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Maritime work song in general

GUEST,Phil d'Conch 09 Mar 20 - 07:31 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 09 Mar 20 - 07:37 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 09 Mar 20 - 07:39 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 09 Mar 20 - 08:10 PM
Jack Campin 10 Mar 20 - 07:03 AM
Steve Gardham 10 Mar 20 - 10:20 AM
Lighter 10 Mar 20 - 10:43 AM
Jack Campin 10 Mar 20 - 11:11 AM
RTim 10 Mar 20 - 11:44 AM
Lighter 10 Mar 20 - 01:28 PM
Steve Gardham 10 Mar 20 - 02:17 PM
Steve Gardham 10 Mar 20 - 02:26 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 10 Mar 20 - 08:37 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 10 Mar 20 - 08:41 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 10 Mar 20 - 08:47 PM
Joe Offer 10 Mar 20 - 09:10 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 11 Mar 20 - 11:33 AM
Jack Campin 11 Mar 20 - 12:42 PM
An Buachaill Caol Dubh 11 Mar 20 - 02:36 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 11 Mar 20 - 06:17 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 11 Mar 20 - 06:18 PM
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GUEST,David 11 Mar 20 - 07:22 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 17 Mar 20 - 10:08 PM
Joe Offer 17 Mar 20 - 10:13 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 12:11 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 12:20 AM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 12:40 AM
Steve Gardham 19 Mar 20 - 03:50 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 05:30 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 05:34 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 06:24 PM
Steve Gardham 19 Mar 20 - 07:22 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Mar 20 - 10:23 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Mar 20 - 04:10 AM
Steve Gardham 22 Mar 20 - 09:45 AM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 23 Mar 20 - 07:28 AM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 24 Mar 20 - 06:56 PM
RTim 24 Mar 20 - 10:52 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Mar 20 - 12:50 AM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Mar 20 - 01:24 AM
Steve Gardham 25 Mar 20 - 03:37 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 26 Mar 20 - 12:04 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 26 Mar 20 - 12:07 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 26 Mar 20 - 12:11 AM
Steve Gardham 26 Mar 20 - 09:25 AM
Lighter 26 Mar 20 - 10:32 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 26 Mar 20 - 01:51 PM
Steve Gardham 26 Mar 20 - 02:30 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 15 Jun 20 - 05:51 PM
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sciencegeek 23 Jun 20 - 06:30 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 06 Jul 20 - 03:50 AM
Steve Gardham 06 Jul 20 - 06:21 AM
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Steve Gardham 22 Jun 21 - 09:44 AM
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Steve Gardham 23 Jan 22 - 10:08 AM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 23 Jan 22 - 05:49 PM
Steve Gardham 24 Jan 22 - 01:31 PM
Reinhard 24 Jan 22 - 01:49 PM
Lighter 24 Jan 22 - 01:56 PM
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Steve Gardham 24 Jan 22 - 05:45 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 24 Jan 22 - 09:02 PM
RTim 24 Jan 22 - 10:54 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jan 22 - 05:31 AM
Howard Jones 25 Jan 22 - 05:38 AM
GUEST,Iains 25 Jan 22 - 08:07 AM
Steve Gardham 25 Jan 22 - 10:22 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jan 22 - 02:18 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jan 22 - 03:29 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jan 22 - 03:33 PM
RTim 25 Jan 22 - 04:06 PM
Steve Gardham 25 Jan 22 - 05:11 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jan 22 - 05:23 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jan 22 - 05:43 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jan 22 - 05:53 PM
Lighter 25 Jan 22 - 06:01 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 25 Jan 22 - 07:23 PM
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Steve Gardham 26 Jan 22 - 02:39 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 27 Jan 22 - 02:02 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 27 Jan 22 - 02:32 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 27 Jan 22 - 03:19 AM
GUEST,Mystery Guest 27 Jan 22 - 06:04 AM
Steve Gardham 27 Jan 22 - 11:02 AM
GUEST,jag 27 Jan 22 - 11:48 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 27 Jan 22 - 02:16 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 27 Jan 22 - 02:34 PM
Steve Gardham 27 Jan 22 - 03:03 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 28 Jan 22 - 08:08 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 29 Jan 22 - 03:02 AM
Steve Gardham 29 Jan 22 - 09:11 AM
GUEST,Iains 29 Jan 22 - 01:57 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 29 Jan 22 - 02:12 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 29 Jan 22 - 08:38 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 29 Jan 22 - 08:40 PM
Steve Gardham 30 Jan 22 - 01:27 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 30 Jan 22 - 05:51 PM
GUEST,jag 30 Jan 22 - 06:15 PM
GUEST,Iais 31 Jan 22 - 04:40 PM
Steve Gardham 31 Jan 22 - 05:02 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 01 Feb 22 - 03:03 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 01 Feb 22 - 03:08 AM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 04 Feb 22 - 05:03 AM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 06 Feb 22 - 06:50 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 06 Feb 22 - 06:52 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 06 Feb 22 - 06:57 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 06 Feb 22 - 06:58 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 10 Feb 22 - 05:35 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 10 Feb 22 - 05:39 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 10 Feb 22 - 05:41 AM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 13 Feb 22 - 03:29 AM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 24 Feb 22 - 03:46 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 24 Feb 22 - 03:47 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 24 Feb 22 - 03:48 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 24 Feb 22 - 03:53 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 24 Feb 22 - 03:54 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 27 Feb 22 - 03:24 AM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 01 Mar 22 - 02:11 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 01 Mar 22 - 02:12 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 01 Mar 22 - 02:14 PM
Joe Offer 02 Mar 22 - 03:32 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 23 Apr 22 - 03:32 AM
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Steve Gardham 18 Sep 22 - 07:09 AM
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Steve Gardham 12 Oct 22 - 03:02 PM
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Steve Gardham 13 Oct 22 - 11:05 AM
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Steve Gardham 13 Oct 22 - 05:26 PM
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Steve Gardham 16 Oct 22 - 02:13 PM
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Subject: Folklore: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Mar 20 - 07:31 PM

State of the art:

“A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a type of work song that was once commonly sung to accompany labor on board large merchant sailing vessels. The term shanty most accurately refers to a specific style of work song belonging to this historical repertoire. However, in recent, popular usage, the scope of its definition is sometimes expanded to admit a wider range of repertoire and characteristics, or to refer to a maritime work song in general.” [wiki]

More standard narrative:
The Advent and Development of Chanties

and
“...There are also several less-established theories regarding the origins of the sea shanty. Although there is little evidence to support this, some historians argue that the maritime musical form can be traced as far back as Ancient Egypt...”
[Piratical Debauchery, Homesick Sailors and Nautical Rhythms, Reidler, 2017]

The 2400 year gap in evidence and theory is best explained by the modern standard shanty narrative's substitution of a genre label for a work practice. 19th century, English, merchant marine &c are not functional attributes. They are consumer preferences.

What follows is a list of references based on the thread title, beginning at the beginning*:


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Mar 20 - 07:37 PM

Paywalled & hard to get but a good place to start: 'Celeuma' in Christian Latin: Lexical and Literary Notes, Sheerin, 1982

*I use the 2400 year number in conversation not because nautical work song is that old, it's much older, rather because that's roughly where documented Western history picks up. It's a little late for 'Ancient' Egypt.

That said, the glossary and job titles were already well in place; it wasn't all that Greek in origins (just the vowels) and the Ptolemaic Kingdom (c.332 - 30BC) was Hellenistic. Alexander the Great was a Pharaoh of Egypt. Pharoah's Canals were the first 'Suez' canals.

i.e.: Pharaoh, great or high house. The Pharos of Alexandria was an Egyptian lighthouse. Latin for lighthouse is farus.

Most of the Old Testament was already firmed up by 300BC as well.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Mar 20 - 07:39 PM

“The rowers did not sit, but Stood in an inclining position. The practice was directed by a person called celeustes the Roman hortator remigum who was placed in the middle of them, and carried a staff, with which he gave the signal when his voice could not be heard. This signal was for the rowers to strike; and he encouraged them by a song or cry, called the celeusma. This was either sung by the rowers, or played upon instruments, or effected by a symphony of many or striking sonorous tones.”
[A Treatis on the Arts, Manf, Manners, Inst of the Greeks & Romans, Vol.I, Fosbroke, 1833, pp.211-212]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Mar 20 - 08:10 PM

“Next in turn are two "oar-masters" (toixarchoi), who are each responsible for the discipline and working of one of the long rowers' benches; and following in grade, though highly important, are the keleustes, and the trieraules, who, by voice and by flute respectively, will give the time and if needs be encouragement to the rowers. These are all the regular officers, but naturally for handling the sails and anchors some common sailors are desirable. The Invincible carries 17 of these….
[A Day in Old Athens, Davis, 1914, pp.131-132]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Jack Campin
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 07:03 AM

Rowing songs are all over but generally they aren't classed as shanties. Not sure why not.

Turangawaewae Regatta

Lots of Hebridean ones.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 10:20 AM

Gibb's researches show pretty conclusively that one of the contributory factors towards the advent of chanties was indeed slave rowing songs in the Caribbean, from about 1800 up to 1830. As I said in the other thread the major impetus came from the stevedores in the Gulf ports but there are a few textual connections with the earlier rowing songs like Sally Brown.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 10:43 AM

Origin is not necessarily identity. They got a special name because they often had a more elaborate form than had rowing songs, and because they seemed "new" to anglophone shipboard crews who sang them. (As the "Advent" thread shows, the word was not imposed from above, but came from "folk" speech.)

Are 19th-21st century "chanteys" so much like ancient Egyptian and other rowing songs that they don't "deserve" their own category?

Is it necessary or helpful to lump these phenomena together?

Their differences to me are obvious, but everyone's entitled to an opinion.

At what point does similarity become identity? The point is to communicate, in various contexts, what it is that we mean.

The futility of insisting on the "real" meaning of such categories is endlessly demonstrated on the "What is 'Folk'?" threads.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Jack Campin
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 11:11 AM

If you think of shanties as "songs to assist collective rhythmic coordination of work processes on board ship", rowing songs are surely part of that. Though obviously shanties can be much more varied in form than the rowing-song subgroup.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: RTim
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 11:44 AM

You all need to read Gibb Schreffler's newish book - "Boxing the Compass" - a Century and a Half of Discourse About Sailor's Chanties.

Occasional Papers in Folklore Number Six
Camsco Music and or Loomis House Press.

Not sure what the situation is now with Camsco since Dick's death.....but I suspect they are closed.
The book is NOT list at Loomis....??
Gibb may have some for sale...??

Tim Radford


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 01:28 PM

Hear, hear!

Still available and worth every penny:

https://tinyurl.com/slvgo7v


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 02:17 PM

Gibb is most certainly the current guru. Though rowing songs undoubtedly contributed to the chanty corpus, I would personally not include them simply from the point of view that historically the chanty is specific to merchant ships and nothing else. I would also leave out the stevedore songs that contributed unless they were also demonstrated to have been also sung on ship. I accept that the stevedores worked on board the ships whilst in port and yes that means there was crucial overlap.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 02:26 PM

One aspect I'm interested in that doesn't get much coverage, is which seas, which ships, which trades were chanties generally used in. There are some sea merchant trades where chanties are very sparse if they occur at all, and I'm talking about records of actual chanties and references to them having been used.

We're all aware of the tea clippers, the wool trade, the meat run and the packet ships, the American Atlantic coastal trade, the trade between America and Europe, but there is very little mention of chanties in the whaling trade. I'm not aware of them being evident in the Baltic trade or to any extent in the North Sea, though latterly the Swedish and German ships used them on the longer trips. Chanties were certainly evident in the Pacific before the Panama Canal was built but perhaps not as much as in the Atlantic.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 08:37 PM

c.200BC – Three versions of Polybius on the Phoenicians/Carthaginians & the birth of the Roman navy. The original keleustes is translated as boatswain, flugelman &c:

“21. Now, however, those to whom the construction of the ships was committed were busy in getting them ready, and those who had collected the crews were teaching them to row on shore in the following fashion. Making the men sit on rowers-benches on dry land, in the same order as on the benches of the ships themselves, and stationing the fugle-man in the middle, they accustomed them to fall back all at once bringing their hands up to them, and again to come forward stretching out their hands, and to begin and finish these movements at the word of command of the fugle-man. When the crews had been trained, they launched the ships as soon as they were completed, and having practised for a brief time actual rowing at sea, they sailed* along the coast of Italy as their commander had ordered.

*It is often necessary to use the word "sail." but it should be borne in mind that the ships were propelled chiefly by oars.”
[The Histories of Polybius, Vol.I, Paton ed., 1922, p.57]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 08:41 PM

“II. The Trumpet, and what they call'd the Lituus, were what they us’d to make Signals a-board their Veffels; and fo was alfo the Celeufma, which was a Shout or Noife made by the Mariners when they were doing any thing with united Force; which Cry, according to Ariftophanes, was Rhippapé and Oop; but they had without doubt other Cries befide this. Inftead of the Voice they fometimes alfo made ufe of Stones, according to Xenophon, and ftruck them againft one another; but this Signal was probably on fome particular Occafion only. The Rowers had alfo their Cries, to make them keep time with their Oars, and to pull either harder or fofter, as there was Occafion; which Signal was alfo given by finging, and fometimes by Mufical Inftruments: For fo Afconius Pedianus fays, that to animate the Rowers they us'd Symphonies, and fometimes the Voice alone, and fometimes the Guitar.

III. The manner of exercifing the Sailors and Rowers, as well as Marines, both by Greeks and Romans, but efpecially by the laft, was very remarkable: Nor was it without long Practice that they arriv'd at the Art of doing fuch difficult Work with Eafe and Order. Xenophon takes particular Notice of their Dexterity, and fays that when they were feated in their Ranks they never embarrafs'd one another, but manag'd their Oars with great Order, and kept Stroke with all the Exactnefs imaginable. Thucydides alfo relates with great Accuracy, and in a very particular manner, the Exercife us’d by the Syracufians, when they were to engage the Athenians at Sea, who at that time were thought to excel all the reft of the Greeks in Naval Affairs.

