modern survival in the Helston Furry May Carol, 'Hal-an-tow, Jolly Rumbelow'


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 10:23 PM

To include but not limited to:
RE: What does 'Hal an Tow' mean?
Lyr Req: Hal n Toe? / Hal an Tow
Lyr/Tune Add: Helston Hal an Tow
Lyr Req: alt. verses to Hal An Tow
Hal n Tow on you tube

It's a good'n.

PS: I think we'll catch all of Richard the Lion-Hearted quotes without a dedicated post but there's a lot to process here.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Mar 20 - 07:06 PM

11 October 1492

“All hands were summoned as usual, and after they had said their evening prayers and sung the Salve Regina which all seamen are accustomed to say and sing in their own fashion...”
[Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, Morison, 1942]

Conchy note: Now this one I do have some serious doubts about, both the task, if any, and the sources.
(See above)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Mar 20 - 07:10 PM

Felix Fabri   (1441-1502)

A long one but this is just a fraction of it. Great read for the galley buff. Brackets added for clarity:

“At night they know all the hours by looking at the stars. Beside the mast they have one compass, and another in the uppermost chamber of the castle, and a lamp always burns beside it at night ; nor do they ever turn their eyes away from it when sailing at night, but one always gazes at the compass, and chants a kind of sweet song, which shows that all is going well, and in the same tone he chants to him that holdeth the tiller of the rudder, to which quarter the rudder itself ought to be moved: nor does the steersman dare to move the tiller any whither save by the orders of him who looks after the compass, wherein he sees whether the ship be going straight or crookedly, or sideways. See more about this subject hereafter...

He [the Cometa or Baron ie: boatswain] carries hanging round his neck a silver whistle, with which he gives the signal for what nautical labours are to be performed; and at whatever time of the day or night that whistle is heard, straightway all men run making a whistling noise in answer….

Under these [companii] again there are others who are called mariners, who sing when work is going on, because work at sea is very heavy, and is only carried on by a concert between one who sings out orders and the labourers who sing in response. So these men stand by those who are at work, and sing to them, encourage them, and threaten to spur them on with blows. Great weights are dragged about by their means. They are generally old and respectable men. Lowest of all are the galleyslaves of the first and second class, whom in Latin we call reiniges, or rowers, who sit on the cross-benches to work at the oars. There are a great many of them, and they all are big men; but their labours are only fit for asses, and they are urged to perform them by shouts, blows & curses….

As a rule they are Macedonians, and men from Albania, Achaia, Illyria and Sclavonia; and sometimes there are among them Turks and Saracens, who, however, conceal their religion.

[Passengers]
Some sing songs, or pass their time with lutes, flutes, bagpipes, clavichords, zithers and other musical instruments….

For when the wind is quite fair, and not too strong, there is hardly any motion which those who are in the cabin can feel, because the ship runs along quietly, without faltering, and both the pilgrims below and the galley-slaves on deck sleep quietly, and all is still, save only he who watches the compass and he who holds the handle of the rudder, for these by way of returning thanks for our happy voyage and good luck continually greet the breeze, praise God, the Blessed Virgin and the saints, one answering the other, and are never silent as long as the wind is fair. Anyone on board who hears this chant of theirs would fall asleep, even though otherwise he could not sleep, just as restless crying children are lulled to rest by their mother's crooning song, when if all was still they would cry, and they go to sleep more because the song assures them of their mother's presence than because of its sweetness. Even so the pilgrims are more quiet because by this song they understand that the ship is sailing straight forward, and that all is well, than on account of the song itself; for they call out even as the watchmen of the city of Ulm do when they cry the hours of the night, which cry hinders no one from sleeping, but sends many restless folk to sleep….

It seemed to us that while we sung thus our galley bounded beneath us and sailed faster, ploughing the waves more freely, that the wind filled the sail fuller, and the water, stirred by the wind, sent us along more swiftly.”
[The Book of the Wanderings of Br. Felix Fabri, Vol. I, Stewart trans, 1896]
[Also: Hugill, foreword]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Mar 20 - 07:18 PM

Just to end the century on a lighter note, as they down South La Nave de Los Locos:

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521)

Celeusma
Ne tibi collidant ventus & vnda ratem
Vortice precipitem causis ne te impetus vllus
Siue procella vorax, obruat inde vale.”
[Stultifera Navis, Brant, 1494]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Mar 20 - 07:35 AM

Hark, now hear the sailors cry,
Smell the sea, and feel the sky,
Let your soul & spirit fly,
into the mystic.
[Morrison]

“Wherefore, he told us it was meet and right that we should give thanks to our Redeemer, and sing a hymn of gladness with our loudest voice. So two pilgrims who were priests and monks, and who had good voices, went along the rowing-benches as far as the mast, to the place where sea Mass is wont to be read, and there in union they began to sing with a loud voice the hymn of Ambrose and Augustine,(Te Deum laudamus) which was taken up by all the other clergy present as it is sung in church, each man singing it according to the notation of his own choir at home. I have never heard so sweet and joyous a song, for there were many voices, and their various dissonance made as it were sweet music and harmony; for all alike sang the same words, but the notes were different and yet sweetly harmonized together, and it was a joyous thing to hear so many priests singing the same song together out of the gladness of their hearts. There were many Latin priests, Sclavonians, Italians, Lombards, Gauls, Franks, Germans, Englishmen, Irishmen, Hungarians, Scots, Dacians, Bohemians, and Spaniards, and many there were who spoke the same tongue, but came from different dioceses, and belonged to different religious orders. All these sang the glorious Te Deum, in which even the laity, pilgrims, and the crew of the galley alike joined in, shouting aloud for joy at our good fortune. Our trumpeters blew their trumpets loudly, and sounded their shawms, and one Bogadellus, a jongleur, played upon a drum and sackbut, while others blew flutes and bagpipes. Meanwhile some bowed their faces to the deck and prayed, looking toward the Holy Land; others wept for joy while they sang, and so all sang a new song before the throne of God, and the earth and sea rang with their voices. It seemed to us that while we sung thus our galley bounded beneath us and sailed faster, ploughing the waves more freely, that the wind filled the sail fuller, and the water, stirred by the wind, sent us along more swiftly.”
[Fabri, ibid]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Mar 20 - 07:50 AM

Another 15th century 'heu-heia' straggler:

“Celeuma clamor nautarum fiue carmen fup mortuos vel fuperlacum.

Celeus rex eleufinæ ciuitatis or triptolemi qrufti ci opis instrumenta monftraffe di doctus cerere.

Hehu interiectio dolentis diffyllabum:utrunque oducit.
?eia age uox exhortantis aduerbium diffyllabú primam producit.
Heu & heus interiectiones hiscribendæ funr. (Note: typical five places)

O Littera diuerfas partes orationis efficit.?am interdú onteriectio e doletis:ut o deus I quanta miferia fumus:Interdum admirantis:ut orem admirabilem. Iterdú optantis aduerbiu:ut O mi hi pteriti referantur cælituf anni.exhortantis quoq ut o fugite.

Proceleumaticus pes dictus... fit ad celeuma canentium aptus.
Proccleumaticus conftat ex quattuor breuibus:ut canicula.”
[Papias Vocabvlista, 1496]

Conchy note: The old text & typsetting are a challenge. The transciption errors are all mine.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Mar 20 - 07:16 PM

Getting a bit ahead of the dictionaries but, see the linked thread above:

Mrrzy: Ho, hisse! is French for Pull! or whatever you say in English when hoisting in unison...

At Howe! Hissa!'s spot on the maritime work song timeline that depends a lot on the House of Plantagenet being English or French.

wiki.fr: Oh hisse

L.Heu - The queen of the non-lexical vocable antiphons.

Note: The “H” is silent, ie: Hiberia - Iberian. O! (ho, ha, heo, hoe, hoy, jo, o, oh, yeo, yo, yoa.)

Ergo: O! Isse!
Also:
O! Cazza
O! Halle
O! Issa
O! Saglia
O! Saille
O! Ride
ad celeusma infinitum (and beyond!)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 03:50 AM

1500AD The word “sailor” isn't part of the merchant marine yet.

Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1468)

The standard “Age of Heroic Commerce” is c.1600 to 1900 [Brown], however...

Portuguese India (1505)

“The styles of sea songs were shaped by the shipping routes that formed during the Age of Heroic Commerce, connecting Western Europe, the Americas, the West Indies, and Africa. Since ports of call were social hubs and trading centers for material goods, cultural philosophies, and traditional music, these sites served as meeting grounds for “white men’s songs and shanties and Negro songs and work-songs” where sailors would leave “after being hammered into shanties by the Negroes, and Negro work-songs from ashore would be taken by white sailors and added to their repertoire for halyard and capstan.” [Reidler]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 03:51 AM

“Celeufina, (keleusma) clamor nautarum & aliorum, cum uno
aliquid iubente omnes uniformiter refpondent, quafifibiina uicem iubentes.

Celeuftes, cclcuftæ, mafe. gen. quiremiges hortatur, quafi nauigationis moderator: qui a Plauto Latinè hortator appellatur, quòd ea hortamenta faciat, quæ uerbo Graeco celeufamata dicuntur etiam à Latinis. Budæus.

Hei, oi interiectio ingemifcentis, datiuo iúgitur pronominis. ut Hei mihi, (oi uoi) qualis erat. Cicero: Hei mihi, non pofa. fum hoc fine lachrimis commemorare. Afpiratur natura, quodis animi affectus afpiratione melius declaretur.

Helciarii, qui in nauionera funibus moliutur, uel qui naues de ducunt. fubducui ue ad officia inuicê adhortantes, ut uno co nixu pariter cofpirantes, admoliri uniuerfis uiribus poffint, quodfingulis nequeut, ut fieri interim uidemus. Hæc Bud. in priorib. Annot. in Pandect. Martial.lib.i. Qué nec rumspere nauticum celeuma, Nec clamor valet helciariorum.

O (Too long to translate, It means O.)

Paufarius,… à Seneca uocatur, qui remigibus modos dat, & remigandi officiú quadam quafi paufa moderatur.

Proceleufmaticus,... per ex quatuor fyllabis breuibus conftans. Dictus quafi primitus iuffus, eo quòd in facris Mineruæ prius eius pedis uerfus pronunciari iubebantur….”
[Dictionarivm Latinae Lingvae, 1540]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 03:52 AM

Missed one:

"Celeûfma, celeúfmatis: vel Celeûfma, celeúmatis, n.g. L'ehortemene des mariniers ou autres gés qui fefforcét defaire quelque befongne.

Celeúftés, celeúftæ. m.g.Tel enhorteur, & donneur de courage.
[Dictionariolum Puerorum In Hoc Nudae Tan, 1545]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 04:02 AM

Here's another of the so-called 'proto-shanty.'

wiki: The Complaynt of Scotland (1549)

Threads:
Lyr Add: Sea Shanties from 'The Complaynt' (1549)
Tune Req: Seeking a 1600s Sea Shanty
RE: The origin of Sea Chanteys


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 04:10 AM

Posting the rowing & galley bits here:

Lymphad

“Neither do the ancient vessels of the Northern nations appear to have been of a contemptible size. Before the invention of cannon, the most serviceable and commodious war vessels, especially for piratical expeditions, were a species of long barges, which admitted the application of numerous oars, hence termed "wormfooted" by Lycophron….

...Of this kind are some of the most celebrated ancient vessels; as, the Dragon of Harold Harfagre, and the Long Serpent of Olave Tryggueson, which carried thirty banks of oars, very large and high, with a gilded serpent on the prow. These long vessels were, by the Saxons, denominated Keeles. In the eleventh century, many of these vessels were capable of containing 120 men. Of galleys, two kinds were employed, the one of which was only rowed with oars; the other, frequently denominated the galeasse, combined the effect of both oar and sail. Thus, in the romance of Richard Cœur de Lion, ap. Strutt,

Were the maryners glad or wrothe,
He made them seyle and rowe bothe;
That the galley gede so swyfte,
So doth the fowle by the lyfte.


Some of the latter kind had triple banks of oars raised over each other; and, according to Mat. Paris, were capable of containing 60 men in iron armour, besides the sailors who managed the vessel, and 104 rowers. Gallyettis were a small species of gallies. Balengers were small sailing vessels. Carikes, or Hulkes, were large sailing vessels, the largest of which seem to have been denominated Buccas.

...The vessel described in the Complaynt, is a galeasse. This species was much broader, as well as longer, than the galley, and was navigated both by sails and oars. Besides guns on each side of the deck, interspersed between the banks of oars, they had both artillery and small arms planted on the forecastle and stern.”
[Complaynt of Scotland, Leyden, 1801]


Conchy note: Many parallels to Gargantua and Pantagruel, and a character named Celeusma.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 09:45 AM

bireme, trireme, quadreme? quinquereme, of Ninevah. Any hexaremes?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 12:37 PM

The Leyden Glossary (1801)
“In the sea scene which immediately succeeds, the minuteness of description employed by the author, is entirely averse to every principle of taste in composition, except in a work professedly scientific; But from this very circumstance, it derives an additional value, as it has preserved many sea cheers which have long fallen into desuetude; and many sea terms by which the different parts of a ship, and the different operations and manœuvres of navigation, were formerly denominated. These cheers and terms are chiefly of Norman and Flemish origin, and, with many others of a similar kind, were preserved to a late period, by that singular race of men, the fishers of the eastern coast of Scotland, many of whom have hardly, at this day, abandoned the peculiar habits and phraseology by which they were long distinguished from the pastoral and agricultural inhabitants of the interior parts of the country.

BOULENE, (p. 62.); Fr. boule; the semicircular part of the sail which is presented to the wind.

BOULENA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer, signifying, hale up the bowlings.

CAUPUNA, (p. 62.) a sailor's cheer in heaving the anchor. The form is contracted; but the radical term is probably coup, to overturn.

CUNA, (p. 63.) a sea term; quas. cun a’. To cun a vessel, is, to give directions to the steersman; for which purpose, a person is employed, who chaunts, from time to time, his directions, in a high tone of voice.

HAIL, v. (p. 62.) to haul, or hale. Fr. haller. B. halen.

HEISAU, (p. 63.) a sea cheer, contracted of heeze all; heeze, heis, or heys, to lift. A.S. heahsian. Fr. hisser. B. hissen. Hence the popular word heezy, a rouzing, a scolding, or fight. Thus, in the ballad of Scornfu Nancy—
        My gutcher left a good braid sword,
                Tho' it be auld and rusty;
        Yet ye may take it on my word,
                It is baith stout and trusty;
        And if I can but get it drawn,
                Which will be right uneasy,
        I shall lay baith my lugs in pawn,
                That he shall get a heezy.
                        Ritson's Scotish Songs
, vol. i. p.183.
By a similar analogy, stour, dust, is used metaphorically to signify a fight.

HOLABAR, (p. 63.) a sea cheer, probably a direction to employ the bar of the capstan; quas. holla! Bar!

Hou, (p. 59, 61.) hollow; the how of a ship; the hollow part, or hold; also a sea cheer, halla! (p. 62.)
        With hypocritis, ay slyding as the sand,
        As humloik, how of wit, and vertew thin.
                Adhortatioun prefixed to Lyndsay's Warkis,
                        Edin
. 1592.

PULPEA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer; quas. pull pull a’.

SARABOSSA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer. Ser the bus a'; i.e. serve the stock.

VEYRA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer; quas. veer a’.

VORSA, (p. 63.) a sea cheer; quas. force a'.”
[The Complaynt of Scotland, Leyden, 1548, (1801)]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 12:41 PM

Lyrics as above:

"…Rowing songs are found, from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, in which the word 'rumblelow' frequenty appears—the word also appears in songs sung by water processions which used to be held by the Lord Mayor of London. This has been pointed out by L.G. Carr Laughton and Miss L.A. Smith and others, and D'Israeli in his book Curiosities of Literature writes that, 'our sailors at Newcastle in heaving their anchors (still) have their “heave and ho, rumbelow”', which brings the word down to comparitively recent times. My friend Mr. G. Legman has pointed out that in Skelton's sixteenth-century Bowge at Court there is a song “Heve and how, rombelow, row the bote, Norman, rowe!'

...2. The verses are taken from the Introduction to Capt. W.B.Whalls Sea Songs and Shanties, Brown, Son & Ferguson, Glasgow, 1927”
[Hugill, foreword]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 01:02 PM

In case y'all missed it, you now have yet another maritime work song function that falls outside the scope of the shanty. Command & control (conn.)

“...one always gazes at the compass, and chants a kind of sweet song, which shows that all is going well, and in the same tone he chants to him that holdeth the tiller of the rudder, to which quarter the rudder itself ought to be moved:...” [Fabri]

“CUNA, (p. 63.) a sea term; quas. cun a’. To cun a vessel, is, to give directions to the steersman; for which purpose, a person is employed, who chaunts, from time to time, his directions, in a high tone of voice.” [Leyden]

“SONG. The call of soundings by the leadsman in the channels....” [Smyth]

Lyr Add: Mark Twain (Harry Belafonte)
(^Not to be taken seriously.)

See image of Qar's tomb [links above.]
The proreta on the prow of Qar's funerary barge is holding a long pole, Gr. kontus. If the water is too deep for the pole to reach bottom he measures with the lead line but cannot help steer &c.

Also:
Quant pole
contour line
Conn (nautical)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 01:06 PM

John Calvin (1509–1564)

“30 Et tu prphetabis ad eos, vel, contra eos, omnia verba hæc:& dices illis. Iehouah ab excelfo rugiet, & ex habitaculo fanctitatis fuæ edet vocem fuam: rugiendo rugiet fuper habitaculum fuum celeufma, clamorem potius generaliter, quafi prementium torcular refpondebit fuper cunctos incolas terræ.

Nomen ???? vertunt Celeuma, vel celeufma:alis magis placet vertere Lugubrem cantionem. fed fæpius occurrit quum agitur de vindemiis. Celeufma autem nauticum eft, quemadmodum fcitur. etymologia quidem eft generalis, & [keleustes] eft hortari:& celeusma nihil eft aliud quàm exhortatio. Scd quoniam vox illa tantùm de nautis reperitur,ideó mihi magis pla cuit ponere clamoris nomen.”
[Johannis Calvini Operum Omnium Theologica, Calvin, 1558]


“25:30. Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them, The Lord shall roar from on high, and utter his voice from his holy habitation; he shall mightily roar upon his habitation; he shall give a shout, as they that tread the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth.

The word ???? eidad, is rendered celeusma, a shout; but some render it a mournful singing; and it often occurs when the vintage is spoken of. Celeusma, as it is well known, is the shout of sailors. Its etymology is indeed general in its meaning; for keleustes is to exhort, to encourage ; and then the noun is exhortation. But as this word is only used as to sailors, I prefer to adopt the word sound, or a loud noise.”
[Commentary on the Prophet Jeremiah, Vol.III, The Tenth Annual Report of the Calvin Society for the year 1852]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Mar 20 - 07:28 AM

These next few should have gone up before the Complaynt.

Remus inftrumentume eft, quo naues aguntur. Verg. Quam deinde Cloanthus Confequitur melior remis. Inde remos inflectere. Cic. Ne...hoc loco expectandum eft, dum de remo inflexo refpondeam. Et Remos detergere,pro collidere,vel confringere, tunc detergere translatu eft.

Remigare eft naue remis propellere. Cic. Non enim fuftinet remos, fed alio modo remigant. Idem. Vtru agitur mauisiftatimúe nos uela faceré aut. quaftiè portu egredientes paululum remigares.

Remex dicitur,qui remis agit, uel qui remigandi minifterio mancipatus eft, uel qui fcalmo hæret,id eft labro nauis,ubi remi adnexi funt. Cic. Arbitrabar fuftineri remos, cum inhiberi effent remiges iußi.

Remigatio eft incitatio nauis à remige propulfæ. Vel eft remigis contentio,atq impetus in nauem propellendam. Cic. Inhibitio remigum motum habet,... uehementiorem quidem remigationis nauem conuertentis ad puppim.

Remigium eft ipfaremoru agitatio, & remigatio,uel eft remorum ordo,aut remigu multitudo.Verg. Remigium fupplet, focios fimul inftruit armis.

Scalmus eft lignum teres,cui naute remos loco quodam alligant ad nauigandum,ut firmius nauigent. Vel eft labru nauis,ubi remi adnexi funt, à quo interfcalmia fpatia iuter remiges dicta funt. Cic. Hæc ego confcendens è Popeiano tribui actua riolis decem fcalmorum.

Celeuftes dicitur, qui remiges hortatur, quafi nauigationis moderator, qui à Plauto latinè hortatur ????llatur quod ea hortamenta faciat, quæ uerbo græco celeufmata dicuntur etiam à latinis. Hoc uero celeufmata quod & ??l?uma dicitur, in nauibus... aff a uoce,ore prolatainterdum, iterdum, interdu tibia canebatur. Inde & Symphoniaci ferui. Cic in Ver Act. I. Celeuma item,ut nautæ faciunt Helciarii, id eft, qui onera funibus moliuntur:uel qui naues deducut, fubducuntúe, ad officia inuicem fefe adhortantes,ut uno connixu pariter confpirantes, admoliri uniuerfis uiribus poffint,quod fingulis nequeunt.

Heus* eft vocatis,uel reuocantis,uel interdum etiam dolentis. Cic. Sed heus tu , quid agis? Terent. Omnium rerum heus uicißitudo eft.”
[Commentarium Latinæ Linguæ, Vol.II, Doleti, 1539]

*Typical too many places for: Heu, eheu, eho, ehodum, hei, hoi, hem, hui, ah, aha, ha &c &c. See original text.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Mar 20 - 06:54 PM

Celetes pe.qp. Grece… exhortor: vocatur equi q ad curfum foli adhíbee.fiuee bigis vel quadrigis etia nauigia ut his teporib fierá folet. Na q bigis quadrígifue ve adhibèbatur ad curfium defultorii dicebat.Ply. Antiqui celetas dicebat I facris. Postea vero & q bigis vel o drigisui ciffent latie dicut defultorii q ex his facile defiliat.

Celer ide eft qd velox.a quo celerrim & celeriffi mus fiut fuperlatiua fcam. Prif. Celero.as.pe.cor.celeriter aliquid facio. A quo Accelero copofitu.

Celeufma clamor nautarii & alioru cum vno aliquid iubente oes vniformiter refpodent quafi fibi inuice iubetes.Hie.apd Hieremia:Celeufma quafi calcatiu cocinetur aduerfus oes habitatores terre.

Helciarius qui fune canabino naue trahit aduer fus vndas:vt eft apud. Mar. De helcio fpar teo dimoto nexu machinæ liberatu applicat pfepio.Eft paulo poft. Helciotande abfolutus refectuique fecure redditus.

Heu interiectio doletis iungit acto pnoís. Ter. Heu me miferu. Na per exprobationé iu git efi no mine.Ver. Heu ftripe inuitas. Et cu nto.Ide. Heu pietas heu prifca fides. Interdu geminat & nulli cafuiferuit.Ver.Heu heu qd volui. Aliqii etia dr Eheu. Afpiratur ficut & hei eade ratione.

Heus adverbiu vocatis. [typical]

O! [typical]

Proceleumaticus pes ex quattuor fyllabis brevibus costans:dictus quafi pmitus iuffus:eo op in facris minetue prius eius pedis verfus pronuciari tubebantur…

Remiges nautici q remos agut & remigadi minifterio mancipati fut:hui ntus fingularis eft remex remigis. Curt.remex militis officia turbabat.

Tranfuador .&Tranfuado.as.pe.cor.per vadu traiicio.Hiero.ad.Helio. Per tranflatione: Sed quo niam fcopulofis locis enauigauit oratio & inter canas fpumeis fluctibus cautes fragilis in altu cimba proceffit.expandenda vela funt ventis & quæftionumicrupulis tranfuadatis letantiu more nautarii epilogi celeuma cantandu eft.”
[Dictionarium ex optimis authoribus, Calepini, 1509]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Mar 20 - 06:56 PM

“Si tu proreta ifti nauies, ego gubernator ero.Vfus eft Vlpíanus hoc verbo ín título de publícanís, grece... &... dícítur. Remíges funt quífcalmís herent,íd eft labro nauís,vbí remí adnexi funt,a quo interfcalmia fpacia inter remiges dicta funt. Celeuftes eft q remiges hortatur,quafi nauigationís moderator quía Plauto latíne hortator appellatur,q, ea hortamenta faciat que verbo greco celeufmata dicutur etiam a latínís.Hôc vero celeufma quod & celeuma dicitur in nauibus claffiariis affa voce interdú, interdi tibia canebatur,ita vt remiges pro modulorum atqu haremonie ratione vel concítarétur vel ínhiberent remos. Pedíanus auctor eft caní remígíbus celeuma per Symphoníacos feruos folítu olím effe.& per affam vocem íd eft ore prolatam,& (vt ín argo nauí) ínterdu per cítharam. Cícero ín Díuínatíone.Ab hac mulíere prefectus Antoníí quídam fymphoníacos feruos abducebat per íníuríam,quíbus fe ín claffe vtí velle dícebat. Quem locum Pedíanus exponens poffumus (ínquít) íntellígere ad hoc fymphoníacos feruos capí folere, vt ínclaffeclaffícum pugnantíbus canant, vnde ípfi tubæ claffs claffícum nomen eft pofítum. Híeremíæ vígefímoquínto cap.Celeuma quafí, calcantíum concínetur aduerfus omnes habítatores terre. Quo verbo allegorí cos Propheta figníficauít hortamentum mutuum populos contrucídantíum, quod per celeuma vuas calcantíum quafí fanguínem exprimentíu intellígítur, quod verbum Lyranus interpres non percepít.Síc ením folent celeuma facere Helcíaríi. & naute & helcíaríí, vd eft quí onera funíbus molvuntur, vel quí naues deducunt,fubducuntve ad offícíaínuícem adhortantes,vt vno conníxu paríter confpírantes,admolírí vníuerfís víríbus poffvnt quod fíngulvs nequeunt,vt fíerí ínterím vídernus.Et capí. vígefímooctauo. Nequaq calcator vuæ folítu celeuma cantabít.Sunt etíam ín nauí quí vectores dicuntur,qui ob hoc tantum ín nauí funt vt vehátur,quo modo hocín título accípíutur.quí fi mílítes funt Epíbaté dícuntur verbo greco,fed latínís vfítato,latíne clafííaríí vocantur. Nauícularíí nauíú funt domíní,qui Græce nauclerí dícuntur, merítorías naues habentes, Patronos appellamus.Tacitus.Atq índe decurfu ín líttora vím ín merca tores aut ín nauícularíos audebant.Vnde nauícularíam facere.Cícero ín Ver rem Actíone vltíma. Quíd eos quí hoc audíebant arbítrabare ínanem te nauem effe íllam in Italíam deducturum nauícularíam te cum Romam veníffes effe facturum? Hí & nauículatores ab eodem dícuntur ín oratíone prolege Manílía.Vegetíus tamen líb.quarto, Nauícularíos eos effe dícít quí ín claffe fingulís nauíbus prefunt,quos Græcí nauarchos vocant.Cæterum verba que dam Græca híc defunt,quæ reftítuv nífv ab eo quí Florentínas Pandectas adíe rít non poffunt.
[Annotatio Nes Gvlielmi Bvdaei Parisiensis, 1521]

Oy.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: RTim
Date: 24 Mar 20 - 10:52 PM

I am increasingly bemused by this thread.....I am not sure whose benefit it is for? It has Nothing to do with Maritime music for the ordinary person, and just seems to be a vehicle to prove that the main correspondent is cleverer than anyone else..!!

Tim Radford (a poor old 'ampshire boy....)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 12:50 AM

Rtim: fyi - One (1) semester of Latin when Pontius was still a co-Proreta.

It's the 2400 year history of the 'proto-chanty' in literary references. I find the terms wild, primitive, aboriginal, &c… unhelpful. If you're here for the shanties, you're early.


“Celeúfma, celeúfmatis: vel Celeûma, celeúmatis.n.gé. Mart. Grido uniforme de marinari à fare qualche lor opera.

Celeúftes, celúftæ, m.g.Bud. Chi conforata i marinai al navicare.
[Dictionariolum Latinum ad Puerorum, 1558]


“Celeúfma, celeúfmatis: vel Celeúma, celeúmatis, neut. gen. Mart. L’enhortement des mariniers ou autres ges qui s’efforcent defaire quel que befongne.

Celeúftes, celeúftæ, m.gen. Bud. Tel enhorteur, & donneur neur de courage.

Contus, conti, m.g. Vne lone gue perche de bois, Vne perche a mariniers, dequoy ils fondent le fond de l’eaue, & de quoy ils conduifent vne naf felle quand il y apeu d'eau.
[Dictionarium Latino gallicum, 1561]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 01:22 AM

Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Battle of Lepanto order of battle

"...in which the Holy League deployed 6 galleasses and 206 galleys, while the Ottoman forces numbered 216 galleys and 56 galliots."

“Over the following decades, the increasing importance of the galleon and the line of battle tactic would displace the galley as the major warship of its era, marking the beginning of the "Age of Sail".” [wikis]


They Shout,
*A fhoutng or crie of fhipmen, Celeufma, Celeufina, vel Celeuma, celeúmatis, II. g. Mart.”
[Triple Dictionary in Englifh Latin & French, 1573]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 01:24 AM

“Celeuftes, Bud. Navigationis moderator, qui remiafigno vocali exhortatur… Hefych. Le comite, enhorteur des rameurs, donneur de courage. The encourager of the rowers: he that calleth on the mariners to hartern them in their bufineffes, and as fome fay, the botefwaine.

Conchyta, Plaut. Qui conchas legit & musculos… Pefcheur de moufles. A muffhell man: a cockleman: an oyfterman: he that gathereth and taketh up fhellfifh.

Contus, … Perche de marinier. A mariners or watermans pole to gage water or fhoove forth a veffell into the deepe.

Helciarius, Mart. qui navim adverfo amne trahit fune ductario. Qui tire vn bateau. An hailer, or he which haleth and draweth a fhip or barge alongft the river by a rope: alfo he that draweth up burthens and packes into the fhip. Helciarius etiam que fune molitur onera in navi…

Paufarius, Senecæ, qui remigibus modos dat, cum Celeufte idem, meo quidem indicio, nifi quòd difcrimen videatur effe in accendedis operis, & facienda paufa, hoc eft, fuperfedendo à remigandi munere…. L'advertiffeur des mariniers qu'il faut repofer. He that commandeth the rowers or mariners to ceafe rowing, (as fome fay) the maifters mate.

Proreta, Plauto, qui in prora a tutelæ navis præfidet… Le gouverneur de la proue. The ruler of the forefhip or Decke.

Symphoniacus, qui in claffe canit bellicum. Trompette és navires de guerre. A trumpeter in fhips of warre.”
[The Nomenclator, Higins, 1585]

;)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 03:37 PM

Hi Phil, whilst I can just about follow what you're trying to do, I do wish you'd stick to your title, particularly the words 'work' and 'song'.
Either that or change the title.

A poor Yorkshire boy!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:00 AM

Steve: See my - 11 Mar 20 - 06:17 PM about the mix you can expect. This won't ever be a sheet music & lyrics thread. Heia! Viri! &c are exceptional and the celeusma isn't going to change its stripes for me or thee. If the elves have a nicer, friend of the working man title, I'm all for it.


"Chanter, Canere, Cantare, Occinere, Præcinerc, Pfallere. Qui apprend autruy à chanter, Vocis & cantus modulator, Phonafcus, Muficus.

la Chiorme d'une galere ce font touts les Forfaires ou Forfats tirants à la rame Remiges.

