Lyrics & Knowledge Personal Pages Record Shop Auction Links Radio & Media Kids Membership Help
The Mudcat Cafesj

Post to this Thread - Printer Friendly - Home
Page: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]


Maritime work song in general

GUEST,Phil d'Conch 09 Aug 22 - 07:38 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 09 Aug 22 - 07:36 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 09 Aug 22 - 07:33 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 09 Aug 22 - 07:29 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 09 Aug 22 - 07:24 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 08 Aug 22 - 01:07 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 08 Aug 22 - 01:06 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 08 Aug 22 - 01:04 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 08 Aug 22 - 01:02 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 07 Aug 22 - 02:03 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 07 Aug 22 - 02:01 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 07 Aug 22 - 01:56 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 07 Aug 22 - 01:51 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 07 Aug 22 - 01:50 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 07 Aug 22 - 01:48 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 06 Aug 22 - 05:18 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 06 Aug 22 - 05:14 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 06 Aug 22 - 05:11 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 06 Aug 22 - 05:07 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 05 Aug 22 - 02:18 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 05 Aug 22 - 02:15 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 05 Aug 22 - 02:10 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 05 Aug 22 - 02:08 AM
GUEST,Phil d'conch 03 Aug 22 - 09:39 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 03 Aug 22 - 09:28 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 02 Aug 22 - 04:09 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 02 Aug 22 - 03:46 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 02 Aug 22 - 03:45 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 02 Aug 22 - 03:44 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 28 Jul 22 - 09:22 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 28 Jul 22 - 09:20 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 28 Jul 22 - 09:18 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jul 22 - 02:02 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jul 22 - 02:01 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jul 22 - 01:59 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 23 Jul 22 - 09:00 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 23 Jul 22 - 08:59 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 23 Jul 22 - 08:57 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 23 Jul 22 - 08:56 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 23 Jul 22 - 08:55 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Jul 22 - 03:03 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Jul 22 - 03:00 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Jul 22 - 02:56 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Jul 22 - 02:53 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Jul 22 - 02:51 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 16 Jul 22 - 05:09 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 16 Jul 22 - 05:07 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 16 Jul 22 - 05:04 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 14 Jul 22 - 01:22 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 14 Jul 22 - 01:21 PM
Share Thread
more
Lyrics & Knowledge Search [Advanced]
DT  Forum Child
Sort (Forum) by:relevance date
DT Lyrics:













Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:38 PM

“The boat was like one before described, but much larger, as we were now certainly not less than fifty passengers;… The sailors accompany their exertions in rowing by a short lively song, which had only one variation and tone, and is always sung with great spirit; it is one of the many in use in Egypt,* and the only one here….

*The favourite song with Reiss Bedoui, the captain of our cangee, and that which seemed most effectual in stimulating his sailors, was nearly as follows:– Reiss Bedoui. “Sailors, pull at your oars.” Chorus of sailors. “God and Mahommed.” Reis. “May God bless and assist you.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “You are men, not children.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reiss. “My boys, you shall ride in chariots.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “The sheep is killed.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “May your wives be beautiful and fruitful.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “The wind and the current are against us, but God is with us.” Cho. “God,” &c.– The verse is given out in a kind of hoarse recitative by the captain, but the effect of the whole is peculiarly animating and agreeable, and productive of sensations known only to those who have glided down between the palmy shores of the Nile on a calm moonlight evening.”
[Waddington's Travels in Ethopia, The Literary Gazette, Vol.6, 1823]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:36 PM

“Celeusma, heave ho, in pulling together
[A Vocabulary of Latin Nouns and Adnouns, Atkinson, 1822]


“SALOMA. He a cantiga, ou gritaria, que fazem os marinheiros , quando alão algum cabo, cujo salomear he prohibido nos nossos Navios de Guerra.”
[Vocabulario Marujo, Campos, 1823]

Note: Closest thing so far to a “ban” on work song in any State navy.
Chanteys in Royal Navy?


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:33 PM

En boo lé ma lo di
ce o boon co lom ba si ba do
*

The second is a Serere air, a boat song, sung by the crew whilst rowing. It is more simple and more common than the above, and seems to appertain almost entirely to what the Greeks termed the Phrygian mode. According to our system of harmony we should refer it to the key of D minor, although it deviates in some respects from our manner of modulating. The letters R above the stave shew the moment when the oars are raised, and the letters L denote their being lowered into the water. This air, therefore, is most strictly regular as to rhythm. Whatever may be the interior changes from triple to common measure, the time which the respective changes consume must be equal; for what can be more isochronous than the movement of the oars of a well trained boat's-crew ? Simple, however, as this composition may appear, its execution in strict time is likely to put our best timeists to a severe trial; and were Mr. Braham himself with the paper in his hand to direct the strokes of a six-oared wherry, the jolly watermen, in all probability, would not form a very exalted opinion of his steadiness in musical measure. Our Serere songsters, we entertain no doubt, would obtain the prize in a trial of skill with the first vocalist in Europe.”
[Africa: Containing a Description of the Manners and Customs, with Some Historical Particulars of the Moors of the Zahara, and of the Negro Nations Between the Rivers Senegal and Gambia, 1821]
*Music included.

Serer people

Note: There are chapters on the guiriot class but nothing related to work song.


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:29 PM

“...The oar of the boatman measures each stroke by the heart-enlivening iram,* as he cuts the rippling wave, bringing to shore a load of fush for the bridal banquet, now in preparation throughout all the vaults of the castle,…

*Iram, the Gaelic name for a boatman's song.”
[La Belle Assemblée, Vol.13, 1816]



“Calomar, fm. Cri des matelots pour s'encourager,m.
Saloma, s.f. chant des matelots, m.
Salomar, vn. Chanter en manœuvrantâ
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche François-Espagnol et Espagnol-François, Hamonière, 1820]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:24 PM

“Deffeando la feñal de fu partida:
Pues no le fue mas tiempo diferida,
Que con zaloma el ancora levada,
Y repitiendo el nombre de Cañete,
Largò la Capitana fu trinquete.”
[Arauco Domado, de Oña, 1605]
Pedro de Oña (1570 – 1643)
Arauco War


“el calomar, le ton que les mariniers chantent tout d'un temps pour tirer de faire effort tous ensemble, il suono, che i marinari cantano ad un tempo tutti insieme per tirare piu forte.”
[Tesoro de las Tres Lenguas Francesa, Italiana, y Española, Victor-Rovière-Crespin, 1606]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:07 AM

“BOULINA-HA-HA! Arrache! Boulina-ha-ha, déralingue! Etc. Ancien chant des matelots français pendant qu’ils hâlent sur les ‘quatre principales boulines , notamment celle du grand et du petit hunier. Ce chant est si ridicule que plusieurs capitaines militaires le défendent.