The Romans alfo took a great deal of Care to exercife their Seamen and Marines; the manner of which Exercife Polybius thus defcribes: “So long as they that had the Care of fitting out a Fleet, fays he, were employ'd in Ship-building, others were providing Sea-men and Rowers, and exercis'd them at Land in this manner, that they might be fit for the Service: The Rowers they feated upon the Sea-fhore in the fame Rank and Order, as they were difpos'd in when they were a-board, and plac'd an Officer in the middle of them to give the Word of Command, and inftruct them to plunge and recover their Oars all together, and to leave off rowing in an Inftant whenever the Word was given for that purpofe. For the Commanders had their Celeufmata, which were the Signals when they were to begin to row,and when to leave off; and the Rowers had alfo their Cry in their Turn for the fame purpofe.” As to thofe that gave the Signal to the Rowers by finging, let's hear what Plutarch fays in the Life of Alcibiades: “Callipedes, fays he, an Actor in the Play-houfe, and in his Tragick Drefs and Buskins, and with all the Ornaments us’d by Actors upon the Stage, had the Command of the Rowers, and gave them their Signals in Song.”
[Antiquity Explained and Represented in Sculptures, Vol.III, Montfaucon, 1722, Pt.II, Bk.IV, p.174]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 08:47 PM

Oops my bad. One was a duplicate but two should do for now. What the Romans built was a rowing simulator:
USS Recruit (TDE-1)
USS Marlinspike

The science (one of them) is called cybernetics: the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine.

Kybernetes, Gr. steersman or governor.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Joe Offer
Date: 10 Mar 20 - 09:10 PM

My friend Dick Holdstock has been working on a book since I met him in 1993. I think the book was about the British Merchant Marine at the time, since sailors in the British Navy didn't sing. But the subject of his book has always been elusive.

Now, he titles his project Songs of the Struggle for British Political and Social Reform from 1765 to 1865. Whatever the case, he has introduced me to all sorts of songs (mostly songs of the sea) over the years, and I have treasured every moment of the time I have been able to spend with him.
If you have any questions about maritime work songs, you will find Dick most knowledgeable. His Website says you can contact him at http://www.dickholdstock.com/contact.php

He is one of the most delightful people I know.

-Joe-


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 11:33 AM

Lest we get too focused on rowing & oar songs... from: Spanish sea shanties

"There were Roman/Hiberian maritime corporations & unions (codicarii & helciarii), and maritime work songs (chorus helciariorum) in the year zero.... Monte Testaccio"


Seneca the Younger(c.4 BC–AD65)
“Stridentum et moderator estedorum,
Curvorum, et chorus Helciariorum”
[The Epistles of Lucius Annæus Seneca, Vol.I, Morrel, 1786, p.199]

Marcus Valerius Martialis (c.40–AD101)
“Ne blando rota fit molefta fomno;
Quem nec rumpere nauticum celeufma
Nec clamor valet helciariorum.”
[Martial iv, 64]

So-called for the yokes they wore: helcium

See also:
towpath
hobbler
Steamboat coonjine songs
volga boatmen, stevedores, cotton screwers...ad infinitum


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Jack Campin
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 12:42 PM

There is a (possibly bogus) explanation of the Galician "alala" songs, that they derive from Greek and Phoenician rowing songs.

I wonder if anywhere in the vast unread corpus of Egyptian or Mesopotamian writings we have any boatmen's songs from the Nile or Euphrates 4000 years ago?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: An Buachaill Caol Dubh
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 02:36 PM

Would depend on whether anyone thought it worthwhile noting them down. Since it seems that as recently as c.1910 Chaliapin was surprised to be asked to make a recording of the Song of the Volga Boatmen, which could certainly be described as at least an aquatic work-song, it's unlikely there were any "folk song collectors" in Ancient Egypt &c. Just a wee joke.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 06:17 PM

If these walls could talk...

Hardest to come by is music; the lyrics are not easy; it's mostly, but not all, literary references, heavy on the dictionaries &c.

If there is one (1) word for it all down through the ages it's celeusma, and Martial is the go-to citation – typical: Chanties of Capt. Tho. Forrest

“Ceffatis, pueri, nihilque môftis?
Vatreno, Eridanoque pigriores?
Quorum per vada tarda navigantes,
Lentos figitis ad celeufma remos.
Jam prono Phaëthonte fudat Æthon;
Exarfitque dies, et hora laffos
Interjungit equos meridiana.
At vos tam placidas vagi per undas,
Tuta luditis otium carina:
Non nautas puto vos, fed Argonautas.


Why, my lads, more fluggifh go,
Than Vatrenus, or the Po?
Think ye through their ftill ye fteer,
Drawling-oars to wait the chear?
Phaeton begins to fire,
Ethon lo! in full perfpire;
Now the noon-tide hour proceeds,
To repofe the panting fteeds.
Ye, ferene upon the wave,
Sun, and wind, and water brave.
No mere navigators now,
Ye are Argonauts,* I vow.”

*Argonauts, (in one fenfe) fluggifh mariners.c.95AD – The Epigrams of Martial
[A Voyage to New Guinea, and the Moluccas, from Balambangan, Forrest, 1779, p.305)]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 06:18 PM

“Cessatis, pueri, nihilque nostis?
Vaterno, Rasinaque pigriores,
quorum per vada tarda navigantes
lentos tinguitis ad celeusma remos.
iam prono Phaethonte sudat Aethon
exarsitque dies et hora lassos
interiungit equos meridiana.
at vos tam placidas vagi per undas
tuta luditis otium carina,
non nautas puto vos, sed Argonautas.

Slack are ye, O youths, and no watermen, more sluggish than Vaternus and Rasina, along whose slow shallows ye float, and dip lazy oars in time to the boatswain's call. Already, while Phaethon slopes downwards, Aethon1 sweats, and the day has burst in flame, and the noontide hour unyokes weary steeds. But you, straying along waves so placid, play in idleness on a safe keel. Not tars do I hold you, but tarriers.2

1 One of the horses of the Sun.
2 Argonautas, which may be interpreted “Argonauts” or “lazy sailors”….”
[Martials Epigrams Vol.I, III. LXVII, Kerr, 1925, pp.206-207]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 06:20 PM

“THE LAZY BOATMEN

My lads, you naught of rowing know;
        You're lazy, I'm afraid.
More sluggish than the shallow tide
        Where dips your languid blade.

The sun has climbed to heaven's height,
        His steeds all panting seem
And now the hour of midday rest
        Unyokes the weary team.

You pull along the placid waves;
        But with instraightened back.
The boat is safe; you take your ease;
        Your tars not jack but slack.
[Martialis, The Twelve Books of Epigrams, Pott, Wright, 1925]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 06:22 PM

All the dictionary citations to follow notwithstanding Lazy Boatmen is not a celeusma. It's a novelty tourist complaint about slow service with a pun on argonaut for the punchline. Still works as a reference though.

As one can see from the spread of translations, heaven only knows how it might have rolled off the Latin tongue, or fidula, in AD100. Not as well as On Charinus one suspects:

On Charinus.
Charinus is perfectly well,
and yet he is pale;
Charinus drinks sparingly,
and yet he is pale;
Charinus digests well,
and yet he is pale;
Charinus suns himself,
and yet he is pale;
Charinus dyes his skin,
and yet he is pale;
Charinus indulges in... infamous debauchery,
and yet he is pale.”
[Martial, 77]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,David
Date: 11 Mar 20 - 07:22 PM

Chanteys are a class of deep water sailor work songs. Rowing songs are just that- work songs used for rowing but not chanteys.Farm and field songs and waulking songs are work songs but not chanteys.
Chanteys are used for basically two jobs; heaving & hauling. The exception is the furling or bunting chantey which involves a quick upward lifting thrust of the sail onto the yard.
Hugill explained it years ago in Shanties From the Seven Seas and he publicly lectured on it almost 'til the day he died.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Mar 20 - 04:42 PM

Longus (c.150AD?)

“There was one amongst them, that was the Celeustes or the hortator to ply, and he had certain nautic-odes, or Sea-songs: the rest like a Chorus all together strained their throats to a loud holla, and catcht his voice at certain intervals. While they did thus in the open Sea, the clamor vanisht, as being diffused in the vast ayr. But when they came under any Promontore, or into a flexuous, horned, hollow bay, there as the voice was heard stronger, so the Songs of the Celeusmata, or hortaments to the answering Marriners, fell clearer to the Land. The hollow valley below received into it self, that shrill sound as into an Organ, and by an imitating voice rendered from it self all that was said, all that was done, and every thing distinctly by it self; by it self the clattering of the Oars: by it self the whooping of the Sea-men: and certainly it was a most pleasant hearing. The Sound coming first from the Sea, the Sound from the Land ended so much the later, by how much it was slower to begin. Daphnis therefore taking special notice of the Musick attended wholly to the Sea, and was sweetly affected, endeavouring while the Pinnace glided by like a bird in the ayr, to preserve to himself some of those tones to play afterwards upon his Pipe.”
[Longus, Daphnus & Chloe, Thornley ed, 1657]

Lesbos


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Mar 20 - 06:45 PM

Bit of naval architecture trivia.

Tessarakonteres: "...a very large catamaran galley reportedly built in the Hellenistic period by Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt (221-204BC.)" [wiki]

Note: Four thousand oarsmen, mostly for show. Probably the 'golden age' for rowing chorus size but at 16 million calories/day + beverage just for the propulsion, who can afford it? The Romans never went for the megaboat concept.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Mar 20 - 06:59 PM

It's the year 0200AD. Origins revisted -

Stan Hugill (1906-1992)

“Early shantying was, from what we know, little more than primitive chanting and wild aboriginal cries to encourage the seamen to keep time and work harder, and the fierce elemental yells on a rope known as 'sing-outs' were to be heard even in modern times aboard sailing vessels and occasionally aboard steamers while some sailing ship shellbacks still remain to sing them.
                ***
Many research workers have delved into the past endeavouring to find ancient references to seamen singing at their work, but their efforts have produced little. Undoubtedly early seamen did sing at their work, but I rather fancy that in Greek and Roman galleys, triremes, and whatnot any singing that was done would be at the oars—rowing songs rather than heaving and hauling chants. Miss Lucy E. Broadwood, in the Journal of the Folk Song Society, writes in similar vein. Sir Maurice Bowra, who has kindly waded through many exisitng Greek texts on my behalf, has produced two sailor songs only, both from the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, and of these he writes: 'It is not certain that either of these pieces is a sea-shanty in the strict sense of the word, but the first looks as if it were sung by a group of sailors competing and the second is clearly a sailor's song.'”
[Hugill]

Safe to say Hugill & Longus disagree about the artistic mileage of the oar song.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Mar 20 - 07:04 PM

Pt.II

...although there is little evidence to support this, some historians argue that the maritime musical form can be traced as far back as Ancient Egypt...” [Reidler, see OP]

Wiki
Etymology
The phenomenon of using songs or chants, in some form, to accompany sea labor preceded the emergence of the term "shanty" in the historical record of the mid-19th century.

Emergence
Singing or chanting has been done to accompany labor on seagoing vessels among various cultural groups at various times and in various places. A reference to what seems to be a sailor's hauling chant in The Complaynt of Scotland (1549) is a popularly cited example.

Work chants and "sing-outs"
There is a notable lack of historical references to anything like shanties, as they would come to be known, in the entirety of the 18th century. In the second half of the 18th century, English and French sailors were using simple chants to coordinate a few shipboard tasks that required unanimous effort.”


Where we're at:
Martial et al should suffice for a “maritime musical form” in general being a part of the military, business and artistic communities, including Hellenistic Egypt, since the first century AD, romanticism and all. Sheerin's notes & bibliography alone will do the trick, if you can get at it.

And it's still only 200AD.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Mar 20 - 05:19 AM

See Hugill above: Oxyrhynchus Papyri (c.300AD)

Mudcat search draws a blank. Not much to go on:

Graeco-Egyptian Literary Papyri
Scroll #1383 – Sailor's Song (Late third century.)

“This interesting little poem, a prayer to the Rhodian winds for a calm voyage, apparently complete, is closely parallel to 425*, a brief invitation to sailors to compare the sea and the Nile, written in the second or third century...”

*Poetical Fragments:
Scroll #425 – No title – “...a short extract from some lyric poem copied out as a school exercise.”

Conchy note: Greek chorus has more phrases & tropes for 'enhorting the cohort' than the Eskimos do for 'it's cold outside.' In a later century the poet would be invoking St. Elmo.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Mar 20 - 05:32 AM

Homer, Virgil, Ovid &c get worn thin in the modern references. Save it for later.

wikis:
Vulgate
Septuagint

Strong's Hebrew: 1959. hedad - a shout, shouting, cheer.

Strong's Greek: 2752. keleusma - a word of command, a call, an arousing outcry.

"...from Aeschylus and Herodotus down, an order, command, specifically, a stimulating cry, either that by which animals are roused and urged on by man, as horses by charioteers, hounds by hunters, etc., or that by which a signal is given to men, e. g. to rowers by the master of a ship (Lucian, tyr. or catapl. c.19), to soldiers by a commander (Thucydides 2,92; Proverbs 24:62.)”

2753. keleuó - command, order, direct, bid.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Mar 20 - 05:37 AM

See also: Lyr Req: songs from 'Grapes of Wrath'

Book of Jeremiah (c.600BC)

25:30. Et tu prophetabis ad eos (vel, contra eos) omnia verba hæc, et dices illis, Jehova ab excelso rugiet, et ex habitaculo sanctitatis gase edet vocem suam; rugiendo rugiet super habitaculum suum; celeusma (clamorem potius generaliter) quasi prementium torcular respondebit super cunctos incolas terræ.

25:30. Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them, The Lord shall roar from on high, and utter his voice from his holy habitation; he shall mightily roar upon his habitation; he shall give a shout, as they that tread the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth."