Enhorter, Hortari, Adhortari, Cohortari, Exhortari, Vti hortatione, Suadere.
Enhorteur, Suafor, Confuafor, Adhortator, Exhortator.
Enhort ou Enhortement, Hortatio, Adhortatio, Cohortatio, Exhortatio, Suafio.
L'enhortement des mariniers ou autres gens qui s'efforcent defaire quelque befongne, Celeufma celeufmatis.

Efcoute,efcoute Syre, Heus, heus Syre.
Efcoute di moy, Eho dic mihi.
Efcoute, tu fcais bien que,&c. Heus proximus fum egomet mihi.

Hareleurier, Io canes, Euge canes.celeufma venatorium, & hortamentum. B.

Hau, vocandi,ab Heus, inde Haula.

Hé, Vocandi, Heus.

Hola hola, Heus heus.

Hucher, Accerfere, Arceffere, Inclamare, Vocare. Fortè ab Heus, aduerbio vocandi. vt principio dictum fit Heufcher deinde Hufcher, & demum corruptius Hucher. Perionius fic tradit, Si à Vocare dempferis o, fupereft Vcare, inde Vcer, & per ignorantiam originis Hucher.

Ceulx qui tirent vn bateau au col, Helciarii.B.
Osi tirent vn bateau, Helciarii.
Vn collier à cheuaulx, Helcium, helcii.
Bourrelier, qui fait les colliers des cheuaulx, Helciarius. Il vient de Bourre, quòd helciis infarciat tomentum.
Qui tire quelque fardeau auec cordes, Helciarius.

Venez ca, Heus, Eho.

Corner Requefte de fois à autre, Celeufma requifitorium edere.”
[Dictionaire Francoislatin, Thierry, 1564]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:04 AM

Olde German and the one Greek word I can transcribe:

Hofcha / Heus, Ohe.

Hem… Interiectio irafcentuc. Terent…
Hem, Refpondentis. Terent. Heus heus Syre.s.hem quid eft?

auff Mahuen Excire, Excitare, freq. Exciere.
auffMahnen Hortari, Adhortari, Cohortari, Admonere, oder.
verMahnen Hortari, Cohortari, Adhortari, Admonere,Comonere, Commonefacere, Exhortari.
verMahner Hortator, Hortatrix, Exhortator, Monitor, Admonitor. Celeuftes.
verMahnug Hortatio, Hortamen, Hortamentum, Adhortatio, Admonitio, Exhortatio, Cohortatio.

O Oh, Ohe, Heus, Eho: Prò…. Oataricha, mugilumoua, fale condita.

<Proceleufmaticus, ci,... Pes eft ex quatugr breuibus fyllabis conflans.

Rommet/roff; fommet /Helcium.

Treiber der ruderfnecht / Celeuftes.

Ke…Celeufma hortametum quod remigibus datur: Item, iuffum, mandatum.
Ke ...Celeuftes, iuffor, & qui celeufma canit.”
[1587 - Lexicon Trilingue, Roberti]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:07 AM

Ah well. It proofed okay and then changed from omega to plain old "O" in the post. At least it wasn't four question marks. Yo-ho.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:11 AM

Some early Spanish to end the century. Note our old Caribbean friend gritar (gritador) or griot to some.

“A hao, ho, Heus.

Coro, de coro, a quier, by hart, the turning of the faile, chorus, Memoriter, veli tranfuerfio.

Grita, a crie, Vociferatio.
Gritar, to crie, Vociferari,

Guay, alas, wo, Hei heu.

O. oz, ether, would God, Velaut, utinam, heus

Sirga llevar barcos a la firga, to draw with a rope, Trahere.
Sirguero, a drawer of a boat with a rope, Tractor.”
[1591 - Bibliothecae Hispanicae pars Altera, Percyvall]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 09:25 AM

Okay Phil are there specific references to celeusma being used aboard a vessel for anything to do with ropes, hoisting sails, working a simple capstan or winch, in other words other than rowing?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 10:32 AM

The heart of the issue, Steve.

The fact that throughout history and across the globe people have sung songs while rowing doesn't diminish the other documented fact that nineteenth-century, anglophone crews began routinely to sing what we may call "dedicated" songs for use while heaving and hauling - apparently for the first time in history.

To insist on conflating these things into one homogeneous, reductive category called "sailors' work songs" seems to me to obscure rather than to enlighten the discussion.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 01:51 PM

Lighter: Some folks like lumpy gravy... others has to leave it be.

Steve, 1800 years... from 'boatman' to 'hobby horse' and counting:
"Those who hauled or pulled a rope, who raised a weight, or the like, called HELCIARII, used likewise to animate one another with a loud cry, Martial, ibid., hence Nauticus clamor, the cries or shouts of the mariners, Virg. Æn. iii. 128. v. 140. Lucan. ii. 688."

"Sirga llevar barcos a la firga, to draw with a rope, Trahere.
Sirguero, a drawer of a boat with a rope, Tractor.” [Percyvall]

"Bourrelier, qui fait les colliers des cheuaulx, Helciarius. Il vient de Bourre, quòd helciis infarciat tomentum." [Thierry]

In Western labour & naval science history these are the 2020 longshoreman & stevedore brotherhoods. The nave & codicarii were merchant marine. We also have fighting the navies not in the standard narrative... (no lyrics &c.)

Job titles & descriptions follow the work. English sailing is relatively new and most everything was an auxilliary until late coal/early fuel oil. Towing and rowing were #1-2 forms of marine propulsion until fairly recently.

It was what it was.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 02:30 PM

Gibb would be able to put more meat on the bones, but the Stevedores in the Gulf ports were already singing proper chanties i.e., songs with a chorus that were taken into the chanty repertoire) for screwing the cotton, before they came aboard ship if I recall correctly from Gibb's writing.

All of this is well and good and equivalents in other periods are still very interesting but establishing a direct link from any of these to the chanties we know seems to be all supposition.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Jun 20 - 05:51 PM

Vulgar Latin dropped the “s” and swapped the "a" in celeusma. Typical 100+ places on Google Books for the 17th century:

Celeume. The showt, or noyfe that Mariners make when they weigh anker, or do any other office in the ship with joyned ftrength; an encouraging sound.”
[A Dictionaire of the French and English Tongue, Cotgrave, 1611]


Also typ. 200+ places – Seneca, Pliny, Martial et al:

“Idem officium eius qui fymphonianis celeuma canentibus in naui modum dabat:quem plautus aliique prifci, dixerunt portisculum, Seneca, paufarium.”
[Cai Plinii Secundi Epistolae, Casav, 1607]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Jun 20 - 05:57 PM

Ah, alas, O I. Ah, hei, heu, eheu, oh, vae, atat.

The fhout and noise that mariners make doing any thing together, as in hoifting the anker.
I Celeufma, vel celeuma, f.*
He that maketh such a noife.
I Celeuftes, m.

They that keepe fhip onely for their living of meate and drinke.
I Diaturei, m.

To cheare, or encourage.
I Exhortor, hortor.

A horfe collar, whereby he draweth in the cart. I Helcium,n.

A chearing, or encouraging.
2. Hortatio, f.

He that holdeth the ftern,a maifter or governour of fhip.
2. Gubernator, m.

Harke firra. I Heus, eho, ehodum, interiect.

He that draweth a fhip, or barge by a rope, or that draweth packes into a fhip
I Helciarius,m.

The perfon of a cooke, or mariner, or fuch like in a comedie, or rather a meane, or mixt perfon, which is neither fervile, nor altogether free.
I Melon.**

A fhip boy, drudge, or flave in a fhip.
I Mefonuata,f.

They which take fhippe, & inftead of paying their fare, do the duties of Mariners.
I Nautebibatæ, arum, m.

He that giveth a figne when one fhould paufe. The mafter rower. I Paufarius.”
[Riders Dictionarie, 3rd ed, Holyoke, 1612]
[Riders Dictionarie Corrected, Holyoke, 1617]

*See also: shout.

** Note the social status of the 17th century mariner in commedia dell'arte.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Jun 20 - 06:13 PM

Much has been written about William Shakespeare's nautical bent, even a few claims of (proto)shanties, but I've not read anything that would qualify. One word that does come up in the footnotes is the use of via in Merchant of Venice:

Thesaurus Polyglottus, 1613 - Translations for heu, heus in:
?ebrew, Classic & Vulgar Latin, Italian, Spanish, Gallician, Greek, Lusitanian, German, Belgian, English, Slavic, Dalmatian, Polish, Hungarian, Bohemian, Portuguese, Malay & four abbreviations unknown to your scribe.

The “O!” (or a'via, vien, venez, ad nauseum) vocalable seems fairly universal in Western culture.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Jun 20 - 06:25 PM

As above:
“Nau, nau, nau. (Cestuy Celeume, dift Epistemon, n'eft hors de propos & me plait) car le iour eft feriau. Infe, infe, Bon. Os'eferia Epiftemon, ie vous commande tous bien efperer. Ie voy a Caftor à dextre.”
[Pantagruel, Les Oevvres de M. Francois Rabelais, Docteur en Medicine, 1596]

“Vea, vea, vea! huzza! This shout of the seamen is not amiss, and pleases me, for it is holiday. Keep her full thus. Good. Cheer up, my merry mates all, cried out Epistemon; I see already Castor on the right.”
[Pantagruel, Vol. 2, Urquhart, 1892]


VEYRA, a sea cheer; quas. veer a’.
VORSA, a sea cheer; quas. force a'.”
[The Complaynt of Scotland, glossary]


Vayra, veyra are words probably related to the Spanish word 'Vira!'—'Heave' or 'Hoist'—heard from ports of the Mediterranean to those of the Far East.
[Hugill]


The pausarius in action:

Of the Boats and Skiff
A fresh Spell is to releeve the Rowers with another Gang, give the Boat more way for a dram of the bottell, who saies Amends, one and all, Vea, vea, vea, vea, vea, that is, they pull all strongly together.”
[1627, A Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, and The Summer Isles, Vol.II, Smith, 1907 ed.]

Two things:
a) The oarsmen will typically be greater in number than the rowing stations.

b) Big boats don't stop or start on a dime. The gods of interia demand a certain degree of accelerando in the restart tempo. otoh - emergency braking can be lethal to the oarsmen.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jun 20 - 04:01 PM

Betwixt Rider's Dicyionary and Smith's A Seaman's Glossary, were Markham's several volumes on “horfemanfhip.”

By the start of the 17th century, horses had mostly replaced humans in the tow path helcium and appear to have inherited more than a few commands & paces from their predecessors along the way. See also the ayre, gallop, jaunt, quadrille &c &c.

Also typical: Folklore: Padstow's Obby Oss

“And firft for the voice, as it is the found which naturally ail creatures moft feare, fo it is in diforders the needfulleft remedie: and according to the fignification of the word, fo it is either a correction or a helpe: as for example, if it bee roughly or terriblie delivered, as Ha traytor, ha Villain, or fuch like, then t’is a correction for fhrewdneffe or obftinacie: but if you crie Hoe, Ho or Hey, Hey, or Via, Via, Via, then tis a help either in galloping, in turning, or any ayre or fault whatfoever. But if you will cherrifh, then you must in the mildeft manner that may be, crie Holla, holla, or So boy, fo boy and such like.”
[Cavalrice, or The Arte and knowledge belonging to the Horfe-ryder, Markham, 1616]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: sciencegeek
Date: 23 Jun 20 - 06:30 PM

maybe five or so years ago - back when I could get the Documentary Channel, I watched a documentary about the Yellow River and it had a great five minute segment on the Chinese "boatmen" who scrambled along the treacherous river bank towing barges upstream... they had a leader and chorus singing away as the long line of men hauled the boat along.   dangerous work


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Jul 20 - 03:46 AM

There are a few references to Chinese boatmen to come. I'm sure there would be many, many more if I were using a different keyboard and browser language.

The Chinese Qi is a subset of the Japanese kiai 'spelling.' Both have a meaning not too different from the Westerner's kele; a kind of energy focusing shout or cheer, albeit the Eastern variety is a good deal more mystical in nature. See also Cotgrave below for halé & halle.

Here is the rest of Cotgrave I somehow managed to omit from the above. The definition of chiourme covers rowing, the capstan and running rigging all-in-one:

Chant: m. A Song, Ayre, Carol, Ballade; Lay, Roundelay; alfo, a Poem, or Difcourfe, in Ryme.

Chanté: m. ée: f. Sung, chaunted; warbled; crowed; refounded; commended, or defcribed in Meeter, or in verfe.

Chiourme: f. A banke of Oares; or, the whole companie of slaves, Rowers (in a Galley;) alfo, the noife they make in rowing; alfo, (in a fhip) the Saylers; and, the noife they make in weighing of ankers, and hoisting up of faileyards.

Halé: m. ée: f. Sunne-burnt; as Haflé; alfo, veered, as a cable; alfo, hounded, or fet, as a dog at.

Halle f. (An interjection, of cheering, or fetting on of a dog;) ha boy, now now.

. An Interiection of calling. Vien ça hé. come hither hoe.

Hei. as Hé.

Hory ho, hay & ho (The ordinarie harsh accent, or voice, of carters.)

Huchant. Calling for; whooping, or hollowing unto. Huchant en paume. Whifiling for, or calling unto by whifiling in the fift.
Huchet: m. A Hutchet, Bugle, or fmall Horne; fuch as one as Poft boyes ufe.
Hué: m. ée: f. Hooted, or fhowted after; exclamed, or cryed out upon, followed with hue and cry.
Huée : f. A fhowting, or hooting; an acclamation, outcry, or hue and cry, of many voyces together.
Huerie: f. A hooting, fhowting, acclamation, crying, outcry.

A fhoute. Huée.
To fhoute. Huer, Huyer.

Shouted Huyé, Hué,

A fhouting. Huée, hopperie, hu, huerie.
Shouting, Huant, huetant.

Vaudeville: f. A countrey ballade, or fong; a Roundelay, or Virelay; fo tearmed of Vaudevire, a Norman towne wherin Olivier Baffel*, the firft inueter of them, liued alfo, a vulgar prouerbe; a countrey or common faying.
[A Dictionaire of the French and English Tongue, Cotgrave, 1611]

* Olivier Basselin (c.1400 – c.1450)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Jul 20 - 03:50 AM

Written sometime earlier. English translation c.1637 -

“BRITANS OF ARMORICA.

DVring this most wofull, desperate, and lamentable tempestuous season, some poore remaines of Britaines, being found in the mountaines, were killed up by whole heapes; others, pined with famine, came and yielded themselves unto the enemies, upon composition to serve them as Bondslaves for ever, so they might not bee killed out of hand, which was reputed a most high favour, and especiall grace. There were also that went over sea into strange lands singing under their spread sailes with a howling and wailing note, in stead of the Mariners* Celeusma, after this manner: Thou hast given us [O Lord] as sheepe to be devoured, and scattering us among the heathen. Others againe remained still in their owne countrey, albe|it in fearefull estate, betaking themselves (but yet continually suspecting the worst) to high [ E] steepe hilles and mountaines intrenched, to woods, and thicke growne forrests, yea, to the rockes of the sea.

* A song at their first setting out.”
[Britain, or A chorographicall description of the most flourishing kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the ilands adjoyning, out of the depth of antiquitie beautified vvith mappes of the severall shires of England: vvritten first in Latine by William Camden Clarenceux K. of A. Translated newly into English by Phile´mon Holland Doctour in Physick: finally, revised, amended, and enlarged with sundry additions by the said author., Camden, 1637]
At the Univ. of Michigan


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 06 Jul 20 - 06:21 AM

It would be good to have all this interesting info in an easily digested book, Phil. have you got any plans?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Jan 21 - 08:27 PM

If you're just wandering in from Tik-Tok or elsewhere:

Don't get too hung up on the labels. Excluding or including song from a genre label doesn't change how the waterfront or deck of a ship sounded in earlier times.

Maritime work song in general is not intended to be “shanty-centric.” It includes all the rhythmic sounds that sailors made when going about any of their tasks in unison… shanties inclusive. Also, their sources in, and influences on, popular culture from pre-history to the present day.

Ho-jo-to-ho is a so-called 'proto-shanty' or 'sing out' and what the fat lady sings. Strange but true, both are a cadence.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Jan 21 - 08:30 PM

Referencing: Piratical Debauchery, Homesick Sailors and Nautical Rhythms, Reidler, 2017.

Purcell's Dido & Aeneas goes somewhere about here. Mentioned because it's the first of Reidler's three nautical opera.

Short version in two parts:
I. The He's a Pirate (Badelt & Zimmer) theme from the 2003 Disney film Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl is taken from Purcell's Sailor's Chorus.

II. The common melody constitutes a kind of pirate riff* recognizable to the average consumer of the culture and evoking a “pirate” mindset therein.

I'm not feeling it, but that's just me; and a reeeeal stretch for the “nautical rhythms” cited in the intro & glossary.

*eg: Snake charmers = Girls in France; Sailors = College Hornpipe; Native Americans = Silverheels (aka: Tomahawk Chop) – and the Oriental riff for all things Asian &c &c &c.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Jan 21 - 09:10 PM

And per my Tik-Tok thread rant, Aeneas' crew didn't shanty. It's keleusma.

Harteurier, Io cànes, Euge canes, celeufma venatorium & horramentum. B.”
[Le Grand Dictionnaire Francois Latin, Nicol, 1643]

Celóma, the mariners-crye when they tug at a cable, weigh anker, or hoife-failes.
Celomare, to cry all together as mariners do, when they weigh anker or hoife-failes.
[Vocabulario Italiano & Inglese, Torriano, 1659]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 Apr 21 - 06:17 PM

Rewinding three centuries - from the TikTok thread:

"Subject: RE: Sea Chanteys All Over The News [TikTok]
From: Catamariner
Date: 16 Jan 21 - 09:52 PM

...in the Rihla of Ibn Battuta, the following description of a rather ceremonial and clearly not very Islamic drinking bout at the court of Ozbeg Khan (a Turkish sultan): "During all this [ceremony], they sing [songs resembling the] chants sung by oarsmen." [HAR Gibb, the Travels of Ibn Battuta 1325 - 1354, Vol 2, p 480].)..."


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jun 21 - 05:00 AM

Still backing up, but only 16th century. Yet another* variation on the “griot.”

Os Lusíadas (1572)
1880 English translation by Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890)

As ancoras tenaces väo levando,
Com a nautica grita coftumada,
Da proa as vellas fos ao vento dando,
Inclinian per a barra abalifada:
[II-18]

“Weighed are the biting anchors, rising slow,
while 'customed capstan-songs and shouts resound;
only the foresails to the gale they throw
as for the buoyed bar the Ships are bound:”


Alevantafe nifto o movimento
Dos marinheiros, de hua & de outra banda
Levam gritando as ancoras acima
Mostrando a ruda força que fe eftima.
[II-65]

“Meanwhile the sailors to set sail prepare;
all work and either watch its anchor tends;
the weighty irons with willing shouts are weighed,
and sin'ewy strength, the seaman's pride, displayed.”

*As mentioned elsewhere, the word covers a lot of musical ground. The Grito de Dolores is just one of several Grito Mexicano in Mariachi, Norteño, Banda &c.

And, of course, a West Indian plantation griot (gritador) was a kind of 'proto' calypsonian according to some authors.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 22 Jun 21 - 09:44 AM

Your own translation might be more helpful, Phil, or at least a literal translation. That translation looks rather fanciful to me but I don't savvy the lingo. Capstans in the 16th century?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jun 21 - 10:44 AM

Steve: "Your own translation might be more helpful..."

I don't speak twenty-eleven languages like Burton so, I doubt it. Look at how different the Latin-English academic translations of Polybius are (above,) each one by the 'expert' linguist neither you nor I are.

Sooo, fwiw, I would agree about the pirate opera but then, it's 16th and 19th century poetry and not naval science. I wouldn't expect dry nonfiction either.

Fwiw: the original looks more like "weighing anchor(s) with the customary grita." No mention of specific ergata.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Dec 21 - 10:02 PM

Westernized more than a bit. I have no luck posting Greek or Hebrew online. See links below for the mother alphabets.

Keleusma, Hortatio, I T.heff. 4.16. Celeusma, ut Latini quoque loquuntur, Stephan. In Thef. This word fignifieth fuch kinds of fhouts or watch-words as men that row, or vintage-men, do use, to encourage or call upon one another, Deodate in locum. It fignifieth properly that encouragement which i Mariners ufe to one another, when they altogether, with one fhout, put forth their oares, and row together.”
[Critica Sacra Or Observations on All the Hebrew Radices, 1650]
Strong's Hebrew 1959   – hedad – a shout, shouting, cheer.
Strong's Greek 2752 – keleusma – a shout of command.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Dec 21 - 10:04 PM

Celeume. The fhout, or noyfe that mariners make when they weigh anchor, or doe any other office in the fhip with joined ftrength; an incouraging found.
[A Dictionarie of the French and English, Cotgrave, 1660]



“Celeufma,tis. The mark-word given to keep time with all the benches of rowers in a gally.
Celeuftes,is, or æ. The boatfwain that gives the word.
Proceleufmaticus, a, um. Likethe cry of the Boatfwain. Pes Proceleufmaticus, A foot of four fhort fyllables.”
[Dictionarium Minus, Wase, 1662]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Dec 21 - 10:46 PM

Confortare: incitare à qualche cofa. Hortor, âris; uel hortâre, hortâtus fum, hortári. Verbo deponente. Terentio.

Confortatore dei marinari à navigare. Hic celéuftes, celúftæ. Bud.

Grido uniforme di marinari à far qualche loro opera. Hoc celeúfma, huius celeúfmatis; &hoc celeûma, huius celeúmatis. Mart.”
[Prontuario di Voci Volgari et Latine Copiosissimo, 1665]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Dec 21 - 06:22 AM

Celeufma vel Celeuma, atis; n. Gr. Mart, a ><, jubeo,... quod a Euft. The fhout or noife which Mariners make when they do any thing together with joyned ftrength, or when the Mafter doth call and encourage them.

Celeuftes, æ; Bud. Gr. Such an exhorter or encourager, fuch a maker of noife: he that doth moderate the faying, and calleth on the Mariners, to hearten them in their bufineff. Portifculus, Enn. hortator, Nonn.

A drudge in a fhip. Mefonauta.

A galley-flave. Mefonauta, neut.

A Mariner. Navigator, nauta, remex, navita, naviculator, navicularios.
that ruleth the foredeck. Proreta, m,
They which take fhip, and inftead of paying their fare, do the duties of mariners. Nautepibatæ, arum; m.
Belonging to mariners, Nauticus, adj.

Paufarius, ii; m. GelI… Sic a Sen. vocatur, qui remigibus modos dat, & remgandi officium quafi quâdam paufâ moderatur: portifculus. One that giveth a fign when a paufe or reft fhould be made in the doing of any thing; he that commandeth the rowers or mariners to ceafe rowing, or (as fome fay) the Mafters mate.

Farus, ri; Ifid. vel Pharus… Eft turris maxima, quam Græci & Latini in commune ex ipsius rei ufu pharum appellaverunt, ex-Graec... quod flammarum indicio longè videatur a navigantibus. An high tower on the Sea coaft, wherein was light to fhew the ready entrance for mariners to the haven.

(Ship)
He that draweth a fhip or barge by a rope, or that drawith packs into a flip, Helciarius, m
He that ruleth the fore-deck of a fhip. Proreta, m.”
[A Copious Dictionary in Three Parts, 2nd ed., Gouldman, 1669]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Dec 21 - 06:24 AM

“They that will appear in the Quality of Diffenters, muft ftem the violent Current of prevailing Example, inveterate Cuftom, whilft others have nothing to do but skull away with the Tide, when it comes in, with the Celeufma of Queen-hithe, Weftward hoe, Lambeth hoe!...”
[Melius Inquirendum, Alsop, 1679]


Celeume, the fhout of noife that Mariners make when they weigh anchor, or do any Office in the fhip with joyned ftrength.”
[A Dictionary of Barbarous French, Miege, 1679]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Dec 21 - 06:25 AM

“O! HISSE. O! Halle; ô! Saille ô! Ride. Tous ces termes font criez par un homme dans de certains travaux; mais en différens tems, foit qu’il faille hiffer quelque chofe, la haller , la pouffer, ou la rider. Ce cry fe fait pour faire réünir toutes les forces des travailleurs afin d’agir de concert; car lorfque celui qui donne la voix prononce un O, avec une voix traînante, chacun fe prépare pour l’effort qu’il faudra faire, & en achevant le mot, comme, Hiffe, tous travaillent à la fois.

SAILLE. Eft un mot du commun des matelots, qui eft prononcé par plufieurs joins enfemble, enélevant, ou pouffant quelque chofe.

UN, DEUX, TROIS. C’eft jufqu'à ce nombre que compte celuy qui donne la VOIX pour faire haler la Bouline.

VOIX. à la voix. C'est être à la portée de la voix.

A la VOIX. Se dit encore commé un commandement que l'on fait a
quelques gens de l’Equipage, pour les faire travailler à la fois, lors qu’on donne la Voix.

Donner la VOIX. Cela fe dit d’un homme qui avertit par un cri articule, du travail que plufieurs hommes doivent faire. Voiez ô hiffe &c.”
[Dictionaire des Terms Propres de Marine, Desroches, 1687]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Dec 21 - 02:36 PM

Back to before the beginning, two thousand four hundred years… and counting. Anybody want to try posting the original Greek text for Heave ho!...?

PEACE” c.421BC (Aristophanes)

HERMES
(to the Chorus) Now at my signal, everyone, start hauling, and pull on those ropes!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!

CHORUS
Heave!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!

CHORUS
Heave again!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!
Heave ho!

TRYGAEUS
Hey, these men aren’t pulling equally! Pitch in, there! How puffed up can you get? You’ll be sorry for this, you Boeotians!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!

CHORUS
Heave!

CHORUS LEADER
(to Hermes and Trygaeus) Come on you two, help us pull!

TRYGAEUS
(taking hold of a rope) Aren’t I pulling then, and hanging on, and falling to, and doing my best?

CHORUS LEADER
Then why is our work going nowhere?…

CHORUS LEADER
We’re getting nowhere, men. Come on, we’ve got to take hold and all pull together. Heave ho!

CHORUS
Heave!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!

CHORUS
Yes, heave! [sic]

CHORUS LEADER
We’re moving it only a little.

TRYGAEUS
Well, isn’t it awfully absurd that some of you are going all out, while others are pulling the opposite way? You’re looking to get whacked, you Argives!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!

CHORUS
Heave!

CHORUS LEADER
We’ve got some malcontents here.

TRYGAEUS
Those of you who itch for peace, at least you’re hauling bravely.

CHORUS LEADER
There still are some who hinder us.

HERMES
Men of Megara, why don’t you go to hell? The goddess remembers you with hatred, for you were the first to daub her with your garlic. And to the Athenians I say: stop hanging on to where you’re now pulling from; you’re accomplishing nothing but litigation. If you really want to pull this goddess free, retreat a little seaward.

TRYGAEUS
Come on, men, let us farmers take hold, all by ourselves.

HERMES
Look, men, you’ve got the job moving along much better.

TRYGAEUS
He says the job’s moving along! Now everyone put your heart into it!

HERMES
Look, the farmers are pulling it off, and nobody else.

CHORUS LEADER
Come on now, come on, everyone!

HERMES
Yes, we’re nearly there now!

CHORUS LEADER
Now let’s not slacken, let’s instead
exert ourselves more manfully still!

HERMES
There she comes!

The eccyclema gradually emerges through the central door, bearing the statue of Peace and her attendants, Cornucopia and Holiday.

CHORUS
Heave now, heave, all!
Heave, heave, heave now!
Heave, heave, heave all!...”
[Henderson, ed., Aristophanes II, Clouds, Wasps & Peace, (Cambridge: Harvard U. Press, 1998)]

Note: Original Greek text on alternate pages omitted here.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Dec 21 - 02:43 PM

Back to the 17th century and the 'ol Greek ululatu is still soldiering on in fine proceleusmatic style:

“XXV. Itaque nonnulli miferarum reliquiarum in montibus deprehenfi acervatim jugulabantur: alii fame confecti accedentes, manus hoftibus dabant in ævum fervituri, fi tamen non continuo trucidarentur, quod altiffimæ gratiæ ftabat in' loco: alii tranfmarinas petebant regiones, cum ululatu magno ceu celeufmatis vice, hoc modo fub velorum finibus cantantes: Dedifti nos tanquam oves efcarum, & in gentibus difperfifli nos Deus: alii à montanis collibus, minacibus praeruptis vallati, & denfiffimis faltibus, marinifque rupibus vitam, fufpecta. femper mente, credentes, in patria licet trepidi perftabant....

Navigantibus quoque eis de Gallia Britannicum mare cum beatæ memoriæ Wilfrido Epifcopo, canentibus Clericis & pfallentibus laudem Dei pro celeumate in choro, in medio mari validiffima tempeftas exorta eft, & venti contrarii, ficut difcipulis Jefu in mare Galilææ, erant.”
[Historiae Britannicae Saxonicae Anglo Danicae, Gale, 1691]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Dec 21 - 02:48 PM

Celeuma. ???e??µa
Cantus & clamor quo pariter laborantes fe excitant & animant ad ftrenuè agendum, v.g. Nautæ ad remigandum, milites ad pugnandum, Vinitores ad torcular premendum, vocatur Celeuma, Græcè ???e??µa, Hebraicè… Hedad. Vide Jerem. 25.v.30. cap.48.v.33. Cap 5E. v.14”
[Dictionarium in qvo Voces Omnes Difficiloris Significantionis, Bukentop, 1669]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Dec 21 - 02:50 PM

Like I said, no luck at all with the Greek. And it all looks so nice in preview... harrumpff! :/


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jan 22 - 10:05 PM

More R.N. thread drift.
Steve: I seem to be missing something here. Has the word 'chanty' however you spell it ever been used anywhere in a historical context to describe anything other than work SONG aboard merchant ships? Nothing personal about it as far as I can see. Your persistent desire to include other things under the term is commendable, but we would like to see some evidence.

Advent & Development thread: Please note that the focus here is not on the ancient origins of work-songs, shipboard or otherwise. It is not on the origins or earliest references to singing/chanting to coordinate labour at sea. [Gibb]

Whereas, please note that the focus here is on the origins of work-songs, shipboard or otherwise. It is on the references to singing/chanting to coordinate labour at sea;… to which I will add... ancient, early or late but in some semblance of chronological order, hopefully.

Where any one citation fits homework assignment, songbook or record shelf is up to the individual consumer.

For the record Steve. I do not know what a “chantey” is until I've learned: who is using the label; on what product and in what marketplace. Change any one of the three and the definition will change accordingly. I would think you have your genre/sub-genre backwards. Chantey is filed under celeusma not the other way around, but that's just me.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jan 22 - 10:09 PM

Only slightly out of sequence. Still in the 17th century, still not in English:

“In hanc explicationem huius metaphoræ aptiffime quadrat obferuatio Maldonati ad illa verba Ierem.48.num.33. Nequaquam calcator vua folitum celeuma cantabit. Hebraica enim ita reddas; non calcabit celeumate, celeuma non celeuma. Eft enim celeuma cantus, quo qui fimul laborant, vt remiges, aut qui calcant in torculari, fe ad contendendas vires, cohortari folent. Celeuma igitur non erit celeuma calcantium vuas, & præ alacritate animi, cantu fe incitantium ad laborem; fed erit celeuma hoftium cohortantium fe ad cædem. Ierem.25.num.30. Celeuma quafi calcantium concinetur aduerfus omnes habitatores terra. Et ?.51.num.14. Iurauit Dominus exercituum per animam fuam, quoniam replebo te hominibus, quafi brucho, & fuper te celeuma cantabitur. Loquitur enim de Babylone hominibus innumeris, perinde ac racemis, confertiffima: de Medis autem, & Perfis, tanquam de vindemiatoribus, fe ad calcandum torcular , fanguinémque effundendum, celeumate cohortantibus.”