BOULINER, v. a. Action de haler la bouline. Des matelots français ont encore la mauvaise habitude de chanter: boulina-ha-ha! arrache! eu palanquant sur les quatre principales boulines.

CHANTER, v. n. Vieil usage de faire crier quelques hommes qu’on nommait chanteurs, pour donner le signal de réunion d’efforts à faire par plusieurs sur une bouline, ou pour toute autre opération qu’on exécute dans les ports et sur les grands bâtimens. Dans un bâtiment de guerre bien ordonné, on ne permet plus de chanter ainsi. Voy. Boulina.

HALE , imper. Hàle à courir! hále ensemble! hále main sur main! avec force et vivement, c'est faire háler, tirer à la main sur un cordage qui appel horizontalement.

HISSA, O, HA, HISSE: chant de l’homme qui donne la voix pour réunir les efforts de plusieurs autres sur un même cordage afin de produire un plus grand effet. Ce chant ou cri n'a plus guère lieu que dans quelques ports.

Ô! interj. Les marins l’emploient comme signal, à plusieurs hommes réunis, de faire effort ensemble: ils crient: ô! saille! — Ô! hisse! — Ô! ride! — Ô! hale!

SAILLE! adv. Réponse que font les matelots du gaillard d'avant au commandement du maître d’équipage, pour faire haler sur une des principales boulines. Oh! saille! sorte de cri en chantant, qui est aujourd’hui moins permis; ils terminent parle mot blaye.

VOIX , s.f. On dit qu’on est à portée de la voix d’un bâtiment quand on peut s’en faire entendre au moyen d’un porte-voix; on commande à la voix, on salue de la voix; on donne la voix, on fait passer la voix.”
[Dictionnaire de Marine, 1st ed., Willaumez, 1820]
Jean-Baptiste Philibert Willaumez (1763–1845)

Note: 1825ed. of the above also covered in the Advent & Development thread.


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:06 AM

1819:
“...The wind was generally against us, so that after reaching the point where the river spreads into Lake St. Francis, we were obliged to rely wholly on rowing. Fortunately our crew were fine singers, and amused us with several little French ballads, though I could not find that they knew any thing of the Canadian Boat Song.”
[Travels, The Club-Room, Issues 1-4, 1820]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:04 AM

1819:
“We took in a cargo of hemp at Cronstadt, the stowing of which by means of jackscrews was the work of the Russian serfs, whose brawny limbs were fed on nothing better than black bread of a very sour flavour and garlic. But they were kept in heart by glasses of fiery "bottery," which it was my office to give them at stated hours; and they lightened their heavy labour by improvised chants sung in untiring chorus, under a leader, who gave the improvisations.”
[Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne, 1892, p.26]
Note: Reprinted as – From cabin-boy to Archbishop: Autobiography of…
William Bernard Ullathorne (1806–1889)

Cotton screwing songs


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:02 AM

“Le chef de nos rameurs entonne un chant nautique, et la mer retentit de nos voix réunies qui le répètent.”
[Héléne, Tragédies d'Euripid Traduites du Grec, Vol.2, Euripedes, 1848]
Euripides (480 – 406BC)


“CELEUSMA, or Celeuma, in Antiquity, the fhout or cry of the feamen, whereby they animated each other in their work of rowing.
        The word is formed from …, to call, to give the fignal.
        Celeusma was alfo a kind of fong or formula rhearfed or played by the master or others, to direct the ftrokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to kabour. See Celeustes.
        Aquinus, without much foundation, extends the celeufma to the military fhouts in land armies.
        When Chriftianity got footing, hymns and pfalms were fung in veffels by way of celeufma, in which the words amen and hallelujah were frequently repeated.
CELEUSTES,in Ancient Navigation, the boatfwain or officer appointed to give the orwers the fignal when they were to pull, and when to ftop. See Celeusma.
        He was alfo denominated epopeus, and by the Romans portifculus; fometimes fimply hortator.
CELEUSUS, in Ancient Geography, a place in Germany between Gemanicus and Arufena, at the mouth of a fmall river which runs into the Danube.”
[The Cyclopædia; Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature, Vol 7, Rees, 1819]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 02:03 AM

“365. Is trom an ioram, is an t-iomram.
366.[sic] Heavy [sad] is the sea-song and the rowing. (p)

(p) The iorum, or boat-song, here alluded to, must be of a wailing cast, corresponding to the double stroke of the oar, when, most likely, the corpse of a Chief was conveyed to Iona, (the ancient place of internment on that sacred island), whence the Gaël and Scandanavians, Scoto and Anglo Saxons, received the light of the Gospel.– Vide Bedes Eccl. Hist.”
[Collection of Gaelic proverbs and familiar phrases ... To which is added, 'The way to wealth' by Benjamin Franklin, Mackintosh, 1819]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 02:01 AM

“It was about the close of day we prepared to cross the river St. John's, at a part about five miles above the bar. The sun lingered upon the extensive forests of its banks, and undulated upon the trembling surface of its waters; the evening was pure and serene, and presented every object in the most alluring character. The noise of the oars, as they cut their liquid way, rousing the echoes of its banks, were answered by the noisy cadence of the negroes' boat-song, amusing and beguiling our way. As we entered upon the waters of the St. John's, we saw several canoes returning from fishing, their rovers were also chaunting the canoe-song, emulating at the same time the rapidity of our progress; we really flew along the glassy surface, such was the celerity of our movements.”
[Narrative of a Voyage to the Spanish Main In the Ship "Two Friends”, 1819]

Amelia Island affair


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:56 AM

“Celeusma: grido con cui su esortavano i naviganti - … (celeuo) commando. V. Proceleusmatico p.65.
Proceleusmatico: piè metrico di quattro brevi – . (proceleusmaticos), … (celeusma) esortazione nautica; perchè i versi fatti con questi piedi a cagione della loro speditezza si usavano per animare i marinai.”
[Almanacco Etimologico Scientifico per l'anno 1819, 1818]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:51 AM

BOULENA, A sea cheer, signifying, Hale up the bowlings. Complaynt S.
BUFF NOR STYE. He cou'd neither say buff nor stye, S. i.e. “He could neither say one thing nor another.” It is also used, but I suspect, improperly, in regard to one who has no activity; He has neither buff nor stye with him S.B.
Teut. bof, celeusma, a cheer made by mariners. Stye might be viewed as referring to the act of mounting the shrouds, from Su. G. stig-a, to ascend.
CAUPONA, “a sailor's cheer in heaving the anchor.”                Complaynt S.
CHYRE, Cheer, entertainment.        Dunbar.
Heys and How, A sea cheer.        Douglas.
HOW, HOU, s.l. The sound made by owl. Fr. hu-er to hoot.        Doug.
2. A sea cheer.        Complaynt S..
OURWORD, OWERWORD, s. 1. Any word frequenty repeated, S.        Burns.
2. The burden of a song.        Dunbar.”
[An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, Jamieson, 1818]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:50 AM