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Mar 20 - 05:43 AM

Alala
Antiphon

Augustine of Hippo (354–430AD)
Sidonius Apollinaris (430–489AD)

“CELEUSMA (?e?e?e??, to call). In antiquity the celeusma was the shout or cry of boatmen, whereby they animated each other in the work of rowing; or, a kind of song, or formula, rehearsed or played by the master or others, to direct the strokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour. The word is used by some early Christian writers in application to the hallelujah, which was sung in ecclesiastical assemblies. Apollinaris says, that the seamen used the word hallelujah as their signal, or celeusma, at their common labour; making the banks echo when they sung hallelujah to Christ. In the church, hallelujah was sung by all the people. St. Augustine says, it was the Christians' sweet celeusma, whereby they invited one another to sing praises to Christ.”
[An Ecclesiastical Dictionary, Explanatory of the History, Antiquities, Heresies, Sects, and Religious Denominations of the Christian Church, Farrar, 1853]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Mar 20 - 06:30 PM

The original, (also above:)

"Stridentum et moderator effedorum
Curuorum hinc chorus helciariorum,
Refponfantibus alleluja ripis,
AdChriftum leuat amnicum celeuma (leg.celeufma)
Sic, fic pfallite nauta vel viator.”
[Apollinarus, I. ep.10]


Jerome (347-420AD)

“It [Allelujah] was sung every day in Spain, except upon fast-days; though it was otherwise in the African Churches.” St. Jerome says it was used in private devotion, “For even the ploughman, at his labour, sung his Allelujahs.” And this was the signal, or call, among the monks' to their ecclesiastical assemblies: for one went about and sung Allelujah, and that was the notice to repair to their solemn meeting. Nay, Sidonius Apollinaris seems to intimate," that the seamen used it as their “signal,” or celeusma, at their common labour, making the banks echo while they sung Allelujah to Christ.”
[Origines Ecclesiasticae: or, The Antiquities of the Christian Church, Vol.IV, Bingham, 1840]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Mar 20 - 06:41 PM

It's 500AD. The capital of the Eastern Empire moved to Constantinople c.330AD. The Western Empire collapsed c.470AD. The 'Dark Ages' are going to start off… literally… dark:

wikis:
Lake Ilopango
Extreme weather events of 535–536
Late Antique Little Ice Age (c.600-700AD)

Imagine rowing or towing Ptolemy IV's Tessarakonteres upstream in the rainy season.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Mar 20 - 01:19 AM

It's a day early but here's one for the Irish:

Antiphonary of Bangor

Columbanus (540-614)?
oooor…
Colman nepos Cracavist (c.800)?

Connections with Bobbio
On the basis of similarity in prosody, he (Colman) has also been identified as the composer of certain poems traditionally assigned to Columban, the saint and founder of Bobbio Abbey. These are Columbanus Fidolio, Ad Hunaldum, Ad Sethum, Praecepta vivendi, and the celeuma.” [wiki, Herren (2000)]

Heads up: The footnotes were written a long while after (1894 & 1914) St. Columbanus... or whomever:

Boating Song.
Heia5 viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
        Arbiter6 effusi late maris ore sereno
        Placatum stravit pelagus posnitque procellam,7
        Edomitique vago sederuut pondere fluctus.
5 Heia, viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
        Annisu8 parili tremat ictibus acta carina.
        Nunc dabit arridens pelago concordia caeli
        Ventorum Inotu praegnanti9 eurrere velo.
Heia, viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
10         Aequora prora secet delphinis aemula saltu
        Atque gemat largum, promat seseque lacertis,
        Pone trahens canum deducat et orbita10 sulcum.
Heia, viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
        Aequore flet corus:11 “vocitemus nos tamen heia!
15         Convulsum remis spumet mare: nos tamen heia!
        Vocibus adsiduis litus resonet: tamen heia!

5 yoho!         6 the lord        7 blast.        8 pull                9 swelling.                10 track.                11north wind.

Heia, viri, etc. A boating song, of uncertain age, found in a Berlin MS. of the eighth century. There is frequent mention in the ancient writers of the nauticus cantus (e.g. Cic. Nat. Deor. ii. 35) of boatmen at the oar; and the practice of singing at work also appears to have been general. Thus Varro, cited by Nonius (56), speaks of the vine-dressers singing at the vintage, and the sarcinatrices in machinis, which one would like to translate, “the seamstresses over their sewing machines.” For the spirited lines given here, see Bährens, Poet. Lat. Min. iii. 167, and Peiper in the Rheinisches Museum, xxxii. 523.

nostrum. Agreeing with the second heia, “our yoho.””
[Roman Life in Latin Prose and Verse, Peck, Arrowsmith, 1894]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Mar 20 - 01:21 AM

More of the same:

Heia Viri

p.172
Provided by the king with a body of sturdy oarsmen, the pilgrims descended the Moselle to Coblenz, where their boats swung into the "wide and winding Rhine". When Columban saw how the rowers toiled at their oars to make head against the rapid current, the refrain of an ancient boat-song ran through his mind:

        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!
        Courage, men! let the echo of our song reply courage!

He thought it would encourage the boatmen to bend more lustily to their work if the strokes of their oars were accompanied by some such strain. So in imitation of the old pagan song, and retaining in part its wording, he composed a Christian sailor's song, the only example of its kind that has come down to us.2 Just as the sailors—such is its theme—encourage one another to oppose stout hearts to wind and wave and shower, so should Christian men with firm faith and trust in God after the example of Christ resist and overcome the assaults of Satan:

                                1.
        En silvis caesa fluctu meat acta carina
        Bicornis Rheni,3 et pelagus perlabitur uncta.4
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

                                2
        Extollunt venti flatus, nocet horridus imber,
        Sed vis apta virum superat sternitque procellam.
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

p.173
                                3.
        Nam caedunt nimbi studio caeditque procella,
        Cuncta domat nisus, labor improbus omnis vincit.5
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

                                4.
        "Durate et vosmet rebus servate secundis,6
        O passi graviora, dabit Deus his quoque finem ".7
        Heia viri! nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!

                                5.
        Sic inimicus agit invisus corda fatigans,
        Ac male temptando quatit intima corde furore.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

                                6.
        State animo fixi hostisque spernite strophas,
        Virtutum vosmet armis defendite rite.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

                                7.
        Firma fides cuncta superat studiumque beatum,
        Hostis et antiquus cedens sua spicula frangit.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

                                8.
        Rex quoque virtutum rerum f ons summa potestas
        Certanti spondet, vincenti praemia donat.
        Vestra, viri, Christum memorans mens personet heia!

Notes
p.172

2 The text of this Carmen Navale was discovered by Dr. W. Meyer, Secretary of the City Library of Munich in a Leyden MS. of the tenth century. He sent it to Ernst Diimmler, who immediately recognized it as an imitation of the ancient Boat-Song discovered by him in a Berlin MS. From the name of the author on the margin the first part is cut off; the second part—banus has led Krusch and Gundlach (N. Archiv., XV, 514) to ascribe it to St. Columbanus, with all the more probability as in the Berlin MS. the ancient boat-song is immediately followed by Columban's Verses to Fidolius.
3 Verg. Aen., 8, 727.
4 Ibid., 91.

p.173
5 Verg. Georg., I, 145.
6 Aen., I, 207.
7 Aen., I, 199.
[The Life and Writings of Saint Columbanus (542-614), Metlake, 1914]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Mar 20 - 01:26 AM

See Gibb on Lowlands and Hugill on origins (above.)

I'll say this for those wild & primitive pagan aboriginals… they clean up nice:

Lumen Vocale "Heia Viri"
Heia Viri – Anúna

“This version of the Roman rowing song was reputedly adapted by the Irish monk St. Columbanus (d. 615). This is one of his best known poems, and was probably inspired by his journey up the Rhine after his expulsion from Gaul.”
[McGlynn sheet music detail]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 09:42 PM

Earlier mention, refrain only:

“Dass dieses Verfahren unmethodisch ist, den Sinn des Gedichtes stört und die Entstehung der Verderbniss nicht erklärt, werde ich an anderm Orte ausführlicher zeigen. Die Collation de Handschriften, besonders die des so musterhaft schön gesschriebenen Bembinus, ist, wie mich eine Nachcollation derselben 1875 überzeugte, in so hohem Grade nachlässig ausgeführt, dass Bährens nicht einmal die Schreibung des Namens des Vergil richtig angibt; im Titel hat der Bembinus uirgilii, nicht wie Bährens behauptet Uergilii! Auch darüber an anderm Orte Näheres. – S.76ff. gibt Bährens drei Inedita. Mit Sicherheit ist davon nur dar Schifferlied aus dem codex Santenianus s. VIII – IX, 16 Hexameter mit dem viermaligen Refrain »heia, viri, nostrum reboans echo sonet heia!« dem Alterthum angehörig; bei den Versen über Baiae und über Lucretia aus einem Manuscript des 15. Jahrhunderts scheint dies sehr zweifelhaft zu sein.”
[Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der classischen Alterumswissenschaft, Bursian, 1877]


Also: #62 in The Hundred Best Poems (Lyrical) in Latin (MacKail ed, 1906.) Same lyrics as Peck-Arrowsmith with no footnotes & credit to: “Incerti Auctoris.”


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 09:46 PM

Norwegian Bokmål & Nynorsk: heiarop
1. shout of "heia!", a cheer.

Swedish: heja
1. (with på) cheer (on someone/something)
                Jag hejar på Manchester United.
                I cheer on Manchester United.
2. to greet by saying "hi!"


"The Scots (originally Irish, but by now Scotch) were at this time inhabiting Ireland, having driven the Irish (Picts) out of Scotland; while the Picts (originally Scots) were now Irish (living in brackets) and vice versa. It is essential to keep these distinctions clearly in mind (and verce visa)."
[1066 and All That]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 09:54 PM

“Cani, inquit, remigibus celeuma per fymphoniacos folebat, & per affam vocem, id eft, ore prolatam, vt in Argo naui per cytharam. poffumus etiam intelligere ad hoc fymphoniacos capi folere, vt in claffe pugnantibus clafficum canant, vnde ipfi tubæ claffis nomen pofitum eft clafficum.”
[Ioannis Antonii Valtrini Romani, Societatis Iesv, de re Militari Veterum Romanorum Libri Septem, 1597]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 10:04 PM

More on Greco-Roman maritime job-titles & infrastructure:

“The person who steered the ship and directed its course was called GUBERNATOR, the pilot, sometimes also MAGISTER, Virg. Æn. v. 176. Sil. iv. 719, or RECTOR, Lucan. Viii. 167. Virg. Æn. iii. 161. 176. He sat at the helm, Cic. Sen. 6.; on the top of the stern, dressed in a particular manner, Plaut. Mil. iv. 4.41. 45., and gave orders about spreading and contracting the sails (expandere vel contrahere vela), plying or checking the oars (incumbere remis vel eos inhibere), &c. Virg, v. 12. x. 218. Cic. Orat, i. 33. Att. xiii. 21.

It was his part to know the signs of the weather, to be acquainted with ports and places, and particularly to observe the winds and the stars, Ovid. Met. iii. 592. Lucan. viii. 172. Virg. Æn. iii. 201. 269, 513. For as the ancients knew not the use of the compass, they were directed in their voyages chiefly by the stars in the night-time, Horat. Od. ii. 16. 3., and in the day-time by coasts and islands which they knew. In the Mediterranean, to which navigation was then chiefly confined, they could not be long out of the sight of land. When overtaken by a storm, the usual method was to drive their ships on shore (in terram agere vel efficere), and when the danger was over, to set them afloat again by the strength of arms and levers. In the ocean they only cruised along the coast.

In some ships there were two pilots, Ælian. ix.40., who had an assistant called PRORETA, Plaut. Rud. iv. 3.75. i. e. Custos et tutela proræ, who watched at the prow, Ovid. Met. iii. 617.

He who had command over the rowers was called HORTATOR and PAUSARIUS (keleustes), Plaut. Merc. iv. 2. 4. Senec. Epist. 56. Ovid. Ibid., or Portisculus, Plaut. Asin. iii. 1. 15. Festus, which was also the name of the staff or mallet with which he excited or retarded them, (celeusmata vel hortamenta dabat), Plaut. Asin. iii. 1, 15. Isid. Orig. xix. 12. He did this also with his voice in a musical tone, that the rowers might keep time in their motions, Serv. ad Virg. Æn. iii. 128. Sil. v. 360. Valer. Flacc. i. 460. Martial. iii. 67. iv. 64. Quinctil. i. 10. 16. Stat. Theb. vi. 800. Ascon. in Cic. Divin. 17. Hence it is also applied to the commanders, Dio. l. 32. Those who hauled or pulled a rope, who raised a weight, or the like, called HELCIARII, used likewise to animate one another with a loud cry, Martial, ibid., hence Nauticus clamor, the cries or shouts of the mariners, Virg. Æn. iii. 128. v. 140. Lucan. ii. 688.
[Roman Antiquities, Adam, 1825]

Funerary Procession in the tomb of Qar (c.2350-2180BC)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 10:08 PM

“This active trade was maintained by well-organized ports on sea and river, with large fleets to serve them, and by a fine road network. From earliest times merchants and craftsmen organized themselves into corporations not unlike medieval guilds, and a the state came more and more to concern itself with commerce these became important features in an increasingly regimented society. In sea-ports like Narbonne and Arles the most imposing corporations were those of the traders by sea, the powerful navicularii; at river ports there were the nautae, the river shippers, barge owners, etc.—generally men of substance and weight in their city. Rather less august are the corporations of utricularii, lightermen, boatmen, etc., and the ratarii who were concerned in the building and use of rafts and may have worked ferries.

The utricularii seem to have been distinguished by their boats or rafts made buoyant by inflated skins, very useful in the navigation of the lagoons of the south. Such boats had been used by Hannibal when he crossed the Rhone. Many inscriptions of utricularii have been found, particularly in Provence, and at Narbonne and up the trubutaries of the Rhone (e.g. at Vaison on the Ouvèze). One intersting case is an identity disc from Cavaillon, with on one side the inscription Colle(gium) utri(clariorum) Cab(ellesnsium) L(uci) Valer(ii) Succes(si), and on the other a little model of an inflated skin.

Heavy traffic went as far as possible by river, and the nautae are extremely important all over Gaul and are known on the Rhone, Saône, Seine, Durance, Ardèche, Ouvèze, Loire, Aar, Moselle, Rhine. The nautae were responible for the portage of goods from one river to another, so owned wagons as well as ships and barges. A shipper from Vannes has left an inscription at Lyons showing that he belonged to the corporation of nautae both of Loire and the Saône.

There were also corporations of hauliers—helciarii whose painful task it was to tow barges upstream, and some attractive sculptures show them at work. Sidonius writes of the boatmen he heard singing as the towed their cargoes through Lyons.”
[Roman-Gaul, Brogan,1953]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Joe Offer
Date: 17 Mar 20 - 10:13 PM

Phil, this is great stuff. Can you get in touch with me?
joe@mudcat.org


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:11 AM

“Rowing oars have been used since the early Neolithic period. Wooden oars, with canoe-shaped pottery, dating from 5000–4500 BC have been discovered in a Hemudu culture site at Yuyao, Zhejiang, in modern China. In 1999, an oar measuring 63.4 cm (2 ft) in length, dating from 4000 BC, was unearthed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.” [Rowing wiki]

Man'yoshu (c.750AD)
"492 Hearing the song of a boatman rowing up the river, on the second day. [xix: 4150]

In my morning bed I listen–
        Afar on Imizu's stream
Sings a boatman,
Plying his morning oars.”