Index:
“Cap.25.n.15. Sume calicem vini furoris huius de manu mea, & propinabis de illo cuncetis Gentibus. Deut.3n.309
n.i15. Bibent, & turbabuntur, & infanient. Nahum 2.n.49
n.30. Celeuma quafi calcantium concinetur aduerfus omnes habitatores terræ. Deut.32.n.311
num.39. Propterea ecce ego tollam vos portans. Nahum I.n.5

Cap.f51.n.7. Calix aureus Babylon in manu Domini inebrians omnein
terram. Nahum 2.n.49.50.51
n.14. Super te celeuma cantabitur. Deut.32.n.311
[Commentarii Exegetici Litterale, Deuteronom. Cap. XXXII, 1623, p.84]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jan 22 - 10:12 PM

Latin-to-French:
Enhort, ou Enhortemet Hortatio, Adhortatio, Cohortatio, Exhortatio, Suafio.
Enhortemet des mariniers ou autres ges que s'efforcet de faire quelque befonge. Celeuma, celeufmatis.
Celeufme, parolle Grecque, fignifiant le cry & acclamation des mariniers arriuant à port. Rentrans au per faluer vos perfections par ce celeufme; Virg, Chiff.”
[Le Grand Dictionaire François Latin, Augment, A-E, 1625]


“Celeusma dicitur clamor nauticus.
Celeuftes, qui remiges hortatur, quafi nauigationis moderator. Et Celeufma nauticus clamor dicitur. Budæus.
Helciarii, qui matores naus funih, trahunt canabinis aduerfus undas.”
[Officina Sive Theatrum Hisor et poeticum, 1626]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jan 22 - 10:14 PM

“I en efto no quiero fer creido fino lo rubrican i califican muchos fantos padres con autoridades de fus efcritos.

        sed quoniam è fcopulofis locis enaviganit oratio, & intersantas fpumeis fluctibus cantes fragilis in altum cimba proceffit, ex pandenda vela funt ventis, & quafitionum fcopulis transvadatis, & latantium more naviarum, epilogi celeuma cantandum eft.

Ya que mi oracion de los peligrofos efcollos fe ha efcapado, i por entre rocas candidas con las olas efpumofas fe ha metido en el golfo mi chalupa, quiero efplayar las ve las à los vientos, i pues è ya vadeado las peñas de las afperas queftiones, aguifa de retoçofos marineros, cantaré de mi epilogo el deffeado celeuma. Efto es de S. Geronimo à fu buen amigo S. Heliodoro.”
[Cartas Philologicas, Cascalas, 1634]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 23 Jan 22 - 10:08 AM

Happy to see chanty filed under a wider genre, as long as it retains its own autonomy for what we've already described. Basically I'm not interested in what modern day practitioners and commercial interests use it for. Its usage aboard merchant ships under certain conditions c1830 to c1920s is well documented and that's all I'm primarily interested in.
Having said that I'm glad someone like you is looking at a wider historical picture, and what the equivalents were in RN terms. Anyone vaguely interested in chanties will have a good idea of what they were and what they were used for.

I do advise you include explanations/translations with your posts as they mean very little to the majority of people on here.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jan 22 - 04:37 PM

Where are the threads for these terms and ideas? Before I created this new one I did a word search on Mudcat, Shanty wiki &c for Western Culture's historical salty antiphons and came up empty.

If I find translations/explanations/reviews in the document record, you can read them here & if anything Lucayan Archipelago or environs shows up, I'm your buttercup.

But I can't copypasta Greek. I have too much respect for Os Lusíadas &c to subject them to my fat-fingered, nonnative transliterations & “… it seems likely thats...”


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jan 22 - 04:39 PM

...Veftit faxea fylva per columnas.
Hinc agger fonat, hinc Arar refultat.
Hinc fefe pedes, atque eques reflectit,
Stridentum & moderator effedorum:
Curvorum hinc chorus helciariorum,
*Refponfantibus akkekuia ripis,
Ad Chriftum levat amnicum celeuma.
Sic fic pfallite nauta, vel, viator:
Namque ifte eft locus omnibus petendus,
Omnes quo via duciy ad falutem.


*Refponfantibus alleluya ripis] Dum nautæ, inquit, Alleluya decantant, id ipfum Echo in ripa refonat. Et cantici ergo lemma expreffit, voce ufus eft propria. Et cantici ergo lemma proprie celeuma carmen nauticum. Quod proinde qui canunt nautæ, ?e????te? Longo dicuntur lib. 3…. ubi & celeufma elegantiffme defcribit, & Echo in proxima valle, ut Sidonius in ripis, celeufmati, refponfantem. Sed celeumatis Sidoniani argumentum, Alleluya & Dei laudes erant. Quo more veters Chriftiani modulos fuos & cantica in Chrifti, San?torumque honorem fæpe vertebant. Ac ne a nautis difcedamus, Paulinus de reditu Nicetæ:
        Navitæ lati solitum celeufma
        Concinent verfis modulus in hymnos,
        Et pies ducent comites in aquor
                Vocibus auras
.
[Jacobi Sirmondi Opera Varia, 1696]

Note: More Martial recycled into popular music, such as it exists c.1700AD.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jan 22 - 04:40 PM

“PAUSARIUS, qui remigibus modos dabat, & remigandi officium quadam quafi pausâ moderabatur, olim dictus eft: Senecæ Keleuste. Nam in navi fuiffe Symphoniacos, qui celeufma remigibus canerent, & per affam vocem, i.e. ore, prolatam, illorum laborem demulcerent, ex Afconio ad divin. Cicer. docet Pignorius Comm. de Servis. In Argo fanè navi, teftatur Hyginus, Orphea per citharam celeufma nioderatum effe, quod & tetigit Valerius Flaccus Argonauticon l. m. v. 470.
        Nec verò Othryfius t?anftris impenditur Orpheus,
        Aut pontum remo fubigit, fed carmime tonfus
        Ire docet, fummo paffim ne gurgite pugnent.

Vide quoque eundem eod l. v. 184. Martialem l. 4. Epigram. 64. Rutilium Numatianum l. 1. &c. Nauticum hoc carmen, nauticus cantus Ciceroni eft, Nauticus clamor Virgilio Æn.l. 3. v. 128, Celeufma aliis: quod hodie, Italorum moribus, voce vel parvâ fiftulà nautis accini, Pignorius fuprà memoratus tradit. Aliam vocis notionem vide fuprà.”
[Lexicon Vniversale, Vol.III, Hofmanni, 1698]

"Via, via, cheerly mates!” [footnote to definition of the celeusma, Lexicon Universal, Hofmanni, 1698]


A minor bit of 'cheerly' fluff for Reidler's nautical themes in pop entertainment:

“We fare better; cheerly, cheerly boys,
The fhip runs merrily; my Captain's melancholy,
And nothing cures that in him but a Sea-fight;
I hope to meet a faile boy, and a right one.”
[Double Marriage, Act I, Sc.I, The Comedies and Tragedies of Beaumont & Fletcher, 1647, p.26]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jan 22 - 05:49 PM

All apologies, checked my notes again. I didn't come up completely empty. No suprise the poster:

"Subject: RE: Spanish sea shanties
From: GUEST,Q
Date: 06 Mar 03 - 08:11 PM

Saloma is the Spanish word for chantey. Spanish dictionaries that I have all equate shanty with shack.
Unfortunately, saloma is a rather common name as well so it is hard to find saloma=chantey in Google."

Spanish, from when Spain was Hiberia. One of Western Culture's eleventeen conjugations of the prehistoric Greek keleusma.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 01:31 PM

My head hurts!

Just one more request: Can you please use a modern s when posting pre-1800 quotations? The old seraph s has long been out of use and only makes the reading difficult.

To any other readers, anybody following any of this?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Reinhard
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 01:49 PM

...if he only used the long 'ſ'. Replacing it with the totally different letter 'f' does not make a citation olde and authentic but wrong, dumb and boastful.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 01:56 PM

No interest in translating equals no interest in being understood - except by those exceptionally fluent in Latin and Greek.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 03:10 PM

It hurts when I do this... Don't do that.

So, no Mudcat threads with those relevant ideas & terms you three were already familiar with?

I transcribe. I'm not going to sing them for you either. Win some-lose some.

The historical terms and ideas here, however inaccessable, are not mine. When the sources change, the citations will change. Nobody speaks every language. 100% of the early material isn't going to be in English or use 20th century type. +99% of the planet doesn't care and never did. Oh well.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 05:45 PM

But the people here obviously do care and have an interest in what you are trying to do.

Even when using English you are far from clear. 'relevant ideas and terms'. What are you trying to say, in plain words please? Gibb and others have set out what boundaries are possible and have descriptions of chanties from the early 1800s onwards up to when these songs were being used in the Gulf ports 1n the 1830s and their transference to shipboard. Influences from other genres. Up to when the term chanty was being used aboard ship. Plenty of contemporary references. What more do you want? I know Gibb is interested in what happened to the chanties once the English anthologists got hold of them and started making up bowdlerised texts, but I'm more interested in the contemporary history.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 09:02 PM

Steve: Even when using English you are far from clear. 'relevant ideas and terms'. What are you trying to say, in plain words please?.

Having said that I'm glad someone like you is looking at a wider historical picture, and what the equivalents were in RN terms. Anyone vaguely interested in chanties will have a good idea of what they were and what they were used for.

Your words. The R.N. is not shantying correct? So what do you and other shanty fanatics know about the wider historical picture for the period under discussion (<1700AD?) I got nothing when I checked, ergo this thread.

Y'all complain about Latin & Greek. Yet all the Greek and half the Latin is translated to English for you. I'm thinking this isn't about me.

Except for Reinhard. It proofs correct but posts "f" "s" "?" or "/." I gave up. No brag, just dumb and tired.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: RTim
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 10:54 PM

Phil is so unclear about everything......I am not really sure what he is trying to prove or disprove??
I can only assume he wants to prove that Chanties (by whatever spelling you prefer) - existed BEFORE 1830...but in doing so - he fills the pages of this "Blog" with Latin and Greek texts - which (I Think) nobody else can refute!
If he were to Simply say "Chanties" existed way before 1830.....he has to back that up with facts that everyone can understand...not make assumptions from "his" reading of long forgotten language and outdated texts.
Similarly.....It is widely accepted that Sung Shanties were NOT Performed on British Naval Ships, but that instruments were used instead! If he wishes to still call these "Chanties" - then that is an opinion that is not shared by most, if not all, the others who read these texts...

Whatever is your reason to be here reading this is personal - and Phil's views are also personal - that is obvious.....but please explain Why you are writing this - In plain English Please!!!
I also know - that whatever you say, it will NOT stop me singing these "songs" and I hope that others enjoys them as much as me....no matter why they feel the way they do....

Tim Radford (Who is more than silently pissed off at academic bullshit! Particularly when it is not necessary.) Yes - I did re-read this before posting..and still did!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 03:56 AM

RTim: but in doing so - he fills the pages of this "Blog" with Latin and Greek texts - which (I Think) nobody else can refute!

What Greek? And if you wish to refute the Latin-to-French, German or Spanish dictionary citations here, feel free to use the Latin-to-English dictionary citations here. Or vice versa. If you must insist on assigning me a label or side, make mine "undecided" or "neutral."

We'll get to 'your' shanty terms, glossary and ideas when we get there. For now, it's about others' not yours, apparently:
Lyr Add: Sea Shanties from 'The Complaynt' (1549)
Lyr Add: Howe! Hissa! (Shanty)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 04:12 AM

Moving on to the 18th. English-to-Latin as it happens:

“HAL.
A halfter (he which haleth and draweth a fhip or barge along the river by a rope) Helciarius, ii, m.
And halfer (a rope wherewith Barks or boats are towed or haled along ?ome channel or river) Helcium, ii, n.

ROW
A rower of a Ship, Remex, igis, m.
The mafter Rower, Paufarius, ii, m.

SHIP
He that draweth a Ship or Barge by a Rope, or that draweth Packs into a Ship, Helciarius,ii,m.
Ship Boy, Drudge or flave in a Ship, Mefonauta, æ, m.
Pole belonging to a Ship, Contus, i, m.”
[The Law-French Dictionary, 1701]

Note, see above re: chorus helciarorum, hobby horses &c.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 04:59 AM

For the record, I don't speak either language any better than island Creole:

“HALER. Haalen.
C’eft tirer, ou pefer de toute fa force fur un cable, ou fur une manœuvre, pour la faire bander ou roidir. Quand les matelots halent fur une manœuvre il faut qu’ils donnent la fecouffe au cordage tout d’un même tems, pour le bander avec plus de force; & afin de concerter le tems de cette fecouffe le Contre-maître, ou quelque autre, dit à haute voix ce mot, Hale. Tout-de-même quand il fait haler fur une bouline le Contre-maître les fait tenir prêts par ces trois paroles, favoir, Un, Deux; Trois; &c au mot de Trois ils donnent tous, d’un commun éfort, la fecouffe à la bouline. Quandles matelots qui font cette cette manœuvre, veulent railler les Oficiérs de la marine, ils prononcent eux-mêmes trois autres paroles, & au-lieu de dire, Un, Deux, Trois, ils difent, Capitaine, Lieutenant, Enfeigne. En manœuvrant les couëts, on crie auffi trois fois, Amure; &c pour l’écoute on crie trois fois, Borde; & au troifiême cri on hale furla manœuvre.

O! Hiffe, O! Hale, O! Saille! O! Ride. Dus roept-men na’t volk, om de handt aan’t werk te flaan.
Tous ces termes font criez par un matelot, dans de certains travaux, mais en différens tems, foit-qu’il faille hiffer quelque chofe, ou la haler, ou la poufler, ou rider. Ce cri fe fait pour faire réünir toutes, les forces des travailleurs, afin d’agir de concert; car lors-que celui qui donne la voix prononce un O! avec une voix lente, chacun fe prépare pour l’éfort qu’il faudra faire, & en achevant le mot, comme par éxemple, Hiffe, tous travaillent à la fois.

SAILLE. Set aan.
C’eft un mot en ufage parmi les matelots, qui eft prononcé par plufieurs enfemble, en élevant ou pouffant quelque fardeau.

UN, DEUX, TROIS. Een, Twee, Drie.
Celui qui donne la voix pour faire haler la bouline crie à haute voix, Un, Deux , Trois, & au dernier mot les travailleurs font leur éfort. Voiez, Haler, & Voix.

VOIX. A la Voix. Soo digt-by dat men malkanderen kan hoorem ?preeken, dai men bequaamelijk met malkanderen kan ?preeken.
C’e?t être à la portée de la voix.

A LA VOIX. Luiftert na commando.
Cela fe dit encore comme un commandement que l’on fait aux gens de l’équipage, pour les faire travailler à-la-fois, lors-qu’on donne la voix.

DONNER la Voix. Het woordt fpreeken.
Cela fe dit d’un homme qui avertit par un cri articulé, afin-que les gens ocupez à ce travail faffent leurs éforts tous à-la-fois. Voiez, Ho, Hiffe, &c.”
[Dictionnaire de Marine, Brunel, 1702]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:17 AM

The methodology isn't worthy of the word:
1. I don't know shanties. Keleusma I know.
2. Search keyword: keleusma.
3. Review returns for definitive keywords.
4. Rinse, repeat. I've got about one hundred at present.
5. Sort & post returns by date. Job done.

My only 'argument' or 'position,' if you insist, is: a given maritime work song literary reference appeared in year [X.] If your difficulty is with anything else, it's not about me.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:28 AM

Testing, testing 1-2-3: Okay Reinhard, all the Hebrew, Greek and long form French previews just fine. Let's see how it posts:

"???? D'où vient ???? Hedad, bruit, clameur de ceux qui pillent une une ville, ou la campagne: ou qui foulent les rai?ins dans le pre??oir: où l'un excite l'autre au travail avec joye & allégre??e: comme les Grecs parlent de leur ?e?e?sµa, cri de marine: & les Latins de leur Eleleu, cri de guerre, Jer. 5 1. 14. E?aie 16.9, 1 I. Jer.25.3o & 48.33. Ezech.7.7 C'e?t le cri de ceux qui foulent aupre??oir (dit Rabbi David) par lequel ils s'exhortent mutuellement. Saint Jerôme l'explique tantôt par la voix, c'e?t à dire, par le cridont nous venons de parler; tantôt par le celeu?ma, qui veut dire le cri des pilotes. Lentos tingitis ad celeu?ina remos. Martialis. Vous ne faites que mouiller foiblement vos rames à la voix des Pilotes Il y en a qui rapportent ce mot Hébreu à la racine Jadah; qui veut dire jetter, comme qui diroit que l'on jette une voix gaye & libre, & peut-être au??i mêlée de brocards, & de railleries. Menoch de Republ Hebr. l.7. c.8. voyez en davantage dans ce même Auteur.”
[Dictionaire de la Langue Sainte, Leigh, 1703, pp.148-149]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:31 AM

Test fail. If I can ever fix that, y'all might actually have Greek text to complain about.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Howard Jones
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:38 AM

Phil, I have followed this and similar threads with increasing bafflement. I simply cannot fathom just what it is you are trying to say, whether it's about shanties or maritime work songs in general.

It's great that you are researching maritime work song, and looking at other periods of time and other cultures than simply the 19th century Anglo-American shanty tradition. However you appear to be using Mudcat mainly as a dump for your raw data, which is untranslated and often presented without comment. When you do comment, it is often written in such an oblique style that it is unclear what your point is.

May I respectfully suggest that you complete your research and then present us with your findings? We might then be able to have an interesting and fruitful discussion, which none of the current threads seem to be able to provide.

Looking back, I see that Steve Gardham requested something similar as long ago as July 2020.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Iains
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 08:07 AM

http://www.sagaconference.org/SC03/SC03_Perkins.pdf

Make of it what you will!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 10:22 AM

Interesting, Iain.
His theories are plausible enough as they are applied to rowing chants which are pretty universal anyway. His knowledge of chanties however, seems a little thin. His one example he gives is 'The Mermaid' which might have been used as a chanty at some point but was certainly not from the main corpus and is more of a forebitter, with broadside origins.

He seems to have missed a trick presented to us by Gibb, in that a few early rowing chants/songs of the Georgia islands can be directly related to some of the earliest chanties (Sally Brown & Grog time o' day).


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 02:18 PM

Howard: However you appear to be using Mudcat mainly as a dump for your raw data, which is untranslated and often presented without comment. When you do comment, it is often written in such an oblique style that it is unclear what your point is.

Me: My only 'argument' or 'position,' if you insist, is: a given maritime work song literary reference appeared in year [X.] If your difficulty is with anything else, it's not about me.

We're having a belligerent agreement. I accept "raw data," in a spectrum of languages, is of no intrinsic value to most readers. No offence taken. Obviously y'all cannot say the same. Those months-of-the-year song list threads must really grind your teeth!

To repeat: Mark me down as 'undecided' & 'no comment' on findings now. This way your needs to refute findings I've not found in Greek text I've not posted will fall back on you where they clearly belong.

I'd be confused too, if I were you.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 03:29 PM

Clarity: What are these comments about the data (who, what, where, when, why) y'all are having problems understanding? If it's the data, maybe it can be improved. If it's my opinion of your opinion of Greek text I've never posted, lucidity is right off the menu.

Translations: I'm probably less incapable of translation than y'all but obviously more motivated. My rough count:

A little over half my data posts here are in English. The remainder are split between Dutch, French, German, Classic & Vulgar Latin, Portuguese and Spanish. Roughly half this remainder are translations themselves but not always to English.

IMNSHO: Insisting on others providing English translations of Latin-to-French, German or Spanish dictionaries is a purely emotional need. It's not really about the data.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 03:33 PM

CELEUSMA, cri de plu?ieurs per?onnes, chant de réjouï??ance que font les Mariniers quand ils prennent port,ou qu'ils aprochent de la Terre. Ilen e?t parlé en trois endroits de la Prophetie de Jeremie, Rugiens rugiet ?uper decorem ?uum: Celeu?ma qua?i calcantium concinetur, adversùs omnes habitatores terra, fai?ant allu?ion aux chan?ons de ceux qui foulent les rai?ins, ch.25.v. 3o. Dans le ch.48.v.33. il dit qu'il a ôté toute la joïe du Carmel, qu'il a fait répandre le vin des pre??oirs, & que celui qui foule les rai?ins, ne chantera plus ces cantiques acoûtumez. Nequaquam calcator uva folitum Celeufma tantabit.”
[Le Grand Dictionaire de la Bible, Vol.I, Certe, 1703]

Note: Bit of a rehash of Calvin, Old Testament, hedad &c. See previous.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: RTim
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 04:06 PM

He can't stop!!....now rehashing french text (I am NOT going to waste time checking any earlier posts!!)...all without translation. This last post adds NOTHING. I am not going to look at anymore of this...

Tim Radford.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:11 PM

Which bit of that last French/Latin copy refers to song accompanying task? I can follow most of the French. Arriving in port or approaching land. it appears to refer to rejoicing rather than accompanying any work. Perhaps the Latin bits refer to work.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:23 PM

RTim: Chill! FYI I've provided you with the accepted period English expert translations of Calvin. How you find what you find when you can't (French) and won't (English) read the "raw data" is not about me or this thread.

If you don't object to "raw data" songbook index threads with untranslated song titles, this thread should not be a problem for you.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:43 PM

Steve: That would be my rough take on it as well. Have you read the Calvin stuff? It's Hebrew-Greek-French etymology/crossovers in the Old Testament vinter's shouts; the psalms hedads and the mariner's celeusma.

We've had a similar exchange previously in the Howe Hissa! thread, you & I. There are other citations to come. "It seems likely that..." the Protestant and Catholic churches were to the celeusma what minstrelsy & pop was to become to the shanty. And just as hard to tell which one you might be looking at from a distance.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:53 PM

Steve: Last one got clipped. You are now my French expert, congrats. Is there any "offical" shanty or Mudcat glossary for what's going on in Dictionnaire de Marine?

Those should tie in to an Advent & Develpment post sometime fairly soon, if it didn't already get lost in the shuffle.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 06:01 PM

See my remarks above, 10 March 2020, 10:43 a.m.

And th-th-th-th-that's all, folks!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 06:12 PM

Just to be clear, I'm misusing "shanty" glossary. What are the c.1700AD translations/keywords for the same English merchant marine practices (I'm assuming) that I can add to the current search routines?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 07:23 PM

Lighter 2020: Speaking strictly for myself. The current subject is not shanties and is not to be lumped in with shanties. Do we not agree? I think we do.

From my OP:
"A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a genre of traditional folk song that was once commonly sung as a work song to accompany rhythmical labor aboard large merchant sailing vessels. They were found mostly on British and other European ships, and some had roots in lore and legend. The term shanty most accurately refers to a specific style of work song belonging to this historical repertoire. However, in recent, popular usage, the scope of its definition is sometimes expanded to admit a wider range of repertoire and characteristics, or to refer to a "maritime work song" in general." [wiki]

Hence the thread title. The lore and legend genre and mariner's general work song glossary c.400BC-1700AD used the other terms and definitions cited here. They were not to be found on Mudcat, until now. What is it you object to, or wish to refute <1703AD?

If the 1800s sources lump them all together, you'll read it here. If not, no worries eh?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Jan 22 - 12:41 AM

Took me a minute to find it. Stepping back into the 17th century just a bit:

“...And hence the Land is filled with those loud Celeusmata's*, which summons all hands to pull down the Church, and lay it even with the ground; and pitty it is, but that Church which is so great a Canibal, were so dealt with.”
[The Case of Persecution, Charg'd on the Church of England, consider'd and discharg'd, in order to her justification, and a desired union of Protestant dissenters, Long, 1689]
*Celeusmata is the plural of celeusma. Celeusmata's I'm not sure.

Nothing to do with the maritime or work song per se but one usage that came to straight to mind when the 'banning' of lyrics & chanting came up in the R.N. thread.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST
Date: 26 Jan 22 - 04:28 AM

To be honest, it's not the Dutch, French, German, Classic & Vulgar Latin, Portuguese, Spanish, Hebrew or Greek I'm struggling with; it's Phil's English that I find quite baffling.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 26 Jan 22 - 02:39 PM

'They were found mostly on British and other European ships'<<<<<

I think Gibb would have something to say about that. I think a more accurate statement would be they were published mostly in British anthologies. Evidence would suggest that at least half the references are of American origin and that's certainly where they originated, and indeed onshore. the first use of the word 'chantyman' as a worksong leader was for a stevedore in the Gulf ports.

Wiki seriously needs an update!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 02:02 AM

Perigrination: A voyage, esp. an extensive one.

Steve: Seconded on the wiki. I'm no fan. And here we see people complaining about too little c.1700 English while New Orleans is neolithic. It's been a weird timeline so far, methinks we ain't seen nuttin' yet.

Here's another example of those short, spontaneous sacred chants laid over the longer generic rowing tempos.

“Ventis vela dantur, tum carina undis fertur, dextra lævaque æque tenduntur rudentes, navis etiam clavo fuo imperiofe deducitur. Modo etiam celeuma canunt nautæ, nunc aliquibus modis exfultant, nunc ludus verbis agitur, nunc carum convitium objicitur.”
[Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti, Vol.II, D'Archery, Mabillon, Ruinart, 1701]

Note: One should be able to limp by on copypasta and Google translate with the above.

Mystery Guest: Offered to clarify any examples. Still waiting.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 02:32 AM

Re Perkins: Brünnhilde’s operatic battle cry is likely more German than Norse. Best guess, Perkin's period under discussion would include the Columbanus citations above. That will get you from Ireland to Germany at least. Note the authorship/provenance issues mentioned.

Whomever, the Germanic imagery will get mashed up with the older Norse legends in various mid-19th century Wagner opera. See also: Piratical Debauchery, Homesick Sailors and Nautical Rhythms, Reidler, 2017. (same problems there as wiki tho.)

Proper citations to follow when we get there.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 03:19 AM

Just by the numbers, complaynts notwithstanding, the English are actually doing okay here so far. The Americans however:
1492 - Columbus' log and Salve Regina. They never visited on the Mainland proper.
1627 - Smith and the Vea, vea, vea, vea, vea galley chant in the Virginia colonies.

Did I miss anything American mentioned elsewhere on Mudcat? Anyone have anything else <1700s? In any language or application?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Mystery Guest
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 06:04 AM

Now I've put something in the "From" box, am I any less mysterious than "Phil d'Conch"

"Proper citations to follow when we get there"?

"We"? I suspect you're travelling alone most of the time, Phil.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 11:02 AM

Phil,
You appear to be jumping about from your wider references to 'chanty' itself. Please distinguish between the two otherwise you lose all of us.
Anything before 1800 has no relation to 'chanty' historically. The rowing songs of the Georgia Islands c1820 have so far not been related back to African rowing chants or any others in text or tune, whilst that is always a possibility. It is more likely that the rowing songs relate to river songs and field hollers from southern slaves. As far as I'm aware these are not African related in text but are almost always in English. The main impetus for shipboard chanties came from the Gulf Ports cotton screwers c1830.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,jag
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 11:48 AM

What makes maritime work songs in general distinct from heaving/hauling/pushing work songs in general? In the case of chanteys the *connections* to work on shore seems important.

"1-2-3-pull" can be effective but might make dull work duller.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 02:16 PM

Me: Speaking strictly for myself. The current subject is not shanties and is not to be lumped in with shanties. Do we not agree? I think we do.

Steve: How can I say it with more clarity? Or do you disagree? I keep asking for Mudcatters' <1700AD salty job titles and glossary. Perhaps it would be better if you explained to me why lump c1700 maritime work song in general with shanties or is it vice versa?

Again: The only critical attribute is a nautical glossary. The only sort order is publishing date. The only 'hopping' is for ommissions and later English translations. I think it's your urges for "findings" never on offer that confuse you.

Again: If the 1800s sources lump it all together, you will read it here. If not, no worries. Either way, I'm the librarian, not the professor.

Shanties are "found" alpha-by-author in Music, under Folk, that's between Secular Choral and Popular and that's not my 'opinion' either.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 02:34 PM

Jag: See Dictionnaire de Marine, Brunel, 1702 above and
UN, DEUX, TROIS. Een, Twee, Drie. Capitaine, Lieutenant, Enfeigne.
(!!!)

Ever heard of any similar c.1700 English phrases? They'll get all manner of labels in the late 1800s and early 1900s but... what the c1700 English mariner called them I haven't found yet.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 03:03 PM

We have several terms for these short co-ordination chants. The most common ones other than regulated RN ones are often referred to as 'sing outs' nowadays, although the word 'sing' is perhaps misleading. It is very likely that they were such simple things that they didn't have a term for them c1700, though undoubtedly they used them. Some combination of 'heave-o' or 'hauly-hi-oh' I have seen mentioned. I'm sure people like Gibb who have studied this in greater detail have examples.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jan 22 - 08:08 PM

One minor conting song mention (leadsman.) 18th century “Cotton screwing” in the R.N. and capstan driven rowing engines:

“BOATSWAIN, is a Ship-Officer, to whom is committed the Charge of all the Tackling, Sails, and Rigging, Ropes, Cables, Anchors, Flags, Pendants, &c. He alfo calls out the feveral Gangs and Companies aboard, to the due Execution of their Watches, Works, and Spells, &c.

BOATSWAIN’s-MATE, has the peculiar Command of the Long-Boat, for the fetting forth of Anchors, Weighing or fetching Home the Anchor, Warping, Towing, or Mooring; and to give an Account of his Store.

Heave the Lead; that is, to Sound, or to find where the Ship may fail, by the Depth of Waters. He that Heaves the Lead, ftands by the Horfe, or in the Chains, and fings the Depth he finds.

ROWING-engine ...A Wheel is fitted to the Drum-head of the Cap-ftan, whofe Teeth turn a Trundle-head, thro’ which an Iron-bar is run that reaches a-crofs, and goes thro’ the Ship-Side; and on its Ends without Board, at a convenient Diftance from the Side of the Ship, are faften’d two Drum-heads, like that on the Capftan in which are fitted fix or eight Paddles, fo as to be taken out at Pleafure. And at the outermoft Ends of the Paddles is faften’d an Iron-Pin, with a Head on it: by which means, and by the Help of a Cord, taking a half Turn round about all thefe Pins, both the Paddles may be twifted, or ftrain’d and ftrengthen’d fo, that they fhall all work proportionably; and alfo the Paddles may, with a Luff-Tackle, be the more handily and eafily lifted in and out, in order to be fitted into, or taken out of the Drum-heads of the Bar. Now if the Paddle's be made proportionably large, according to the Number of Men that can be brought to the Capftan, who if they but work, the Veffle may make very good Way in fmooth Water

STEEVING, is alfo a Word ufed by Merchant men, when they ftow Cotton, or Wool, which is forc’d in with Screws; this they call Steeving their Cotton, or Wool.”
[The Gentleman's Dictionary, Bonwicke, 1705]

Notes: Roughly the same evolution as keleusma-to-salomar &c.: stevazo (Greek,) stipare (Latin,) estivador (Portuguese,) estibador (Spanish,) Stevedore (English.) So far, the steeving task appears well before job English titles, chants &c. Stevedore (etymology)

The rowing engine is typical for early mechanical propulsion experiments prior to the 19th & steam.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 03:02 AM

Companion to the previous:

“...Steeving is likewise ufed by Merchants when they ftow Cotton or Wool, which being forced in with skrews, they call Steeving their Cotton or Wool.”
[Seaman's Grammar & Dictionary, Smith, 1691]

Note: I've kept the above apart from the earlier Virginia Colony stuff. It doesn't appear in the volumes published during Smith's lifetime. The 1691 edition was revised and updated by “B.J.”