“The night was so exquisitely beautiful, that Jeanie, instead of immediately directing her course towards the Lodge, stood looking after the boat as it again put off from the side, and rowed out into the little bay, the dark figures of her companions growing less and less distinct as they diminished in the distance, and the jorram, or boat-song of the rowers, coming on the ear with the softened and sweeter sound, until the boat rounded the headland, and was lost to her observation.”
[The Heart of Mid-Lothian, Tales of My Landlord, Second Series, Vols.1-4, Scott, 1818]

Sir Walter Scott (1771 – 1832) (Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, The Lady of the Lake &c.)


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:48 AM

“While the crews of both ships were on the ice to-day, tracking the Isabella along between two floes, one of the most ludicrous scenes occurred that I have witnessed for some time past. It may be, perhaps, considered too frivolous to mention; but from the laughter it excited at the time, I cannot refrain from introducing it. One of the men belonging to the Isabella, who plays the violin, was, as usual, giving the men a tune on that instrument, to cheer them along in their laborious task, when all of a sudden, in the middle of a lively air, both the fiddler and the fiddle disappeared, he having dropped through a hole in the ice. The consternation of all hands, at the first moment, on finding the music so suddenly stopped, and the burst of laughter which ensued on discovering the cause, may be more readily conceived than described. The poor fellow got up again without sustaining any other damage beside a cold ducking and a wet fiddle.”
[Journal of a Voyage of Discovery to the Arctic Regions, 1818, Greely, 1818]

William Edward Parry (1790 – 1855)
Isabella (1813 ship)
Discovery expedition (1818-1819): The LR data does not recognize that the Admiralty hired Isabella in 1817 for a discovery expedition in 1818. She sailed with another hired vessel, Alexander, and the whole expedition was under the command of Commander John Ross, who was sailing in Isabella. Of Isabella's crew of 54 men, four officers were clearly from the navy, as were her six marines. The other officers and men were probably civilians, as were Benjamin Lewis (the master and Greenland pilot), and Thomas Wilcox (the mate and also a Greenland pilot). (Generally when the navy hired a vessel, it would put a naval officer in command, but keep on the master and crew.) There were also three supernumeraries — Captain Sabine and a sergeant from the Royal Artillery (Sabine being the scientific observer), and the Eskimo Sacheous, who was being repatriated.” [wiki]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:18 AM

IX. Vult Proceleusmaticus brevibus constare quaternis.
Proceleulsmaticus derives its name from keleusma, clamor adhortatorius nautarum. It is contracted by the poets into three syllables; as, abiete, abjete, áriete, arjete, pituita, pitvita, tenuia, tenvia. Virg.”
        Quadribrevis Proceleusmaticus de murmure nautae. Busbey.
[A Latin Grammar, 6th ed., Ross, 1818, p.155]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:14 AM

Cheer Up! pull away.
A Boat-Song From Forrest's Travels
Composed and Dedicated to William B. Finch Esq. of the United States Navy
By T.V. Wiesenthal

2x
Cheer up! pull a-way,
Cheer up! pull a-way,
We'll gain the ocean far away,


Be-hold yon is land a far,
What fishes a-bound in its main.
Be-hold yon cloud a-far,
Haste, haste let's the fishes obtain.

2x
Cheer up! pull a-way,
Cheer up! pull a-way,
We'll gain the ocean far away,

Fast by the Capezine land,
Castilian dances you will find,
My lads to gain the Capezine land,
Pull pull with the whole of you mind.

2x
Cheer up! pull a-way,
Cheer up! pull a-way,
We'll gain the ocean far away,
[Sheet Music, Wiesenthal, Thomas, 1818, 4 pages]
See Forrest, 1779 (above.)


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:11 AM

“I know not that these poor souls are worse treated in Carolina and Georgia, nor have I any reason to believe so; certain it is, however, that they discover an unwillingness amounting almost to horror, at the idea of being sold there; and have a simple song which they sometimes, as I am told, sing with a mournful melancholy cadence, as they row along the rivers, in remembrance of home. It is merely the language of nature:

        Going- away to Georgia, ho, heave, O!
        Massa sell poor negro, ho, heave, O!
        Leave poor wife and children, ho, heave, O! &c. &c
.”
[Letters from the South*, Vol.I, 1817]
*
1817: By The author of John Bull and Brother Jonathan, &c. &c.
1835: By A Northern Man
2022: James Kirke Paulding (1778 – 1860.)

“Among Paulding's government positions were those of secretary to the Board of Navy Commissioners in 1815–23 and Naval Agent in New York in 1824–38. President Martin Van Buren appointed him Secretary of the Navy in June 1838. As Secretary, he was a conservative figure, whose extensive knowledge of naval affairs was balanced by notable lack of enthusiasm for new technology. He opposed the introduction of steam propelled warships declaring that he would "never consent to let our old ships perish, and transform our Navy into a fleet of (steam) sea monsters." Nevertheless, his tenure was marked by advances in steam engineering, wide-ranging exploration efforts, enlargement of the fleet and an expansion of the Navy's apprenticeship program.” [wiki]
Cousin: Hiram Paulding (1797 – 1878) retired a Rear Admiral, USN.

Origins: Run, Nigger, Run & Lambert (above,), the Advent thread, &c &c.


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:07 AM

“La condition des rameurs étoit la plus pénible et la plus dure. J'ai déjà observé que les rameurs , aussi-bien que les matelots, étoient tous citoyens et libres, et non esclaves ou étrangers comme aujourd'hui. Les rameurs étoient distingués par degrés. Ceux du plus bas s'appeloient thalamites, ceux du milieu zugites, ceux d'en haut thranites. Thucydide remarque qu'on donnoit à ces derniers une plus forte paie, parce qu'ils manioient des rames plus longues et plus pesantes que celles des degrés inférieurs. Il paroît que la chiourme, pour se mouvoir avec plus de justesse et de concert, étoit quelquefois conduite par le chant d'une voix, ou par le son de quelque instrument; et cette douce harmonie servoit non seulement à régler leurs mouvemens, mais encore à diminuer et à charmer leurs peines….