The mansion of Yakamochi, Governor of Etchi, probably stood on the hill near the river of Imizu.


749–51 Referring to various things.[xv: 3627-0]

...As daylight came and the flood-tide reached us,
Cranes called flying to the reedy coast;
To leave the shore with morning calm,
Both our boatmen and rowers,
Laboured with loud cheers ;
And like the grebes we pushed our way
To see the dim, far isle of 'Home.'”
[The Man'yoshu, Yakamochi, Gakujutsu Shinkokai ed., 1965]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:20 AM

The 'Dark' Ages are reflected in the sources, or lack thereof, for now.

c.900 – The Icelanders/Danes/Norwegians colonized south-western Greenland. The West's maritime ecomony stretches from the American mainland to Asia Minor.

c.1000 The beginning of the age of sail, but not the end of the age of the oar & yoke:
Galley
Cog (ship)

Were the maryners glad or wrothe,
He made them seyle and rowe bothe;
That the galley gede so swyfte,
So doth the fowle by the lyfte.

[Richard Coer de Lyon (c.1300AD)]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:29 AM

Salve Regina (c.1100)
Lyr Req: Salve Regina

“It was set down in its current form at the Abbey of Cluny in the 12th century, where it was used as a processional hymn on Marian feasts. The Cistercians chanted the Salve Regina daily from 1218. It was popular at medieval universities as evening song, and according to Fr. Juniper Carol, it came to be part of the ritual for the blessing of a ship. While the anthem figured largely in liturgical and in general popular Catholic devotion, it was especially dear to sailors.” [wiki]

Conchy note: There may be a measure of Adm. Columbus circular referencing re: "dear to sailors" connection. Still checking.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 12:40 AM

Jean de Joinville (1224-1317)
Erasmus (1466-1536)

“Peregrinatorium Religiosum – Manners and Customs on Shipboard – When the Priests and Clerks embarked, the Captain made them mount to the castle (round-top) of the ship, and chaunt psalms in praise of God, that he might be pleased to send them a prosperous voyage. They all with a loud voice sang the beautiful hymn of Veni Creator, from the beginning to the end, and while they were singing, the mariners set their sails in the name of God," [singing "Salve Regina,"] which was the Celeusma of the Middle Age. A Priest having said, that God and his mother would deliver them from all danger if processions were made three times on a Saturday, a procession round the mast was accordingly begun on that day.”
[British monachism, Fosbroke, 1817, p.441]


Conchy note: I'm having trouble getting at the Latin originals but... this is the first specific/exclusive mention of whatever a standard model heaving or hauling shanty might be. Compare/contrast the tone of the verbiage to Hugill on the Compostella 'peregrinatorium religiosum' of the same century (to follow.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 03:50 PM

Hi, Phil
I don't like interrupting your excellent research but I think someone should point out that your subject 'Maritime work song in general' appears to have very tentative links to what you are posting.

The idea behind all of these 'work songs' is that the singing or chanting is an aid to the actual work. 'I acknowledge your 'might be' but all I see here is that the mariners were actually singing for other reasons than assisting their work. Seemingly totally religious reasons in this case.

The use of singing/chanting whilst rowing is well documented in many cultures.

Keep up the good work anyway.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 05:30 PM

Steve: It's the saints & scholars era of the celeusma. From the Greeks until the steam age, the only decrease in rowing song will be the size of the chorus. The two will cross paths at T.W. Higginson's oarsmen. There's a capstan or anchor vesper coming up as well. Longus' bunch chanting an alala to the 'Rhodian winds' isn't really a stretch.

It's certainly praise song. How did you divine your way to “totally” though? A cheer is a cheer is a cheer...

It'll get weirder at Reidler's Wagner (Heia! Yo-jo!) & Pirates of the Caribbean.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 05:34 PM

The "Compostella" stuff is here: Lyr Add: Howe! Hissa! (Shanty)

Also found under Pilgrim's Journey & other titles.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 06:24 PM

Promptorium parvulorum (c.1440)

“CRYE. Clamor, vociferacio.

CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd haue howe (halowe, P.)1 Celeuma, C. F.
1“Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, ut heuylaw romylawe.” ORTUS. See hereafter HALOW, schypmannys crye.

HALOW, schypmannys crye.5 Celeuma, C. F.
5“Celeuma est clamor nauticus, vel cantus, vel heuylaw romylawe (ut heue and howe, rombylow,” edit. 1518.) ORTUS. In the MS. of the Medulla in the Editor’s possession, “heualow, rummylow.’’ See Ritson’s Dissert. on Anc. Songs, p. li.
        “ They rowede hard, and sungge ther too,
        Withheuelow and rumbeloo.” Rich. C. de Lion, 2521.
        “ Your mariners shall synge arowe,
        Hey how and rumbylowe.” Squyre of lowe degree.

It occurs likewise in Skelton’s Bowge of Court; Cocke Lorelle’s bote, &c. This cry appears not to have been exclusively nautical, for it forms the burden of a ballad on the Battle of Bannocksburn, 1314, the alternate stanzas of which, as given in Caxton’s Chron. terminate thus, “ with heuelogh—with rombilogh;’’ or, as in Fabyan, “with heue alowe—with rumbylow.” A cor et à cry, by might and maine,with heaue and hoe.” COTG. Hence seems to be derived the surname of Stephen Rummelowe, Constable of Nottingham Castle, 45 Edw. III. mentioned in Issue Roll of Exch. 1369. Compare CRYE of schypmen, that ys clepyd haue howe.

HOLWYN', or cryyn’ as schypmen (halowen with cry, P.) Celeumo.

HOWTYN’, or cryyn as shepmenn (howten, K.P. howen, J.W.)2 Celeumo, CATH.
2 HOWCYN, MS. See the note on HALOW, schypmannys crye.

Plumbe, of schypmen. Bolidis, vel bolis, C.F.

SCHETE. Lintheamen, lintheum, C. F.

Schypmannys stone. Calamita, C. F.”
[Promptorium parvulorum sive Clericorum, Way, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 07:22 PM

I'm sure you must be aware of the modern survival in the Helston Furry May Carol, 'Hal-an-tow, Jolly Rumbelow'


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Mar 20 - 10:23 PM

To include but not limited to:
RE: What does 'Hal an Tow' mean?
Lyr Req: Hal n Toe? / Hal an Tow
Lyr/Tune Add: Helston Hal an Tow
Lyr Req: alt. verses to Hal An Tow
Hal n Tow on you tube

It's a good'n.

PS: I think we'll catch all of Richard the Lion-Hearted quotes without a dedicated post but there's a lot to process here.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Mar 20 - 07:06 PM

11 October 1492

“All hands were summoned as usual, and after they had said their evening prayers and sung the Salve Regina which all seamen are accustomed to say and sing in their own fashion...”
[Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, Morison, 1942]

Conchy note: Now this one I do have some serious doubts about, both the task, if any, and the sources.
(See above)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Mar 20 - 07:10 PM

Felix Fabri   (1441-1502)

A long one but this is just a fraction of it. Great read for the galley buff. Brackets added for clarity:

“At night they know all the hours by looking at the stars. Beside the mast they have one compass, and another in the uppermost chamber of the castle, and a lamp always burns beside it at night ; nor do they ever turn their eyes away from it when sailing at night, but one always gazes at the compass, and chants a kind of sweet song, which shows that all is going well, and in the same tone he chants to him that holdeth the tiller of the rudder, to which quarter the rudder itself ought to be moved: nor does the steersman dare to move the tiller any whither save by the orders of him who looks after the compass, wherein he sees whether the ship be going straight or crookedly, or sideways. See more about this subject hereafter...

He [the Cometa or Baron ie: boatswain] carries hanging round his neck a silver whistle, with which he gives the signal for what nautical labours are to be performed; and at whatever time of the day or night that whistle is heard, straightway all men run making a whistling noise in answer….

Under these [companii] again there are others who are called mariners, who sing when work is going on, because work at sea is very heavy, and is only carried on by a concert between one who sings out orders and the labourers who sing in response. So these men stand by those who are at work, and sing to them, encourage them, and threaten to spur them on with blows. Great weights are dragged about by their means. They are generally old and respectable men. Lowest of all are the galleyslaves of the first and second class, whom in Latin we call reiniges, or rowers, who sit on the cross-benches to work at the oars. There are a great many of them, and they all are big men; but their labours are only fit for asses, and they are urged to perform them by shouts, blows & curses….

As a rule they are Macedonians, and men from Albania, Achaia, Illyria and Sclavonia; and sometimes there are among them Turks and Saracens, who, however, conceal their religion.

[Passengers]
Some sing songs, or pass their time with lutes, flutes, bagpipes, clavichords, zithers and other musical instruments….

For when the wind is quite fair, and not too strong, there is hardly any motion which those who are in the cabin can feel, because the ship runs along quietly, without faltering, and both the pilgrims below and the galley-slaves on deck sleep quietly, and all is still, save only he who watches the compass and he who holds the handle of the rudder, for these by way of returning thanks for our happy voyage and good luck continually greet the breeze, praise God, the Blessed Virgin and the saints, one answering the other, and are never silent as long as the wind is fair. Anyone on board who hears this chant of theirs would fall asleep, even though otherwise he could not sleep, just as restless crying children are lulled to rest by their mother's crooning song, when if all was still they would cry, and they go to sleep more because the song assures them of their mother's presence than because of its sweetness. Even so the pilgrims are more quiet because by this song they understand that the ship is sailing straight forward, and that all is well, than on account of the song itself; for they call out even as the watchmen of the city of Ulm do when they cry the hours of the night, which cry hinders no one from sleeping, but sends many restless folk to sleep….

It seemed to us that while we sung thus our galley bounded beneath us and sailed faster, ploughing the waves more freely, that the wind filled the sail fuller, and the water, stirred by the wind, sent us along more swiftly.”
[The Book of the Wanderings of Br. Felix Fabri, Vol. I, Stewart trans, 1896]
[Also: Hugill, foreword]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Mar 20 - 07:18 PM

Just to end the century on a lighter note, as they down South La Nave de Los Locos:

Sebastian Brant (1458-1521)

Celeusma
Ne tibi collidant ventus & vnda ratem
Vortice precipitem causis ne te impetus vllus
Siue procella vorax, obruat inde vale.”
[Stultifera Navis, Brant, 1494]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Mar 20 - 07:35 AM

Hark, now hear the sailors cry,
Smell the sea, and feel the sky,
Let your soul & spirit fly,
into the mystic.
[Morrison]

“Wherefore, he told us it was meet and right that we should give thanks to our Redeemer, and sing a hymn of gladness with our loudest voice. So two pilgrims who were priests and monks, and who had good voices, went along the rowing-benches as far as the mast, to the place where sea Mass is wont to be read, and there in union they began to sing with a loud voice the hymn of Ambrose and Augustine,(Te Deum laudamus) which was taken up by all the other clergy present as it is sung in church, each man singing it according to the notation of his own choir at home. I have never heard so sweet and joyous a song, for there were many voices, and their various dissonance made as it were sweet music and harmony; for all alike sang the same words, but the notes were different and yet sweetly harmonized together, and it was a joyous thing to hear so many priests singing the same song together out of the gladness of their hearts. There were many Latin priests, Sclavonians, Italians, Lombards, Gauls, Franks, Germans, Englishmen, Irishmen, Hungarians, Scots, Dacians, Bohemians, and Spaniards, and many there were who spoke the same tongue, but came from different dioceses, and belonged to different religious orders. All these sang the glorious Te Deum, in which even the laity, pilgrims, and the crew of the galley alike joined in, shouting aloud for joy at our good fortune. Our trumpeters blew their trumpets loudly, and sounded their shawms, and one Bogadellus, a jongleur, played upon a drum and sackbut, while others blew flutes and bagpipes. Meanwhile some bowed their faces to the deck and prayed, looking toward the Holy Land; others wept for joy while they sang, and so all sang a new song before the throne of God, and the earth and sea rang with their voices. It seemed to us that while we sung thus our galley bounded beneath us and sailed faster, ploughing the waves more freely, that the wind filled the sail fuller, and the water, stirred by the wind, sent us along more swiftly.”
[Fabri, ibid]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Mar 20 - 07:50 AM

Another 15th century 'heu-heia' straggler:

“Celeuma clamor nautarum fiue carmen fup mortuos vel fuperlacum.

Celeus rex eleufinæ ciuitatis or triptolemi qrufti ci opis instrumenta monftraffe di doctus cerere.

Hehu interiectio dolentis diffyllabum:utrunque oducit.
?eia age uox exhortantis aduerbium diffyllabú primam producit.
Heu & heus interiectiones hiscribendæ funr. (Note: typical five places)

O Littera diuerfas partes orationis efficit.?am interdú onteriectio e doletis:ut o deus I quanta miferia fumus:Interdum admirantis:ut orem admirabilem. Iterdú optantis aduerbiu:ut O mi hi pteriti referantur cælituf anni.exhortantis quoq ut o fugite.

Proceleumaticus pes dictus... fit ad celeuma canentium aptus.
Proccleumaticus conftat ex quattuor breuibus:ut canicula.”
[Papias Vocabvlista, 1496]

Conchy note: The old text & typsetting are a challenge. The transciption errors are all mine.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Mar 20 - 07:16 PM

Getting a bit ahead of the dictionaries but, see the linked thread above:

Mrrzy: Ho, hisse! is French for Pull! or whatever you say in English when hoisting in unison...

At Howe! Hissa!'s spot on the maritime work song timeline that depends a lot on the House of Plantagenet being English or French.

wiki.fr: Oh hisse

L.Heu - The queen of the non-lexical vocable antiphons.

Note: The “H” is silent, ie: Hiberia - Iberian. O! (ho, ha, heo, hoe, hoy, jo, o, oh, yeo, yo, yoa.)

Ergo: O! Isse!
Also:
O! Cazza
O! Halle
O! Issa
O! Saglia
O! Saille
O! Ride
ad celeusma infinitum (and beyond!)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 03:50 AM

1500AD The word “sailor” isn't part of the merchant marine yet.

Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1468)

The standard “Age of Heroic Commerce” is c.1600 to 1900 [Brown], however...