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 09:11 AM

That's somewhat more useful to our studies, Phil. 'Steeving' is particularly relevant. Now what would be great would be some early references to singing whilst steeving, as we are fairly certain that one of the main sources for chantying was screwing/steeving cotton.

Taking the term back thus far is very useful. Thank-you!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Iains
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 01:57 PM

Two Years Before the Mast is a memoir by the American author Richard Henry Dana Jr., published in 1840, (Available Gutenberg Press)
page 102 has a description of steeving hides into the ship and the whole crew bowsed the tackles home with a song.

" Two long, heavy spars, called steeves, made of the strongest wood, and sharpened off like a wedge at one end, were placed with their wedge ends into the inside of the hide which was the centre of the book, and to the other end of each, straps were fitted, into which large tackles were hooked, composed each of two huge purchase blocks, one hooked to the strap on the end of the steeve, and the other into a dog, fastened into one of the beams, as far aft as it could be got. When this was arranged, and the ways greased upon which the book was to slide, the falls of the tackles were stretched forward, and all hands tallied on, and bowsed away until the book was well entered; when these tackles were nippered, straps and toggles clapped upon the falls, and two more luff tackles hooked on, with dogs, in the same manner; and thus, by luff upon luff, the power was multiplied, until into a pile in which one hide more could not be crowded by hand, an hundred or an hundred and fifty were often driven in by this complication of purchases. When the last luff was hooked on, all hands were called to the rope—cook, steward, and all—and ranging ourselves at the falls, one behind the other, sitting down on the hides, with our heads just even with the beams, we set taut upon the tackles, and striking up a song, and all lying back at the chorus, we bowsed the tackles home, and drove the large books chock in out of sight."


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 02:12 PM

Needless to say, if anybody finds anything new or I leave out an existing Mudcat mention "...in general," please do post it here.

Teaser alert: My earliest 'steeving/skrewing chant' so far is from a British source. It's extempore verse, call-and-response but has no English, American or cotton and moves the existing timeline back hardly at all. Still searching.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 08:38 PM

“The Officers in the Navy were the Præfectus Claffis, or Admiral, and fometimes the Duumviri when two were join'd in Commiffion, together with the Trierarchus, or Captain of a particular ship, most properly of the Trireme; the Gubernator, or Mafter; the Celeuftes, or Boatfwain, and others of inferior Note.”
[Romæ Antiquæ Notitia: Or, The Antiquities of Rome, Kennett, 1696]

Note: I'll add one of these in every so often to reflect how the locals were interpreting the old job titles for themselves.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 08:40 PM

Show biz clamor nauticus:

“Now, being on Board, I made Observation
Of Something relating to Navigation:
For up came the Boatswain, with Countenance stern,
With a great Pair of Whiskers, and a Mouth like a Churn,
He lug'd out his Whistle, and up came the Sailers,
And all Hands aloft as nimble as Taylors:
There was Toe-le-ho, and, Boys heave away,
Whilst another was tearing his Throat with, Belay;
Then Haul Cat, Haul A damnable Yawling;
The Boatswain a Swearing, the Master a Bawling,
Helm-a-lee, ye Landlubbered Loobies;
Let go the Fore-Bowlings, ye Fresh-Water Boobies;
Haul Aft the Main-Sheet, ye Lump of a Dog,
Whist another was Singing a Tune to the Log….”
[Pax in Crumena: Or, The Trooper Turn'd Poet, Rands, 1714]

Note: It doesn't end there and, with a few minor updates, it's a serviceable 1800s American minstrel show.

Abaft the binnacle! Hatch the mizzen! Abandon ship! [Capt. Crunch]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 30 Jan 22 - 01:27 PM

Okay, at least some of these commands look genuine as observed, rather than all made up fun and games. The only slight relation to men singing at their tasks is the use of the word 'Singing' in your last line, presumably referring to the singing out of depths by the man with the lead line. Perhaps if you post the next line we can be better informed on that one. The practice was often referred to as singing which probably stems from the fact that this was such a boring but necessary task and the crew member sang it to relieve the boredom. If it is this, it doesn't relate in any way to call and response, unless other crew members were relaying the depths to other parts of the vessel.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 Jan 22 - 05:51 PM

Steve: Are the job titles keywords? Is the reference title, author and date correct? If yes, job done.

fwiw: I take it as a comedy. I wouldn't go deeper on Monty Python than: if audiences were not familiar with knights & castles, I fart in your general direction, isn't funny to them. It was never about real chemcial warfare in the first place.

PS: Look at your post history here. One gets the impression you're not looking or expecting to contribute period relevant sources. Fair?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,jag
Date: 30 Jan 22 - 06:15 PM

"often referred to as singing which probably stems from the fact that this was such a boring but necessary task and the crew member sang it to relieve the boredom."

The elongated vowels give clarity. Try it over a distance or against the sound of wind or sea.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Iais
Date: 31 Jan 22 - 04:40 PM

If in shallow water it was critical to know the depth and it had to be relayed clearly in case action needed to be taken.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_H70Ap07bE

"For riverboat workers on the Mississippi, however, there was a time when sounding the water depth literally involved sound—you could even call it song. In 1939 Alan Lomax and Herbert Halpert, two well-known folklorists, recorded Joe Shores, a 52-year old river pilot for a ferryboat that ran between Greenville, Mississippi and Arkansas City, Arkansas performing what is called a “sounding call.” In the recording Shores slowly chants or sings out verses of terms for the depth of the water:

    No bottom, / Mark four, / Quarter less four, / Quarter less five, / Half twain, / Quarter twain…

    Quarter less four, / Half twain, / Quarter twain, / Mark twain, / Quarter less twain, / Nine and a half feet, / Nine feet, / Eight and a half feet."


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 Jan 22 - 05:02 PM

I don't know the source but if I had read that from a broadside I'd say it looked genuine enough, although it appears to be a description by someone not familiar with the scene. Yes the job titles are genuine and the language could be of 1714. I can't see anything that would make it into comedy and I've studied so-called comic pieces of the period.

I'm certainly interested in relevant sources to chanty and proto-chanty, but not in other forms of assistance to work such as practised in the RN, or of religious singing aboard ship.

Any references I come across to shipboard worksong I note, but I have lots of other interests and I don't spend a lot of time looking for them, which is why I appreciate what you are trying to do and what Gibb and Jon do very well.

As far as I can glean the taking of soundings has been common practice for many centuries in all cultures. A local version close to where I live was taking soundings with a lead line on the Dogger Bank in the North Sea to find the lucrative fishing grounds, but as Iais says it was a crucial exercise when approaching land. 'By the deep ...

As


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:03 AM

Steve: I've been corrected since I posted Rands. Epistolary poetry, so I'm told:

“The epistolary form can add greater realism to a story, because it mimics the workings of real life. It is thus able to demonstrate differing points of view without recourse to the device of an omniscient narrator. An important strategic device in the epistolary novel for creating the impression of authenticity of the letters is the fictional editor.” [Epistolary novel]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:08 AM

“14. Il a juré par fon ame, par fa vie, par luy-même. Ie te rempliray d'hommes comme de fauterelles qui vont à troupes, pour marquer le grand nombre d'ennemis qui viendront fur luy, & la chanfon celeuma, par laquelle les foldats s'exhortent au combat, fera chantée fur toy.”
[L'Explication Selon le Sens Litteral des Cinq Livres de la Sagesse, 1680]

Notes: Marching song. Not nautical. Notable for where it appears IMO: Panchatantra.

Chantée = sung. Nothing to suggest any more to it.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:10 AM

“Celeufme, m.fignifie le cry & acclamation du Comite d'une galere, par laquelle il admonéte & exhorte les Galeriens, ou à travailler, ou à defifter du travail, 't Geroep van den Bevel-hebber, die de Galey boeven, op de Galeyen ofte Roey-fchepen zittende, tot het roeyen aenmaent, of ook altemets vermaent van 't roeyen op te houden.”
[Le Grand Dictionnaire Francois-Flaman, D'Arsy, 1682]

Schiffleut/ m.pl. hi Nautæ. Das gefchrei der fchiffleuten. Hoc. Celeu?ma, clamor nauticus.”
[Lexicon Quatuor Linguarum Latinæ Germanicæ Græcæ Gallicæ, Gürtlei, 1682]

Also: 1.5 pages on the “Alleluia” ending with the usual celeusma & chorus heliciariorum sources.
[Notizia De Vocaboli Ecclesiastici, Casarenghi, 1682]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:18 AM

“Celéuma, as Celóma.
Celóma, the Mariners Cry, when they tug at a Cable, weigh Anchor, or hoi?e Sails.
Gridáre, Gridacchináre, to cry, as a common cryer doth, to cal out, to ?hout, to hollow, to ?cream, to whine; al?o to proclaim aloud; al?o to chide, to braul, to ?cold, to contend in words.
Gridáre all'árme, to call to arms, to rai?e an alarm.
Gridatóre, a Cryer or common Cryer in a Market place.
Salpáre. to weigh or heave Anchors.
Salpatóre. a weigher or heaver of Anchors.
Sciáre, to wit, to ken, or know by Science; al?o to cry together with one voice or con?ent, as Marriners do when the hoi?e ?ails or heave anchor; al?o to cut or furrow the Sea or water as a ?hip under sail doth.
*Siáre, among Mariners, it is to cry all with one voice or con?ent, as they do when they hoi?e-?ails, heave anchor, or row and hale backward; al?o to make a hor?e or oxe ?tay or go backward with the Carter's voice, as our Country-clowns u?e to cry, Hay, Haitor, Hoa.
*Sia, sia, be it, be it, among Mariners or Water-men, to will, or to encourage one to row backward, or to help, to hale and heave anchor.
*Siázza, the crying of Mariners together, to encourage one another.
[Vocabolario Italiano & Inge?e: A Dictionary, Italian and English, Florio, 1690]

Note: Revised & expanded from 1659ed., above.
The gridatóre is the future French-Caribbean griot of calypso. The grievance theme is also present.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:21 AM

celóma, le cry des mariniers, quand ils veulent ancrer.
celomáre, la crierie des mariniers.
[Dittionario Italiano, E Francese, Oudin, 1693]


“CELEUSMA, atis. n. Afeon. Pæd. of Celeuma, atis. n. Mart. Keleusma. Een bevel, of teeken, 'r welk de bevelhebberen aan matroozen en roeyers met monde, of een fleuitje gaven, om dit of dat fcheepswerk te doem. Sommige zeggen, dat dit het geluid is, welk de roeyers te gelijk geven, om te toonen dat zy alle vaardig zijn, en om den anderen tot volvoeringe van het bevolene aan te potren.”
[Dictionarium Latino-Belgicum, 1699]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:24 AM

“CELEUSTES. Operæ precium fa?turus videor, ?i hanc etiam vocem cum remigis ?ignificantione explicem. Celeu?tes autem dicitur, qui remiges hortatur, qua?i navigationis moderator: qui à Plauto Latine hortator appellatur, quod ea hortmenta faciat, quæ verbo Græco celeuƒmata dicuntur etiam à Latinis. Hoc vero celeu?ma, quod celeuma dicitur, in navibus cla??iariis affa voce interdum, interdum tibia canebatur, ita ut remiges pro modulorum atque harmoniæ ratione vel concitarent, vel inhiberent remos. Pædianus autor eft, canni remigibus celeuma per ?ymphoniacos ?ervos ?olitum olim e??e, & per a??iam vocem: id e?t, ore prolatam, & (ut in Argo navi) interdum per citharam. Cicero in Verr. A?t. i. Ab hac muliere Præfe?tus Antonii quidam ?ymphoniacos ?ervos abducebat per injuriam, quibus ?e in cla??e uti velle dicebat. Quem locum Ciceronis A?con. P?dianus exponens: Po??umus, ?aquit, intelligere ad hoc ?ymphoniacos ?ervos capi ?oler, ut in cla??e cla??icum pugnantibus canant: undeip?fitubæ cla??is, cla??icum nomen e?t po?itum/
        CELEUMA ITEM, ut nautæ, faciunt Helciarii: id e?t, qui onera funibus moliuntur: vel qui naves deducunt, ?ubducuntue, ad officia invicem ?e?e adhortantes, ut uno connixu pariter con?pirantes, admoliri univer?is viribus po??int, quod ?ingulis nequent: ut ?ieri ?æpe vidimus Venetiis in loco, qui lingua Veneta Douana vulgo appellatur.”
[Thesaurus Graecarum Antiquitatum, Gronovio, 1701]

Note: Forgot to post the wiki with the previous mention - Cithara (also – kithera.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:25 AM

“Hortator nautarum, remigium: Celeu?tes, e: ?ive is. Budaus. Navigationis ?cil. Moderator, qui remiges ?igno vocali exhortatur: Pau?arius. Sen. idem cum Celeu?te, ni?i dicamus hunc e??e, quem vulgus nauticum appellat, Sottocomito. Et qui requiemq; modumque Voce dabat remis animotrum hortator Epopeus. Ovid.3.met Ma?tx nauticus; nam ferè coa?tos remiges ma?tige ad nautica compellit opera, Aguzino di galera.
[Synonymorum, Epithetorum & Phrasium, Serræ,1701]

Note: Aguz(z)ino can translate as either “officer” or “torturer.” Eek!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:27 AM

Identical definitions in two texts:

“Het teeken 't welk de bevelhebbers gaven aan de matroozen, of reilers met monde of een fluitje, om het een of 't ander fcheeps werk to doen. Celeufma, atis n.g. Afeon. Pæd. Vel celeuma, atis n.g. Mart.
[Woordenboek der Nederlantsche en Latynsche Tale, Hannot, 1704]
[Le Grand François-Flaman de Les termes & manieres de parler touchant la Marine & la Navigation, Witsen, 1704]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:49 AM

"Informational chants" - Date: 22 Mar 20 - 01:02 PM., (above.)

Typical: "...one always gazes at the compass, and chants a kind of sweet song, which shows that all is going well, and in the same tone he chants to him that holdeth the tiller of the rudder, to which quarter the rudder itself ought to be moved:..." [Fabri, 15th century]

The Greek sounding kontus can be found on the walls of Egyptian tombs. It's the pilot's badge of office. At other extreme is Harry Belafonte's Mark Twain.

The American auctioneer's chant (Danville System) is supposedly from the same place as all of the above. Still checking the sources.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 04:45 AM

More backtracking:

“celeufna, vel celeumam, atis, neut. genr- L'enhortment des mariners, ou autres gens qui s'efforcent de faire quelque chofe.
celeuftes, celeuftæ, m, ge. Tel embarteur & donneur de courage.
paufarius, A Seneca vocatur qui remigibus modos dat & remigandi officium quadam quafi paufa moderatur.”
[Dictionariolum Latino Gallicum, 1602]


“Sirenum vox illa, quæ timebatur, erat blanda quidem, non tamen publica: at hæc quæ timenda eft, non ex vno fcopulo, fed ex omni terrarum parte circumfonat, & quafi grato celeumate ad vela explicanda, & rudentes expediendos inuitat…

...Seu nouercali laceret procellâ
Naufragam puppim, canit expeditus
Sarcinus vitæ, mediis im undis
                Dulce celeuma
:

METRICA PARAPHRASIS
...Dum portum inuehimur, quifquis es, ulsimo
Menten aduerte celeumati.

[Speculum Vanitatus, 1635]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 04:48 AM

“Gridatore] proclamator
Celeufma, tus, vel celeuma, matis, ne. ge. Mart. Grido unite di più perfone, come di Marinari à fare qualche loro opera.
Celeuftes, ftæ, mal. ge. Bud. Chi coforta i Marinari al navigare.
Clamatorius, ria, rium, Pli. Gridatore.
[Perfectissimus Calepinus Parvus Sive Corre?tiffimum Di?tioarium, Mirani, 1705]


“Quitanos los efclavos, y con fu Rofario nos ata y encadena en los abismos! Profiguio la galera fu rumbo, y divifando los navegantes las coftas de Bretaña, empezaron alegres à cantar el Rofario, como dulce y celeftial celeuma: y llegando del Puerto, hallaron en falvo quanto del vagel avian arrojado al mar en la tormenta.”
[Historia de la Vida de S. Domingo de Guzman, Miguel, 1705]

Note: Another spontaneous “Land ho!” celeusma reference.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 04:50 AM

Celeuma.
Vocatur Keleusma, Celeuma, feu Celeusma, ùt in Græco fcribitur, clamor & cantus, quo pariter laboranties fe mutuo excitant as ftrenuè agendum, v.g. nautæ feu remiges ad remigandum, milites as pugnandum, vinitores as torcular promendum. Semper in Vulgata Ceuleuma cantatur, ùt patet Jerem. 25.30. Jer. 48.33. Jer. 51.14.”
[Dictionarium in Quo Voces Omnes Difficilioris Significationis, Quae in Vulgata Nostra S. Scripturae Latina Translatione Occurrunt, Dilucide Explicantur, Bukentrop. 1706]

Note: Same treatment of scripture as Calvin et al with soldier "songs & shouts" added to the dialog.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 04:51 AM

“Celeuma, for Celeufma.
Celeufma, atis, n. The Mark-word given to keep time when the Seamen do any thing together. g.
Celeuftes, æ, m. he that makes that Noife, or Encourageth the Seamen. g.
A Halfer, Helcium.
A Halfier Helciarius.
Helciarius, ii. n. he that tows a boat or ship. *Helciarius equus, a drag horse.
Helcium, ii, n. A Horfe-collar, drawing Harnefs.
A Mafter-rower, Paufarius.
A Warpe [Sea-word] Helcium.
A Hawser, Helcium.”
[A Dictionary English-Latin, and Latin-English, Coles, 1707]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 04:57 AM

Celebro, Celeber, à… hortor, cohortor, undè & Celeufma conclamtio, &c.
Celeusma, atis. n….. hortamentum, fpecialiter nauticum. Verbale à…. fut. Prima præt… hortor, impero.
Celeuftes, a. m. ?…. hortator fpecialiter remigum,...”
[Scientia Latinitatis, Hertling, 1708]

Note: Greek text omitted.


“Celoma. Der Schissoneschen Freuden Geschren mann sie anlanden. Freuden Geschren. Acclamzione, Celoma.
Schreyer. m. Gridatore. v. Marckschreyer.”
[Dizzionario Italiano – Tedesco, Tedesco – Italiano, Castelli, 1709]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 05:03 AM

“As I was a Boatfwain's Mate, I had the Command of about 200 Men in the Ship, and it was my Place, to fee that the Men attended, and were prefent at the time of Worfhip; and I was diligent in the performance of that Service; and when any refufed to obey my Command, in that respe?t, I endeavour'd by force to compel them.”
[The Fighting Sailor turn'd Peaceable Chriftian, Lurting, 1710]

Note: Possible reason for R.N. style ban on boatswain's lyrics on watch.


“CELOMA, Een bevel of teeken, 't welk de bevelhebberen aan matroozen en roeijers met monde, of een fluitje gaven, om dit of day fcheepswerk te doen.”
[Il Grande Dittionario Italiano et Hollandese, Giron, 1710]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Feb 22 - 06:36 PM

Schiff-Lied/ celeusma, celoma, grido de' marinari per allegrezza.”
[Das Herrlich Grosse Deutsch-Italianische Dictionarium, Vol. 1, Kramer, 1700]


“celeufma, atis. Vel celeuma, atis, n. grido per animare i marinari.
clamor, ris. grido
exclamatio, f. efclamazione. grido.
exclamo, as. gridare, efsclamare.
Oh. grido di dolore. alle volte di allegrezza.
vociferatio, f, grido.”
[Regiæ Mercurij Conclave Latino-Italicum, Anguselli, 1710]


Ammattare, terme de marine, appeller ou crier à haute voix.
Celóma, le crie fe Mariniers, quand ils veulent ancrer.
Celomáre, la crierie des Mariniers.
a Crída, à haute voix, publiquement.
Cridatóre, crieur.
Gridatóre, crieur, criailleur, criard.
Grido, cri, bruit, renommée, plur. grida.
Iava, terme de marine, pour dire, l'on fait déja ce qui eft commandé.
Iffáre, iffer, hauffer, en terme de marine.
Oiffa, le cri du marinier pour iffer.
Stipatóre, un qui entaffe, qui charge les marchandifes, ou qui les ferre.”
[Dictionaire Italien et François, Veneroni, 1710]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Feb 22 - 06:50 PM

Ahoy (greeting)

Most of the dictionaries above include interjections not cited here. Here is that full Thesaurus Polyglottus (above) list of variations on the Latin heus:

??u.
?ebr. oi, o, ah.
Latin. oi, xoi.
Latin. heu.
Italie. oime, hai.
?ifp. hay.
Gall. helas.
German. en/even/ach/aves
Belg. ach.
?ng. allace, ach,alas eh, lord god.
Sclav. pre??m?ne, ?uuc, oh, jomene
Dalm. vay, oboy.
??lo. owe, biada.
Lufat. a'via.
Boh. Ach, ah, auwe, beda.
Hung. yay, ok.
?rafil. yere,ake eeli aka, hovaj.
?alae. bevan m?ra.
Iavenf. Ba vanaban.

Heus
Heb. hoi.
Græc. [...]
Lat. heus.
Ital. oli, o.
Hifpan. he.
Gallic. he, vien, ou, venez.
Germ holla/loh/hoscha.
Dan. heyhey.
Ang. holach, hoë hoe.
Belg. houghy.
Schav. hasha.
Polo. tichoicane.
Tur. jaha.
Hangai. halláde.
Brafil. nein.
[Thesaurus Polyglottus, 1613]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Feb 22 - 06:52 PM

“CELEUSMA, <keleusma, genit. celeufmatis. n. Afcon-Ped. Mart. Cry des Matelots, pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage ou certain fignal donne avec quelque inftrument de Musique pour le mefme effet. Coup de fiffet, pour animer les Rameurs & les Mariniers au travail.
HELCIARIUS, genit. helciarii. m. Mart. Qui tire un bafteau avec une corde.
Helciarius. Apul. Un Bourrelier. m.
HEU, Cic, Helas! Ah! Ha! *Heu ma miferum! Ter. Ha que je fuis miferable!
HEUS, (Interje?tion pour appeller quelqu'un.) Terent. Hola. *Heus tu? Terent Hola, à quoy penfes-tu? Que distu?
HORTATOR, genet. hortatoris m. Cic. Qui exhorte, qui encourage à une chofe.
PAUSARIUS, genit. paufarii. m. Sen. Comite de Galére. m. Qui commande aux forçats de ramer ou de s'arrefter.”
[Magnum Dictionarium Latino-Gallicum, Danetius, 1711]

Note: Hola, à quoy... (see previous)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Feb 22 - 06:57 PM

Celeufme] Keleusma exclamation, cry & admonition des nautonniers à haute voix, por fe donner courage. liv. 4. chap. 22.”
[Oeuvres de Maitre François Rabelais, Vol. 16, Bordesius, 1711]


“CELEUSMA, & Celeuma. Vide Alleluja, Scenopeja.”
[Hierolexicon, Sive Sacrum Dictionarium, Magri, 1712]
Note: “See Alleluja,” (another ˜1.5 pages not transcribed.)


“...Scribit Sidonius 1, 2. Epist. nautis in primâ Ecclefia ad Portum appellentibus folenne fuiffe canere Alleluja.”
Refponfantibus Alleluja ripis.
Ad Chriftum levat amnicum celeusma.
[Thronus Veritatis Evangelicæ Sex Gradibus Sublimitatus: Sive Festivale Sextuplex, Jamaigne, 1712]

Note: Sidonius in the original Latin. See chorus helciariorum, Farrar et al &c (above.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Feb 22 - 06:58 PM

“CELEUSMA,… genit, celeufmatis, n. Afcon-Ped Mart. Cry des Matelots, pour s'encourager à l'overage, ou certain fignal donne avec quelque inftrument de Musique pour le mesine effet. Coup de fifflet pour animer les Rameurs ou les Mariniers au travail.
HEI. (Interjection d'un homme qui fe plaint.) Ter.. Ha, helas.
HELCIARIUS, genit. helciarii. m. Mart. Qui tire un bateau avec une corde, comme fur la riviere de Seine & fur la Loire.
Helciarius. Apu. Un Bourrelier. m.
HORTATOR, genit hortatoris. m. Cic. Que exhorte, qui encourage à une chofe.
PAUSARIUS, genit. paufarii. m. Sen. Comite de Galére. m. Qui commande aux forçats de ramer ou de s'arrefter.”
[Magnum Dictionarium Latinum et Gallicum, Danetius, 1712]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Feb 22 - 05:31 AM

Celoma, le cry des mariniers, quand ils veulent ancrer, das Schreien der Schifleuten / waun sie andern wollen / celeufma.
Celomàre, m. la crierie des mariniers, idem.
Crìda, per grìda, cry public, der offentlidie Ausruf / proclamatio publica.
à Crìda, à haute voix, publiquement, in hoher erhabener Stimme / voceftentoreà, fonorà, altà.
Cridàre crier, ruffen / clamare, exclamare.
Cridatòre, m. crieur, der offentlidie Austruffer / proclamator, præco.
Oiffa, le cry du marinier pour iffer, ... / vox nautica, qua velorum expanfio jubentur.”
[Il Dittionario Imperiale, Veneroni, 1713]

Also: Grìda, gridànte, gridàre, gridàta, gridatòre, grìdo, iffa &.
Dictionaire Italien et François, 1710, above.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Feb 22 - 05:35 AM

Ҡ Celeuma, pro Celeufma; Afcon.

* Celeufma, atis; n. ... I. Hortamentum, Non. Five juffum. Sal… jubeo; unde &… I. hortator, Enn. juffor. Gl, ut fit adhortatio portifculi. Celeufma, nauticus eft clamor ad hortandum, Serv,… Mart. The Fhout or noife which Mariners make when they do any thing together with a joyned ftrength, at which times the cry, Ho up? or when the falute others with a What cheer? or when the Mafter calls and encourages them.

* Celeuftes, æ… m. Bud…, ijuffor, GI. hortator, Plaut. Qui Lat. portifculus die. The boatfwain; he that calleth on Mariners, to hearten them in the bufinefs.

Helciarius, rii; Mart. Qui navi onera funibus molitur…. An hafter, or he which haleth and draweth a fhip or barge along the river by a rope; a pug, a barge-man: alfo one who draws or pulls up any burden with cords.
        *Helcium, ii; n. Apul…. The harnefs of a cart-horfe, an horfe-collar, where-by he draweth in the cart, a trace.

HEUS: vocandi adv…. Ho! Do you hear? Fo ho! Alfo alas! Vir.

Hortatius, a, um; Quint… Exhortatory, incouraging.

Horator, oris; m/ verb. Cie. Suafor, au?tor… An encourager or advifer Hortator fcelerum, Ovid.

Pausarius, ii; m. á paufaThat officer in the ship who gave time to the rowers, and order to begin and leave off by words or figns. Paufarius voce remigibus modos dans, Sen.

To SHOUT or make a shout or cry. Conclamo, acclamo.
To fhout for joy Jubilo
A fhouting. Acclamatio, f.
A fhout. Clamor, m.
A fhout for joy Jubilum.
A fhout of soldiers when both armies joined. Barritus, ûs.
A fhout or noife that mariners make when they do anything together. Celeufma, n.
To give a fhout, or set up a fhout Clamorem tollere.

Stipator, orls; m. verb. Cie. à Stipando... di?t à Stipe, quam mercedis nomine acciplunt, Feft. An attendant or one of the Squires of the body; the guard; alfo one that lays in fuch fardels as are to be carried in a fhip; a Stower of goods.

Stupa...
        Stipando: omn. À gr…. The coufe part of flax, tow, hards, ockam to clk fhips with, Serv.
Stuparius, a, um; Plin… Of or belonging, or ferving to drefs or beat tow or hards withal
[A Latine Dictionary, Littleton, 4th ed. 1715]
Adam Littleton (1627–1694.) Another heavily revised and updated posthumous edition.


Notes:
Greek & Hebrew text omitted.
Steeving (stipa) etymology refers to shipyard caulker. The early definitions are for court guard or attendant.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Feb 22 - 05:39 AM

“CELEUSMA, cri de plufieurs perfonnes, chant de réjoüiffance que font les mariniers, quand ils prennent port, ou qu'ils aprochent de la terre. Il en est parlé en trois endroits de la Prophetie de Jerremie: Rugiens, rugiet fuper decorem fucem: celeusma ,quafi calcantium concinetur, adversùs omnes habitatores terre, faifant allufion aux chanfons de ceux qui foulent les raifins, ch.25. v.30. Dans le ch.48 v.33 il dit. Qu'il a ôré toute la joïe du Carmel, qu'il a fait répandre le vin des preffoirs; & que celui qui foule les raifins ne chantera plus ces cantiques accoutumez: Nequaquam calcator uva folitum celeufma catabit.
[Le Grand Dictionnaire de la Bible, Vol.I, Simon, 1717]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Feb 22 - 05:41 AM

“CELUMA. (Termo Nautico.) Vizeria dos marinheiros. Celeufma, atis. Nuet Mart.
A Celeuma medonha fe levanta
No rude marinheiro, que trabalha.
        Camoens. Cant. 2. Out. 25. Vid. Faina.
[Vocabulario Portuguez, & Latino, Vol.B-C, Bluteau, 1713]


“FAINA, Fàina. (Termo Nautico) A vozera, com que os marinheiros fe incitaõ a fazer o feu officio refpondendo, ou repetindo vozes a hum, que as entoa fó, para final de que rodo a huma maõ, ponhaõ o hombro, ou peyto ao trabalho. Celeufma, atis. Neut. Afcon. Pæd. Celeuma, atis, Neut. Martial. Nauticus clamor, is. Virgil. Fez moftra de fua, guerreira Armada, &c; & feytas as Fainas. Lemos, Cercos de Lisboa, pag.48. Commentãdo eftes verfos de Camoens, Cant.2.oit.25.
        A Celeuma medonha fe levanta
        No rude marinheiro, que trabalha Diz Manoel de Faria, En Eftilo Nautico fe llama Faena das bombas. Britto, Guerra Brafilica, 150.”
[Vocabulario Portuguez, & Latino, Vol.F-I, Bluteau, 1713]


“SALAMALE. Vid. Salema.
SALAMEAR. Termo de Marinheyro. Fazer a Saloma, ou Salema. Vid Salema. Vid. Fayna.
SALEMA. Vozaria de Marinheyros. He derivado da palavra Grego-Latina Celeuma. Vid. Fayna. (As Salemas ordinarias dos Marinheyros fe fazem com taes vozes, que não faõ ouvidas muytas vezes. Britto, Biagé do Brafil, pag.278.)
[Vocabulario Portuguez, & Latino, Vol.Q-S, Bluteau, 1720]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Feb 22 - 02:54 AM

Foreword: Panegyric verse or chant is not work song or call-and-response &c. Included for its future linkage to French-Caribbean calypso chantwells &c.

c.1700AD, the French word griot is still defined as the Morello Cherry (Prunus cerasus.)

I've not found any earlier Portuguese, French, Latin music related etymology for the African Guiriot mentioned here. (ie: criado &c.)