Plus de deux 296. cents galères , ornées de dépouilles ennemies, s'avançoient avec une contenance majestueuse, la chiourme faisant une espèce de concert par l'ordre uniforme et réglé avec lequel les rames étoient mises en mouvement. Elles étoient suivies d'un nombre infini de petits batimens; de sorte que le port, quelque vaste qu'il fût, pouvoit à peine les contenir, et que toute la mer étoit couverte de voiles.”
[Œuvres Complètes de Ch. Rollin: Histoire Ancienne, Rollin, 1817]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:18 AM

“Calomar, s.m. cri des matelots pour s'encourager
Saloma, s.f. chant des matelots
Salomar. v. n. chanter en manœuvrant
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche François-Espagnol et Español-Francés, 1816]


“Calomar, m. the cry of sailors when they hale a rope all together.
Saloma, f. The singing of the sailors. Salomar, n. To sing together, as sailors do
[A dictionary of the Spanish and English languages, Fernandez, 1817]


“Alarido, f.m. Vozeria dos que entraõ em combate. Celeuma da gente do mar. Clamor dos que brigaõ.
Celêufma, ou Celêuma, f.f. Gritaria de gente do mar, quando trabalha.
Celêufmear, ou Celêmear, v.n. Fazer celêfma.”
[Novo Diccionario da Lingua Portugueza, 1817]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:15 AM

“They continued their usual supplies, bringing us even fresh water on board in their boats; and, understanding we required some wood for spars, they felled fir trees, floated them down the river, and towed them alongside, singing their usual boat song, which had a very plaintive and pleasing effect.”
[McLeod, Narrative of a Voyage in his Majesty's late ship Alceste to the Yellow Sea, The Literary Panorama, and National Register, Vol.7, 1818]

HMS Alceste (1806)
Basil Hall (1788 – 1844)
Sir Murray Maxwell (1775 – 1831)

“On the return journey, she struck a reef in the Java Sea; her wreck was subsequently plundered and burned by Malayan pirates.” [wiki]

Note: The rescue of HMS Alceste's survivors is a true-to-life pirate tale.


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:10 AM

VOCABULARY OF THE LOO-CHOO
English                                Loo-Choo
Song                                        Oóta*

*Words of Loo-Choo songs:
“Sas sangcoomeh sangcoomeah kadee yooshee daw, tantoong tantoong tang.”
A boat song: “Whee-yo ee.–Whee yo ee.” The steersman gave “Whee,” and was followed by the other men with a repitition of “Whee yo ee.”
Another boat song: “Quee yay hanno ha.–Quee yay hanno ha.” To both these airs the rowers kept very good time.”

“The words of the dance song were “ Sasa sangcoomah, sangcoomee ah! sangcoomee ah! kadee yooshee daw;" when they came to the last word they all joined in the chorus and clapped their hands.”
[Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast of Corea (1816-1817,) Clifford, 1818]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:08 AM

“The canoes, when they take their departure from La Chine, are loaded to within about six inches of the gunwales, or edge of the canoe. Instead of oars, they use paddles, which they handle with great dexterity. They strike off, singing a song peculiar to themselves, called the Voyaguer Song: one man takes the lead, and all the others join in a chorus. It is extremely pleasing to see people who are toiling hard, display such marks of good humour and contentment, although they know, that for a space of more than 2000 miles their exertions must be unremitting, and their living very poor; for, in the little space allowed in the canoe for provisions, you find none of the luxuries, and a very scanty supply of the necessaries of life. The song is of great use: they keep time with their paddles to its measured cadence, and, by uniting their force, increase its effect considerably.”
[Letters from Canada Written During a Residece in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1809, Gray, 1809]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'conch
Date: 03 Aug 22 - 09:39 PM

“ATTENTI, al comando, alla voce, A la voix. Silence, or Mind the Song. Avverimeato che ai da a' marinaj che manovrano, di far attenzione al comiando e di operare d' accordo.

SALOMARE, v.a. Dare la voce. Donner la voix. To sing out. Salomare è preso dallo spagnoolo.

VOIX, s.f. Voce. Song.
        Donner la voix Dare La Voce. To sing out. E il gridare che si fa di tempo io tempo dagli uomioi che lavorano all siessa manovra.
        Donne la voix quelqu'un. Da la Voce. Sing out there a hand.
        A la voix Attente Alla Voce. Mind the song. E un comando di star attente al grido che si darà per far forsa dd' accordo su d' una manovra.”
[1813 - Vocabulaire de Marine en Trois Langues, Vol.I-II, 1813]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 03 Aug 22 - 09:28 PM

1804 - Origins: Canadian Boat Song (Thomas Moore)

"Based on" J'ai Trop Grand Peur des Loups or Dans mon chemin j'ai rencontré.
French Canadian songs


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 04:09 PM

“Sæ-leoð, celeusma.”
[Vocabularium Anglo-Saxonicum, Lexico Gul. Somneri magna parte auctius, Benson, Somner, 1701]

More than you might ever want to know about Somner:
“...Nevertheless, a handful of entries from the Historical Thesaurus sample do contain something more than the minimum amount of detail. Of these, the entry for leoð is perhaps most interesting in the context of the current study. Somner’s definition runs as follows:

Carmen, pœan, oda, celeasma. a verse, a song, a song of rejoycing, an ode or psalm, the shout or noise which mariners make when they doe any thing together, or when the Master doth call and encourage them.

The first three definitions supplied in the Latin, and the first four in English, are relatively typical for Somner’s entries. They briefly identify a basic meaning for the Old English term, but do not indicate in detail either the character of an Old English leoð or the contexts in which one might be encountered or composed. In contrast, the last definition is surprisingly specific; it is the only part of the entry to follow the traditional model of defining by means of a genus that identifies the category to which the definiendum belongs (here, a leoð is said to be a type of ‘shout or noise’) and the differentiæ that distinguish it from other members of that category (unlike other shouts or noises, a leoð is made by a specific group of people, mariners, in specific circumstances).[105] What is more, it is unlike the other definitions given for this headword in that it does not indicate that a leoð is a musical or poetic form. The increased specificity and (in Early Modern English) length of this definition might lead readers to interpret this sense as having particular significance. In fact, the definition appears to be derived from a single glossary entry in London, British Library Cotton Cleopatra A.III, which reads, ‘Celeumatis sæleoþes’. The Dictionarium also contains an entry for sæleoð, defined as follows:

Celeusma. the mariners shout, noise, or cry in hoisting anchor or sail.

It seems natural to conclude that Somner was influenced in both cases by the glossary entry for sæleoð. This implies that he recognised the element -leoð as being common to both and so had successfully analysed the compound into its constituent parts. Interestingly, however, he still carried the maritime sense from sæleoð into his definition for leoð (though it lacks the element sæ-, ‘sea’). What is more, despite recognising a leoð as being a kind of song, or having musical associations, he does not apply this knowledge to his definition of sæleoð as a ‘shout, noise, or cry’.