Portuguese India (1505)

“The styles of sea songs were shaped by the shipping routes that formed during the Age of Heroic Commerce, connecting Western Europe, the Americas, the West Indies, and Africa. Since ports of call were social hubs and trading centers for material goods, cultural philosophies, and traditional music, these sites served as meeting grounds for “white men’s songs and shanties and Negro songs and work-songs” where sailors would leave “after being hammered into shanties by the Negroes, and Negro work-songs from ashore would be taken by white sailors and added to their repertoire for halyard and capstan.” [Reidler]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 03:51 AM

“Celeufina, (keleusma) clamor nautarum & aliorum, cum uno
aliquid iubente omnes uniformiter refpondent, quafifibiina uicem iubentes.

Celeuftes, cclcuftæ, mafe. gen. quiremiges hortatur, quafi nauigationis moderator: qui a Plauto Latinè hortator appellatur, quòd ea hortamenta faciat, quæ uerbo Graeco celeufamata dicuntur etiam à Latinis. Budæus.

Hei, oi interiectio ingemifcentis, datiuo iúgitur pronominis. ut Hei mihi, (oi uoi) qualis erat. Cicero: Hei mihi, non pofa. fum hoc fine lachrimis commemorare. Afpiratur natura, quodis animi affectus afpiratione melius declaretur.

Helciarii, qui in nauionera funibus moliutur, uel qui naues de ducunt. fubducui ue ad officia inuicê adhortantes, ut uno co nixu pariter cofpirantes, admoliri uniuerfis uiribus poffint, quodfingulis nequeut, ut fieri interim uidemus. Hæc Bud. in priorib. Annot. in Pandect. Martial.lib.i. Qué nec rumspere nauticum celeuma, Nec clamor valet helciariorum.

O (Too long to translate, It means O.)

Paufarius,… à Seneca uocatur, qui remigibus modos dat, & remigandi officiú quadam quafi paufa moderatur.

Proceleufmaticus,... per ex quatuor fyllabis breuibus conftans. Dictus quafi primitus iuffus, eo quòd in facris Mineruæ prius eius pedis uerfus pronunciari iubebantur….”
[Dictionarivm Latinae Lingvae, 1540]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 03:52 AM

Missed one:

"Celeûfma, celeúfmatis: vel Celeûfma, celeúmatis, n.g. L'ehortemene des mariniers ou autres gés qui fefforcét defaire quelque befongne.

Celeúftés, celeúftæ. m.g.Tel enhorteur, & donneur de courage.
[Dictionariolum Puerorum In Hoc Nudae Tan, 1545]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 04:02 AM

Here's another of the so-called 'proto-shanty.'

wiki: The Complaynt of Scotland (1549)

Threads:
Lyr Add: Sea Shanties from 'The Complaynt' (1549)
Tune Req: Seeking a 1600s Sea Shanty
RE: The origin of Sea Chanteys


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 04:10 AM

Posting the rowing & galley bits here:

Lymphad

“Neither do the ancient vessels of the Northern nations appear to have been of a contemptible size. Before the invention of cannon, the most serviceable and commodious war vessels, especially for piratical expeditions, were a species of long barges, which admitted the application of numerous oars, hence termed "wormfooted" by Lycophron….

...Of this kind are some of the most celebrated ancient vessels; as, the Dragon of Harold Harfagre, and the Long Serpent of Olave Tryggueson, which carried thirty banks of oars, very large and high, with a gilded serpent on the prow. These long vessels were, by the Saxons, denominated Keeles. In the eleventh century, many of these vessels were capable of containing 120 men. Of galleys, two kinds were employed, the one of which was only rowed with oars; the other, frequently denominated the galeasse, combined the effect of both oar and sail. Thus, in the romance of Richard Cœur de Lion, ap. Strutt,

Were the maryners glad or wrothe,
He made them seyle and rowe bothe;
That the galley gede so swyfte,
So doth the fowle by the lyfte.


Some of the latter kind had triple banks of oars raised over each other; and, according to Mat. Paris, were capable of containing 60 men in iron armour, besides the sailors who managed the vessel, and 104 rowers. Gallyettis were a small species of gallies. Balengers were small sailing vessels. Carikes, or Hulkes, were large sailing vessels, the largest of which seem to have been denominated Buccas.

...The vessel described in the Complaynt, is a galeasse. This species was much broader, as well as longer, than the galley, and was navigated both by sails and oars. Besides guns on each side of the deck, interspersed between the banks of oars, they had both artillery and small arms planted on the forecastle and stern.”
[Complaynt of Scotland, Leyden, 1801]


Conchy note: Many parallels to Gargantua and Pantagruel, and a character named Celeusma.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 09:45 AM

bireme, trireme, quadreme? quinquereme, of Ninevah. Any hexaremes?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 12:37 PM

The Leyden Glossary (1801)
“In the sea scene which immediately succeeds, the minuteness of description employed by the author, is entirely averse to every principle of taste in composition, except in a work professedly scientific; But from this very circumstance, it derives an additional value, as it has preserved many sea cheers which have long fallen into desuetude; and many sea terms by which the different parts of a ship, and the different operations and manœuvres of navigation, were formerly denominated. These cheers and terms are chiefly of Norman and Flemish origin, and, with many others of a similar kind, were preserved to a late period, by that singular race of men, the fishers of the eastern coast of Scotland, many of whom have hardly, at this day, abandoned the peculiar habits and phraseology by which they were long distinguished from the pastoral and agricultural inhabitants of the interior parts of the country.

BOULENE, (p. 62.); Fr. boule; the semicircular part of the sail which is presented to the wind.

BOULENA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer, signifying, hale up the bowlings.

CAUPUNA, (p. 62.) a sailor's cheer in heaving the anchor. The form is contracted; but the radical term is probably coup, to overturn.

CUNA, (p. 63.) a sea term; quas. cun a’. To cun a vessel, is, to give directions to the steersman; for which purpose, a person is employed, who chaunts, from time to time, his directions, in a high tone of voice.

HAIL, v. (p. 62.) to haul, or hale. Fr. haller. B. halen.

HEISAU, (p. 63.) a sea cheer, contracted of heeze all; heeze, heis, or heys, to lift. A.S. heahsian. Fr. hisser. B. hissen. Hence the popular word heezy, a rouzing, a scolding, or fight. Thus, in the ballad of Scornfu Nancy—
        My gutcher left a good braid sword,
                Tho' it be auld and rusty;
        Yet ye may take it on my word,
                It is baith stout and trusty;
        And if I can but get it drawn,
                Which will be right uneasy,
        I shall lay baith my lugs in pawn,
                That he shall get a heezy.
                        Ritson's Scotish Songs
, vol. i. p.183.
By a similar analogy, stour, dust, is used metaphorically to signify a fight.

HOLABAR, (p. 63.) a sea cheer, probably a direction to employ the bar of the capstan; quas. holla! Bar!

Hou, (p. 59, 61.) hollow; the how of a ship; the hollow part, or hold; also a sea cheer, halla! (p. 62.)
        With hypocritis, ay slyding as the sand,
        As humloik, how of wit, and vertew thin.
                Adhortatioun prefixed to Lyndsay's Warkis,
                        Edin
. 1592.

PULPEA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer; quas. pull pull a’.

SARABOSSA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer. Ser the bus a'; i.e. serve the stock.

VEYRA, (p. 62.) a sea cheer; quas. veer a’.

VORSA, (p. 63.) a sea cheer; quas. force a'.”
[The Complaynt of Scotland, Leyden, 1548, (1801)]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 12:41 PM

Lyrics as above:

"…Rowing songs are found, from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, in which the word 'rumblelow' frequenty appears—the word also appears in songs sung by water processions which used to be held by the Lord Mayor of London. This has been pointed out by L.G. Carr Laughton and Miss L.A. Smith and others, and D'Israeli in his book Curiosities of Literature writes that, 'our sailors at Newcastle in heaving their anchors (still) have their “heave and ho, rumbelow”', which brings the word down to comparitively recent times. My friend Mr. G. Legman has pointed out that in Skelton's sixteenth-century Bowge at Court there is a song “Heve and how, rombelow, row the bote, Norman, rowe!'

...2. The verses are taken from the Introduction to Capt. W.B.Whalls Sea Songs and Shanties, Brown, Son & Ferguson, Glasgow, 1927”
[Hugill, foreword]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 01:02 PM

In case y'all missed it, you now have yet another maritime work song function that falls outside the scope of the shanty. Command & control (conn.)

“...one always gazes at the compass, and chants a kind of sweet song, which shows that all is going well, and in the same tone he chants to him that holdeth the tiller of the rudder, to which quarter the rudder itself ought to be moved:...” [Fabri]

“CUNA, (p. 63.) a sea term; quas. cun a’. To cun a vessel, is, to give directions to the steersman; for which purpose, a person is employed, who chaunts, from time to time, his directions, in a high tone of voice.” [Leyden]

“SONG. The call of soundings by the leadsman in the channels....” [Smyth]

Lyr Add: Mark Twain (Harry Belafonte)
(^Not to be taken seriously.)

See image of Qar's tomb [links above.]
The proreta on the prow of Qar's funerary barge is holding a long pole, Gr. kontus. If the water is too deep for the pole to reach bottom he measures with the lead line but cannot help steer &c.

Also:
Quant pole
contour line
Conn (nautical)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Mar 20 - 01:06 PM

John Calvin (1509–1564)

“30 Et tu prphetabis ad eos, vel, contra eos, omnia verba hæc:& dices illis. Iehouah ab excelfo rugiet, & ex habitaculo fanctitatis fuæ edet vocem fuam: rugiendo rugiet fuper habitaculum fuum celeufma, clamorem potius generaliter, quafi prementium torcular refpondebit fuper cunctos incolas terræ.

Nomen ???? vertunt Celeuma, vel celeufma:alis magis placet vertere Lugubrem cantionem. fed fæpius occurrit quum agitur de vindemiis. Celeufma autem nauticum eft, quemadmodum fcitur. etymologia quidem eft generalis, & [keleustes] eft hortari:& celeusma nihil eft aliud quàm exhortatio. Scd quoniam vox illa tantùm de nautis reperitur,ideó mihi magis pla cuit ponere clamoris nomen.”
[Johannis Calvini Operum Omnium Theologica, Calvin, 1558]


“25:30. Therefore prophesy thou against them all these words, and say unto them, The Lord shall roar from on high, and utter his voice from his holy habitation; he shall mightily roar upon his habitation; he shall give a shout, as they that tread the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth.

The word ???? eidad, is rendered celeusma, a shout; but some render it a mournful singing; and it often occurs when the vintage is spoken of. Celeusma, as it is well known, is the shout of sailors. Its etymology is indeed general in its meaning; for keleustes is to exhort, to encourage ; and then the noun is exhortation. But as this word is only used as to sailors, I prefer to adopt the word sound, or a loud noise.”
[Commentary on the Prophet Jeremiah, Vol.III, The Tenth Annual Report of the Calvin Society for the year 1852]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Mar 20 - 07:28 AM

These next few should have gone up before the Complaynt.

Remus inftrumentume eft, quo naues aguntur. Verg. Quam deinde Cloanthus Confequitur melior remis. Inde remos inflectere. Cic. Ne...hoc loco expectandum eft, dum de remo inflexo refpondeam. Et Remos detergere,pro collidere,vel confringere, tunc detergere translatu eft.

Remigare eft naue remis propellere. Cic. Non enim fuftinet remos, fed alio modo remigant. Idem. Vtru agitur mauisiftatimúe nos uela faceré aut. quaftiè portu egredientes paululum remigares.

Remex dicitur,qui remis agit, uel qui remigandi minifterio mancipatus eft, uel qui fcalmo hæret,id eft labro nauis,ubi remi adnexi funt. Cic. Arbitrabar fuftineri remos, cum inhiberi effent remiges iußi.

Remigatio eft incitatio nauis à remige propulfæ. Vel eft remigis contentio,atq impetus in nauem propellendam. Cic. Inhibitio remigum motum habet,... uehementiorem quidem remigationis nauem conuertentis ad puppim.

Remigium eft ipfaremoru agitatio, & remigatio,uel eft remorum ordo,aut remigu multitudo.Verg. Remigium fupplet, focios fimul inftruit armis.

Scalmus eft lignum teres,cui naute remos loco quodam alligant ad nauigandum,ut firmius nauigent. Vel eft labru nauis,ubi remi adnexi funt, à quo interfcalmia fpatia iuter remiges dicta funt. Cic. Hæc ego confcendens è Popeiano tribui actua riolis decem fcalmorum.

Celeuftes dicitur, qui remiges hortatur, quafi nauigationis moderator, qui à Plauto latinè hortatur ????llatur quod ea hortamenta faciat, quæ uerbo græco celeufmata dicuntur etiam à latinis. Hoc uero celeufmata quod & ??l?uma dicitur, in nauibus... aff a uoce,ore prolatainterdum, iterdum, interdu tibia canebatur. Inde & Symphoniaci ferui. Cic in Ver Act. I. Celeuma item,ut nautæ faciunt Helciarii, id eft, qui onera funibus moliuntur:uel qui naues deducut, fubducuntúe, ad officia inuicem fefe adhortantes,ut uno connixu pariter confpirantes, admoliri uniuerfis uiribus poffint,quod fingulis nequeunt.

Heus* eft vocatis,uel reuocantis,uel interdum etiam dolentis. Cic. Sed heus tu , quid agis? Terent. Omnium rerum heus uicißitudo eft.”
[Commentarium Latinæ Linguæ, Vol.II, Doleti, 1539]

*Typical too many places for: Heu, eheu, eho, ehodum, hei, hoi, hem, hui, ah, aha, ha &c &c. See original text.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Mar 20 - 06:54 PM

Celetes pe.qp. Grece… exhortor: vocatur equi q ad curfum foli adhíbee.fiuee bigis vel quadrigis etia nauigia ut his teporib fierá folet. Na q bigis quadrígifue ve adhibèbatur ad curfium defultorii dicebat.Ply. Antiqui celetas dicebat I facris. Postea vero & q bigis vel o drigisui ciffent latie dicut defultorii q ex his facile defiliat.

Celer ide eft qd velox.a quo celerrim & celeriffi mus fiut fuperlatiua fcam. Prif. Celero.as.pe.cor.celeriter aliquid facio. A quo Accelero copofitu.