“The word may derive from the French transliteration "guiriot" of the Portuguese word "criado", or the masculine singular term for "servant." Griots are more predominant in the northern portions of West Africa.” [Griot]

“Quoy qu'ils n'ayent ny efprit, ny talent, ils aiment tant les loüanges, qu'ils ont des gens appellez Guiriotz, qui n'ont d'autre métier que celuy d'en donner. Les Guiriotz portent des efpéces de tambours longs de quatre ou cinq pieds, faits d'un tronc d'arbre creufé, qu'ils battent ou de la main, ou avec des bâtons. Ils ont auffi des Tambours à la Morefque, qui reffemblent à un Corbillon d'Oublieur, traverfez par des petites cordes qu'ils touchent d'une main, pendant que de l'autre ils le frapent d'un bâton…. (p.120)

Les Guiriotz accordent ces differens inftrumens au fon de leur voix peu mélodieufe, & chantent ainfi les loüanges des perfonnes confidérables. Celles qu'ils leur donnent d'ordinaire, c'eft qu'ils font grands Seigneurs, riches, auffi puiffans que les Blancs qui font les grands efclaves du Roy, & en un mot une infinité de pareilles fottifes. (p.122)

Ceux-ci font ravis de ces éloges, & récompenfent largement le Guiriot qui aura dit quelque bon mot pour eux. Ils pouffent même fi loin la reconnoiffance à cet égard, que je leur ai vû ôter jufqu'à leurs habits pour en payer ces fades & fauffes loüanges. Quand ils manquent à récompenfer ces coquins, il les décrient, en publiant d'eux dans les Villages autant de mal qu'ils en ont dit de bien, ce qui eft le plus grand affront qu'ils puiffent recevoir. (p.122)

C'eft pour eux le comble de l'honneur quand le Guiriot du Roy chante leurs loüanges, auffi eft-il bien recompenfé: car ils lui donnent jufqu'a deux & trois bœufs, & enfin la meilleure partie de ce qu'ils ont. (p.123)

Ces Guiriotz s'avifent auffi de chanter nos loüanges, en criant que nous fommes grands, riches, & Seigneurs de la mer. Mais ils ne trouvent pas leur compte avec nous, qui n'en fommes pas fi friands que les Negres. (p.123)

Alors on promene cette paigne dans le Village accompagnée de plufieurs Guiriotz, qui chantent les loüanges de la femme & le bonheur du mary. (p.144)

...Voyant qu'il ne répond point, ils s'en vont, & font place à d'autres qui en difent autant, pendant que les Guiriots ne ceffent point de chanter fes belles qualitez. (p.146)

...Les hommes s'exercent à la luite, & font en s'approchant des poftures ridicules, & en fe montrant le doigt, le poing ou le pied. Dans cette occafion il y en a toûjours quelqu'un qui fait le Guiriot, & qui frappe fur un chaudron, ou un tambour pour les encourager. Comme ils font nuds, ils ony bien de la peine à fe terrasser. Quand un l'eft, le Guiriot vante la valeur du victorieux, il l'exhorte à faire encore mieux contre le champion qui fuit celui-là. Ils fe donnent de rudes fecouffes, & le vaincu tombe lourdement. (p.155)

Les Guiriotz avec leurs inftrumens & leurs tambours, celebrérent les loüanges du victorieux, en lui difant, Tu meritois mieux cela que l'autre, le Roy t' a fait juftice, tu es plus beau, plus riche, plus vaillant, &c. (p.169)

...Ce revers de fortune fit changer de ton aux Guiriotz, & ils loüerent celui qu'ils venoient de blâmer. Telle eft la perfidie du Prince & de fes fujets. (p.170)

...Ils marchent fans aucun ordre de bataille, même dans le païs Ennemi. Les Guiriotz les excitent au Combat par le fon de leurs inftrumens.” (p.177)
[Les Voyages du Sieur Le Maire aux Iles Canaries, Cap-Verd, Senegal et Gambie, Dancourt, 1695]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Feb 22 - 02:55 AM

“Though they have no Wit, or any Talent of a Genius, yet they are exceffive Lovers of Praifes and Adulation; fo that there are a fort of People call'd Guiriotz, whofe bufinefs it is to perform this piece of Service. Thefe Guiriotz carry a fort of Drums near four or five Feet in length, made of a hollow Trunk of a Tree, which they Beat either with their Hands, or with fmall Sticks. There are alfo Morefque Drums, refembling Baskets, crofs'd over with little Cords, which the finger with one Hand whilft they strike with the other…. (p.82)

Thefe Guiriots Tune thefe feveral Inftruments to their Voice, which is very harfh; and they Sing Panegyricks of their Men of the beft account. The general Topicks are, that they are great Lords, Rich, and as Puiffant as the White Men, who are great Slaves of a King and, in a word, an infinite number of fuch foolifh expreffions. (p.83)

Thefe Perfons are Transported with theit Elogies, and largely recompence these Guiriots, who sing their Praifes. They make their Acknowledgements at fo great a rate, that I have seen them ftrip themfelves to reward these falfe and fulfom Flateries. When thefe Varlets mifs of their expected Fees they fall a railing, and pubifh in the Villages as many bafe things as they can rip together angainft them, contradicting whatever they had faid good of them; which is look'd upon to be the grandeft Affront imaginable. (p.83)

...'Tis efteem'd a very great Honour when the King's Guiriot Sings any ones Praifes and he never fails of a good Reward, they fometimes giving 2 or 3 Bullocks, and often the best part of their Goods. (p.83)

...These Guiriots do not omit the Singing the fame ftuff to us, crying, That we are Great, and Rich Lords of the Sea; but they fcarce find it worth their while amongft us, fince we are not fuch fenfelefs Boobies as the Negers. (p.84)

...Afterwards they walk about the Village, carrying this Cloth in Proceffion, being accompany'd with feveral of the Guiriots, who Sing the Praifes of the fair Lady, and their Wedding Joys. (p.96)

...Seeing he can get nothing in answer, he withdraws, and makes room for another, who fays as much: In the mean time the Guiriots do not fail of finging his Encomium. (p.98)

The Men Exercife themfelves in Wreftling, and approach each other in very ridiculous Poftures, holding up their Fingers, Fist, or Foot. On thefe occafions they always have one that plays the part of a Guiriot, rattling upon the bottom of a Kettle, or upon a Drum, to excite their Courage; as they are Naked, they have much ado to fling each other upon the Ground. When one is down, the Guiriot Sings and extols the Valour of the Conqueros, and exhorts the reft to play their Parts againft the Champion, better than he that engag'd last…. (p.103)

The Guiriots, with their Inftruments and the Drums, Celebrated the Priafes of the Victorious, faying to him, You Merit this Dignity far beyond the other, and the King has done you nothing but Juftice: You are by much the finer Man, more Rich, more Potent, and more Valiant, &c. (p.112)

...This Reverfe of Fortune foon chang'd the Notes of the Guiriots, and they began to Extol him they had before Decry'd. Such is the Perfidy of the Prince and the Inftability of his Subjects. (p.113)

...They march without any order of Difcipline, even in the Enemy's Country. The Guiriotz excite them to Combat by the found of their Inftruments.” (p.117)
[A Voyage of the Sieur Le Maire to the Canary Iflands, Cape-Verd, Senegal and Gamby, Dancourt, 1696]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Feb 22 - 03:03 AM

Chantwell: Southern Antillean Chantymen


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Feb 22 - 03:23 AM

“Celeufma, fcheepzang, fchippersdeuntje."
[Woordenschat, Meyer, 1720]

“HÓU, in Hóu, celeufma, eheus!, Hóubootsman, celeuftes' Hóulyk, Hóulyken, en Hóubaer, nubilis; zie daer van bij 't volgende HóUD, in deze Proeve.
De Wortel-en Zaek-deelen…
...Voorts Hóu! celeusma, eheus! een geroep om iemand aen- of op- te houden; waer van Hóu-bóótsman, celeuftes; als zijnde tot zulk Hou-roepen aengeftelt;..."
[Aenleiding Tot de Kennisse van het Verhevene Deel der Nederduitsche Sprake, Kate, 1723]

“Antreiben. Incitare.
Antereiber. Hortator, excitor, instigator
Reizer, Instigator, instinctor, allector, hortator, stimulator.
Schiffleuthen gefchrey. Celeufma."
[Dictionarium Latino-Germanicum, Frisius, 1723]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Feb 22 - 03:29 AM

Celeufma. oris, n. g. A mufica, ou alarido nautico do marinheiros; ou cantar de lagareiros; item, pê de quatro fyllabas breves. I. b. Mart. 3. 67.
Celeufmaticus a, um. Cousa de grita de marinheiros. I. 2.4.b.Græc.
Celeuftmatieus pes. Pê de quatro fyllabas breves. Cath.
Celeuftes, æ. m.g. O comitre, ou piloto, ou o que com gritos excitaos os marinheiros. I. b. Græc.
Celeustos, i, m. g. A dança I. b. Amalth.
Grita. Clamor, oris Conclamtio, onis.
Grita de Navigantes. Celeufma, atis.
Gritador. Clamator, oris.
Gritadora. Vociferans, antis.
Gritar. Clamo, as Vociferor, aris
Grito. Vociferat o onis Vociferatus, ûs.
Salamear os marinheiros. Celeufma acclamare.
[Prosodia in Vocabularium Bilingue, Latinum, et Lusitanum, Pereyra, 1723]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Feb 22 - 11:56 PM

Earlier African (Arabic?) Guiriot with French translation for Basteleur.

“...Les Guiriots, qui font comme leurs Bafteleurs, & dont ie parleray par occafion, courent par les Villages ayans ie ne fcay quels tambours pendus à leur col & frappans des mains deffius, crioyent que la femme de l'Akaire eftoit morte, adjouftans à ces advertiffements quantité de paroles de loüanges, à l'honneur de la deffuncte.” (p.71)

“…Ils eftoyent precedez des Guiriots, faifans grand bruit de leurs tambours: les Parents, Amis & Voifins fuiuent le corps, avec force cris, & tesmoignoyent de tres grands reffentiments.” (p.73)

“...A la fin de ce feftin, un chacun s'amaffa en une grande place pur dance, n'ayants autres inftruments que des tambours que leurs Guiriots touchent affez rudement, gardans pourtant quelque mefure...” (p.85-86)
[Relation du Voyage du Cap-Verd, S. Lo, 1637]

Note:
Bafteler: To iugle, or tumble; alfo, to play the buffoone, or foole; to talke verie much, and verie idly; alfo, to toffe, or wander uncertainely up and downe.
Bafteleur:A iugler, tumbler, puppet-player,; one that profeffeth any of thofe arts; also, one that leades bears, apes, baboons, or dauncing dogges about the country, and gets a fcuruie living by them.
[Cotgrave, 1611 & 1632]

Balatro


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Feb 22 - 12:05 AM

“The two Fleets being thus prepard for Battle, they made their Addreffes to their Gods according to Cuftom, the whole Multitude repeating with a Keleufma, or general Shout, the Words of their Chiefs; thefe however feeing the Danger they were in, were in no fmall Concern for the Succefs of the Battle.”
[Antiquity Explained and Represented in Sculptures, Vol.3rd, Montfaucon, 1722]


“celeufna, vel celeumam, atis, neut. genr- L'enhortment des mariners, ou autres gens qui s'efforcent de faire quelque chofe.
celeuftes, celeuftæ, m, ge. Tel embarteur & donneur de courage.
paufarius, A Seneca vocatur qui remigibus modos dat & remigandi officium quadam quafi paufa moderatur.”
[Dictionariolum Latino Gallicum, 1602]


opper bootfman. Celeuftes, g. ftæ, m.”
[Biglotton sive Dictionarium Teuto-Latinum Novum, Binnart, 1661]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Feb 22 - 12:06 AM

“Es antigua coftumbre en nueftros Navios, el que fiempre que fe ofrece hacer algun trabajo, forman un cantico los Marineros que llaman Salomar; en el que dicen exquifitas cofas, que verdaderamente caufan entretenimiento; y fe ha hecho tan neceffario efte modo de cantar, y Salomar, que todos exercitan las fuerças à un mifmo tiempo en el trabajo que hacen, y es gufto oìrlos, con que ferà conveniente no dexen efta coftumbre.”
[Directorio Maritimo, Màrquez, 1728]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Feb 22 - 12:07 AM

ҠCeleuma. Tis. n. &
* Celeufma, atis. n. Afc. Pæd. Cri des matelots qui rament, m. Pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage. Signal qu'on donne aux Matelots ou aux Rameurs, foit de vive voix, foit avec un fiflet, pour leur marquer les differentes manœuvres.
Celeuftes, æ. m. Bud. Celui qui a foin de faite faire le devoir aux Mariniers, ou autres Ouvriers; Comite, Piqueur. m.
Helciarius, ii. m. Apul. Bourrelier. m.
Helciarius, a, um. Mart. Qui tire un batteau avec une corde. ? Qui tire quelque chofe avec une corde.
*Helcium, ii. m. Apul. Colier m. de cheval où l'on attache les traits avec lefquels il tire.
Pausarius, ii. m. Sen. Comite m. de Galere, Officier qui fait voguer la chiourme.”
[Dictionarium Universale Latino-Gallicum , Boudot, 1728]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Feb 22 - 08:15 PM

“Alarido, I. Grita: A roaring, clamouring, or outcry.
Alarido de marinhéiros: A fhout or noife with Seamen when they join their forces, or an Huzza.

Rebém de comítre: The boatfwain of a fhip, or one that governs the feamen when coming to an anchor.

Salameár os marinhéiros: To make a noife, or huzza like the seamen.”
[A Compleat Account of the Portugueze Language, A.J., 1701]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Feb 22 - 08:15 PM

Alarido, ziet, grita. Gefchreeuw, geroep, geruchtmaaking.
Alarído de marinhéiros. Scheeps gefchreeuw, waar mede 't fcheepsvolk, bootsgefellen, of, matroofen malkanderen onder 't fcheeps werk aanmoedigen.
Gríta. Geroep, gefchreeuw.
Gríta de navogántes. Het fcheepsgeroep, of gefchreeuw, 't welk 't fcheeps-volk, onder 't doen van 't fcheeps werk makt.
Gritadór. Een roeper, fchreeuwer, geraasmaaker.
Salameár, of, marinhéiros. Een gefchreeuw, of geroep, gelyk de matroofen, of 't fcheeps-volk maaken.”
[Vocabulario das duas Liguas Portugueza e Flamenga, Alewyn, 1718]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Feb 22 - 08:17 PM

Zaloma, es la cancion, que tienen los Marineros, quando halan, y tiran de un aparejo, ò cabo, ù otra cofa, en que uno canta, ò zaloma, y los demàs refponded, y tiran à una.”
[Vocabulario Maritimo, 1722]


opper boots-man. Celeuftes, g. ftæ, m. g”
[Novum dictionarium Belgico-Latinum, Pomey, 1725]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Feb 22 - 08:19 PM

“AY'SSA, the cry of failors when the hoife anchor, or any other great weight, that they may all pull together, Our failors cry hoife.
CALOMA'R, the fong or cry of failors when they hale at a rope all together.
Yça, a word us'd by failors, to pull together, in weighing anchor or hoifing the yards, as ours cry hoife.”
[A New Dictionary, Spanish and English, Stevens, 1726]


“CALOMAR.f.m. Cierto canto y tono que hacen los marineros, quando tiran de algun cabo ò cofa que fe requiere tirar muchos juntos à una, y con efte clamór fe aunan para el punto de aplicar la fuerza, y fe animan unos à otros. Palac. Inftr. Naut. Oy fe dice Zalomar.Lat.Celeúfma,tos.
[Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana, Tom.II, Real Academia Española, 1729]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Feb 22 - 02:38 AM

“ZALAMERIA. (Zalameria) f.f. El exceffo de la adulacion en palabras, ò acciones. Viene de la voz Arábiga Zala, ù de la de Zalema. Lat. Blandiloquentia.
ZALEMA. f.f. La reverencia, ò cortefia humilde en demoftracion de fumifsion. Tómafe de la voz Arábiga Zalemaq, con que fe faludan los Moros, y los trahe Corvarr. en fu Thefóro. Lat. Summifsio humilis. Espin. Efcud. Relac.I. Defc.13. Haciendoles grandes zalemas, les dió un apofento, que tenia aderezado para los Mercaderes. Alfar. Part.2. lib.2. cap.9. Quando entró en la pieza, y vió à Dorotéa defalada, y los pechos por tierra, fe lanzó à fus pies, haciendole mil zalemas.
ZALOMA. f.f. Voz náutica efpecie de tono, con que fe llaman los Marineros, para executar juntos alguna faena. Lat. Vox ad Nautas citandos, vel vocandos. Cerv. Perfil. Lib.2 cap.21. Yá en efto, echa la zaloma, y arrojado el efquife.
ZALOMAR. v.a. Llamarfe, ò convocarfe los Marineros para alguna faena, animandofe para trabajar à un tiempo. Fórmafe de la voz Zaloma. Palac. Inftr. Naut. Lat. Nautas convocare, vel citare.”
[Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana, Tom.VI, Real Academia Española, 1730]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Feb 22 - 02:40 AM

“Comito di galera. Hic Celeuftes, celeuftis.
Tirator d' alzana. Hic Helciarius, helciarij.”
[Vocabolario Italiano, e Latino, Glaribanio, 1730]


Salêma. a gritaria dos marinheiros, melhor Celeuma. Salêma tambem he hum appellido, e nome de peixe.”
[Orthographia, ou Arte de Escrever, e Pronunciar com Acerto a Lingua Portugueza, Feijó, 1734]


“Calomar. Lûcher la gumene, ou autre cordage.
El calomar, m. Le ton que les mariniers chantent pour tirer & faire effort tout ensemble.
[Diccionario Nuevo de las Lenguas Española y Francesa, Tom.I, Sobrino, 1734]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Feb 22 - 02:42 AM

“Calomar. Il canto che fanno i marinari quando tirano d' accordo per accrefcer la forza nel tirare.
Hizar, o yzar. Vocabolo che ufano i marinari nell' accordarfi, & animarfi à levar qualche pefo, noi diremoso iffare.
Yça, Vocabolo che ufano i marinari, o forzati quando d' accordo fanno qualche forza, e noi diciamo iffa.
Yçar, Iffare vedi yça.”
[Vocabolario Español e Italiano, Franciosini, 1735]


CELEUMA, & CELEUSMA, atis. Cri, clameur des Matelots, des rameurs.
CELEUSTES, a. Piqueur, Comite.”
[Dictionnaire Universel François et Latin, 1736]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Feb 22 - 02:43 AM

Celeusta. Masculino. Antiguedades griega. Eel que daba las órdenes á los marineros y remeros…. Francés, céleuste.
Celéustica. Femenino. Diddáctica. Arte de transmitir las órdenes por medio de sonidos músicos.
Celéusticamente. Adverbio de modo. Por medio de la celéustica…. Francés, céleustique.”
[Primer Diccionario General Etimológico de la Lengua Española, Archdekin, 1737]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:44 PM

c.1650AD.
“...And the greateft part of thefe Sluces are pafs'd through with a great deal of eafe. But there are fome which are not to be fhot, but with a great deal of Pains and Danger. More efpecially one, which the Chinefes call Tien Fi-cha, or the Queen and Miftrefs of Heaven; thereby to exprefs in Hyperbolical Terms the extraordinary Height of it. When the Barks are row'd against the Stream, and come to the bottom of this Sluce, the Watermen faften to the Prow a great number of Cables and Cordage, which are drawn on both fides of the Canal, by four or Five Hundred Men, and fometimes more, according to the Burthen of the Veffel, and the Weight of the Lading. Others at the fame time labour at Capftanes plac'd upon the Walls of the Sluce, which are very broad and built of Free-Stone. Besides the Ropes already mention'd, there are others which are very strong, wound about great Pilars of Stone or Wood to hold the veffel if any of the other Cordage fhould chance to break. When these Cords are all faften'd, they begin to Haule by degrees, as it were keeping time to the found of a Bafon*, upon which they knock at firft but foftly, and with fome intervals between the ftroakes : but when half the Bark at leaft is rais'd to the height of the upper Channel, in regard the Current is then much ftronger, they knock upon the Bafon with thicker ftroaks; at what time the Four or Five Hundred Haule all together with loud Hey Boys, and give fuch a stretch, that the Veffel mounts up in a moment, and is fecur'd in the dead Water between the fides of the Canal and the middle of the of the Current.”
[A New History of China, Magalhaens, 1688]

* Gong.
Grand Canal (China)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:46 PM

“Boffeman, S.M. A Boatfwain of a ship.

Comite, S.M. The officer of a galley, who has particular command over the flaves.

Voix, (chanteur, chanteufe.) Voice, finger.

Voix, (en termes de mer.) The fong employed by failors, in hoifting, hauling, heaving, &c.

Donner la voix. To fing out, as in hauling , hoifting, heaving, &c.

A la voix! Mind the man that fings!
[The Royal Dictionary Abridged, Boyer, 1738]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:47 PM

“Hou, Anglis, Gallis, & plerisque Europæis eft Vox inhibentium curfum, impetum, &c…. eft Celeufma remigan– “tium, jubems quiefcere ac renos inhibere”.

Shoute, Acclamare. shout for joy, Jubilare. shouting of mariners, Celeufma. shout before the battell, Clamor eorum, qui in hoftilem aciem irrumpere parant. Fartaffe corruptum eft verbum ex G. chathuant, Noctua; ut primò ufurpatum fit de acuto illo streperóque clamore, quem nocturno tempore edunt ululæ, poftea verò translatum quoque fit ad nauticas exhortationes ac triftem bellantium barritum five uluatum.”
[Etymologicum Anglicanum, Junius-Lye, 1743]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:48 PM

Calomar, veafe zalomar.
Comitre de galera, arraunarizaya. Lat. Remigum hortator.
Zaloma, lo que cantan, y repiten los Marienros al hazer alguna faena, es voz Bafcongada, zaloma, zaleuma, que fignifica lo mifmo, de donde la tomó el Griego, y defpues el Latin celeufma, tis, Vox hortatoria.
Zalomar, zalomatu, zaleumatu Lat. Celeufma canere.
Zalomero, zalomaria, zaleumaria, Lat. Celeuftes, æ, hortator.”
[Diccionario Triligüe del Castellano, Bascuence y Latín, Tom.I-II, Larramendi, 1745]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:53 PM

c.1745AD
Kuchelavritham Vanchippattu
Ramapurathu Warrier (1703–1753)
Chundan vallam

“Sitting two to a row along the length of the boat, there will be 64 paddlers, representing 64 art forms (or on occasion 128 paddlers). They row in rhythm of the vanchipattu ('boat[man's] song'). There will be around 25 singers in a row at the middle between the paddlers. In the middle of the second half of the boat is a platform for eight people to stand from where the cantor will lead the song. They represent the Ashtadikpalakas (Devas or gods who guard the eight directions).” [wiki]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:54 PM

“3. K???, jubeo, to command….
† 3. alfo ti exhort, to induce… to cry out as the commanders of veffels do to failors to encourage them…. celeufma, the fhout or noife of mariners when they do any thing with joint ftrength ; voice found, exhortation, command.”
[The Primitives of the Greek Tongue, Lancelot, 1748]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Feb 22 - 03:18 AM

“VEA, VEA, VEA, [a Seaman's Cry] when they work or pull ftrongly together.”
[An Universal Etymological English Dictionary, Bailey, 1721]


*CELEUSMA, atis. n. Bibl. Cri de joie , chanfon. Celeufma nauticum. MART. Le cri des Rameurs, le fignal qu'on leur donnoit avec des inftrumens, (… , hortor.) Hinc.
*CELEUSTES, a. m. Un Comite, celui qui a foin de faire faire le devoir aux Matelots.”
[Novitius seu Dictionarium Latini Gallicum, Paris, 1750]


“Celeufma, non celeuma, atis, pc. in obl. Es la grita de los Marineros, y de otras perfonas, quando à la voz de uno refponden los otros, lo que aquel uno manda. Hier.25.cap.48. & 51. fe toma por cantar de vindimiadores, y pifadores de lagar,... porque tambien al pifar la uba fe canta. Vide ibi Rob.”
[Lexicon Ecclesiasticum Latino Hispanicum, Arias, 1750]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Feb 22 - 03:20 AM

“Noise…
The mariners noife, *Celeufma, n.”
[Thesaurus Linguae Latineas, 3rd. ed, Ainsworth, 1751]


“CELEUMA, & CELEUSMA, atis, Cri, clameur des Matelots, des rameurs.
CELEUSTES, æ. Piqueur, Comite.”
[Dictionnaire Universel Francois et Latin, 1752]


“Gridu. grido. clamor. [per fama. grido. nomen [Gridu di marinari uniformi, o Celeufma. celeufma. V.I. celeufma, vel celeuma, atis. [Gridu di cui fi doli. guajo. ejulatio, ejulatus. [Aviri, o farfi gridu. avere o farfi grido. in omnium ore, fermone verfari, vel magnam apud homines exiftimationem fibi conciliare. [Fari grida, comu un arfu, ec. v. Gridario.
[Dizionario Siciliano Italiano Latino, Vol.II, Bono, 1752]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Feb 22 - 03:24 AM

“CELEUSMA, atis. n. Afcon. Pæd. ou Celeuma, atis. n. Mart. … Ordre ?ou fignal que les Officiers donnoient aux matelots ou aux rameurs, de vive voix ou avec un fiflet, pour faire les manœuvres differentes. [Quelques-uns difent que e'eft le cri les Rameurs font tous à la fois, pour dire qu'il font tous prêts, & pour s'exhorter à executer le commandement qu'on veut leur faire.
CELEUSTES, æ. M. Bud. Celui qui a foin de faire faire le devoir aux matelotes.
CLAMÖR, oris: m. Cri, clameur. Clamor… ?clamor nauticus Virg. Le cri des matelots.”
[Dictionarium Novum Latino-Gallicum, 1753]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Mar 22 - 02:10 PM

“Celeuma, ou
Celeufma: cri, fignal qu'un donne aux matelots.
Celeuftes: commandant des mariniers, ou d'autres ouvriers, piqueur.”
[Vocabulaire Universel Latin-François, Compré-Guerin-Delatour, 1754]


“(l) *Aug, de Cant. Novo, cap.2.tom.9. Celeufma, Grita de marineros.
Zeleufma, grita de Marineros. 489.”
[Camino Real dela Cruz, Haeften, 1755]


Mariner,… Exortador dels mariners. Celeuftes, æ, hortator, oris. La exortaciò dell Celeuma, atis, celeufina. Maritim, ó cofa maritima. Maritimus, a, um.”
[Dictionarium, seu Thesaurus Catalano-Latinus, Torre-Pere, 1757]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Mar 22 - 02:11 PM

“ACCORDE. Commandement que l'on fait aux rameurs, pour les faire voguer enfemble.
CARACORE. Efpece de galere, en ufage aux Indes, & furtout dans l'ifle de Borneo & dans les Moluques…. C'est en chantant, en battant la caiffe, ou en jouant de quelque inftrument de mufique, qu'on commande aux rameurs ce qu'ils ont a faire, & ils fe reglent par-là pour la maniere dont ils doivent ramer.
COMITE. Bas officier de galere, qui commande la chiourme, & qui a foin de ne pas epargner les coups de gourdin aux forçats, pour les faire ramer. Il eft auffi chargé de placer autant d'hommes d'un côté, que de l'autre de la galere, afin qu'elle ne penche point; ce ;qu'on appelle Eftiver la galere. Les galériens l'appellent Notre homme, pour lui rappeller fans doute les fentimens d'humanité dont il eft important pour eux qu'il foit pénétré.
HALER. Ce terme fignifie généralement Roidir, tirer à foi, pefer fur un cable ou fur une manœuvre. Quand les matelots halent fur une manœuvre, plufeurs enfemble, le contre-maître dit à haute voix ce mot, hale, & à l'inftant tous les matelots agiffent fur le cordage. Le même homme, lorfqu'il faut haler une bouline, les avertit par ces trois mots, un, deux , trois, & au mot trois ils donnent tous d’un commun effort la fecouffe à la bouline. En manœuvrant les couets, on crie trois fois, amure; & pour l’écoute, on crie trois fois, borde; & au troifieme cri, on hale fur la manœuvre.
HINSER. Commandement de tirer en haut, ou de hiffer.
HISSE, HISSE. Commandement redoublé, qui marque qu'il faut hilfer promptement.
HISSER. C'eft hauffer ou élever quelque chofe.
HISSER EN DOCEUUR. C’e?t hiffer lentement ou doucement.
OH! DU NAVIRE! HOLA! Cri que l'on fait pour parler à l'équipage d’un vaiffeau , dont on ne fçait pas le nom. Si au contraire on le fçait, on le nomme en criant: oh d'un tel vaiffeau, comme du Foudroyant, de l'Intrépide, &c.
OH D'EN HAUT! C’eft ainfi que ceux qui font fur le pont d'un vaiffeau, crient à ceux qui font fur les mâts ou fur les vergues.
OH HISSE! OH HALE! OH SAILLE! OH RIDE! Ce font des cris que l'on fait en différens temps, pour s’accorder dans certains travaux où l’on eft plufieurs, foit qu’il faille hiffer, haler, pouffer ou rider quelque chofe.
UN, DEUX, TROIS. Ces trois mots font prononcés par celui qui fait haler la bouline, & au dernier les travailleurs agiffent en même temps.
VOIX. On fous-entend à la. Commandement aux gens de l'équipage, de travailler à la fois, lorfqu’on donner la voix.
        On appelle Donner la voix, lorfque par un cri, comme oh hiffe! &c. on avertit les gens de l'équipage, de faire leurs efforts tous à la fois.”
[Dictionnaire Historique Theorique et Pratique de Marine, Vol. I-II, Saverien, 1758]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Mar 22 - 02:12 PM

“CALOMAR, f.m. Cri, ton des matelots lorfqu'ils manœuvrent dans le vaiffeau. Lat. Celeufma, tos.
CHIRRIAR, T. de marine. Donner du fifflet, commande que le Comite d'une galere ou autres officiers de vaiffeau fout, pour faire manœuvrer la chiourme, ou les matelots.
ZALOMAR, v. a. T. de marine. Appeller les matelots à la manœuvre. Lat. Nautis fignum dare.
[Nouveau Dictionnaire François-Espagnol et Latin, Vol.I, 1759]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Mar 22 - 02:14 PM

“CELEUMA, atis. n. Afc. Ped. on Celeusma, atis. n. Mart. Cri des matelots pur s'encourager à la manœuvre. Coup de fifflet pour animer les rameurs. Cri de joye. Bibl.
CELEUSTES, ae. m. Officier qui donnoit le fignal pour animer les matelots. Eud.
HORTATIVUS, a, Um. Adj. Qui fert à exhorter, à encourager. Quint.
HORTATOR, oris. m. Qui exhorte, qui follicite, qui anime, qui ecite. Cic.
PAUSARIUS, ii. m. Comite, Officier de galére, qui fait voguer la chiourme, Senec.”
[Generalis Dictionarii Latino-Gallici, 1759]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Joe Offer
Date: 02 Mar 22 - 03:32 AM

Phil - you've posted so much good stuff at Mudcat, and I've really appreciated it. There are times when I would like to contact you privately. Might you like to send me your email address, so I can contact you if I have a question.

Joe Offer, Mudcat Music Editor - joe@mudcat.org


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Apr 22 - 03:32 AM

“Celeufma, atis, Algazara de marineros quando descubren tierra y alabanzas divinas.
Celeustes, æ, m.g. Comitre de Galera.”
[Compendium Latino-Hispanum, Salas, 1761]


“STEEV'ING, is ftowing Cotton or Wool, by forcing it with Screws.
VEA, VEA, VEA, [a Seaman's Cry] when they work or pull ftrongly together.”
[An Universal Etymological English Dictionary, 1761]


“CALOMA'R, the fong or cry of failors, when they hale at a rope altogether.
To HOUT, v.n. gritár, hacér alarídos, vocerías, ò algazáras.
To hout, filvár a uno reírse del.
A HOUTING, f. grito, voceria, algazára, alarido, algaráda.
ZALO'MA, f.f. the cry ufed by failors working on board a ship.
ZALOMA'R, v.a. to cry as failors do when they work on board.”
[A Dictionary, Spanish and English, and English and Spanish, Pino, 1763]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Apr 22 - 03:34 AM

“Alarido de marinheiros. Vide Faina. Vide Celeuma.