The Cleopatra glossary supplied Somner with the Latin equivalent for sæleoð (and hence for leoð); the lengthiness of the Early Modern English, however, is evidently due to the fact that Somner was working closely from a Latin-English dictionary. It is hard to be certain which of the many such dictionaries in circulation, which often had considerable overlaps in content, Somner would have worked from, but a clearly related entry can be found s.v. celeusma in a Latin-English dictionary from the sixteenth century:

Celeusma, or Celeuma, atis, n.g. Mart. The showt or noise that mariners make, when they doe anie thing togeather with ioyned strength, as in drawing the anchor, &c. or when the Master doth call and encourage them (Thomas, 1587).

Another source that presumably helped Somner define these headwords is Canterbury, Cathedral Archives LitMS/D/2, a fifteenth-century manuscript of the Latin dictionary (with sporadic Middle English glosses) known as the Medulla Grammatice. This particular copy was well used by Somner, who added copious glosses providing the Old English equivalents of the Latin headwords, as well as inserting additional Latin headwords when he wished to provide an Old English word that did not already have a Latin equivalent in the Medulla. [106] It appears that that Somner did not prepare this material for publication, and therefore that his additions probably represent his private work in studying Old English and preparing the Dictionarium. In the Canterbury Medulla, we find the following entry:

Celeuma. tis id est clamor nauticus et cantus (McCleary, 1958:169)

This is annotated by Somner with the Old English sæleoþ, suggesting that the Medulla’s definition of the Latin celeu(s)ma may have been another influence on Somner in writing his Dictionarium definitions….

[105] On this approach to definition, see Atkins & Rundell (2008:414).
[106] A diplomatic edition of LitMS D2, including Somner’s additions, has been produced by J. Marie van Zandt McCleary (1958).
[108] Hetherington (1980:148-9) notes a single explicit reference made to the Medulla in the Dictionarium, s.v. niþing. However, as has been seen elsewhere, Somner is not exhaustive in his citation of such sources, so this observation does not rule out his having drawn silently on the Medulla in other entries.”

[Master's Thesis, William Somner’s Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum: Method, Function and Legacy, Fletcher, U. of Glasgow, 2017]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 03:46 AM

“We proceeded in a piade along the northern shore of the sea of Marmara, to the city of Constantine: eight Turks formed our crew, who rowed with the greatest velocity for six or seven hours at a time; while the songs with which they enlivened their exertions; the beautiful scenery along which we passed; and weather so fine, that our night was spent upon the water, though the day had been far from sultry, heightened the pleasure of approaching Constantinople.”
[Douglas on the Ancient and Modern Greeks, The Analectic Magazine, Vol.VI, 1815]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 03:45 AM

“Un, deux, trois! (t. de Marine), Haul-in– haul to– haul belay! Song used by seamen when hauling the bowlines.

Voix [t. de Marine] The song (employed by sailors, in hoisting, heaving, &c.) Donner la voix, To sing out (as in hauling, hoisting, heaving, &c.) A la voix, Mind the man that sings! Saleur de la voix. V. Saleur.”
[Dictionnaire François-Anglois et Anglois-François, Tom.I, Pt.II., Chambaud, 1815]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 03:44 AM

MUSCULAR STRENGTH COMPARED WITH THE POWERS OF THE MIND.
'Twere well if thoughts were like mechanic powers,
And double mind made double knowledge ours.
Two men at levers placed of equal length,
Their equal efforts joined, have double strength;
And two to these we gain the strength of four,
So in proportion with a thousand more;
As here combined, their pressure gives of course,
At one fixed point, one time, their whole united force.
'Tis thus their sinewy strength the sailors show,
Who gain an extra power with “Yoe, heave ho.”
But 'tis not so with MINDS,– these stand alone;
And two, though joined, have but the strength of one,
No “Yoe heave” here can help the other on!...”
[Poetic Flowers, Sandham, 1815]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jul 22 - 09:22 PM

“HAUL,
Haul at the song. Alzate al segno de richietto. Halez a la voix. Halez au chant.
To haul cheerily. Alare con forza, allegramente. Pesare sulia corda. Pesen.”
[Vocabolario di Marina in Tre Lingue, Vol.3, Stratico, 1814]



“Gally-slave, s. Tràill-iomramh
Iomram, Iomramh, s. Rowing
Iurram, s, An oar song, &c.”
[A New and Copious Vocabulay in Two Parts, Macfarlane, 1815]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jul 22 - 09:20 PM

“The command to heave round the capstern was given; some music, which we had on board, struck up a lively tune, and in less than twenty minutes the small bower anchor was secured to the larboard bow of the ship…”
[The Log-Book, No.VI, The Calcutta Magazine and Monthly Register, No.XXXII, By B (anon.), August, 1832]
Note: Royal Navy c.1814.



“Behold! At thy return, commerce unfurls her lightly flowing sails; and the busy mariner again in prospect beholds a return of that source of industry of which plenty was the reward; and while the gentle gales swell the canvas, the song of yo heave ho resounds along the river's banks, and the busy hum of men enlivens that scene which erst has seemed a dreary leafless forest.”
[Intellectual Regale; Or, Ladies Tea Tray, Volume 1, 1814]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jul 22 - 09:18 PM

Accorde! zieht alle zugleich das Ruder an! (ist ein Commando an die Matrosen un Ruderknechte).
Accorder, v.a. (tirer ou haler d'accord) bei dem Rojen oder einem Tau alle zugleich anholen, welche letztere Arbeit gewöholich unter Auffangen geschieht, zugleich rudern.
Hissa, ho ha, hissa, ô, hisse! das Aufsingen beim Hissen.
Voix, s.f., das Aufsingrn, Wort.
        Donner la voix, aufsingen.
        A la voix! gebt aufs Aufsingen oder aufs Wort Acht.
        Saluer de la voix, (s Saluer).
[Dictionnaire de Commerce, de Marine et de Droit, François-Allemand, Lemmens, 1811]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jul 22 - 02:02 AM

Alarido: celeuma nautica. § Clamor de quem bulha com outrem.
CELÈUMA, s.f. A vozeria, que faz a gente do mar, quando trabalha. Cam. Lus. II. 25. A celeuma medonha se levanta No rudo marinheiro, que trabalha.
CELEUMEÁR, v.n. Levantar celeuma: outros dizem Salamear.”
[Diccionario da Lingua Portugueza, Silva, 1813]