Celeufma clamor nautarii & alioru cum vno aliquid iubente oes vniformiter refpodent quafi fibi inuice iubetes.Hie.apd Hieremia:Celeufma quafi calcatiu cocinetur aduerfus oes habitatores terre.

Helciarius qui fune canabino naue trahit aduer fus vndas:vt eft apud. Mar. De helcio fpar teo dimoto nexu machinæ liberatu applicat pfepio.Eft paulo poft. Helciotande abfolutus refectuique fecure redditus.

Heu interiectio doletis iungit acto pnoís. Ter. Heu me miferu. Na per exprobationé iu git efi no mine.Ver. Heu ftripe inuitas. Et cu nto.Ide. Heu pietas heu prifca fides. Interdu geminat & nulli cafuiferuit.Ver.Heu heu qd volui. Aliqii etia dr Eheu. Afpiratur ficut & hei eade ratione.

Heus adverbiu vocatis. [typical]

O! [typical]

Proceleumaticus pes ex quattuor fyllabis brevibus costans:dictus quafi pmitus iuffus:eo op in facris minetue prius eius pedis verfus pronuciari tubebantur…

Remiges nautici q remos agut & remigadi minifterio mancipati fut:hui ntus fingularis eft remex remigis. Curt.remex militis officia turbabat.

Tranfuador .&Tranfuado.as.pe.cor.per vadu traiicio.Hiero.ad.Helio. Per tranflatione: Sed quo niam fcopulofis locis enauigauit oratio & inter canas fpumeis fluctibus cautes fragilis in altu cimba proceffit.expandenda vela funt ventis & quæftionumicrupulis tranfuadatis letantiu more nautarii epilogi celeuma cantandu eft.”
[Dictionarium ex optimis authoribus, Calepini, 1509]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Mar 20 - 06:56 PM

“Si tu proreta ifti nauies, ego gubernator ero.Vfus eft Vlpíanus hoc verbo ín título de publícanís, grece... &... dícítur. Remíges funt quífcalmís herent,íd eft labro nauís,vbí remí adnexi funt,a quo interfcalmia fpacia inter remiges dicta funt. Celeuftes eft q remiges hortatur,quafi nauigationís moderator quía Plauto latíne hortator appellatur,q, ea hortamenta faciat que verbo greco celeufmata dicutur etiam a latínís.Hôc vero celeufma quod & celeuma dicitur in nauibus claffiariis affa voce interdú, interdi tibia canebatur,ita vt remiges pro modulorum atqu haremonie ratione vel concítarétur vel ínhiberent remos. Pedíanus auctor eft caní remígíbus celeuma per Symphoníacos feruos folítu olím effe.& per affam vocem íd eft ore prolatam,& (vt ín argo nauí) ínterdu per cítharam. Cícero ín Díuínatíone.Ab hac mulíere prefectus Antoníí quídam fymphoníacos feruos abducebat per íníuríam,quíbus fe ín claffe vtí velle dícebat. Quem locum Pedíanus exponens poffumus (ínquít) íntellígere ad hoc fymphoníacos feruos capí folere, vt ínclaffeclaffícum pugnantíbus canant, vnde ípfi tubæ claffs claffícum nomen eft pofítum. Híeremíæ vígefímoquínto cap.Celeuma quafí, calcantíum concínetur aduerfus omnes habítatores terre. Quo verbo allegorí cos Propheta figníficauít hortamentum mutuum populos contrucídantíum, quod per celeuma vuas calcantíum quafí fanguínem exprimentíu intellígítur, quod verbum Lyranus interpres non percepít.Síc ením folent celeuma facere Helcíaríi. & naute & helcíaríí, vd eft quí onera funíbus molvuntur, vel quí naues deducunt,fubducuntve ad offícíaínuícem adhortantes,vt vno conníxu paríter confpírantes,admolírí vníuerfís víríbus poffvnt quod fíngulvs nequeunt,vt fíerí ínterím vídernus.Et capí. vígefímooctauo. Nequaq calcator vuæ folítu celeuma cantabít.Sunt etíam ín nauí quí vectores dicuntur,qui ob hoc tantum ín nauí funt vt vehátur,quo modo hocín título accípíutur.quí fi mílítes funt Epíbaté dícuntur verbo greco,fed latínís vfítato,latíne clafííaríí vocantur. Nauícularíí nauíú funt domíní,qui Græce nauclerí dícuntur, merítorías naues habentes, Patronos appellamus.Tacitus.Atq índe decurfu ín líttora vím ín merca tores aut ín nauícularíos audebant.Vnde nauícularíam facere.Cícero ín Ver rem Actíone vltíma. Quíd eos quí hoc audíebant arbítrabare ínanem te nauem effe íllam in Italíam deducturum nauícularíam te cum Romam veníffes effe facturum? Hí & nauículatores ab eodem dícuntur ín oratíone prolege Manílía.Vegetíus tamen líb.quarto, Nauícularíos eos effe dícít quí ín claffe fingulís nauíbus prefunt,quos Græcí nauarchos vocant.Cæterum verba que dam Græca híc defunt,quæ reftítuv nífv ab eo quí Florentínas Pandectas adíe rít non poffunt.
[Annotatio Nes Gvlielmi Bvdaei Parisiensis, 1521]

Oy.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: RTim
Date: 24 Mar 20 - 10:52 PM

I am increasingly bemused by this thread.....I am not sure whose benefit it is for? It has Nothing to do with Maritime music for the ordinary person, and just seems to be a vehicle to prove that the main correspondent is cleverer than anyone else..!!

Tim Radford (a poor old 'ampshire boy....)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 12:50 AM

Rtim: fyi - One (1) semester of Latin when Pontius was still a co-Proreta.

It's the 2400 year history of the 'proto-chanty' in literary references. I find the terms wild, primitive, aboriginal, &c… unhelpful. If you're here for the shanties, you're early.


“Celeúfma, celeúfmatis: vel Celeûma, celeúmatis.n.gé. Mart. Grido uniforme de marinari à fare qualche lor opera.

Celeúftes, celúftæ, m.g.Bud. Chi conforata i marinai al navicare.
[Dictionariolum Latinum ad Puerorum, 1558]


“Celeúfma, celeúfmatis: vel Celeúma, celeúmatis, neut. gen. Mart. L’enhortement des mariniers ou autres ges qui s’efforcent defaire quel que befongne.

Celeúftes, celeúftæ, m.gen. Bud. Tel enhorteur, & donneur neur de courage.

Contus, conti, m.g. Vne lone gue perche de bois, Vne perche a mariniers, dequoy ils fondent le fond de l’eaue, & de quoy ils conduifent vne naf felle quand il y apeu d'eau.
[Dictionarium Latino gallicum, 1561]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 01:22 AM

Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Battle of Lepanto order of battle

"...in which the Holy League deployed 6 galleasses and 206 galleys, while the Ottoman forces numbered 216 galleys and 56 galliots."

“Over the following decades, the increasing importance of the galleon and the line of battle tactic would displace the galley as the major warship of its era, marking the beginning of the "Age of Sail".” [wikis]


They Shout,
*A fhoutng or crie of fhipmen, Celeufma, Celeufina, vel Celeuma, celeúmatis, II. g. Mart.”
[Triple Dictionary in Englifh Latin & French, 1573]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 01:24 AM

“Celeuftes, Bud. Navigationis moderator, qui remiafigno vocali exhortatur… Hefych. Le comite, enhorteur des rameurs, donneur de courage. The encourager of the rowers: he that calleth on the mariners to hartern them in their bufineffes, and as fome fay, the botefwaine.

Conchyta, Plaut. Qui conchas legit & musculos… Pefcheur de moufles. A muffhell man: a cockleman: an oyfterman: he that gathereth and taketh up fhellfifh.

Contus, … Perche de marinier. A mariners or watermans pole to gage water or fhoove forth a veffell into the deepe.

Helciarius, Mart. qui navim adverfo amne trahit fune ductario. Qui tire vn bateau. An hailer, or he which haleth and draweth a fhip or barge alongft the river by a rope: alfo he that draweth up burthens and packes into the fhip. Helciarius etiam que fune molitur onera in navi…

Paufarius, Senecæ, qui remigibus modos dat, cum Celeufte idem, meo quidem indicio, nifi quòd difcrimen videatur effe in accendedis operis, & facienda paufa, hoc eft, fuperfedendo à remigandi munere…. L'advertiffeur des mariniers qu'il faut repofer. He that commandeth the rowers or mariners to ceafe rowing, (as fome fay) the maifters mate.

Proreta, Plauto, qui in prora a tutelæ navis præfidet… Le gouverneur de la proue. The ruler of the forefhip or Decke.

Symphoniacus, qui in claffe canit bellicum. Trompette és navires de guerre. A trumpeter in fhips of warre.”
[The Nomenclator, Higins, 1585]

;)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 25 Mar 20 - 03:37 PM

Hi Phil, whilst I can just about follow what you're trying to do, I do wish you'd stick to your title, particularly the words 'work' and 'song'.
Either that or change the title.

A poor Yorkshire boy!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:00 AM

Steve: See my - 11 Mar 20 - 06:17 PM about the mix you can expect. This won't ever be a sheet music & lyrics thread. Heia! Viri! &c are exceptional and the celeusma isn't going to change its stripes for me or thee. If the elves have a nicer, friend of the working man title, I'm all for it.


"Chanter, Canere, Cantare, Occinere, Præcinerc, Pfallere. Qui apprend autruy à chanter, Vocis & cantus modulator, Phonafcus, Muficus.

la Chiorme d'une galere ce font touts les Forfaires ou Forfats tirants à la rame Remiges.

Enhorter, Hortari, Adhortari, Cohortari, Exhortari, Vti hortatione, Suadere.
Enhorteur, Suafor, Confuafor, Adhortator, Exhortator.
Enhort ou Enhortement, Hortatio, Adhortatio, Cohortatio, Exhortatio, Suafio.
L'enhortement des mariniers ou autres gens qui s'efforcent defaire quelque befongne, Celeufma celeufmatis.

Efcoute,efcoute Syre, Heus, heus Syre.
Efcoute di moy, Eho dic mihi.
Efcoute, tu fcais bien que,&c. Heus proximus fum egomet mihi.

Hareleurier, Io canes, Euge canes.celeufma venatorium, & hortamentum. B.

Hau, vocandi,ab Heus, inde Haula.

Hé, Vocandi, Heus.

Hola hola, Heus heus.

Hucher, Accerfere, Arceffere, Inclamare, Vocare. Fortè ab Heus, aduerbio vocandi. vt principio dictum fit Heufcher deinde Hufcher, & demum corruptius Hucher. Perionius fic tradit, Si à Vocare dempferis o, fupereft Vcare, inde Vcer, & per ignorantiam originis Hucher.

Ceulx qui tirent vn bateau au col, Helciarii.B.
Osi tirent vn bateau, Helciarii.
Vn collier à cheuaulx, Helcium, helcii.
Bourrelier, qui fait les colliers des cheuaulx, Helciarius. Il vient de Bourre, quòd helciis infarciat tomentum.
Qui tire quelque fardeau auec cordes, Helciarius.

Venez ca, Heus, Eho.

Corner Requefte de fois à autre, Celeufma requifitorium edere.”
[Dictionaire Francoislatin, Thierry, 1564]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:04 AM

Olde German and the one Greek word I can transcribe:

Hofcha / Heus, Ohe.

Hem… Interiectio irafcentuc. Terent…
Hem, Refpondentis. Terent. Heus heus Syre.s.hem quid eft?

auff Mahuen Excire, Excitare, freq. Exciere.
auffMahnen Hortari, Adhortari, Cohortari, Admonere, oder.
verMahnen Hortari, Cohortari, Adhortari, Admonere,Comonere, Commonefacere, Exhortari.
verMahner Hortator, Hortatrix, Exhortator, Monitor, Admonitor. Celeuftes.
verMahnug Hortatio, Hortamen, Hortamentum, Adhortatio, Admonitio, Exhortatio, Cohortatio.

O Oh, Ohe, Heus, Eho: Prò…. Oataricha, mugilumoua, fale condita.

<Proceleufmaticus, ci,... Pes eft ex quatugr breuibus fyllabis conflans.

Rommet/roff; fommet /Helcium.

Treiber der ruderfnecht / Celeuftes.

Ke…Celeufma hortametum quod remigibus datur: Item, iuffum, mandatum.
Ke ...Celeuftes, iuffor, & qui celeufma canit.”
[1587 - Lexicon Trilingue, Roberti]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:07 AM

Ah well. It proofed okay and then changed from omega to plain old "O" in the post. At least it wasn't four question marks. Yo-ho.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 12:11 AM

Some early Spanish to end the century. Note our old Caribbean friend gritar (gritador) or griot to some.

“A hao, ho, Heus.

Coro, de coro, a quier, by hart, the turning of the faile, chorus, Memoriter, veli tranfuerfio.

Grita, a crie, Vociferatio.
Gritar, to crie, Vociferari,

Guay, alas, wo, Hei heu.

O. oz, ether, would God, Velaut, utinam, heus

Sirga llevar barcos a la firga, to draw with a rope, Trahere.
Sirguero, a drawer of a boat with a rope, Tractor.”
[1591 - Bibliothecae Hispanicae pars Altera, Percyvall]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 09:25 AM

Okay Phil are there specific references to celeusma being used aboard a vessel for anything to do with ropes, hoisting sails, working a simple capstan or winch, in other words other than rowing?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 10:32 AM

The heart of the issue, Steve.

The fact that throughout history and across the globe people have sung songs while rowing doesn't diminish the other documented fact that nineteenth-century, anglophone crews began routinely to sing what we may call "dedicated" songs for use while heaving and hauling - apparently for the first time in history.

To insist on conflating these things into one homogeneous, reductive category called "sailors' work songs" seems to me to obscure rather than to enlighten the discussion.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 01:51 PM

Lighter: Some folks like lumpy gravy... others has to leave it be.

Steve, 1800 years... from 'boatman' to 'hobby horse' and counting:
"Those who hauled or pulled a rope, who raised a weight, or the like, called HELCIARII, used likewise to animate one another with a loud cry, Martial, ibid., hence Nauticus clamor, the cries or shouts of the mariners, Virg. Æn. iii. 128. v. 140. Lucan. ii. 688."