Celeuma, (termo nautico) vozeria dos marinheiros. Cry des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage (Celeufma, atis)

Faina, (termo nautico) a vozeria com que os marinheiros fe incitaõ a fazer o feu officio refpondendo, ou repetindo vozes a hum que as entoa fó, para final de que todos a huma maó ponhaó o hombro, ou pieto ao trabalho. Cry des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage. (Celeufma, tis: nauticus clamor, oris.)

Grita de navegantes. Vide Faina.

Gritador, homem que grita muito, que grita quando fall. Criard, qui criaille, qui fait bien du bruit. (Clamtor, oris)

Salema, vozaria de marinheiros: he derivado da palavra Grego-Latina Celeuma. Vide Fayna.

Salamear, termo de marinheiro, fazer a faloma, ou falema. Vide Salema. Vide Fayna.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire des Langues Françoise et Portugaise, Marques, 1764]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Apr 22 - 03:35 AM

“VEA, VEA, VEA, (a Seaman's Cry) when they work or pull ftrongly together. Hug, Hig, Hig, een Matroozen Woord als zy faamen hard werken of trekken.”
[A New and Complete Dictionary of Terms of Art, Buys, 1768]


CELEUSMA, cri de plusieurs personnes,chant de réjouïffance que font les Mariniers quand ils prennent port,ou qu'ils aprochent de la Terre.Ilen eft par lé en trois endroits de la Prophetie de Jeremie,Rugiens rugiet fuper decorem fuum: Celeufma quafi calcantium concinetur, adversùs omnes habitatores terra, faisant allufion aux chanfons de ceux qui foulent les raifins, ch.25.v. 30. Dans le ch48.v.33. il dit qu'il a ôté toute la joïe du Carmel, qu'il a fait répandre le vin des preffoirs, & que celui qui foule les raifins, ne chantera plus ces cantiques acoûtumez. Nequaquam calcator uve folitum Celeufma cantabit.
[Le Grande Dictionaire de la Bible, Vol.I, Certe, 1703, Ponthus, 1768]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Apr 22 - 03:38 AM

“CARACORO, Spezie di galera ufata dagl' Indiani, e fingolarmente nell' Ifola di Borneo, e nelle Moluche. Ella è ftretta, aguzza, e baffa dalla poppa, e dalla prua.…

...Quando vuolfi comandare alcuna cofa a quefti rematori, ciò fi fa da coloro, o cantando, o battendo il tamburo, o fuonando al cuno inftrumento; ed effi da ciò fi regolano per la maniera, colla qua le debbon vogare.”
[Dizionario Istorico Teorico E Pratico Di Marine, Saverien, 1769]

Karakoa


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Apr 22 - 10:40 AM

“ACCORD, the order to pull together on a rope or tackle; alfo to row together, or pull uniformly with the oars.
CONTRE-MAITRE, boatfwain of a fhip.
HISSE, HISSE, hoift away! hoift heartily!
HOLA-HO, a cry which anfwers to yoe-hoe.
O! d'en haul, yoa-hoa, aloft there! maft-head there! &c, the cry from the deck to thofe who are aloft, to attend to fome order,
O! hiffe, O! hale, O! faille, O! ride, the method of finging out, as a fignal to hoift, haul, or roufe together, on a tackle or rope.
SAILLE! a manner of fhouting amongft the failors, as a fignal to pull or heave all at once.
UN, deux, trois, an exclamation, or fong', ufed by feamen when hauling the bowlines, the greateft effort being made at the laft word. Englifh failors, in the fame manner, call out on this occafion —haul-in—haul-two— haul-belay!
Donner la VOIX, to fing out; as in hauling, hoifting, heaving, &c.
WINDLASS, ...As this machine is heaved about in a vertical direction, it is evident that, the effort of an equal number of men acting upon it will be much more powerful than on the capftern; becaufe their whole weight and ftrength are applied more readily to the end of the lever employed to turn it about. Whereas, in the horizontal movement of the capftern, the exertion of their force is confiderably diminifhed. It requires, however, fome dexterity and addrefs to manage the handfpec to the greateft advantage; and to perform this the failors muft all rife at once upon the windlafs, and, fixing their bars therein, give a fudden jerk at the fame inftant, in which movement they are regulated by a fort of fong or howl pronounced by one of their number.

The moft dextrous managers of the handfpec in heaving at the windlafs are generally fuppofed the colliers of Northumberland: and of all European mariners, the Dutch are certainly the moft aukward and fluggifh in this manœuvre.
[An Universal Dictionary of the Marine, Falconer, Vol.I-II, 1769]

William Falconer (1732–c.1770)

See also: Reidler.

Note: Judging from the number of Falconer citations on Mudcat, Wiki &c, the 'proto-shanty' advent horizon is somewhere along about here.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Apr 22 - 10:41 AM

CALOMAR, f.m. Air que les mariniers chantent pour tirer & faire effort tous enfemble. Lat. Celeufma, tos.
HA, interj…. Lat. Ha! Hei! Heu!
Ha, en termes de Marine eft un cri dont on fe fert pour faire agir les matelots de concert & tous à la fois.
        O Luzbel ha! No me efcucha.
        O Soberbia ha! No me entiende.
        O Envidia ha! De oir fe ofende.

ZALOMA, f.f. Terme de Marine. Cri que font les matelots pour appeller leurs camarades lorfqu'il y a quelque manœuvrer à faire. Lat. Vox ad nautas citandos.
ZALOMAR, v.a., Appeller les matelots pour manœuvrer. Lat. Nautas convocare.”
[Sobrino Aumentado o Nuevo Diccionario de las Lenguas Española, Francesa y Latina, Vol.I-II, Corman, 1769]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Apr 22 - 10:41 AM

“O , eft fouvent une interjection, & on s'en fert pour invoquer à fon fecours, pour admirer, pour fe plaindre, pour fe moquer, invectiver, & faite toutes fortes d'exclamations. O Dieu immortel! O que cela eft beau!O qu'il eft ridicule! O que j'ai mal à la tête! &c. Omon Pere, lui dis-je tout effrayé, ces gens là étoient-ils Chrétiens! Pasc.

On fe fert fouvent de ce terme fur mer pour appeler ceux à qui on veut parler: la raifon eft que le ton de ce mot eft fort, &c f e fait entendre de loin; il rend attentifs ceux à qui on adreffe la parole. O du navire, fe dit lorfqu étant en route, on veut parler à ceux d'un navire dont on ne fair pas le nom. O du Neptune, hola, &c. pour parler à ceux du vaiffeau appelé Neptune. O d'en-haut, difent ceux qui font fur le pont; pour parler à ceux qui font fur les mats, & les vergues, &c. O hale, ô hiffe, &c. fe dit pour avertir de haler , de-hiffer, &c.”
[Dictionnaire Universel Francois et Latin, Vol.VI, Mit-Pro, 1771]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Apr 22 - 12:10 PM

“CHANTER. C'eft crier diftinctement & à pleine gorge, hiffa - ho, ha, hiffa , ho, hiffe, afin qu'au dernier mot exprimé avec plus de force que les autres, tous les gens rangés fur les manœuvres halent enfemble de toutes leurs forces. On chante de différentes manieres, felon les circonftances & l'efpèce de travail.

DONNER la voix. C'eft une maniere de crier lentement, en prononçant quelques mots, à la fin defquels tous ceux qui font rangés fur la manœuvre, tirent enfemble avec force pour faire travailler comme on le défire. Donne la voix, c'eft commander à un des Travailleurs de chanter, hiffa, ho, hi, hiffa, ho, hiffe. Voyez CHANTER.

CHANTER. Ceft crier diftinctement & à pleine gorge, hiffa – ho, ha, hiffa, ho, hiffe, afin qu'au dernier mot exprimé avec plus de force que les autres, tous les gens rangés fur les manœuvres halent enfemble de toutes leurs forces. On chante de différentes manieres, felon les circonftances & l'efpèce de travail.

O! HISSE. ô! faille. ô! hale. ô! Ride. Maniere courte de donner la voix, pour faire réunir les efforts de chaque homme dans le mème inftant, afin de produire un plus grand effet.

REPRISE de main. C'eft reprendre la Manœuvre plus haut en y portant la main; lorfqu'on hiffe main-fur-main, ou à courir; alors l'Officier qui commande crie, pour encourager les Matelots, Reprends, enfants, main-fur-main, ha! ha! ha! à courir, &c.

SAILLE.. Saille! C'eft-à-dire, Tire ou Pouff avec force & vîteffe, pour hiffer quelque chofe à courir. Lorfqu'on hiffe les Huniers, on crie Saille! & tout le monde tire en même tems, courant fur le Garan des Driffes. Saille de l'Avant, c'eft pouffer en Avant; & Sailler de l' Arriere, c'eft pouffer vers 'Arriere - c'eft un commandement. Il faut failler nos Mâts de Hunes de Rechange fur l'Avant ou fur l'Arriere... Il faut pouffer ou failler nos Bouts dehors de Bonnettes pour gréer ces Voiles.

VIRE! C'eft-à-dire, Tourne. On crie aux gens qui font rangés fur les Barres du Cabeftan, pour les animer au travail, Vire, Enfans, vire! On vire au Cabeftan pour lever fes Ancres, guinder fes Mâts de Hunes, & faire d'autres forts travaux qui ne peuvent fe faire qu'à force de Cabeftan.”
[Manuel des Marins, Vol.I, Villehuet, 1773]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Apr 22 - 12:12 PM

ALARI'DO. f.m. a cry, clamour, or outcry, a fhout. From Alla, i.e. God, the cry de guerre among the Turks, Moors, and Arabs.
Alarido de marinheiros. See CELEUMA.

CELEUMA, ou celeufma, f.f. (a fea term) the fhout or noise which mariners make, when they do any thing with joined ftrength, at which times they cry, ho-up; or when they encourage each other. Lat. celeufma; fome fay it is of the mafculine gender.”
[A Dictionary of the Portuguese and English Languages, Vieyra, 1773]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Apr 22 - 02:16 PM

“CALOMAR, f.m. Cri, ton des matelots lorfqu'ils manœuvrent dans le vaiffeau. Lat. Celeufma, tos.
ZALOMA, f.f. T. de marine. Cri ou certain fon qui fe fait dans les vaiffeaux, pour appeller les matelots à la manœuvre, Lat. Datum nautis fignum, i.
ZALOMAR, v.a. T. de marine. Appeller les matelots à la manœuvre. Lat. Nautis fignum dare.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire Espagnol-François et Latin, Séjournant, 1775]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Apr 22 - 02:17 PM

“I saw the harvest of a small field. The women reaped the corn, and the men bound up the sheaves. The strokes of the fickle were timed by the modulation of the harvest-song, in which all their voices were united. They accompany in the Highlands every action which can be done in equal time, with an appropriated strain, which has, they fay, not much meaning; but its effects are regularity and chearfulness. The ancient proceleusmatic song, by which the rowers of gallies were animated, may be supposed to have been of this kind. There is now an oar-song used by the Hebridians.”
[A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, Johnson, 1775, p.97]



“Dr. Johnfon tells us that he faw the Harveft of a fmall Field in one of the weftern Iflands:— The Strokes of the Sickle were timed by the Modulation of the Harveft Song, in which all their Voices were united:— ….. There is now an Oar Song ufed by the Hebridians —Thus far the learned Traveller. Our Sailors at Newcaftle, in heaving their Anchors, &c. ufe a Song of this Kind.”
[Observations on Popular Antiquities, Brand, 1777, p.308]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Apr 22 - 02:19 PM

“There is a species of poetry peculiar to the Gael called Iurram and Orain Luathaidh. The music of the Iurram has always that mixture of grandeur and melancholy that never fails to gain its end. They are sung on board of ships and buirlings* by the sailors, when they row or work, to deceive the time. The subject is generally the life and actions of some chief or relation. The language is such as to express the sentiments and actions described; the music, expression, and the strokes of the oars, coinciding in such exact time, both the sailor and passenger forget their hardships and fatigue, even in the most inclement seasons. The Oran luathaidh, with the same view, is sung when they work on shore, and derives its name from luthadh, milling or fulling….

...The time of this fpieces of finging** is not fo quick as that of the Reel, nor fo flow as the Iurram.”
[An analysis of the Galic Language, 2nd ed., Shaw, 1778, pp.136-37)]
*boats
**Oran luathaidh.
iomramh
Fulling songs
Origin: Skye Boat Song confusion


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Apr 22 - 03:18 PM

“Celeusma, tis, n.g. Canto, ò grita de Marineros, y, de los demás, para divertir el trabajo : quum uno aliquid jubentem omnës uniformitèr respondent, quasi sibi invicem jubentes. Martial. lib. 3. de pigris nautis.
Celeustes, tæ, m.g. El Comitre de Galera : qui à Plauto Latinè Hortator appellatur, quòd ea hortamenta faciat, quæ verbo Græco Celeusmata dicuntur etiam à Latinis. Budæus.”
[Dictionarium Redivivum, Nebrija, 1778]


“Celeufma, tis: Celeuma, tis, cri des Matelots qui rament; fignal de manœuvrer donné aux Matelots.
Celeuftes, æ le Boffeman, celui qui fait manœuvrer led Mariniers.
Pro-Celeufmaticus, i, pied de vers trèsrapide, étant compofé de quatre fyllabes bréves.”
[Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Latine ,1779]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 May 22 - 02:11 PM

“They have particular laws amongft themfelves, during thofe piratical cruifes; and keep up a certain order and difcipline. In rowing, at which, from habit, they are dextrous, they have always a fong as a kind of tactic, and beat on two brafs timbrels to keep time. I have known one man on board my little veffel opportunely, with fometimes a Molucca, fometimes a Mindano Mangaio fong, revive the reft, who from fatigue, were droufing at their oars; and operate with pleafing power, what no proffered reward could effect: fo cheared, they will row a whole night.

The Moors, in what is called country fhips in Eaft India, have alfo their chearing fongs; at work in hoifting, or in their boats a rowing. The Javans and Molucca people have theirs. Thofe of the Malays are drawling and infipid. In Europe the French provençals have their fong: it is the reverfe of lively. The Mangaio is brifk, the Malabar tender. The Greeks and Romans had their Celeufma or chearing fong. Martial feems to have made one, III. 67.”
[A Voyage to New Guinea, and the Moluccas, from Balambangan, Forrest, 1779, pp.303-304)]

See: Martial, karakoa &c, above.
Lyr Add: Chanties of Capt. Tho. Forrest

See also: Caracoro/karakoa (1769, above.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 May 22 - 02:14 PM

“I.
When firft we hear the boatfwain bray,
        With voice like thunder roaring,
All hands, my boys, get under way,
        Hark the fignal for unmooring;
To fave the joyous breeze
        The handfpikes then we feize,
In hopes to find the foe,
        The capstan here,
        The windlafs there,
We man to the tune of heo hea heo.

II.
Caft loofe your top-fails next, he cries,
        Top-ga'nt fails too, and courfes;
Clue lines and geer let go, my boys,
        Haul home your fheets like horfes
                The mizen loofe–be glib,
                Fore-stay-fail too and gib,
Your down hauls, boys, let go;
        We ftrait comply,
        And eager fly,
And obey to the tune of heo hea heo.

III.
The anchor's up, ho! Next they call:
        Avaft, boys! 'Vaft your heaving,
The cat and fifh we over-haul,
        The handfpikes nimbly leaving.
                And if a profp'rous gale,
                We crowd on every fail,
Whilft our fheets they fweetly flow,
        Along we fwim,
        Our braces trim,
And all to the tune of heo hea heo.

IV.
Then lovely Moll, and Sue, and Beck,
        Their eyes with grief o'er-flowing,
With heavy hearts come upon the deck,
        The rude wind on them blowing;
                One fhort embrace we take,
                Which makes our hearts to ach;
A while we join in woe,
        Nor to our grief
        Obtain relief,
Till charm'd by the fong of heo hea heo.”
[Plymouth in an Uproar: A Musical Farce, Dibdin, 1779]

Help: Dibdin's Naval Airs


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 May 22 - 02:24 PM

“BOSSEMAN, f. m. (Officier de l'équipage d'un navire.) A Boatfwain of a ship.

COMMANDE, impérat. Holloa! The, anfwer given by the failors to the mafter, boatfwain, &c. when he calls to them to give them fome order.

Voix, (chanteur, chanteufe.) Voice, finger.

Voix, (en termes de mer.) The fong employed by failors, in hoifting, hauling, heaving, &c.

Donner la voix. To fing out, as in hauling , hoifting, heaving, &c.

A la voix! Mind the man that fings!”
[Dictionnaire Royal François Anglois, 2nd ed., Boyer, 1780]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 May 22 - 02:26 PM

“Abhran. A fong. Vide Amhran.
Amhra. A dream, poem.
Amhran. A fong.
Burdan. A gibe, a fing-fong.
Eafnadh. Mufic, fong, melody.
Eafnadh. Time.
Forann. A fhort verfe, verficle, fong.
Iomramh. Iomram. } Rowing.
Iomram. Iomramham. } To row.
Iomramhaidhe. A rower.
Iuarram. Fidgeting; the oar fong, a long libel or rhime.
Oraid. An oration, prayer, declamation.
Oraideach. An orator, declaimer.
Oraidaigham. To declaim.
Oraim. To pray.
Oran. A fong.
Oranach. Full of fongs.
Oranaiche. A fong?ter.
Uran. Courtefy, affability, a fong.”
[A Galic and English Dictionary, Vol.I, Shaw, 1780]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 10:50 AM

“CHANTER, v. n. c'eft crier diftinctement & à pleine gorge; hiffa-ho, ha, hiffa, ho, hiffe, afin qu'au dernier mot, exprimé avec plus de force que les autres, tous les gens rangés fur les manœuvres halent enfemble de toutes leurs forces. On chante de différentes manières, felon les circonftances & l'efpèce de travail. ( V* B)

CHANTEUR, f. m. celui qui chante: c'est ordinairement un matelot, ouvrier ou forçat, qui a la voix forte & qui pouffe, à tue-tête, de certains fons d'ufage, pendant l'exécution d'une manœuvre, au moyen defquels les efforts des gens qui y travaillent fe'font enfemble. Voyez CHANTER. (V**)”
[Encyclopedie Methodique Marine, Vol.I, A-Des, Castries, 1783]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 10:51 AM

“We got into Rafay's carriage, which was a good ftrong open boat made in Norway. The wind had now rifen pretty high, and was againft us; but we had four ftout rowers, particularly a Macleod, a robust black-haired fellow, half naked, and bareheaded, fomething between a wild Indian and an Englifh tar. Dr. Johnfon fat high on the ftern, like a magnificent Triton. Malcolm fung an Erfe fong, the chorus of which was 'Hatyin foam foam eri,' with words of his own. The tune refembled 'Owr the muir amang the heather.' The boatmen and Mr. M'Queen chorufed, and all went well. At length Malcolm himfelf took an oar, and rowed vigoroufly. We failed along the coaft of Scalpa, a rugged ifland, about four miles in length.” [pp.184-185]

“Our boatmen fung with great fpirit. Dr. Johnfon obferved, that naval mufick was very ancient. As we came near the fhore, the finging of our rowers was fucceeded by that of reapers, who were bufy at work, and who feemed to fhout as much as to fing, while they worked with a bounding activity.” [p.187]

“Laft night Lady Rafay fhewed him the operation of wawking cloth, that is, thickening it in the fame manner as is done by a mill. Here it is performed by women, who kneel upon the ground, and rub it with both their hands, finging an Erfe fong all the time. He was afking queftions while they
were performing this operation, and, amidft their loud and wild howl, his voice was heard even in the room above.”

“Our boatmen were rude fingers, and feemed fo like wild Indians, that a very little imagination was neceffary to give one an impreffion of being upon an American river.” [p.315]
[The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides With S.Johnson, Boswell, 1785]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 11:19 AM

“Donner là voix, c'eft une manière de crier lentement, en prononçant quelques mots, à la fin defquels tous ceux qui font rangés fur la manœuvre, tirent enfemble avec force, pour faire travailler comme on le defire. Donne la voix c’eft commander à un des travailleurs de chanter, hiffa, ho, hi, hiffa, ho, hiffe. Voyez Chanter.*

HISSA, ho , ha , hiffa , ô , hiffe; cri ou chant d’un matelot, qui donne la voix pour faire réunir les forces des autres matelots dans le même inftant, afin que tous les efforts réunis faffent un plus grand effet.”
[Encyclopedie Methodique Marine, Vol.II, Des-Mur, Castries, 1786]

*Vol.II got parsed from Vol.I, above, 1783


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 11:21 AM

“CALOMAR, f.m. the fong or cry of failors when they hale a rope all together.
ZALA'MA, ZALAME'RIA, f.f. flattery, adulation.
ZALAME'RO, f.m.f, a flatterer.
ZALO'MA, f.f. the ufed by failors working on borad a ship.
ZALOMA'R, v.n. to cry as failors do wen they work on board.”
[Diccionario Español e Ingles, Tom. I, 1786]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 11:43 AM

O! hiffe, ô! faille, ô! hale, ô! Ride; manière courte de donner la voix, pour faire réunir les efforts de chaque homme dans le même inftant, afin de produire un plus grand effet, voyez CHANTER.

OH! hiffe, oh! hale, oh! faille, oh ! ride; ce font des cris que l'on fait en différens temps, our s'accorder dans certains travaux où l'on eft plufieurs , foit qu'il faille hiffer, haler, pouffer ou rider quelque chofe. Voyez ô hiffe! au mot, Hissa.

REPRISE de main, c'e?t l'action de reprendre la manœuvre plus haut en y portant la main, lorfqu'on hiffe main fur main ou à courir; alors l'officier qui commande crie pour encourager les matelots: reprend, enfans, main fur main: ha! ha! ha! à courir.

SAILLER, v. a. faille! c'eft-à-dire, tire ou pouffe avec force & vîteffe, pour hiffer quelque chofe à courir. Lorfqu'on hiffe les huniers, on crie faille! & tout le monde tire en même temps, courant fur le garan des driffes. Sailler de l'avant, c'eft pouffer de l'avant; & failler de l'arrière, c'eft pouffer vers l'arrière: c'eft un commandement. Il faut failler nos mâts de hune de rechange fur l'avant, ou fur l'arrière.... Il faut pouffer ou failler nos bouts - dehors de bonnettes pour gréer ces voiles.”
[Encyclopedie Methodique Marine, Vol.III, Nad-Z, Castries, 1787]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 11:44 AM

“CELEUMA: Esta palabra que se lee en tres lugares de Jeremías 25.30.: 48.33. y 51.14. significa el júbilo, y algazara de los vendimiadores, y se aplica á las baladronadas de los vencedores que insultan á los vencidos. El Griego Keleusma significa literalmente los gritos de los Marineros, y el Hebreo Heldad, se dice propriamente de los vendimiadores que gritan hedad, hedad, hedad.”
[Diccionario Historico, Cronologico, Geografico y Universal de la Santa Biblia, A-F, 1788]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 11:47 AM

CALOMáR, V. Zalomar.”
[Diccionario Castellano, Tom.I, Pando, 1786]


ZALOMA, en la Marina, es la cancion que usan los Marineros cuando halan y tiran de un aparejo, cabo, ó otra cosa en que uno canta, ó zaloma, y los demas responden y tiran á una. Dicc. M. F. Ori, ou certain son, &c. Lat. Vox hortatoria. Basc. Zaloma, zaleuma. V. Lop. De Vega, vid. De San Isidr. Canto 4.
ZALOMAR, hacer zaloma. Fr. Appeller les matelots á manoeuvre. Lat. Celeuesma canere Basc. Zalomatú.”
[Diccionario Castellano: Tom.IV, Pando, 1788]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 May 22 - 09:27 PM

Celeufma, atis, cri des matelots qui rament.
Celeuftes, æ, celui qui fait manœuvrer les matelots.”
[Dictionnaire Étymologique et Raisonné des Racines Latines, Gébelin, 1780]


“CELEUSMA, grido di molte perfone, che fi eccitano vicendevolmenteal combattimento, o alla fatica; Nequaquam (diceGeremia cap.xxxxv???.) calcator uvæ folitum celeufma cantabit. E nel cap. xxv. Celeufma quafi calcantium concinetur adverfus omnes habitatores terræ: cioè, come coloro che peftano le uve, cacciano fuori de' gridi per incoraggirfi al, travaglio, o per rallegrarfi; così i Babilo nefi s' incoraggeranno gli uni cogli altri per avventarfi contro Gerusalemme, e rallegrarfi della fua perdita.”
[Dizionario Portatile della Bibbia, Vol.1, Alletz, 1781]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 May 22 - 09:28 PM

“CELEUSTES, in the ships of the ancients, was the boatswain, or other officer appointed to give the fignal to the rowers, when to pull, and when to stop their hands. –– The strokes of the oar were directed by a fong or Formula, called Celeufma. The Celeuftes was also called Epopeus, and by the Romans, Portifculus, or fimply Hortator.–– Ovid. Met. L. 3. v. 618, &c.”
[An Archæological Dictionary: Or, Classical Antiquities of the Jews, Greeks, and Romans, Wilson, 1781]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 May 22 - 09:30 PM

“I Vafcelli del Giappone hanno comunemente 30., ovvero 50. Reinatori per tirare il Remo, allorchè il vento cade: quefti Rematori fono affifi fopra di alcuni Banchi che fono pofti dalla parte della Poppa; remano in cadenza full' aria di una canzona, o fopra il tuono di alcune parole, ovvero fopra un fuono che ferve nel medefimo tempo a regolare la loro Manoeuvre, e farli prendere coraggio, a fomiglianza degl' Antichi Greci, che venivano efortati con un grido che chiamavano Celeusma a raddoppiare i loro sforzi. Quefto grido era, fecondo Aristofane,, rhippapè ,, ovvero ,, oop ,, il Celeufma era ancora in ufo preffo i Marinari Romani, I Comandanti con i loro Celeufma, dice Arriano, ordinavano ai Rematori di cominciare, o di ceffare; ed i Rematori rifpondendo con un grido, e muovevano tutti in un medesimo tempo i loro Remi.”
[Istoria dell' Origine, e Progressi della Nautica Antica, Bechi, 1785]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 May 22 - 09:31 PM

CALOMAR, s.m. Cri des matelots lorsqu'ils manœuvrent dans le vasisseau. Lat. Celeusma.
[Nuevo Diccionario Espanola-Francesa y Latina, 1st ed, Vol.I, Pt.I, A-E, Cormon, 1789]



SALOMA, s.f. L'action de crier des matelots, dans leurs manœuvres. L. Nautica opera canendo acta.
SALOMAR, Crier tons ensemble. Se dit des matelots qui, dans leurs manœuvres, jettent des cris pour s'avertir de tirer ou de pousser en un même tems. Lat. Nauticam operam canendo agere.
[Nuevo Diccionario Espanola-Francesa y Latina, 1st ed, Vol.II F-Z, Cormon, 1789]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 May 22 - 09:32 PM

CALOMAR, s.m. Cri des matelots lorsqu'ils manœuvrent dans le vasisseau. Lat. Celeusma.
Chirriar, Terme de marine. Donner du sifflet, commandement que le comitè d'une galère ou autres officiers de vaisseau font, pour faire manœuvrer la chiourme, ou les matelots.
SALOMA, s.f. L'action de crier des matelots, dans leurs manœuvres. L. Nautica opera canendo acta.
SALOMAR, Crier tous ensemble. Se dit des matelots qui, dans leurs manœuvres, jettent des cris pour s'avertir de tirer ou de pousser en un mème tems. Lat. Nauticam operam canendo agere.”
[Dictionaire Espagnol-François et François-Espagnol, Sejournant, 1789]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 May 22 - 05:39 AM

“Calomar, fubft. m. Cri des Matelos pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage. Lat. Celeufma.
Faena, subft. f. Manœuvre, fervice des matelots fur un vaiffeau; *ouvrage, travail pénible à faire dans une maifon. Opera nautica vel domeftica.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire Espagñol et François, François et Espagñol, Vol.I, A-F, Gattel, 1790]


“CELEUSMA, the cry or fhout whereby feamen anciently animated each other to their work of rowing.
CELEUSMA was afso a kind of fong rehearsed or played by the mafter, or others, to direct the ftrokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to excite them to labour. It alfo denoted the joyful acclamations of vintagers, and the fhouts of the conquerors over the vanquished. In process of time the Chriftians fung hymns and pfalms in vessels, by way of celeufma, in which the words amen and hallelujah were frequently repeated.
CELEUSTES, the boatfwain or officer appointed, among the ancients, to give the rowers the fignal when they were to pull, and when to ftop. See CELEUSMA.”
[The New Royal Cyclopaedia; or Modern Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Howard, 1790]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 May 22 - 05:41 AM

“CELEUSMA, or CELEUMA, in antiquity, the fhout or cry of the feamen, whereby they animated each other in their work of rowing. The word is formed from … to call, to give the fignal.
CELEUSMA was alfo a kind of fong or formula, rehearfed or played by the mafter, or others, to direct the ftrokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour. See CELEUSTES.
CELEUSTES, in ancient navigation, the boatfwain or officer appointed to give the rowers the fignal, when they were to pull, and when to ftop. He was alfo denominated epopeus, and by the Romans portifculus; fometimes fimply hortator.”
[Encyclopædia Britannica; Or, a Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature, Vol.4, 1791]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 May 22 - 05:42 AM

“NOISE
The mariners' noife, * Celeufma, atis, n.”
[A New Latin-English Dictionary, Young, 1792]


“CELEUSMA, atis, n, Afc. grido, o canto di marinari, che fcambievelmensa animanfi a vogare.”
[Vocabolario Italiano-Latino, Vol.II, 1792]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 May 22 - 10:43 AM

“CHANTER, v. n. c'eft crier diftictement & à pleine gorge; hiffa-ho, ha, hiffa, ho, hiffe, afin qu'au denier mot, exprimé avec plus de force que les autres, tous les gens rangés fur les manœuvres halent enfemble de touts leurs forces. On chante de diffèrentes manières, felon les circonftances & l'efpèce de travail. (V*B)

CHANTEUR, f. m. celui qui chante: c'eft ordinairement un matelot, ouvrier ou forçat, qui a la voix forte & qui pouffe, à rue-têt, de certains fons d'ufage, pendant l'exécution d'une manœuvre, ua moyen defquels les efforts des gens qui y travaillent fe font enfemble. Voyez CHANTER. (V**)”

“O!, hiffe, ô!faille, ô! hale, ô! Ride; manière courte de donner la voix, pour faire réunir les efforts de chaque homme dans le même inftant, afin de produire un plus grand effet, voyez CHANTER.

REPRISE de main, c'eft l'action de reprendre la manœuvre plus haut en y portant la main, lorfqu'on hiffe main fur main ou à courir; alors l'officier qui commande crie pour encourager les matelots: reprend, enfans, main fur main: ha! ha! ha! à courir.

SAILLER, v. a. faille! c'eft-à-dire, tire ou pouffe avec force & vîteffe, pour hiffer quelque chofe à courir. Lorfqu'on hiffe les huniers, on crie faille! & tout le monde tire en même temps, courant fur le garan des drisses. Sailler de l'avant, c'eft pouffer de l'avant; & failler de l'arrière, c'eft pouffer vers l'arrière: c'eft un commandement. Il faut failler nos mâts de hune de rechange sur l'avant, ou fur l'arrière.... Il faut pouffer ou failler nos bouts - dehors de bonnettes pour gréer ces voiles.