“CELEUMA, atis, n. Asc, Oed. et CELEUSMA, atis, n. (…exhorter). Cri par lequel les rameurs s'encouragent. ? Signal qui indique aux matelots les différentes manœuvres.
CELEUSTES. æ, m. Bud. Celui qui veille sur les matelots ou autres ouviers, comite, piqueur.”
[Dictionarium Latino-Gallicum, Noel, Facciolati, 1813]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jul 22 - 02:01 AM

Vintage. This season was accompanied with feasts and great rejoicings. Isaiah says. xxv. 6. In this mountain shall the Lord of hosts make unto all people, a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees, well refined. Literally, a feast of fatness, a feast of lees, of marrowy fatnesses, of clarified lees. And, Isai. xvi. 10. Gladness is taken away, and joy out of the plentiful field; and in the vineyards there shall be no singing, neither shall there be shouting; the treaders shall tread out no wine in their presses; I have made their vintage shouting to cease. Hebrew, out of Carmel. Carmel signifies an excellent vineyard And Jeremiah says, xlviii. 33. Joy and gladness is taken from the plentiful field (from the Carmel) and from the land of Moab, (which was fruitful in vines) and I hate caused wine to fail from the winepresses, none shall tread with shouting. their shouting shall be no shouting; Hebrew, literally, they shall no longer tread the grape, and he that cries hedad, shall no more cry hedad, hedad. This last term is the cry of the vintagers, from whence is formed heth, and de heth, [Huzza! Bravo!] with vigour, with courage, cheerfully.”
[Calmet's Great Dictionary of the Holy Bible, Vol.II, 1813]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jul 22 - 01:59 AM

“CHANTER. v. n. To song. Cest faire- certains cris de convention, pour donner le sigual de l'instant où plusieurs hommes, employés à une même opération, doivent réunir leurs efforts et agir tous ensemble. — La manière de chanter ou le cri de convention est variable suivant les chanteurs.

CHANTEUR. S. m. Ouvrier qui, agissant concurremment avec d'autrès, leur donne le signal, par un cri de convention, du moment où ils doivent déployer ensemble toutes leurs forces, pour produire par leur réunion, mi effet déterminé, qui exige non seulement toutes ces puissances, mais aussi leur concours simultané.

DONNER la voix, c'est marquer par un cri de de convention, le moment où plusieurs hommes rassemblés doivent agir ou réunir leurs erforts pour produire un effet quelconque.

O! INTERJECTION employée par les marins pour donner le signal à des hommes rassemblés pour une même opération, de réunir leurs efforts au même instant, afin de produire tout l'effet dont ils sont capables par le concours de leurs forces; c'est ainsi qu'ils disent à haute voix: ô hisse? ô hale? ô saille? ô saque? ô ride? pour annoncer le moment où ils doivent tous ensemble, ou hisser, ou haler, ou saillir, ou saquer, ou rider (Voy. ces mots).

REPRISE. s. f. C'est l'action de reprendre; voy. ce mot, et toutes les diverses acceptions dans lesquelles il est employé.

SAILLER. v. a. C'est ponsser une pièce de bois par une de ses extrèmités pour la faire glisser sur un plan, dans le sens de longueur, et lorsque plusieurs hommes rassemblés doivent concourir ensemble pour produire cet effet, l'un d'eux crie à haute-voix le mot Saille? Rousse? pour annoncer le moment où ils doivent réunir leurs efforts et agir en même temps avec la force dont ils sont capables.”
[Dictionnaire de la Marine Francoise, Romme, 1813]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 09:00 PM

“Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the crews of each of the said ships of seventy-four guns, shall consist of two hundred able seamen, three hundred ordinary seamen and boys, three serjeants, three corporals, one drummer, one fifer, and sixty marines.”
[An Act: To increase the Navy of the United States, Naval Chronicle, Vol.XXIX, 1813, p.238]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:59 PM

“CELEUMA, or CELEUSMA, [from… to call] in antiquity; 1. The shout or cry of the seamen, whereby they animated each other in the work of rowing. 2. A kind of song or formula, rehearsed or played by the master, or others, to direct the strokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour. See next article.
CELEUSTES, in ancient naivgation, the boatswain or officer appointed to give the rowers the signal, when they were to pull, and when to stop.”
[The Imperial Encyclopaedia; Or, Dictionary of the Sciences and Arts, Vol.I, Johnson, Exley, 1812]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:57 PM

SALOMA, s.f. Sorte de cri on de chant des matelots pendnt la manœuvre.
SALOMAR, v.n. On le dit des matelotes qui crient ou chantent tous à la fois en manœuvrant.”
[Diccionario Español Frances y Frances Español, Taboado, 1812]


“Alarido de marinheiro, cri des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage
Celeuma, s.f. (t. de mar.) cri des matelots pour s'encourager à ramer
Faina, s.f. cri des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage
Salema, s.f. stokfiche; chant des matelots en ramant
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche Francais-Portugais, Sociedade de Literator, 1812]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:56 PM

“DITHYRAMBO VI.
Assustáo-se os nautas, e a rouca celeumam
        A's estrellas vòa;
        De tristes gemidos
        O ar se povòa:…


Nos cheirosos lagares
Da Celeuma (I) o alaridosSe espalha pelos ares,
Do Eco repetido;
Enchendo de alegri
A rude companhia.

(I) Ainda que esta voz se costuma applicar á grita, que os Marinheiros fazem, excitando-se mutamente com ella ao trabalho; a sua original significaçao he exprimir a grita alegre dos Vindimadores. Isaias cap.16. v.10 Jeremias cap.48. v.33.”
[Poesias de Antonio Diniz da Cruz e Silva, 1812]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:55 PM

“Swift o'er the deck the busy boatswain goes,
And his shrill call at ev'ry hatchway blows :
"All hands unmoor!" aloud at each he cries,
"All hands unmoor!" each ready mate replies.
Rous'd by the sound, on deck the seamen swarm,
For music can the rudest bosom charm!
And, near the capstan, lo! a motley band
Of naval minstrels take their noisy stand!
The crew whose hands the plane and chissel guide,
Fix the huge levers in the capstan's side.
Deep in the hold, secluded far from day,
Some seamen coil the pond'rous rope away.
Hark! hark! the rugged melody I hear!
The piercing fife assails my shrinking ear;
The creaking fiddle, and the bagpipe's drone,
Which pours its sorrows in a mono-tone!
The drum crowns all; and to its leaden beat,
The crew keep time with deck-destroying feet!”