"Sirga llevar barcos a la firga, to draw with a rope, Trahere.
Sirguero, a drawer of a boat with a rope, Tractor.” [Percyvall]

"Bourrelier, qui fait les colliers des cheuaulx, Helciarius. Il vient de Bourre, quòd helciis infarciat tomentum." [Thierry]

In Western labour & naval science history these are the 2020 longshoreman & stevedore brotherhoods. The nave & codicarii were merchant marine. We also have fighting the navies not in the standard narrative... (no lyrics &c.)

Job titles & descriptions follow the work. English sailing is relatively new and most everything was an auxilliary until late coal/early fuel oil. Towing and rowing were #1-2 forms of marine propulsion until fairly recently.

It was what it was.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 26 Mar 20 - 02:30 PM

Gibb would be able to put more meat on the bones, but the Stevedores in the Gulf ports were already singing proper chanties i.e., songs with a chorus that were taken into the chanty repertoire) for screwing the cotton, before they came aboard ship if I recall correctly from Gibb's writing.

All of this is well and good and equivalents in other periods are still very interesting but establishing a direct link from any of these to the chanties we know seems to be all supposition.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Jun 20 - 05:51 PM

Vulgar Latin dropped the “s” and swapped the "a" in celeusma. Typical 100+ places on Google Books for the 17th century:

Celeume. The showt, or noyfe that Mariners make when they weigh anker, or do any other office in the ship with joyned ftrength; an encouraging sound.”
[A Dictionaire of the French and English Tongue, Cotgrave, 1611]


Also typ. 200+ places – Seneca, Pliny, Martial et al:

“Idem officium eius qui fymphonianis celeuma canentibus in naui modum dabat:quem plautus aliique prifci, dixerunt portisculum, Seneca, paufarium.”
[Cai Plinii Secundi Epistolae, Casav, 1607]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Jun 20 - 05:57 PM

Ah, alas, O I. Ah, hei, heu, eheu, oh, vae, atat.

The fhout and noise that mariners make doing any thing together, as in hoifting the anker.
I Celeufma, vel celeuma, f.*
He that maketh such a noife.
I Celeuftes, m.

They that keepe fhip onely for their living of meate and drinke.
I Diaturei, m.

To cheare, or encourage.
I Exhortor, hortor.

A horfe collar, whereby he draweth in the cart. I Helcium,n.

A chearing, or encouraging.
2. Hortatio, f.

He that holdeth the ftern,a maifter or governour of fhip.
2. Gubernator, m.

Harke firra. I Heus, eho, ehodum, interiect.

He that draweth a fhip, or barge by a rope, or that draweth packes into a fhip
I Helciarius,m.

The perfon of a cooke, or mariner, or fuch like in a comedie, or rather a meane, or mixt perfon, which is neither fervile, nor altogether free.
I Melon.**

A fhip boy, drudge, or flave in a fhip.
I Mefonuata,f.

They which take fhippe, & inftead of paying their fare, do the duties of Mariners.
I Nautebibatæ, arum, m.

He that giveth a figne when one fhould paufe. The mafter rower. I Paufarius.”
[Riders Dictionarie, 3rd ed, Holyoke, 1612]
[Riders Dictionarie Corrected, Holyoke, 1617]

*See also: shout.

** Note the social status of the 17th century mariner in commedia dell'arte.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Jun 20 - 06:13 PM

Much has been written about William Shakespeare's nautical bent, even a few claims of (proto)shanties, but I've not read anything that would qualify. One word that does come up in the footnotes is the use of via in Merchant of Venice:

Thesaurus Polyglottus, 1613 - Translations for heu, heus in:
?ebrew, Classic & Vulgar Latin, Italian, Spanish, Gallician, Greek, Lusitanian, German, Belgian, English, Slavic, Dalmatian, Polish, Hungarian, Bohemian, Portuguese, Malay & four abbreviations unknown to your scribe.

The “O!” (or a'via, vien, venez, ad nauseum) vocalable seems fairly universal in Western culture.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Jun 20 - 06:25 PM

As above:
“Nau, nau, nau. (Cestuy Celeume, dift Epistemon, n'eft hors de propos & me plait) car le iour eft feriau. Infe, infe, Bon. Os'eferia Epiftemon, ie vous commande tous bien efperer. Ie voy a Caftor à dextre.”
[Pantagruel, Les Oevvres de M. Francois Rabelais, Docteur en Medicine, 1596]

“Vea, vea, vea! huzza! This shout of the seamen is not amiss, and pleases me, for it is holiday. Keep her full thus. Good. Cheer up, my merry mates all, cried out Epistemon; I see already Castor on the right.”
[Pantagruel, Vol. 2, Urquhart, 1892]


VEYRA, a sea cheer; quas. veer a’.
VORSA, a sea cheer; quas. force a'.”
[The Complaynt of Scotland, glossary]


Vayra, veyra are words probably related to the Spanish word 'Vira!'—'Heave' or 'Hoist'—heard from ports of the Mediterranean to those of the Far East.
[Hugill]


The pausarius in action:

Of the Boats and Skiff
A fresh Spell is to releeve the Rowers with another Gang, give the Boat more way for a dram of the bottell, who saies Amends, one and all, Vea, vea, vea, vea, vea, that is, they pull all strongly together.”
[1627, A Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, and The Summer Isles, Vol.II, Smith, 1907 ed.]

Two things:
a) The oarsmen will typically be greater in number than the rowing stations.

b) Big boats don't stop or start on a dime. The gods of interia demand a certain degree of accelerando in the restart tempo. otoh - emergency braking can be lethal to the oarsmen.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jun 20 - 04:01 PM

Betwixt Rider's Dicyionary and Smith's A Seaman's Glossary, were Markham's several volumes on “horfemanfhip.”

By the start of the 17th century, horses had mostly replaced humans in the tow path helcium and appear to have inherited more than a few commands & paces from their predecessors along the way. See also the ayre, gallop, jaunt, quadrille &c &c.

Also typical: Folklore: Padstow's Obby Oss

“And firft for the voice, as it is the found which naturally ail creatures moft feare, fo it is in diforders the needfulleft remedie: and according to the fignification of the word, fo it is either a correction or a helpe: as for example, if it bee roughly or terriblie delivered, as Ha traytor, ha Villain, or fuch like, then t’is a correction for fhrewdneffe or obftinacie: but if you crie Hoe, Ho or Hey, Hey, or Via, Via, Via, then tis a help either in galloping, in turning, or any ayre or fault whatfoever. But if you will cherrifh, then you must in the mildeft manner that may be, crie Holla, holla, or So boy, fo boy and such like.”
[Cavalrice, or The Arte and knowledge belonging to the Horfe-ryder, Markham, 1616]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: sciencegeek
Date: 23 Jun 20 - 06:30 PM

maybe five or so years ago - back when I could get the Documentary Channel, I watched a documentary about the Yellow River and it had a great five minute segment on the Chinese "boatmen" who scrambled along the treacherous river bank towing barges upstream... they had a leader and chorus singing away as the long line of men hauled the boat along.   dangerous work


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Jul 20 - 03:46 AM

There are a few references to Chinese boatmen to come. I'm sure there would be many, many more if I were using a different keyboard and browser language.

The Chinese Qi is a subset of the Japanese kiai 'spelling.' Both have a meaning not too different from the Westerner's kele; a kind of energy focusing shout or cheer, albeit the Eastern variety is a good deal more mystical in nature. See also Cotgrave below for halé & halle.

Here is the rest of Cotgrave I somehow managed to omit from the above. The definition of chiourme covers rowing, the capstan and running rigging all-in-one:

Chant: m. A Song, Ayre, Carol, Ballade; Lay, Roundelay; alfo, a Poem, or Difcourfe, in Ryme.

Chanté: m. ée: f. Sung, chaunted; warbled; crowed; refounded; commended, or defcribed in Meeter, or in verfe.

Chiourme: f. A banke of Oares; or, the whole companie of slaves, Rowers (in a Galley;) alfo, the noife they make in rowing; alfo, (in a fhip) the Saylers; and, the noife they make in weighing of ankers, and hoisting up of faileyards.

Halé: m. ée: f. Sunne-burnt; as Haflé; alfo, veered, as a cable; alfo, hounded, or fet, as a dog at.

Halle f. (An interjection, of cheering, or fetting on of a dog;) ha boy, now now.

. An Interiection of calling. Vien ça hé. come hither hoe.

Hei. as Hé.

Hory ho, hay & ho (The ordinarie harsh accent, or voice, of carters.)

Huchant. Calling for; whooping, or hollowing unto. Huchant en paume. Whifiling for, or calling unto by whifiling in the fift.
Huchet: m. A Hutchet, Bugle, or fmall Horne; fuch as one as Poft boyes ufe.
Hué: m. ée: f. Hooted, or fhowted after; exclamed, or cryed out upon, followed with hue and cry.
Huée : f. A fhowting, or hooting; an acclamation, outcry, or hue and cry, of many voyces together.
Huerie: f. A hooting, fhowting, acclamation, crying, outcry.

A fhoute. Huée.
To fhoute. Huer, Huyer.

Shouted Huyé, Hué,

A fhouting. Huée, hopperie, hu, huerie.
Shouting, Huant, huetant.

Vaudeville: f. A countrey ballade, or fong; a Roundelay, or Virelay; fo tearmed of Vaudevire, a Norman towne wherin Olivier Baffel*, the firft inueter of them, liued alfo, a vulgar prouerbe; a countrey or common faying.
[A Dictionaire of the French and English Tongue, Cotgrave, 1611]

* Olivier Basselin (c.1400 – c.1450)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Jul 20 - 03:50 AM

Written sometime earlier. English translation c.1637 -

“BRITANS OF ARMORICA.

DVring this most wofull, desperate, and lamentable tempestuous season, some poore remaines of Britaines, being found in the mountaines, were killed up by whole heapes; others, pined with famine, came and yielded themselves unto the enemies, upon composition to serve them as Bondslaves for ever, so they might not bee killed out of hand, which was reputed a most high favour, and especiall grace. There were also that went over sea into strange lands singing under their spread sailes with a howling and wailing note, in stead of the Mariners* Celeusma, after this manner: Thou hast given us [O Lord] as sheepe to be devoured, and scattering us among the heathen. Others againe remained still in their owne countrey, albe|it in fearefull estate, betaking themselves (but yet continually suspecting the worst) to high [ E] steepe hilles and mountaines intrenched, to woods, and thicke growne forrests, yea, to the rockes of the sea.

* A song at their first setting out.”
[Britain, or A chorographicall description of the most flourishing kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the ilands adjoyning, out of the depth of antiquitie beautified vvith mappes of the severall shires of England: vvritten first in Latine by William Camden Clarenceux K. of A. Translated newly into English by Phile´mon Holland Doctour in Physick: finally, revised, amended, and enlarged with sundry additions by the said author., Camden, 1637]
At the Univ. of Michigan


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 06 Jul 20 - 06:21 AM

It would be good to have all this interesting info in an easily digested book, Phil. have you got any plans?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Jan 21 - 08:27 PM

If you're just wandering in from Tik-Tok or elsewhere:

Don't get too hung up on the labels. Excluding or including song from a genre label doesn't change how the waterfront or deck of a ship sounded in earlier times.

Maritime work song in general is not intended to be “shanty-centric.” It includes all the rhythmic sounds that sailors made when going about any of their tasks in unison… shanties inclusive. Also, their sources in, and influences on, popular culture from pre-history to the present day.

Ho-jo-to-ho is a so-called 'proto-shanty' or 'sing out' and what the fat lady sings. Strange but true, both are a cadence.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Jan 21 - 08:30 PM

Referencing: Piratical Debauchery, Homesick Sailors and Nautical Rhythms, Reidler, 2017.

Purcell's Dido & Aeneas goes somewhere about here. Mentioned because it's the first of Reidler's three nautical opera.

Short version in two parts:
I. The He's a Pirate (Badelt & Zimmer) theme from the 2003 Disney film Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl is taken from Purcell's Sailor's Chorus.

II. The common melody constitutes a kind of pirate riff* recognizable to the average consumer of the culture and evoking a “pirate” mindset therein.

I'm not feeling it, but that's just me; and a reeeeal stretch for the “nautical rhythms” cited in the intro & glossary.

*eg: Snake charmers = Girls in France; Sailors = College Hornpipe; Native Americans = Silverheels (aka: Tomahawk Chop) – and the Oriental riff for all things Asian &c &c &c.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Jan 21 - 09:10 PM

And per my Tik-Tok thread rant, Aeneas' crew didn't shanty. It's keleusma.

Harteurier, Io cànes, Euge canes, celeufma venatorium & horramentum. B.”
[Le Grand Dictionnaire Francois Latin, Nicol, 1643]

Celóma, the mariners-crye when they tug at a cable, weigh anker, or hoife-failes.
Celomare, to cry all together as mariners do, when they weigh anker or hoife-failes.
[Vocabulario Italiano & Inglese, Torriano, 1659]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 Apr 21 - 06:17 PM

Rewinding three centuries - from the TikTok thread:

"Subject: RE: Sea Chanteys All Over The News [TikTok]
From: Catamariner
Date: 16 Jan 21 - 09:52 PM

...in the Rihla of Ibn Battuta, the following description of a rather ceremonial and clearly not very Islamic drinking bout at the court of Ozbeg Khan (a Turkish sultan): "During all this [ceremony], they sing [songs resembling the] chants sung by oarsmen." [HAR Gibb, the Travels of Ibn Battuta 1325 - 1354, Vol 2, p 480].)..."


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jun 21 - 05:00 AM

Still backing up, but only 16th century. Yet another* variation on the “griot.”

Os Lusíadas (1572)
1880 English translation by Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890)

As ancoras tenaces väo levando,
Com a nautica grita coftumada,
Da proa as vellas fos ao vento dando,
Inclinian per a barra abalifada:
[II-18]

“Weighed are the biting anchors, rising slow,
while 'customed capstan-songs and shouts resound;
only the foresails to the gale they throw
as for the buoyed bar the Ships are bound:”


Alevantafe nifto o movimento
Dos marinheiros, de hua & de outra banda
Levam gritando as ancoras acima
Mostrando a ruda força que fe eftima.
[II-65]

“Meanwhile the sailors to set sail prepare;
all work and either watch its anchor tends;
the weighty irons with willing shouts are weighed,
and sin'ewy strength, the seaman's pride, displayed.”

*As mentioned elsewhere, the word covers a lot of musical ground. The Grito de Dolores is just one of several Grito Mexicano in Mariachi, Norteño, Banda &c.