VOIX, f. f. fon qui fort de la bouche de l'homme. La marine emploie ce mot dans ces façons de parler: être à la voix, à portée de la voix; c'eft être affez près pour fe faire enténdre en parlant avec le porte-voix ou fans porte-voix. Nous commençâmes le combat à portée de la voix, & peu après nous abordâmes. Donner la voix, voyez
DONNER LA VOIX. A la voix, c'eft commander aux gens de l'équipage de travailler au fon de la voix, afin de faire effort tous enfemble.”
[Dictionnaire Encyclopedique de Marine, Vol.I-III, Duclarebois, 1793]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 May 22 - 10:46 AM

Appeller les matelots à la manouvre. Zalomar, hacer la zaloma; en la Marina es una cancion que usan los marineros cuando hacen su maniobra. V. Dice. De las quatro leng. La voz zaloma.
Celeusma, tos, m. Calomar, zalomar, voz de Marineros cuando hacen la maniobra.
Isop. Voz con que se excitan entre sí los marineros á izar las velas.”
[Diccionario Castellano, Pando, 1793]



Appeller les matleots à la manouvre. Zalomar, hacer la zaloma; en la Marina es una cancion que usan los marineros cuando hacen su maniobra. V. Dice. de las cuatro leng. la voz zaloma.
Celeusma, tos, m. Calomar, zalomar, voz de Marineros cuando hacen la maniobra.”
[Los Tres Alfabetos Frances, Latino É Italiano, Tom.IV, Pando, 1793]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 May 22 - 10:47 AM

“CELEUMA, o Celeusma. In greco …. Canzone o ritmo che s'intuonava ai remiganti per incoraggiarli alla fatico, o regoiarla, o farla cessare. Marziale:

        Quem nunc rumpere nauticum celeusma.

Corisponde a quel di Virgillio: incumbite remis. Talvolta si avvisavano I remiganti con suono di pietre battute l'una contro l'altra. Senofonte. –– Talvolta con sinfonia a più strumenti. Pediano: cani remigibus celeusma è pure l' ordine del piloto. Aristofane adopra… , vogate; e o'..., cessate.
CELEUMA. E' la voce del capo che dirige i facchini nello scaricar merci, o tirar barche.
*CELEUSTES. Nome di danza ridicola delle molte presso i Greci, Ateneo *.
CELEUSTES. Direttore dei remiganti. In greco….”
[Dizionario di Antichità Sacre e Profane, Vol.III, 1794]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 May 22 - 10:48 AM

“ALARIDO, f..m. Gritaria, clamor, vozes juntas,…
– de marinheiro, v. Faina. Celeuma. ¶Fazer, dar grandes alaridos. Crier, exciter, faire du tumulte, du trouble; trumbler. (Tumultari. Turbas facere. Cic.)

FAINA, f.f. (T.Naut.) Celeuma, vozeria com que os marinheiros fe incitão a fazer o feu officio, quando trabalhão; &c. Cri des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouverage. (Celeuma, ou Celeufma. Tis. f.n. Afc. Pæd.)
[Diccionario Portuguez Francez e Latino, da Costa. 1794]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 May 22 - 10:49 AM

“Celeusma, atis, n. grido di marinari, che vicendevolmente fi animano.

Gridatore, clamatore, oris, g.m.
Gridatore, banditore, præco, onis, g.m.

Grido, alzata di voce, exclamatio, onis g.f.”
[Nuovo Vocabolario Osia Raccolta di Vocaboli Italiani, 1795]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 May 22 - 01:34 PM

“Calomar, il canto che fanno i marinari quando tirano d'accordo per accrefcer la forza nel tirare.

Hiçar, vocabolo con che i marinari fi vanno animando l' un l' altro nell' alzar qualche pefo, o far qualche forza infieme. E d' accordo.

Yça, vocabolo che ufano i marinari, o forzati quando d' accordo fanno qualche forza, e noi diciamo iffa.”
[Vocabulario Español e Italiano, Vol.II, Florentino, 1796]


“PAUSARIAS. Oder Keleuftes. f. Keleuftes.
Salomar. Auffingen.
Salomare. Auffingen.
Zalomar. f. Salomar.”
[Allgemeines Wörterbuch der Marine, Röding,1796]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 May 22 - 01:36 PM

CELEUSMA, or Celeuma, in antiquity, the fhout or cry of the feamen, whereby they animated each other in their work of rowing. The word is formed from keleusma, to call, to give the fignal.
Celeusma was alfo a kind of fong or formula, rehearfed or played by the mafter, or others, to direct the ftrokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour. See Celeustes.
CELEUSTES, in ancient navigation, the boatfwain or officer appointed to give the rowers the fignal, when they were to pull, and when to ftop. He was alfo denominated epopeus, and by the Romans portifculus; sometimes simply hortator.
CHANT, (cantus), is ufed for the vocal mufic of churches. In church-hiftory we meet with divers kinds of chant or fong. The firft is the Ambrofian, established by St Ambrofe. The fecond, the Gregorian chant, introduced by Pope Gregory the great, who eftablifhed fchools of chantors, and corrected the church-fong. This is ftill retained in the church under the name of plainsong; at firft it was called the Roman fong. The plain or Gregorian chant, is where the choir and people Fing in unifon, or all together in the fame manner.”
CHANTOR, a finger of a choir in a cathedral, The word is almoft grown obfolete, chorifter or finging-man being commonly ufed inftead of it. All great chapters have chantors and chaplains to affift the canons, and officiate in their absence.
[Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.IV, CAA-CHE, London, 1797]



“VOIX, fubft. fém. The fong employed by failors, in hoisting, hauling, heaving , &c.
DONNER LA VOIX. To fing out, as in hauling, hoifting, heaving, &c.”
[Vocabulaire des Termes Marine, Lescallier, 1797]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 May 22 - 01:38 PM

Alarido, m. Geschrey, Kriegsgeschren der Barbaren; Geheul, Wehflagen.
Calomar, das Geschrey der Matrosen, wann sie im Schiffe zugleich Hand anlegen.
Calomar, o. rufen, schreyen, wie die Matrosen thun, wenn sie ein Séil, Tau anziehen; absingen.
Zaloma, f. ein gewisses Zeichen mit der Stimme auf den Schiffen, um dic Matrosen an ihre Arbeit zu rufen, das Geschren, auf welches sie alle auf an einem Taue ziehen; das Absingen. S. A.
Zalomar, o. absingen, bamit alle Matrosen auf einmal an einem Taue ziehen. S. A.”
[Nuevo Diccionario Espanol-Aleman y Aleman-Espanol, Vol.I-II, 1798]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 May 22 - 01:39 PM

CALÓMA. (Náut) Grita de marineros. Crying out zaloma.
[Diccionario Nuevo de las dos Lenguas Española e Inglesa, Tom.I, A-E, Connelly, 1798]


SALÓMA. s.f. La accion de salomar. A failor's fong, the act of finging out when he hauls a rope &c.
SALOMÁR. v.n. Cantar juntos los marineros para tirar ó empujar á un tiempo en las maniobras. To fing out, ufed by failors when they work, or haul a rope together.
ZALÓMA. s.f. (Náut.) Cancion que usan los marineros quando halan de un aparejo. A fong ufed by failors when they haul a rope together.
ZALOMÁR. v.a. Hacar la zaloma. To fong and haul together a rope, as failors are wont to do.”
[Diccionario Nuevo de las dos Lenguas Española e Inglesa, Tom.II, F-Z, Connelly, 1798]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 May 22 - 01:41 PM

“The keleustes or hortator remigium, is by some considered as the Boatswain; his duty was to repeat the orders to the rowers , and to distribute their allowance to the Ship's Company…. The last Officer whom we shall notice, though several other professional names occur in antient writers, was the..., or Musician, who endeavoured both by his voice and skill on whatever instrument he performed, to cheer the spirits of the Rowers:

Acclivis malo mediis intersonat Orpheus
Remigiis, tantos que jubet neocire labores.
Statius, Theb. V. v. 343

Against the mast the tuneful Orpheus stands,
Plays to the weary'd rowers, and commands
The thought of toil away.”
[Memoirs of Navigation and Commerce from the Earliest Period, The Naval Chronicle, Vol.II, 1799, pp.186-187]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 May 22 - 01:03 AM

“CELEUSMA, atis, n. I) eigenlijk het aanfpooren tot de arbeid. 2) bij zonder van vaarenegezellen, is het of het geschreeuw der bootsgezellen, om zich op te wekken, of de daad yan den officier der roejers, als hij met den hamer alz 't ware de mact floeg, opdas zij de reimen te gelijk opbiaren, en te gelijk vallen zouden laten, Marcial. III, 60, 4. Rutil. I, 370: cf. Afcon. ad Cic. in. Caecil. 17.”
[Lexicon Latino-Belgicum Auctorum Classicorum, Scheller, 1799]



“PORTUGUESE
5175. ZALOMAR, v. to sing out
SPANISH
3481. Zalomar, v. to sing out
[A Marine Pocket Dictionary of the Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and German Languages, 1799,]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 May 22 - 01:05 AM

ZALOMA, f. f. the cry ufed by sailors working on board a fhip.
ZALOMAR, v. n. to cry as failors do when they work on board.
[A Dictionary, Spanish and English, Baretti, 1800]


“Calomar, m. das Geschrey der Matrosen, wann sie im Schiffe zugleich Hand anlegen.
Calomar, o. rufen, schreyen, wie die Matrosen thun, wenn sie ein Seil, Tau anziehen; absingen.”
[Nuevo Diccionario Español-Aleman y Aleman-Español, Vol.II, Wagener, 1800]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 May 22 - 01:06 AM

“Le son des instrumens, le cliquetis de armes, les ordres donnés par les officiers, le chant cadencé des musiciens(1), les résponses (2) des matelots, le jeu des rames, et ces sons divers répercutés souvent par les montagnes qui formoient la côte et qui sembloient comme suspendues; voilà la scène majestueuse dont les historiens présentent à notre imagination le tableau, et dont les détails se ressentent évidemment de la relation laissée par des hommes qui eurent la glorie de participer à ce magnifique triomphe.

(1) Keleusma. (N. de l'A.)
(2) C'est ainsi que Gronovius rend le mot… (N. de l'A.)”
[Voyage de Nearque, Vol.I, Vincent, 1800]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 May 22 - 01:08 AM

“Celeufma, atis, n. vox & clamor, quo portisculus remigibus fignum dat, cosque ad remigandum adhortatur, v. gr. Mart. grido, o canto di marinari, che fcambievolmente animanfi a vogare mornarsko zamjenito u vozu popjevanje.”
[Lexicon Latino-Italico-Illyricum, Stulli, 1801]



“Nódítás: Celeusma. eine Vermahnung, Aufmunterung.
Nodítom: Adhortor, Impetio, is. ich ermahne, vesmahne.
Onßolás: Hortatus, Instinctus, Cohortatio clamosa, Celeusma. die Dermahnung, Unreizung, Anfrischung mit Geschren.
Onßolom: Cohortor, Clamore impetio, ich ermahne, bermahne mit Geschren.
Onßoló kiáltás: Celeusma, wenn man fich einander mit Zurufen ermahnet.”
[Dictionarium Latino-Hungaricum, Vol.2, Páriz, Bod, Molnár, Eder, 1801]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST
Date: 30 May 22 - 01:10 AM

“(257) §. CXLI. Aux premiers cris… signifient proprement ce cri par lequel on anime les matelots à ramer avec vigueur. Il se dit aussi de la chanson que chantent les matelots en ramant. Les Latins disoient, à l'imitation des Grecs, Celeusma. Hygini, Fab. XIV, pag. 55, cum notis Munckeri et Van Staveren.”
[Histoire, Vol.3, Herodotus (Ctesias) 1802]



“CALO'MA, f.f. (Naút.) Singing out of failors when they haul a rope.
SALO'MA, f.f.
1. (Naút.) Singing out of failors.
2. (Ict.) Goldline. (Sparus Salpa, Linn.)
SALOMA'R v.n. (Naút.) To fing out.
ZALO'MA, f.f. (Naút.) Singing out of feamen when they haul with a rope.
ZALOMA'R, v.n. (Naút.) To fing out.”
[A New Dictionary of the Spanish and English Languages, Neuman, 1802]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Jul 22 - 12:16 PM

“Celeuma, tis, ó Celeusma, tis. n. Canto, grita ó algazara de marineros quando descubren tierra, y para avertir el trabajo.
Celeustes, æ. m. El cómitre de galera.”
[Dictionarium Manual Latino Hispanum, 2nd ed, Ximenez, 1802]


“Calomar, s.m. the cry of sailors when they hale a rope all together.
[Nuevo Diccionario Portatil Espanol E Ingles, Gattel, 1803]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Jul 22 - 12:17 PM

“...and the sprightly notes of the drum and fife, by which the labour of the capstan-bars is at present so much abated, was a delightful task assigned to the Grecian Trieraules, who stood before the mast, and cheered his weary shipmates with the exhilarating music of the Canaanites.

Against the mast the tuneful Orpheus stands,
Plays to the wearied rowers, and commands
The thought of toil away :
                Statius, Theb. V. v. 343”
[The Progress of Maritime Discovery, The Naval Chronicle, Vol.X, Clarke, 1803, p.407]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Jul 22 - 12:27 PM

“Song (mind the)?……...        attention à la voix?
        out (to)……        arranger un certain chant, pour faire agir des hommes ensemble et en mesure.”
[Dictionnaire de la Marine Anglaise, et traduction des termes de la Marine Française en Anglais, Romme, 1804]


celeustes. v. Aguzzino, Auzzino, Comito, Lauzzino.”
[Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, Tomo VII, V-Z, Cesari, 1804]


Note: And speaking of torture... Dibdin's Tom Tough (Yo Heave Ho) &c &c would go right about in here somewheres per the Reidler model.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Jul 22 - 01:19 PM

“Niet slechts in den kryg maar ook in andere omstandigheden had men oudstyds zekere roep. Zo vind men in 't Hebreeuwsch het woord Hedad, als de roep der geenen die in de Wynoogst de druif in de pers treedende, elkander dus opwekten om met vrolykheid te arbeiden. Sommigen denken dat het ook de roep der Stuurlieden op een Schip was: alsdan komt het overeen met het celeusma der Grieken en Latynen. Lentos tingitis ad celeusma remos. Mart.”
[Aanmerkingen Over de Dichtkonst, Drayer, 1805]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Jul 22 - 01:21 PM

“Absingen, v. a. cantar; absingen, als die Matrosen, bey der Arbeit, zalomar.”
[Diccionario Aleman y Español, Schmid, 1805]


“Saloma, sost.f. canto de' marinaj
Salomar, v.n. cantar manovrando
[Dizionario Italiano-Spagnuolo e Spagnuolo-Italiano, Vol.2, Manni, 1805]


“Calomar, s.m. cri dess matelots pour s'encourager
Saloma, s.f. chant des matelots
Salomar, v.n. chanter en manœuvrant
[Nuevo Diccionario Portatil Espanol y Frances, Vol.I, 1806]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Jul 22 - 01:22 PM

“CANTO IV
XVI.
Com ruidosa voz de prazer cheio
Grita , e diz: Levem ancora ligeiros,
Dem-se vélas aos vencos, porque creio,
Que Aurora cedo mostra os seus Luzeiros.
Do cóncavo convéz posto no meio
Com vozes animava os marinheiros:
Ouvia-se ao mover do Cabrestante
A Nautica Celeuma dissonante….

CANTO IX
XXXI
Vendo Zargo já perto amena Praia,
Qque formava huma piacida Enseada,
Onde apenas o mar, quando se espraia,
A vaga mostra hum pouco encapellada;
E a Nautica Celeuma começacia,
Colhe-se o panno, e a ancora bidente,
Cahir da prôa sobre o mar se sente.”
[Zargueida, Descobrimento da Ilha da Madeira, Poema Heroico, Francisco de Paula Medina e Vasconcellos, 1806]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Jul 22 - 05:04 PM

“Now all things ready, then without delay,
The boatswain's shrill pipe, bids them, heave away!
To fife and drum they heave the capstan round,
Weighs th’ pond’rous anchor from the oozy ground.”
[Naval Poetical Journal in Twelve Letters, Letter II, Craw, 1807, p.29]


“'Tis service now so briefly he commands,
That “to unmoor the ship be pip'd all hands:”
'Tis instant done and now with constant round
The capstan heaves, each pacing to the sound
Of fife and drum; till the expected call
Pipes shrilly for the welcome word “to pawl.”*
Now at the huge cat-fall each nerve is stretch'd,
Until the anchor to the cat-head's fetch'd;
Here they secure it, while the great fish-hook
Drags to its place the heavy crooked fluke.

*When work is done at the capstan, music is generally played to make the men step together, and do it cheerfully.—To “pawl,” is to secure the capstan—to stop.”
[The Cruise: A Poetical Sketch in Eight Cantos, A Naval Officer, 1808, p.25]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Jul 22 - 05:07 PM

“Celeuma, tis. Ó Celeusma, tis. n. Canto, grito ó algarza de marineros cuando descrubren tierra, y para divertir el trabajo.
Celeustes, æ. m. El cómitre de galera.”
[Dictionarium Manuale Latino-Hispanum, Jiménez, 1808]


“* Celeusma, atis. n. Asc. Ped. El grito de los marineros ó remeros para animarse á la maniobra. ? La señal que se da á los marineros ó remeros, sea de viva voz, ó con un silbido para señalarles las diferentes maniobras. Se halla tanbien Celeuma.
* Celeustes, æ. m. Bud. El que hace hacer su deber á los marineros ó remeros, como el cómitre.”
[Diccionario Universal Latino-Español, Valbuena, 1808]


“Calomar, s.m. cri des matelots pour s'encourager.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche François-Espagnol, Vol.II, 1809]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Jul 22 - 05:09 PM

“The Athenians man their gallies, according to their respective rates, with a due proportion of soldiers and sailors. The former are generally heavy-armed, for the endeavor to come to boarding as soon a s possible, and by engaging hand to hand, being it as near as practicable to a land-fight. The sailors are made up of mariners, who manage the sails and tackling, and rowers; both composed of citizens, contrary to the practice in other countries, where the latter are always slaves. Amongst the Athenians they divide them into three orders; those in the uppermost benches are called Thranitai, those in the middle Zeugitai, those in the lower Thalamitai. The first have the largest pay; since by the distance of the water, and length of their oars, they undergo more fatigue and danger than the others. The officers on board a fleet, besides the admiral and his lieutenants, are the Trierarchs or captains of ships, who have under them the master pilot, the Keleustes or boatswain, who directs and places the rowers, and the Logistes or purser, besides other subalterns.”
[Athenian Letters (Anarcharsis the Younger) , Vol.I, Hardwicke, 1810]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 02:51 AM

Huntington, Gale. William Litten's Fiddle Tunes: 1800 – 1802, Vineyard Haven, Mass.: Hines Point Publishers, 1977.

“"William Litton’s Fiddle Tunes 1800-1802" ~ extracts from the introduction by Gale Huntington, pages 6 & 7

This collection of fiddle tunes was made by William Litten at sea on a vessel, or on two different vessels, of the British India fleet in the years 1800, 1801, and 1802.

Everything that we know about the man is from disjointed material on the inside front and back covers of the manuscript book and from scraps of information on the pages of the book itself and from the music. The notes in the text are difficult to decipher because Litten’s handwriting and spelling are both very bad, and in places the paper has bled. On the other hand the tunes themselves were transcribed without too much difficulty, for Litten was a good musician.

The manuscript is in the library of the Dukes County Historical Society* in Edgartown, Massachusetts, on the Island of Martha’s Vineyard.

Here are some of the facts that we can gather from the scattered notes. The British India fleet sailed from England May 27th, 1800, and arrived in China February 10th, 1801.

(Note: the author in correspondence with ~ John Compston, E.D., D. Litt. of Australian National University, says that the fleet visited Australia and may have made other stops during the passage.)

The fleet consisted of sixteen war vessels. The names of the vessels and of six of the captains of them are listed on the inside back cover of the book. ~ We can not be sure which ship Litten was on on the voyage out, but on the return voyage he was evidently on H.M.S. Gorgon, for he mentions a stop of that vessel at St. Helena on June 3rd, 1802. Litten’s duty was that of ship’s musician. At that time there was no chanteying on British war vessels, for chanteying was considered much too undignified for His Majesty’s service. Instead of a chanteyman all war vessels of any size carried and official fiddle player whose music helped to lighten some of the heavier work. A little after Litten’s time the cornet began to compete with the fiddle.
~
The manuscript was brought home to the Vineyard by Allen Coffin of Edgartown. His name appears on the inside cover of the book. Allen Coffin must surely have been younger than Litten. But they may have been shipmates, if not on that voyage perhaps on a later one. Coffin was born in 1788. But many boys did go to sea at twelve or thirteen in those days, and many American were serving in the British navy, usually because they had been pressed into the service.

James Coffin, Allen’s father, had been a seaman and then a shipmaster. But by 1800 he had retired from the sea and was an Edgartown merchant and a man of real wealth for the Period. He had a fleet of small merchant vessels that sailed to all parts of the world. Such men as James Coffin often did send their sons to sea at an early age to learn the business.

We cannot be sure that Allen Coffin played the fiddle but he probably did or why would he want Litten’s book? Also there were a great many more fiddle players a hundred and seventy-five years ago than there are today. (1970s) We do know that Allen’s family was a musical one, tow of his daughters played the violin and played it well. It could be just that fact that accounts for the book’s survival.

Allen Coffin is mentioned several times in Jeremiah Pease’s diary for the early years of the 19th century. Jeremiah was a singer and he and Allen were friends. They used to go fishing and eeling through the ice together. Perhaps they made music together too.

But about William Litten we do not know even whether he was English, Scottish, Irish or American. There are some very good Irish tunes in the book and some equally good Scottish and English ones. However Litten did not seem to care too much for the typically Scottish dotted eighth and sixteenth note combination. In fact, some of his Scottish tunes play like Irish versions of them. There are even some almost American tunes in the book. That "almost" is because American fiddle tunes were rare in those days and even some tunes that we think of as American had their origin in the British Isles. # Posted by ceolachan 8 years ago.”
[Boring The Leather (jig)]
*Now part of The Martha’s Vineyard Museum

On Worldcat: William Litten's Fiddle Tunes: 1800-1802
On Mudcat: RE: Tune Add: Bacon & Greens


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 02:53 AM

“CHANTER, pour agir ensemble = Zalomar.
Donner La Voix, chanter pour faire effort ensemble = Salomar.
SALOMAR = Donner la voix, chanter pour faire effort ensemble.
VOIX, donner la voix, agir a la voix = Salomar.
        A la voix! = Listo!
ZALOMAR (voyez salomar).
[Dictionnaire des Termes de Marine Français-Espagnols et Espagnols-Français, Petit, 1810]


“Calomar, m. the cry of the sailors when they hale a rope altogether
Saloma, f. The singing of the sailors. Salomar, n. to sing together, as sailors do.”
[The First Dictionary of Two Languages Under a Single Alphabet, English and Spanish, Feranadez, 1811]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 02:56 AM

North American rowing songs – lyrics &c posted here:

Lyr Req: V'la l' Bon Vent (Ian & Sylvia)
Le Canard blanc (chanson)
J'ai vu le loup

Journal of a Voyage up the River Missouri - 1811, 2nd ed, Brackenridge, 1816, pp.57-58
Travels in the Interior of America 1809-1811, Bradbury, 1817, pp.12-13


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 03:00 AM

Negro Boat Song
...We started from Purrysburgh about two o;clock and were rowed by four negroes, for canoes are not paddled here as in Canada. They seemed to be jolly fellows, and rowed lustily to a boat song of their own composing. The words were given by one of them, and the rest joined the chorus at the end of every line. It began in the following manner:
                                                                        CHORUS
        We are going down to Georgia, boys,        Aye, aye,
        To see the pretty girls, boys,                Yoe, yoe.
        We'll give 'em a pint of brandy, boys,        Aye, aye.
        And a hearty kiss besides, boys.        Yoe, yoe.
                &c. &c. &c.


The tune of this ditty was rather monotonous, but had a pleasing effect, as they kept time with it, at every stroke of their oars. The words were mere nonsense; any thing, in fact, which came into their heads. I however remarked, that brandy was very frequently mentioned, and it was understood as a hint to the passengers to give them a dram*. We had supplied ourselves with tis article in Purrysburgh, and were not sparing of it to the negroes in order to encourage them to row quick.”
[Travels Through Lower Canada, and the United States of North America, in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808, Lambert, 1810]

Origin: Johnny Come Down to Hilo
New evidence for 'shanty' origins?

*See also Smith (above) – A fresh Spell is to releeve the Rowers with another Gang, give the Boat more way for a dram of the bottell, who saies Amends, one and all, Vea, vea, vea, vea, vea, that is, they pull all strongly together.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 03:03 AM

“The corn of this island [Raasay] is but little. I saw the harvest of a small field. The women reaped the corn, and the men bound up the sheaves. The strokes of the sickle were timed by the modulation of the harvest song, in which all their voices were united. They accompany in the Highlands every action, which can be done in equal time, with an appropriated [sic] strain, which has, they say, not much meaning; but its effects are regularity and cheerfulness. The ancient proceleusmatic song, by which the rowers of galleys were animated, may be supposed to have been of this kind. There is now an oar-song used by the Hebridians.”
[A Journey to the Western Islands &c., The Works of Samuel Johnson, Vol.VIII, 1811]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:55 PM

“Swift o'er the deck the busy boatswain goes,
And his shrill call at ev'ry hatchway blows :
"All hands unmoor!" aloud at each he cries,
"All hands unmoor!" each ready mate replies.
Rous'd by the sound, on deck the seamen swarm,
For music can the rudest bosom charm!
And, near the capstan, lo! a motley band
Of naval minstrels take their noisy stand!
The crew whose hands the plane and chissel guide,
Fix the huge levers in the capstan's side.
Deep in the hold, secluded far from day,
Some seamen coil the pond'rous rope away.
Hark! hark! the rugged melody I hear!
The piercing fife assails my shrinking ear;
The creaking fiddle, and the bagpipe's drone,
Which pours its sorrows in a mono-tone!
The drum crowns all; and to its leaden beat,
The crew keep time with deck-destroying feet!”

“Around the embers of the galley-fire,
For song and glee the cheerful tars retire.
There, while the cordial grog goes gaily round,
And recent trouble in the bowl is drown'd,
Again they fight their former battles o'er,
Or drink to those, belov'd, they left on shore.
Alternately the laugh and jest prevail,
And now the song is heard, and now the tale.
Hark! with a voice that stuns the deafen'd ear,
Whose rugged notes 'twere agony to hear,
Stentorophontus (best such name may suit
The man whose voice out-yells the fiercest brute)
With mouth extended, roars the rough-spun lay
That paints the perils of some fierce affray.
Rough bellowing quavers hang on ev'ry note,
As if a top-chain rattled in his throat;
Whilst in the chorus all the seamen join,
And pay the songster in his proper coin.
Anon, a tar, whose destiny severe,
For music gave him neither voice nor ear;
To furnish out his quota of delight, T
Begins some wond'rous story to recite,
Of goblins, sprites, and all the horrid crew
That ever fear conceiv'd, or terror knew;
Whilst, with attentive ear, the seamen round,
Hang on his lips in silence most profound.

So flies the time, till now th' extinguish'd fire
Warns them on other bus'ness to retire;
The warning they receive, and soon they go,
Those to their watch, and these to rest below.”

“Now swift canoes, with paddles short and strong,
To measur'd notes of music skim along,
And oft, the sable rowers, as they time
Their skilful strokes, their mellow voices chime.”
[Britain's Bulwarks or The British Seaman, Woodley, 1811, pp.57, 80-81, 129-130]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:56 PM

“DITHYRAMBO VI.
Assustáo-se os nautas, e a rouca celeumam
        A's estrellas vòa;
        De tristes gemidos
        O ar se povòa:…


Nos cheirosos lagares
Da Celeuma (I) o alaridosSe espalha pelos ares,
Do Eco repetido;
Enchendo de alegri
A rude companhia.

(I) Ainda que esta voz se costuma applicar á grita, que os Marinheiros fazem, excitando-se mutamente com ella ao trabalho; a sua original significaçao he exprimir a grita alegre dos Vindimadores. Isaias cap.16. v.10 Jeremias cap.48. v.33.”
[Poesias de Antonio Diniz da Cruz e Silva, 1812]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:57 PM

SALOMA, s.f. Sorte de cri on de chant des matelots pendnt la manœuvre.
SALOMAR, v.n. On le dit des matelotes qui crient ou chantent tous à la fois en manœuvrant.”
[Diccionario Español Frances y Frances Español, Taboado, 1812]


“Alarido de marinheiro, cri des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage
Celeuma, s.f. (t. de mar.) cri des matelots pour s'encourager à ramer
Faina, s.f. cri des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage
Salema, s.f. stokfiche; chant des matelots en ramant
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche Francais-Portugais, Sociedade de Literator, 1812]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:59 PM

“CELEUMA, or CELEUSMA, [from… to call] in antiquity; 1. The shout or cry of the seamen, whereby they animated each other in the work of rowing. 2. A kind of song or formula, rehearsed or played by the master, or others, to direct the strokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour. See next article.
CELEUSTES, in ancient naivgation, the boatswain or officer appointed to give the rowers the signal, when they were to pull, and when to stop.”
[The Imperial Encyclopaedia; Or, Dictionary of the Sciences and Arts, Vol.I, Johnson, Exley, 1812]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 09:00 PM

“Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the crews of each of the said ships of seventy-four guns, shall consist of two hundred able seamen, three hundred ordinary seamen and boys, three serjeants, three corporals, one drummer, one fifer, and sixty marines.”
[An Act: To increase the Navy of the United States, Naval Chronicle, Vol.XXIX, 1813, p.238]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jul 22 - 01:59 AM

“CHANTER. v. n. To song. Cest faire- certains cris de convention, pour donner le sigual de l'instant où plusieurs hommes, employés à une même opération, doivent réunir leurs efforts et agir tous ensemble. — La manière de chanter ou le cri de convention est variable suivant les chanteurs.

CHANTEUR. S. m. Ouvrier qui, agissant concurremment avec d'autrès, leur donne le signal, par un cri de convention, du moment où ils doivent déployer ensemble toutes leurs forces, pour produire par leur réunion, mi effet déterminé, qui exige non seulement toutes ces puissances, mais aussi leur concours simultané.

DONNER la voix, c'est marquer par un cri de de convention, le moment où plusieurs hommes rassemblés doivent agir ou réunir leurs erforts pour produire un effet quelconque.

O! INTERJECTION employée par les marins pour donner le signal à des hommes rassemblés pour une même opération, de réunir leurs efforts au même instant, afin de produire tout l'effet dont ils sont capables par le concours de leurs forces; c'est ainsi qu'ils disent à haute voix: ô hisse? ô hale? ô saille? ô saque? ô ride? pour annoncer le moment où ils doivent tous ensemble, ou hisser, ou haler, ou saillir, ou saquer, ou rider (Voy. ces mots).

REPRISE. s. f. C'est l'action de reprendre; voy. ce mot, et toutes les diverses acceptions dans lesquelles il est employé.