“Around the embers of the galley-fire,
For song and glee the cheerful tars retire.
There, while the cordial grog goes gaily round,
And recent trouble in the bowl is drown'd,
Again they fight their former battles o'er,
Or drink to those, belov'd, they left on shore.
Alternately the laugh and jest prevail,
And now the song is heard, and now the tale.
Hark! with a voice that stuns the deafen'd ear,
Whose rugged notes 'twere agony to hear,
Stentorophontus (best such name may suit
The man whose voice out-yells the fiercest brute)
With mouth extended, roars the rough-spun lay
That paints the perils of some fierce affray.
Rough bellowing quavers hang on ev'ry note,
As if a top-chain rattled in his throat;
Whilst in the chorus all the seamen join,
And pay the songster in his proper coin.
Anon, a tar, whose destiny severe,
For music gave him neither voice nor ear;
To furnish out his quota of delight, T
Begins some wond'rous story to recite,
Of goblins, sprites, and all the horrid crew
That ever fear conceiv'd, or terror knew;
Whilst, with attentive ear, the seamen round,
Hang on his lips in silence most profound.

So flies the time, till now th' extinguish'd fire
Warns them on other bus'ness to retire;
The warning they receive, and soon they go,
Those to their watch, and these to rest below.”

“Now swift canoes, with paddles short and strong,
To measur'd notes of music skim along,
And oft, the sable rowers, as they time
Their skilful strokes, their mellow voices chime.”
[Britain's Bulwarks or The British Seaman, Woodley, 1811, pp.57, 80-81, 129-130]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 03:03 AM

“The corn of this island [Raasay] is but little. I saw the harvest of a small field. The women reaped the corn, and the men bound up the sheaves. The strokes of the sickle were timed by the modulation of the harvest song, in which all their voices were united. They accompany in the Highlands every action, which can be done in equal time, with an appropriated [sic] strain, which has, they say, not much meaning; but its effects are regularity and cheerfulness. The ancient proceleusmatic song, by which the rowers of galleys were animated, may be supposed to have been of this kind. There is now an oar-song used by the Hebridians.”
[A Journey to the Western Islands &c., The Works of Samuel Johnson, Vol.VIII, 1811]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 03:00 AM

Negro Boat Song
...We started from Purrysburgh about two o;clock and were rowed by four negroes, for canoes are not paddled here as in Canada. They seemed to be jolly fellows, and rowed lustily to a boat song of their own composing. The words were given by one of them, and the rest joined the chorus at the end of every line. It began in the following manner:
                                                                        CHORUS
        We are going down to Georgia, boys,        Aye, aye,
        To see the pretty girls, boys,                Yoe, yoe.
        We'll give 'em a pint of brandy, boys,        Aye, aye.
        And a hearty kiss besides, boys.        Yoe, yoe.
                &c. &c. &c.


The tune of this ditty was rather monotonous, but had a pleasing effect, as they kept time with it, at every stroke of their oars. The words were mere nonsense; any thing, in fact, which came into their heads. I however remarked, that brandy was very frequently mentioned, and it was understood as a hint to the passengers to give them a dram*. We had supplied ourselves with tis article in Purrysburgh, and were not sparing of it to the negroes in order to encourage them to row quick.”
[Travels Through Lower Canada, and the United States of North America, in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808, Lambert, 1810]

Origin: Johnny Come Down to Hilo
New evidence for 'shanty' origins?

*See also Smith (above) – A fresh Spell is to releeve the Rowers with another Gang, give the Boat more way for a dram of the bottell, who saies Amends, one and all, Vea, vea, vea, vea, vea, that is, they pull all strongly together.


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 02:56 AM

North American rowing songs – lyrics &c posted here:

Lyr Req: V'la l' Bon Vent (Ian & Sylvia)
Le Canard blanc (chanson)
J'ai vu le loup

Journal of a Voyage up the River Missouri - 1811, 2nd ed, Brackenridge, 1816, pp.57-58
Travels in the Interior of America 1809-1811, Bradbury, 1817, pp.12-13


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 02:53 AM

“CHANTER, pour agir ensemble = Zalomar.
Donner La Voix, chanter pour faire effort ensemble = Salomar.
SALOMAR = Donner la voix, chanter pour faire effort ensemble.
VOIX, donner la voix, agir a la voix = Salomar.
        A la voix! = Listo!
ZALOMAR (voyez salomar).
[Dictionnaire des Termes de Marine Français-Espagnols et Espagnols-Français, Petit, 1810]


“Calomar, m. the cry of the sailors when they hale a rope altogether
Saloma, f. The singing of the sailors. Salomar, n. to sing together, as sailors do.”
[The First Dictionary of Two Languages Under a Single Alphabet, English and Spanish, Feranadez, 1811]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 02:51 AM

Huntington, Gale. William Litten's Fiddle Tunes: 1800 – 1802, Vineyard Haven, Mass.: Hines Point Publishers, 1977.

“"William Litton’s Fiddle Tunes 1800-1802" ~ extracts from the introduction by Gale Huntington, pages 6 & 7

This collection of fiddle tunes was made by William Litten at sea on a vessel, or on two different vessels, of the British India fleet in the years 1800, 1801, and 1802.

Everything that we know about the man is from disjointed material on the inside front and back covers of the manuscript book and from scraps of information on the pages of the book itself and from the music. The notes in the text are difficult to decipher because Litten’s handwriting and spelling are both very bad, and in places the paper has bled. On the other hand the tunes themselves were transcribed without too much difficulty, for Litten was a good musician.

The manuscript is in the library of the Dukes County Historical Society* in Edgartown, Massachusetts, on the Island of Martha’s Vineyard.

Here are some of the facts that we can gather from the scattered notes. The British India fleet sailed from England May 27th, 1800, and arrived in China February 10th, 1801.

(Note: the author in correspondence with ~ John Compston, E.D., D. Litt. of Australian National University, says that the fleet visited Australia and may have made other stops during the passage.)

The fleet consisted of sixteen war vessels. The names of the vessels and of six of the captains of them are listed on the inside back cover of the book. ~ We can not be sure which ship Litten was on on the voyage out, but on the return voyage he was evidently on H.M.S. Gorgon, for he mentions a stop of that vessel at St. Helena on June 3rd, 1802. Litten’s duty was that of ship’s musician. At that time there was no chanteying on British war vessels, for chanteying was considered much too undignified for His Majesty’s service. Instead of a chanteyman all war vessels of any size carried and official fiddle player whose music helped to lighten some of the heavier work. A little after Litten’s time the cornet began to compete with the fiddle.
~
The manuscript was brought home to the Vineyard by Allen Coffin of Edgartown. His name appears on the inside cover of the book. Allen Coffin must surely have been younger than Litten. But they may have been shipmates, if not on that voyage perhaps on a later one. Coffin was born in 1788. But many boys did go to sea at twelve or thirteen in those days, and many American were serving in the British navy, usually because they had been pressed into the service.