SAILLER. v. a. C'est ponsser une pièce de bois par une de ses extrèmités pour la faire glisser sur un plan, dans le sens de longueur, et lorsque plusieurs hommes rassemblés doivent concourir ensemble pour produire cet effet, l'un d'eux crie à haute-voix le mot Saille? Rousse? pour annoncer le moment où ils doivent réunir leurs efforts et agir en même temps avec la force dont ils sont capables.”
[Dictionnaire de la Marine Francoise, Romme, 1813]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jul 22 - 02:01 AM

Vintage. This season was accompanied with feasts and great rejoicings. Isaiah says. xxv. 6. In this mountain shall the Lord of hosts make unto all people, a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees, well refined. Literally, a feast of fatness, a feast of lees, of marrowy fatnesses, of clarified lees. And, Isai. xvi. 10. Gladness is taken away, and joy out of the plentiful field; and in the vineyards there shall be no singing, neither shall there be shouting; the treaders shall tread out no wine in their presses; I have made their vintage shouting to cease. Hebrew, out of Carmel. Carmel signifies an excellent vineyard And Jeremiah says, xlviii. 33. Joy and gladness is taken from the plentiful field (from the Carmel) and from the land of Moab, (which was fruitful in vines) and I hate caused wine to fail from the winepresses, none shall tread with shouting. their shouting shall be no shouting; Hebrew, literally, they shall no longer tread the grape, and he that cries hedad, shall no more cry hedad, hedad. This last term is the cry of the vintagers, from whence is formed heth, and de heth, [Huzza! Bravo!] with vigour, with courage, cheerfully.”
[Calmet's Great Dictionary of the Holy Bible, Vol.II, 1813]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jul 22 - 02:02 AM

Alarido: celeuma nautica. § Clamor de quem bulha com outrem.
CELÈUMA, s.f. A vozeria, que faz a gente do mar, quando trabalha. Cam. Lus. II. 25. A celeuma medonha se levanta No rudo marinheiro, que trabalha.
CELEUMEÁR, v.n. Levantar celeuma: outros dizem Salamear.”
[Diccionario da Lingua Portugueza, Silva, 1813]



“CELEUMA, atis, n. Asc, Oed. et CELEUSMA, atis, n. (…exhorter). Cri par lequel les rameurs s'encouragent. ? Signal qui indique aux matelots les différentes manœuvres.
CELEUSTES. æ, m. Bud. Celui qui veille sur les matelots ou autres ouviers, comite, piqueur.”
[Dictionarium Latino-Gallicum, Noel, Facciolati, 1813]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jul 22 - 09:18 PM

Accorde! zieht alle zugleich das Ruder an! (ist ein Commando an die Matrosen un Ruderknechte).
Accorder, v.a. (tirer ou haler d'accord) bei dem Rojen oder einem Tau alle zugleich anholen, welche letztere Arbeit gewöholich unter Auffangen geschieht, zugleich rudern.
Hissa, ho ha, hissa, ô, hisse! das Aufsingen beim Hissen.
Voix, s.f., das Aufsingrn, Wort.
        Donner la voix, aufsingen.
        A la voix! gebt aufs Aufsingen oder aufs Wort Acht.
        Saluer de la voix, (s Saluer).
[Dictionnaire de Commerce, de Marine et de Droit, François-Allemand, Lemmens, 1811]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jul 22 - 09:20 PM

“The command to heave round the capstern was given; some music, which we had on board, struck up a lively tune, and in less than twenty minutes the small bower anchor was secured to the larboard bow of the ship…”
[The Log-Book, No.VI, The Calcutta Magazine and Monthly Register, No.XXXII, By B (anon.), August, 1832]
Note: Royal Navy c.1814.



“Behold! At thy return, commerce unfurls her lightly flowing sails; and the busy mariner again in prospect beholds a return of that source of industry of which plenty was the reward; and while the gentle gales swell the canvas, the song of yo heave ho resounds along the river's banks, and the busy hum of men enlivens that scene which erst has seemed a dreary leafless forest.”
[Intellectual Regale; Or, Ladies Tea Tray, Volume 1, 1814]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jul 22 - 09:22 PM

“HAUL,
Haul at the song. Alzate al segno de richietto. Halez a la voix. Halez au chant.
To haul cheerily. Alare con forza, allegramente. Pesare sulia corda. Pesen.”
[Vocabolario di Marina in Tre Lingue, Vol.3, Stratico, 1814]



“Gally-slave, s. Tràill-iomramh
Iomram, Iomramh, s. Rowing
Iurram, s, An oar song, &c.”
[A New and Copious Vocabulay in Two Parts, Macfarlane, 1815]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 03:44 AM

MUSCULAR STRENGTH COMPARED WITH THE POWERS OF THE MIND.
'Twere well if thoughts were like mechanic powers,
And double mind made double knowledge ours.
Two men at levers placed of equal length,
Their equal efforts joined, have double strength;
And two to these we gain the strength of four,
So in proportion with a thousand more;
As here combined, their pressure gives of course,
At one fixed point, one time, their whole united force.
'Tis thus their sinewy strength the sailors show,
Who gain an extra power with “Yoe, heave ho.”
But 'tis not so with MINDS,– these stand alone;
And two, though joined, have but the strength of one,
No “Yoe heave” here can help the other on!...”
[Poetic Flowers, Sandham, 1815]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 03:45 AM

“Un, deux, trois! (t. de Marine), Haul-in– haul to– haul belay! Song used by seamen when hauling the bowlines.

Voix [t. de Marine] The song (employed by sailors, in hoisting, heaving, &c.) Donner la voix, To sing out (as in hauling, hoisting, heaving, &c.) A la voix, Mind the man that sings! Saleur de la voix. V. Saleur.”
[Dictionnaire François-Anglois et Anglois-François, Tom.I, Pt.II., Chambaud, 1815]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 03:46 AM

“We proceeded in a piade along the northern shore of the sea of Marmara, to the city of Constantine: eight Turks formed our crew, who rowed with the greatest velocity for six or seven hours at a time; while the songs with which they enlivened their exertions; the beautiful scenery along which we passed; and weather so fine, that our night was spent upon the water, though the day had been far from sultry, heightened the pleasure of approaching Constantinople.”
[Douglas on the Ancient and Modern Greeks, The Analectic Magazine, Vol.VI, 1815]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 04:09 PM

“Sæ-leoð, celeusma.”
[Vocabularium Anglo-Saxonicum, Lexico Gul. Somneri magna parte auctius, Benson, Somner, 1701]

More than you might ever want to know about Somner:
“...Nevertheless, a handful of entries from the Historical Thesaurus sample do contain something more than the minimum amount of detail. Of these, the entry for leoð is perhaps most interesting in the context of the current study. Somner’s definition runs as follows:

Carmen, pœan, oda, celeasma. a verse, a song, a song of rejoycing, an ode or psalm, the shout or noise which mariners make when they doe any thing together, or when the Master doth call and encourage them.

The first three definitions supplied in the Latin, and the first four in English, are relatively typical for Somner’s entries. They briefly identify a basic meaning for the Old English term, but do not indicate in detail either the character of an Old English leoð or the contexts in which one might be encountered or composed. In contrast, the last definition is surprisingly specific; it is the only part of the entry to follow the traditional model of defining by means of a genus that identifies the category to which the definiendum belongs (here, a leoð is said to be a type of ‘shout or noise’) and the differentiæ that distinguish it from other members of that category (unlike other shouts or noises, a leoð is made by a specific group of people, mariners, in specific circumstances).[105] What is more, it is unlike the other definitions given for this headword in that it does not indicate that a leoð is a musical or poetic form. The increased specificity and (in Early Modern English) length of this definition might lead readers to interpret this sense as having particular significance. In fact, the definition appears to be derived from a single glossary entry in London, British Library Cotton Cleopatra A.III, which reads, ‘Celeumatis sæleoþes’. The Dictionarium also contains an entry for sæleoð, defined as follows:

Celeusma. the mariners shout, noise, or cry in hoisting anchor or sail.

It seems natural to conclude that Somner was influenced in both cases by the glossary entry for sæleoð. This implies that he recognised the element -leoð as being common to both and so had successfully analysed the compound into its constituent parts. Interestingly, however, he still carried the maritime sense from sæleoð into his definition for leoð (though it lacks the element sæ-, ‘sea’). What is more, despite recognising a leoð as being a kind of song, or having musical associations, he does not apply this knowledge to his definition of sæleoð as a ‘shout, noise, or cry’.

The Cleopatra glossary supplied Somner with the Latin equivalent for sæleoð (and hence for leoð); the lengthiness of the Early Modern English, however, is evidently due to the fact that Somner was working closely from a Latin-English dictionary. It is hard to be certain which of the many such dictionaries in circulation, which often had considerable overlaps in content, Somner would have worked from, but a clearly related entry can be found s.v. celeusma in a Latin-English dictionary from the sixteenth century:

Celeusma, or Celeuma, atis, n.g. Mart. The showt or noise that mariners make, when they doe anie thing togeather with ioyned strength, as in drawing the anchor, &c. or when the Master doth call and encourage them (Thomas, 1587).

Another source that presumably helped Somner define these headwords is Canterbury, Cathedral Archives LitMS/D/2, a fifteenth-century manuscript of the Latin dictionary (with sporadic Middle English glosses) known as the Medulla Grammatice. This particular copy was well used by Somner, who added copious glosses providing the Old English equivalents of the Latin headwords, as well as inserting additional Latin headwords when he wished to provide an Old English word that did not already have a Latin equivalent in the Medulla. [106] It appears that that Somner did not prepare this material for publication, and therefore that his additions probably represent his private work in studying Old English and preparing the Dictionarium. In the Canterbury Medulla, we find the following entry:

Celeuma. tis id est clamor nauticus et cantus (McCleary, 1958:169)

This is annotated by Somner with the Old English sæleoþ, suggesting that the Medulla’s definition of the Latin celeu(s)ma may have been another influence on Somner in writing his Dictionarium definitions….

[105] On this approach to definition, see Atkins & Rundell (2008:414).
[106] A diplomatic edition of LitMS D2, including Somner’s additions, has been produced by J. Marie van Zandt McCleary (1958).
[108] Hetherington (1980:148-9) notes a single explicit reference made to the Medulla in the Dictionarium, s.v. niþing. However, as has been seen elsewhere, Somner is not exhaustive in his citation of such sources, so this observation does not rule out his having drawn silently on the Medulla in other entries.”

[Master's Thesis, William Somner’s Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum: Method, Function and Legacy, Fletcher, U. of Glasgow, 2017]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 03 Aug 22 - 09:28 PM

1804 - Origins: Canadian Boat Song (Thomas Moore)

"Based on" J'ai Trop Grand Peur des Loups or Dans mon chemin j'ai rencontré.
French Canadian songs


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'conch
Date: 03 Aug 22 - 09:39 PM

“ATTENTI, al comando, alla voce, A la voix. Silence, or Mind the Song. Avverimeato che ai da a' marinaj che manovrano, di far attenzione al comiando e di operare d' accordo.

SALOMARE, v.a. Dare la voce. Donner la voix. To sing out. Salomare è preso dallo spagnoolo.

VOIX, s.f. Voce. Song.
        Donner la voix Dare La Voce. To sing out. E il gridare che si fa di tempo io tempo dagli uomioi che lavorano all siessa manovra.
        Donne la voix quelqu'un. Da la Voce. Sing out there a hand.
        A la voix Attente Alla Voce. Mind the song. E un comando di star attente al grido che si darà per far forsa dd' accordo su d' una manovra.”
[1813 - Vocabulaire de Marine en Trois Langues, Vol.I-II, 1813]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:08 AM

“The canoes, when they take their departure from La Chine, are loaded to within about six inches of the gunwales, or edge of the canoe. Instead of oars, they use paddles, which they handle with great dexterity. They strike off, singing a song peculiar to themselves, called the Voyaguer Song: one man takes the lead, and all the others join in a chorus. It is extremely pleasing to see people who are toiling hard, display such marks of good humour and contentment, although they know, that for a space of more than 2000 miles their exertions must be unremitting, and their living very poor; for, in the little space allowed in the canoe for provisions, you find none of the luxuries, and a very scanty supply of the necessaries of life. The song is of great use: they keep time with their paddles to its measured cadence, and, by uniting their force, increase its effect considerably.”
[Letters from Canada Written During a Residece in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1809, Gray, 1809]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:10 AM

VOCABULARY OF THE LOO-CHOO
English                                Loo-Choo
Song                                        Oóta*

*Words of Loo-Choo songs:
“Sas sangcoomeh sangcoomeah kadee yooshee daw, tantoong tantoong tang.”
A boat song: “Whee-yo ee.–Whee yo ee.” The steersman gave “Whee,” and was followed by the other men with a repitition of “Whee yo ee.”
Another boat song: “Quee yay hanno ha.–Quee yay hanno ha.” To both these airs the rowers kept very good time.”

“The words of the dance song were “ Sasa sangcoomah, sangcoomee ah! sangcoomee ah! kadee yooshee daw;" when they came to the last word they all joined in the chorus and clapped their hands.”
[Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast of Corea (1816-1817,) Clifford, 1818]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:15 AM

“They continued their usual supplies, bringing us even fresh water on board in their boats; and, understanding we required some wood for spars, they felled fir trees, floated them down the river, and towed them alongside, singing their usual boat song, which had a very plaintive and pleasing effect.”
[McLeod, Narrative of a Voyage in his Majesty's late ship Alceste to the Yellow Sea, The Literary Panorama, and National Register, Vol.7, 1818]

HMS Alceste (1806)
Basil Hall (1788 – 1844)
Sir Murray Maxwell (1775 – 1831)

“On the return journey, she struck a reef in the Java Sea; her wreck was subsequently plundered and burned by Malayan pirates.” [wiki]

Note: The rescue of HMS Alceste's survivors is a true-to-life pirate tale.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:18 AM

“Calomar, s.m. cri des matelots pour s'encourager
Saloma, s.f. chant des matelots
Salomar. v. n. chanter en manœuvrant
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche François-Espagnol et Español-Francés, 1816]


“Calomar, m. the cry of sailors when they hale a rope all together.
Saloma, f. The singing of the sailors. Salomar, n. To sing together, as sailors do
[A dictionary of the Spanish and English languages, Fernandez, 1817]


“Alarido, f.m. Vozeria dos que entraõ em combate. Celeuma da gente do mar. Clamor dos que brigaõ.
Celêufma, ou Celêuma, f.f. Gritaria de gente do mar, quando trabalha.
Celêufmear, ou Celêmear, v.n. Fazer celêfma.”
[Novo Diccionario da Lingua Portugueza, 1817]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:07 AM

“La condition des rameurs étoit la plus pénible et la plus dure. J'ai déjà observé que les rameurs , aussi-bien que les matelots, étoient tous citoyens et libres, et non esclaves ou étrangers comme aujourd'hui. Les rameurs étoient distingués par degrés. Ceux du plus bas s'appeloient thalamites, ceux du milieu zugites, ceux d'en haut thranites. Thucydide remarque qu'on donnoit à ces derniers une plus forte paie, parce qu'ils manioient des rames plus longues et plus pesantes que celles des degrés inférieurs. Il paroît que la chiourme, pour se mouvoir avec plus de justesse et de concert, étoit quelquefois conduite par le chant d'une voix, ou par le son de quelque instrument; et cette douce harmonie servoit non seulement à régler leurs mouvemens, mais encore à diminuer et à charmer leurs peines….

Plus de deux 296. cents galères , ornées de dépouilles ennemies, s'avançoient avec une contenance majestueuse, la chiourme faisant une espèce de concert par l'ordre uniforme et réglé avec lequel les rames étoient mises en mouvement. Elles étoient suivies d'un nombre infini de petits batimens; de sorte que le port, quelque vaste qu'il fût, pouvoit à peine les contenir, et que toute la mer étoit couverte de voiles.”
[Œuvres Complètes de Ch. Rollin: Histoire Ancienne, Rollin, 1817]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:11 AM

“I know not that these poor souls are worse treated in Carolina and Georgia, nor have I any reason to believe so; certain it is, however, that they discover an unwillingness amounting almost to horror, at the idea of being sold there; and have a simple song which they sometimes, as I am told, sing with a mournful melancholy cadence, as they row along the rivers, in remembrance of home. It is merely the language of nature:

        Going- away to Georgia, ho, heave, O!
        Massa sell poor negro, ho, heave, O!
        Leave poor wife and children, ho, heave, O! &c. &c
.”
[Letters from the South*, Vol.I, 1817]
*
1817: By The author of John Bull and Brother Jonathan, &c. &c.
1835: By A Northern Man
2022: James Kirke Paulding (1778 – 1860.)

“Among Paulding's government positions were those of secretary to the Board of Navy Commissioners in 1815–23 and Naval Agent in New York in 1824–38. President Martin Van Buren appointed him Secretary of the Navy in June 1838. As Secretary, he was a conservative figure, whose extensive knowledge of naval affairs was balanced by notable lack of enthusiasm for new technology. He opposed the introduction of steam propelled warships declaring that he would "never consent to let our old ships perish, and transform our Navy into a fleet of (steam) sea monsters." Nevertheless, his tenure was marked by advances in steam engineering, wide-ranging exploration efforts, enlargement of the fleet and an expansion of the Navy's apprenticeship program.” [wiki]
Cousin: Hiram Paulding (1797 – 1878) retired a Rear Admiral, USN.

Origins: Run, Nigger, Run & Lambert (above,), the Advent thread, &c &c.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:14 AM

Cheer Up! pull away.
A Boat-Song From Forrest's Travels
Composed and Dedicated to William B. Finch Esq. of the United States Navy
By T.V. Wiesenthal

2x
Cheer up! pull a-way,
Cheer up! pull a-way,
We'll gain the ocean far away,


Be-hold yon is land a far,
What fishes a-bound in its main.
Be-hold yon cloud a-far,
Haste, haste let's the fishes obtain.

2x
Cheer up! pull a-way,
Cheer up! pull a-way,
We'll gain the ocean far away,

Fast by the Capezine land,
Castilian dances you will find,
My lads to gain the Capezine land,
Pull pull with the whole of you mind.

2x
Cheer up! pull a-way,
Cheer up! pull a-way,
We'll gain the ocean far away,
[Sheet Music, Wiesenthal, Thomas, 1818, 4 pages]
See Forrest, 1779 (above.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:18 AM

IX. Vult Proceleusmaticus brevibus constare quaternis.
Proceleulsmaticus derives its name from keleusma, clamor adhortatorius nautarum. It is contracted by the poets into three syllables; as, abiete, abjete, áriete, arjete, pituita, pitvita, tenuia, tenvia. Virg.”
        Quadribrevis Proceleusmaticus de murmure nautae. Busbey.
[A Latin Grammar, 6th ed., Ross, 1818, p.155]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:48 AM

“While the crews of both ships were on the ice to-day, tracking the Isabella along between two floes, one of the most ludicrous scenes occurred that I have witnessed for some time past. It may be, perhaps, considered too frivolous to mention; but from the laughter it excited at the time, I cannot refrain from introducing it. One of the men belonging to the Isabella, who plays the violin, was, as usual, giving the men a tune on that instrument, to cheer them along in their laborious task, when all of a sudden, in the middle of a lively air, both the fiddler and the fiddle disappeared, he having dropped through a hole in the ice. The consternation of all hands, at the first moment, on finding the music so suddenly stopped, and the burst of laughter which ensued on discovering the cause, may be more readily conceived than described. The poor fellow got up again without sustaining any other damage beside a cold ducking and a wet fiddle.”
[Journal of a Voyage of Discovery to the Arctic Regions, 1818, Greely, 1818]

William Edward Parry (1790 – 1855)
Isabella (1813 ship)
Discovery expedition (1818-1819): The LR data does not recognize that the Admiralty hired Isabella in 1817 for a discovery expedition in 1818. She sailed with another hired vessel, Alexander, and the whole expedition was under the command of Commander John Ross, who was sailing in Isabella. Of Isabella's crew of 54 men, four officers were clearly from the navy, as were her six marines. The other officers and men were probably civilians, as were Benjamin Lewis (the master and Greenland pilot), and Thomas Wilcox (the mate and also a Greenland pilot). (Generally when the navy hired a vessel, it would put a naval officer in command, but keep on the master and crew.) There were also three supernumeraries — Captain Sabine and a sergeant from the Royal Artillery (Sabine being the scientific observer), and the Eskimo Sacheous, who was being repatriated.” [wiki]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:50 AM

“The night was so exquisitely beautiful, that Jeanie, instead of immediately directing her course towards the Lodge, stood looking after the boat as it again put off from the side, and rowed out into the little bay, the dark figures of her companions growing less and less distinct as they diminished in the distance, and the jorram, or boat-song of the rowers, coming on the ear with the softened and sweeter sound, until the boat rounded the headland, and was lost to her observation.”
[The Heart of Mid-Lothian, Tales of My Landlord, Second Series, Vols.1-4, Scott, 1818]

Sir Walter Scott (1771 – 1832) (Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, The Lady of the Lake &c.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:51 AM

BOULENA, A sea cheer, signifying, Hale up the bowlings. Complaynt S.
BUFF NOR STYE. He cou'd neither say buff nor stye, S. i.e. “He could neither say one thing nor another.” It is also used, but I suspect, improperly, in regard to one who has no activity; He has neither buff nor stye with him S.B.
Teut. bof, celeusma, a cheer made by mariners. Stye might be viewed as referring to the act of mounting the shrouds, from Su. G. stig-a, to ascend.
CAUPONA, “a sailor's cheer in heaving the anchor.”                Complaynt S.
CHYRE, Cheer, entertainment.        Dunbar.
Heys and How, A sea cheer.        Douglas.
HOW, HOU, s.l. The sound made by owl. Fr. hu-er to hoot.        Doug.
2. A sea cheer.        Complaynt S..
OURWORD, OWERWORD, s. 1. Any word frequenty repeated, S.        Burns.
2. The burden of a song.        Dunbar.”
[An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, Jamieson, 1818]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:56 AM

“Celeusma: grido con cui su esortavano i naviganti - … (celeuo) commando. V. Proceleusmatico p.65.
Proceleusmatico: piè metrico di quattro brevi – . (proceleusmaticos), … (celeusma) esortazione nautica; perchè i versi fatti con questi piedi a cagione della loro speditezza si usavano per animare i marinai.”
[Almanacco Etimologico Scientifico per l'anno 1819, 1818]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 02:01 AM

“It was about the close of day we prepared to cross the river St. John's, at a part about five miles above the bar. The sun lingered upon the extensive forests of its banks, and undulated upon the trembling surface of its waters; the evening was pure and serene, and presented every object in the most alluring character. The noise of the oars, as they cut their liquid way, rousing the echoes of its banks, were answered by the noisy cadence of the negroes' boat-song, amusing and beguiling our way. As we entered upon the waters of the St. John's, we saw several canoes returning from fishing, their rovers were also chaunting the canoe-song, emulating at the same time the rapidity of our progress; we really flew along the glassy surface, such was the celerity of our movements.”
[Narrative of a Voyage to the Spanish Main In the Ship "Two Friends”, 1819]

Amelia Island affair


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 02:03 AM

“365. Is trom an ioram, is an t-iomram.
366.[sic] Heavy [sad] is the sea-song and the rowing. (p)

(p) The iorum, or boat-song, here alluded to, must be of a wailing cast, corresponding to the double stroke of the oar, when, most likely, the corpse of a Chief was conveyed to Iona, (the ancient place of internment on that sacred island), whence the Gaël and Scandanavians, Scoto and Anglo Saxons, received the light of the Gospel.– Vide Bedes Eccl. Hist.”
[Collection of Gaelic proverbs and familiar phrases ... To which is added, 'The way to wealth' by Benjamin Franklin, Mackintosh, 1819]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:02 AM

“Le chef de nos rameurs entonne un chant nautique, et la mer retentit de nos voix réunies qui le répètent.”
[Héléne, Tragédies d'Euripid Traduites du Grec, Vol.2, Euripedes, 1848]
Euripides (480 – 406BC)


“CELEUSMA, or Celeuma, in Antiquity, the fhout or cry of the feamen, whereby they animated each other in their work of rowing.
        The word is formed from …, to call, to give the fignal.
        Celeusma was alfo a kind of fong or formula rhearfed or played by the master or others, to direct the ftrokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to kabour. See Celeustes.
        Aquinus, without much foundation, extends the celeufma to the military fhouts in land armies.
        When Chriftianity got footing, hymns and pfalms were fung in veffels by way of celeufma, in which the words amen and hallelujah were frequently repeated.
CELEUSTES,in Ancient Navigation, the boatfwain or officer appointed to give the orwers the fignal when they were to pull, and when to ftop. See Celeusma.
        He was alfo denominated epopeus, and by the Romans portifculus; fometimes fimply hortator.
CELEUSUS, in Ancient Geography, a place in Germany between Gemanicus and Arufena, at the mouth of a fmall river which runs into the Danube.”
[The Cyclopædia; Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature, Vol 7, Rees, 1819]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:04 AM

1819:
“We took in a cargo of hemp at Cronstadt, the stowing of which by means of jackscrews was the work of the Russian serfs, whose brawny limbs were fed on nothing better than black bread of a very sour flavour and garlic. But they were kept in heart by glasses of fiery "bottery," which it was my office to give them at stated hours; and they lightened their heavy labour by improvised chants sung in untiring chorus, under a leader, who gave the improvisations.”
[Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne, 1892, p.26]
Note: Reprinted as – From cabin-boy to Archbishop: Autobiography of…
William Bernard Ullathorne (1806–1889)

Cotton screwing songs


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:06 AM

1819:
“...The wind was generally against us, so that after reaching the point where the river spreads into Lake St. Francis, we were obliged to rely wholly on rowing. Fortunately our crew were fine singers, and amused us with several little French ballads, though I could not find that they knew any thing of the Canadian Boat Song.”
[Travels, The Club-Room, Issues 1-4, 1820]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:07 AM

“BOULINA-HA-HA! Arrache! Boulina-ha-ha, déralingue! Etc. Ancien chant des matelots français pendant qu’ils hâlent sur les ‘quatre principales boulines , notamment celle du grand et du petit hunier. Ce chant est si ridicule que plusieurs capitaines militaires le défendent.

BOULINER, v. a. Action de haler la bouline. Des matelots français ont encore la mauvaise habitude de chanter: boulina-ha-ha! arrache! eu palanquant sur les quatre principales boulines.

CHANTER, v. n. Vieil usage de faire crier quelques hommes qu’on nommait chanteurs, pour donner le signal de réunion d’efforts à faire par plusieurs sur une bouline, ou pour toute autre opération qu’on exécute dans les ports et sur les grands bâtimens. Dans un bâtiment de guerre bien ordonné, on ne permet plus de chanter ainsi. Voy. Boulina.

HALE , imper. Hàle à courir! hále ensemble! hále main sur main! avec force et vivement, c'est faire háler, tirer à la main sur un cordage qui appel horizontalement.

HISSA, O, HA, HISSE: chant de l’homme qui donne la voix pour réunir les efforts de plusieurs autres sur un même cordage afin de produire un plus grand effet. Ce chant ou cri n'a plus guère lieu que dans quelques ports.

Ô! interj. Les marins l’emploient comme signal, à plusieurs hommes réunis, de faire effort ensemble: ils crient: ô! saille! — Ô! hisse! — Ô! ride! — Ô! hale!

SAILLE! adv. Réponse que font les matelots du gaillard d'avant au commandement du maître d’équipage, pour faire haler sur une des principales boulines. Oh! saille! sorte de cri en chantant, qui est aujourd’hui moins permis; ils terminent parle mot blaye.

VOIX , s.f. On dit qu’on est à portée de la voix d’un bâtiment quand on peut s’en faire entendre au moyen d’un porte-voix; on commande à la voix, on salue de la voix; on donne la voix, on fait passer la voix.”
[Dictionnaire de Marine, 1st ed., Willaumez, 1820]
Jean-Baptiste Philibert Willaumez (1763–1845)

Note: 1825ed. of the above also covered in the Advent & Development thread.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:24 PM

“Deffeando la feñal de fu partida:
Pues no le fue mas tiempo diferida,
Que con zaloma el ancora levada,
Y repitiendo el nombre de Cañete,
Largò la Capitana fu trinquete.”
[Arauco Domado, de Oña, 1605]
Pedro de Oña (1570 – 1643)
Arauco War


“el calomar, le ton que les mariniers chantent tout d'un temps pour tirer de faire effort tous ensemble, il suono, che i marinari cantano ad un tempo tutti insieme per tirare piu forte.”
[Tesoro de las Tres Lenguas Francesa, Italiana, y Española, Victor-Rovière-Crespin, 1606]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:29 PM

“...The oar of the boatman measures each stroke by the heart-enlivening iram,* as he cuts the rippling wave, bringing to shore a load of fush for the bridal banquet, now in preparation throughout all the vaults of the castle,…

*Iram, the Gaelic name for a boatman's song.”
[La Belle Assemblée, Vol.13, 1816]



“Calomar, fm. Cri des matelots pour s'encourager,m.
Saloma, s.f. chant des matelots, m.
Salomar, vn. Chanter en manœuvrantâ
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche François-Espagnol et Espagnol-François, Hamonière, 1820]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:33 PM

En boo lé ma lo di
ce o boon co lom ba si ba do
*

The second is a Serere air, a boat song, sung by the crew whilst rowing. It is more simple and more common than the above, and seems to appertain almost entirely to what the Greeks termed the Phrygian mode. According to our system of harmony we should refer it to the key of D minor, although it deviates in some respects from our manner of modulating. The letters R above the stave shew the moment when the oars are raised, and the letters L denote their being lowered into the water. This air, therefore, is most strictly regular as to rhythm. Whatever may be the interior changes from triple to common measure, the time which the respective changes consume must be equal; for what can be more isochronous than the movement of the oars of a well trained boat's-crew ? Simple, however, as this composition may appear, its execution in strict time is likely to put our best timeists to a severe trial; and were Mr. Braham himself with the paper in his hand to direct the strokes of a six-oared wherry, the jolly watermen, in all probability, would not form a very exalted opinion of his steadiness in musical measure. Our Serere songsters, we entertain no doubt, would obtain the prize in a trial of skill with the first vocalist in Europe.”
[Africa: Containing a Description of the Manners and Customs, with Some Historical Particulars of the Moors of the Zahara, and of the Negro Nations Between the Rivers Senegal and Gambia, 1821]
*Music included.

Serer people

Note: There are chapters on the guiriot class but nothing related to work song.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:36 PM

“Celeusma, heave ho, in pulling together
[A Vocabulary of Latin Nouns and Adnouns, Atkinson, 1822]


“SALOMA. He a cantiga, ou gritaria, que fazem os marinheiros , quando alão algum cabo, cujo salomear he prohibido nos nossos Navios de Guerra.”
[Vocabulario Marujo, Campos, 1823]

Note: Closest thing so far to a “ban” on work song in any State navy.
Chanteys in Royal Navy?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:38 PM

“The boat was like one before described, but much larger, as we were now certainly not less than fifty passengers;… The sailors accompany their exertions in rowing by a short lively song, which had only one variation and tone, and is always sung with great spirit; it is one of the many in use in Egypt,* and the only one here….

*The favourite song with Reiss Bedoui, the captain of our cangee, and that which seemed most effectual in stimulating his sailors, was nearly as follows:– Reiss Bedoui. “Sailors, pull at your oars.” Chorus of sailors. “God and Mahommed.” Reis. “May God bless and assist you.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “You are men, not children.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reiss. “My boys, you shall ride in chariots.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “The sheep is killed.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “May your wives be beautiful and fruitful.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “The wind and the current are against us, but God is with us.” Cho. “God,” &c.– The verse is given out in a kind of hoarse recitative by the captain, but the effect of the whole is peculiarly animating and agreeable, and productive of sensations known only to those who have glided down between the palmy shores of the Nile on a calm moonlight evening.”
[Waddington's Travels in Ethopia, The Literary Gazette, Vol.6, 1823]


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