James Coffin, Allen’s father, had been a seaman and then a shipmaster. But by 1800 he had retired from the sea and was an Edgartown merchant and a man of real wealth for the Period. He had a fleet of small merchant vessels that sailed to all parts of the world. Such men as James Coffin often did send their sons to sea at an early age to learn the business.

We cannot be sure that Allen Coffin played the fiddle but he probably did or why would he want Litten’s book? Also there were a great many more fiddle players a hundred and seventy-five years ago than there are today. (1970s) We do know that Allen’s family was a musical one, tow of his daughters played the violin and played it well. It could be just that fact that accounts for the book’s survival.

Allen Coffin is mentioned several times in Jeremiah Pease’s diary for the early years of the 19th century. Jeremiah was a singer and he and Allen were friends. They used to go fishing and eeling through the ice together. Perhaps they made music together too.

But about William Litten we do not know even whether he was English, Scottish, Irish or American. There are some very good Irish tunes in the book and some equally good Scottish and English ones. However Litten did not seem to care too much for the typically Scottish dotted eighth and sixteenth note combination. In fact, some of his Scottish tunes play like Irish versions of them. There are even some almost American tunes in the book. That "almost" is because American fiddle tunes were rare in those days and even some tunes that we think of as American had their origin in the British Isles. # Posted by ceolachan 8 years ago.”
[Boring The Leather (jig)]
*Now part of The Martha’s Vineyard Museum

On Worldcat: William Litten's Fiddle Tunes: 1800-1802
On Mudcat: RE: Tune Add: Bacon & Greens


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Jul 22 - 05:09 PM

“The Athenians man their gallies, according to their respective rates, with a due proportion of soldiers and sailors. The former are generally heavy-armed, for the endeavor to come to boarding as soon a s possible, and by engaging hand to hand, being it as near as practicable to a land-fight. The sailors are made up of mariners, who manage the sails and tackling, and rowers; both composed of citizens, contrary to the practice in other countries, where the latter are always slaves. Amongst the Athenians they divide them into three orders; those in the uppermost benches are called Thranitai, those in the middle Zeugitai, those in the lower Thalamitai. The first have the largest pay; since by the distance of the water, and length of their oars, they undergo more fatigue and danger than the others. The officers on board a fleet, besides the admiral and his lieutenants, are the Trierarchs or captains of ships, who have under them the master pilot, the Keleustes or boatswain, who directs and places the rowers, and the Logistes or purser, besides other subalterns.”
[Athenian Letters (Anarcharsis the Younger) , Vol.I, Hardwicke, 1810]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Jul 22 - 05:07 PM

“Celeuma, tis. Ó Celeusma, tis. n. Canto, grito ó algarza de marineros cuando descrubren tierra, y para divertir el trabajo.
Celeustes, æ. m. El cómitre de galera.”
[Dictionarium Manuale Latino-Hispanum, Jiménez, 1808]


“* Celeusma, atis. n. Asc. Ped. El grito de los marineros ó remeros para animarse á la maniobra. ? La señal que se da á los marineros ó remeros, sea de viva voz, ó con un silbido para señalarles las diferentes maniobras. Se halla tanbien Celeuma.
* Celeustes, æ. m. Bud. El que hace hacer su deber á los marineros ó remeros, como el cómitre.”
[Diccionario Universal Latino-Español, Valbuena, 1808]


“Calomar, s.m. cri des matelots pour s'encourager.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche François-Espagnol, Vol.II, 1809]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Jul 22 - 05:04 PM

“Now all things ready, then without delay,
The boatswain's shrill pipe, bids them, heave away!
To fife and drum they heave the capstan round,
Weighs th’ pond’rous anchor from the oozy ground.”
[Naval Poetical Journal in Twelve Letters, Letter II, Craw, 1807, p.29]


“'Tis service now so briefly he commands,
That “to unmoor the ship be pip'd all hands:”
'Tis instant done and now with constant round
The capstan heaves, each pacing to the sound
Of fife and drum; till the expected call
Pipes shrilly for the welcome word “to pawl.”*
Now at the huge cat-fall each nerve is stretch'd,
Until the anchor to the cat-head's fetch'd;
Here they secure it, while the great fish-hook
Drags to its place the heavy crooked fluke.

*When work is done at the capstan, music is generally played to make the men step together, and do it cheerfully.—To “pawl,” is to secure the capstan—to stop.”
[The Cruise: A Poetical Sketch in Eight Cantos, A Naval Officer, 1808, p.25]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Jul 22 - 01:22 PM

“CANTO IV
XVI.
Com ruidosa voz de prazer cheio
Grita , e diz: Levem ancora ligeiros,
Dem-se vélas aos vencos, porque creio,
Que Aurora cedo mostra os seus Luzeiros.
Do cóncavo convéz posto no meio
Com vozes animava os marinheiros:
Ouvia-se ao mover do Cabrestante
A Nautica Celeuma dissonante….

CANTO IX
XXXI
Vendo Zargo já perto amena Praia,
Qque formava huma piacida Enseada,
Onde apenas o mar, quando se espraia,
A vaga mostra hum pouco encapellada;
E a Nautica Celeuma começacia,
Colhe-se o panno, e a ancora bidente,
Cahir da prôa sobre o mar se sente.”
[Zargueida, Descobrimento da Ilha da Madeira, Poema Heroico, Francisco de Paula Medina e Vasconcellos, 1806]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate

Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Jul 22 - 01:21 PM

“Absingen, v. a. cantar; absingen, als die Matrosen, bey der Arbeit, zalomar.”
[Diccionario Aleman y Español, Schmid, 1805]


“Saloma, sost.f. canto de' marinaj
Salomar, v.n. cantar manovrando
[Dizionario Italiano-Spagnuolo e Spagnuolo-Italiano, Vol.2, Manni, 1805]


“Calomar, s.m. cri dess matelots pour s'encourager
Saloma, s.f. chant des matelots
Salomar, v.n. chanter en manœuvrant
[Nuevo Diccionario Portatil Espanol y Frances, Vol.I, 1806]


Post - Top - Home - Printer Friendly - Translate
Next Page

  Share Thread:
More...

Reply to Thread
Subject:  Help
From:
Preview   Automatic Linebreaks   Make a link ("blue clicky")


Mudcat time: 12 August 3:00 AM EDT

[ Home ]

All original material is copyright © 2022 by the Mudcat Café Music Foundation. All photos, music, images, etc. are copyright © by their rightful owners. Every effort is taken to attribute appropriate copyright to images, content, music, etc. We are not a copyright resource.