And, of course, a West Indian plantation griot (gritador) was a kind of 'proto' calypsonian according to some authors.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 22 Jun 21 - 09:44 AM

Your own translation might be more helpful, Phil, or at least a literal translation. That translation looks rather fanciful to me but I don't savvy the lingo. Capstans in the 16th century?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jun 21 - 10:44 AM

Steve: "Your own translation might be more helpful..."

I don't speak twenty-eleven languages like Burton so, I doubt it. Look at how different the Latin-English academic translations of Polybius are (above,) each one by the 'expert' linguist neither you nor I are.

Sooo, fwiw, I would agree about the pirate opera but then, it's 16th and 19th century poetry and not naval science. I wouldn't expect dry nonfiction either.

Fwiw: the original looks more like "weighing anchor(s) with the customary grita." No mention of specific ergata.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Dec 21 - 10:02 PM

Westernized more than a bit. I have no luck posting Greek or Hebrew online. See links below for the mother alphabets.

Keleusma, Hortatio, I T.heff. 4.16. Celeusma, ut Latini quoque loquuntur, Stephan. In Thef. This word fignifieth fuch kinds of fhouts or watch-words as men that row, or vintage-men, do use, to encourage or call upon one another, Deodate in locum. It fignifieth properly that encouragement which i Mariners ufe to one another, when they altogether, with one fhout, put forth their oares, and row together.”
[Critica Sacra Or Observations on All the Hebrew Radices, 1650]
Strong's Hebrew 1959   – hedad – a shout, shouting, cheer.
Strong's Greek 2752 – keleusma – a shout of command.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Dec 21 - 10:04 PM

Celeume. The fhout, or noyfe that mariners make when they weigh anchor, or doe any other office in the fhip with joined ftrength; an incouraging found.
[A Dictionarie of the French and English, Cotgrave, 1660]



“Celeufma,tis. The mark-word given to keep time with all the benches of rowers in a gally.
Celeuftes,is, or æ. The boatfwain that gives the word.
Proceleufmaticus, a, um. Likethe cry of the Boatfwain. Pes Proceleufmaticus, A foot of four fhort fyllables.”
[Dictionarium Minus, Wase, 1662]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Dec 21 - 10:46 PM

Confortare: incitare à qualche cofa. Hortor, âris; uel hortâre, hortâtus fum, hortári. Verbo deponente. Terentio.

Confortatore dei marinari à navigare. Hic celéuftes, celúftæ. Bud.

Grido uniforme di marinari à far qualche loro opera. Hoc celeúfma, huius celeúfmatis; &hoc celeûma, huius celeúmatis. Mart.”
[Prontuario di Voci Volgari et Latine Copiosissimo, 1665]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Dec 21 - 06:22 AM

Celeufma vel Celeuma, atis; n. Gr. Mart, a ><, jubeo,... quod a Euft. The fhout or noife which Mariners make when they do any thing together with joyned ftrength, or when the Mafter doth call and encourage them.

Celeuftes, æ; Bud. Gr. Such an exhorter or encourager, fuch a maker of noife: he that doth moderate the faying, and calleth on the Mariners, to hearten them in their bufineff. Portifculus, Enn. hortator, Nonn.

A drudge in a fhip. Mefonauta.

A galley-flave. Mefonauta, neut.

A Mariner. Navigator, nauta, remex, navita, naviculator, navicularios.
that ruleth the foredeck. Proreta, m,
They which take fhip, and inftead of paying their fare, do the duties of mariners. Nautepibatæ, arum; m.
Belonging to mariners, Nauticus, adj.

Paufarius, ii; m. GelI… Sic a Sen. vocatur, qui remigibus modos dat, & remgandi officium quafi quâdam paufâ moderatur: portifculus. One that giveth a fign when a paufe or reft fhould be made in the doing of any thing; he that commandeth the rowers or mariners to ceafe rowing, or (as fome fay) the Mafters mate.

Farus, ri; Ifid. vel Pharus… Eft turris maxima, quam Græci & Latini in commune ex ipsius rei ufu pharum appellaverunt, ex-Graec... quod flammarum indicio longè videatur a navigantibus. An high tower on the Sea coaft, wherein was light to fhew the ready entrance for mariners to the haven.

(Ship)
He that draweth a fhip or barge by a rope, or that drawith packs into a flip, Helciarius, m
He that ruleth the fore-deck of a fhip. Proreta, m.”
[A Copious Dictionary in Three Parts, 2nd ed., Gouldman, 1669]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Dec 21 - 06:24 AM

“They that will appear in the Quality of Diffenters, muft ftem the violent Current of prevailing Example, inveterate Cuftom, whilft others have nothing to do but skull away with the Tide, when it comes in, with the Celeufma of Queen-hithe, Weftward hoe, Lambeth hoe!...”
[Melius Inquirendum, Alsop, 1679]


Celeume, the fhout of noife that Mariners make when they weigh anchor, or do any Office in the fhip with joyned ftrength.”
[A Dictionary of Barbarous French, Miege, 1679]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Dec 21 - 06:25 AM

“O! HISSE. O! Halle; ô! Saille ô! Ride. Tous ces termes font criez par un homme dans de certains travaux; mais en différens tems, foit qu’il faille hiffer quelque chofe, la haller , la pouffer, ou la rider. Ce cry fe fait pour faire réünir toutes les forces des travailleurs afin d’agir de concert; car lorfque celui qui donne la voix prononce un O, avec une voix traînante, chacun fe prépare pour l’effort qu’il faudra faire, & en achevant le mot, comme, Hiffe, tous travaillent à la fois.

SAILLE. Eft un mot du commun des matelots, qui eft prononcé par plufieurs joins enfemble, enélevant, ou pouffant quelque chofe.

UN, DEUX, TROIS. C’eft jufqu'à ce nombre que compte celuy qui donne la VOIX pour faire haler la Bouline.

VOIX. à la voix. C'est être à la portée de la voix.

A la VOIX. Se dit encore commé un commandement que l'on fait a
quelques gens de l’Equipage, pour les faire travailler à la fois, lors qu’on donne la Voix.

Donner la VOIX. Cela fe dit d’un homme qui avertit par un cri articule, du travail que plufieurs hommes doivent faire. Voiez ô hiffe &c.”
[Dictionaire des Terms Propres de Marine, Desroches, 1687]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Dec 21 - 02:36 PM

Back to before the beginning, two thousand four hundred years… and counting. Anybody want to try posting the original Greek text for Heave ho!...?

PEACE” c.421BC (Aristophanes)

HERMES
(to the Chorus) Now at my signal, everyone, start hauling, and pull on those ropes!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!

CHORUS
Heave!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!

CHORUS
Heave again!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!
Heave ho!

TRYGAEUS
Hey, these men aren’t pulling equally! Pitch in, there! How puffed up can you get? You’ll be sorry for this, you Boeotians!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!

CHORUS
Heave!

CHORUS LEADER
(to Hermes and Trygaeus) Come on you two, help us pull!

TRYGAEUS
(taking hold of a rope) Aren’t I pulling then, and hanging on, and falling to, and doing my best?

CHORUS LEADER
Then why is our work going nowhere?…

CHORUS LEADER
We’re getting nowhere, men. Come on, we’ve got to take hold and all pull together. Heave ho!

CHORUS
Heave!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!

CHORUS
Yes, heave! [sic]

CHORUS LEADER
We’re moving it only a little.

TRYGAEUS
Well, isn’t it awfully absurd that some of you are going all out, while others are pulling the opposite way? You’re looking to get whacked, you Argives!

CHORUS LEADER
Heave ho!

CHORUS
Heave!

CHORUS LEADER
We’ve got some malcontents here.

TRYGAEUS
Those of you who itch for peace, at least you’re hauling bravely.

CHORUS LEADER
There still are some who hinder us.

HERMES
Men of Megara, why don’t you go to hell? The goddess remembers you with hatred, for you were the first to daub her with your garlic. And to the Athenians I say: stop hanging on to where you’re now pulling from; you’re accomplishing nothing but litigation. If you really want to pull this goddess free, retreat a little seaward.

TRYGAEUS
Come on, men, let us farmers take hold, all by ourselves.

HERMES
Look, men, you’ve got the job moving along much better.

TRYGAEUS
He says the job’s moving along! Now everyone put your heart into it!

HERMES
Look, the farmers are pulling it off, and nobody else.

CHORUS LEADER
Come on now, come on, everyone!

HERMES
Yes, we’re nearly there now!

CHORUS LEADER
Now let’s not slacken, let’s instead
exert ourselves more manfully still!

HERMES
There she comes!

The eccyclema gradually emerges through the central door, bearing the statue of Peace and her attendants, Cornucopia and Holiday.

CHORUS
Heave now, heave, all!
Heave, heave, heave now!
Heave, heave, heave all!...”
[Henderson, ed., Aristophanes II, Clouds, Wasps & Peace, (Cambridge: Harvard U. Press, 1998)]

Note: Original Greek text on alternate pages omitted here.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Dec 21 - 02:43 PM

Back to the 17th century and the 'ol Greek ululatu is still soldiering on in fine proceleusmatic style:

“XXV. Itaque nonnulli miferarum reliquiarum in montibus deprehenfi acervatim jugulabantur: alii fame confecti accedentes, manus hoftibus dabant in ævum fervituri, fi tamen non continuo trucidarentur, quod altiffimæ gratiæ ftabat in' loco: alii tranfmarinas petebant regiones, cum ululatu magno ceu celeufmatis vice, hoc modo fub velorum finibus cantantes: Dedifti nos tanquam oves efcarum, & in gentibus difperfifli nos Deus: alii à montanis collibus, minacibus praeruptis vallati, & denfiffimis faltibus, marinifque rupibus vitam, fufpecta. femper mente, credentes, in patria licet trepidi perftabant....

Navigantibus quoque eis de Gallia Britannicum mare cum beatæ memoriæ Wilfrido Epifcopo, canentibus Clericis & pfallentibus laudem Dei pro celeumate in choro, in medio mari validiffima tempeftas exorta eft, & venti contrarii, ficut difcipulis Jefu in mare Galilææ, erant.”
[Historiae Britannicae Saxonicae Anglo Danicae, Gale, 1691]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Dec 21 - 02:48 PM

Celeuma. ???e??µa
Cantus & clamor quo pariter laborantes fe excitant & animant ad ftrenuè agendum, v.g. Nautæ ad remigandum, milites ad pugnandum, Vinitores ad torcular premendum, vocatur Celeuma, Græcè ???e??µa, Hebraicè… Hedad. Vide Jerem. 25.v.30. cap.48.v.33. Cap 5E. v.14”
[Dictionarium in qvo Voces Omnes Difficiloris Significantionis, Bukentop, 1669]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Dec 21 - 02:50 PM

Like I said, no luck at all with the Greek. And it all looks so nice in preview... harrumpff! :/


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jan 22 - 10:05 PM

More R.N. thread drift.
Steve: I seem to be missing something here. Has the word 'chanty' however you spell it ever been used anywhere in a historical context to describe anything other than work SONG aboard merchant ships? Nothing personal about it as far as I can see. Your persistent desire to include other things under the term is commendable, but we would like to see some evidence.

Advent & Development thread: Please note that the focus here is not on the ancient origins of work-songs, shipboard or otherwise. It is not on the origins or earliest references to singing/chanting to coordinate labour at sea. [Gibb]

Whereas, please note that the focus here is on the origins of work-songs, shipboard or otherwise. It is on the references to singing/chanting to coordinate labour at sea;… to which I will add... ancient, early or late but in some semblance of chronological order, hopefully.

Where any one citation fits homework assignment, songbook or record shelf is up to the individual consumer.

For the record Steve. I do not know what a “chantey” is until I've learned: who is using the label; on what product and in what marketplace. Change any one of the three and the definition will change accordingly. I would think you have your genre/sub-genre backwards. Chantey is filed under celeusma not the other way around, but that's just me.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jan 22 - 10:09 PM

Only slightly out of sequence. Still in the 17th century, still not in English:

“In hanc explicationem huius metaphoræ aptiffime quadrat obferuatio Maldonati ad illa verba Ierem.48.num.33. Nequaquam calcator vua folitum celeuma cantabit. Hebraica enim ita reddas; non calcabit celeumate, celeuma non celeuma. Eft enim celeuma cantus, quo qui fimul laborant, vt remiges, aut qui calcant in torculari, fe ad contendendas vires, cohortari folent. Celeuma igitur non erit celeuma calcantium vuas, & præ alacritate animi, cantu fe incitantium ad laborem; fed erit celeuma hoftium cohortantium fe ad cædem. Ierem.25.num.30. Celeuma quafi calcantium concinetur aduerfus omnes habitatores terra. Et ?.51.num.14. Iurauit Dominus exercituum per animam fuam, quoniam replebo te hominibus, quafi brucho, & fuper te celeuma cantabitur. Loquitur enim de Babylone hominibus innumeris, perinde ac racemis, confertiffima: de Medis autem, & Perfis, tanquam de vindemiatoribus, fe ad calcandum torcular , fanguinémque effundendum, celeumate cohortantibus.”

Index:
“Cap.25.n.15. Sume calicem vini furoris huius de manu mea, & propinabis de illo cuncetis Gentibus. Deut.3n.309
n.i15. Bibent, & turbabuntur, & infanient. Nahum 2.n.49
n.30. Celeuma quafi calcantium concinetur aduerfus omnes habitatores terræ. Deut.32.n.311
num.39. Propterea ecce ego tollam vos portans. Nahum I.n.5

Cap.f51.n.7. Calix aureus Babylon in manu Domini inebrians omnein
terram. Nahum 2.n.49.50.51
n.14. Super te celeuma cantabitur. Deut.32.n.311
[Commentarii Exegetici Litterale, Deuteronom. Cap. XXXII, 1623, p.84]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jan 22 - 10:12 PM

Latin-to-French:
Enhort, ou Enhortemet Hortatio, Adhortatio, Cohortatio, Exhortatio, Suafio.
Enhortemet des mariniers ou autres ges que s'efforcet de faire quelque befonge. Celeuma, celeufmatis.
Celeufme, parolle Grecque, fignifiant le cry & acclamation des mariniers arriuant à port. Rentrans au per faluer vos perfections par ce celeufme; Virg, Chiff.”
[Le Grand Dictionaire François Latin, Augment, A-E, 1625]


“Celeusma dicitur clamor nauticus.
Celeuftes, qui remiges hortatur, quafi nauigationis moderator. Et Celeufma nauticus clamor dicitur. Budæus.
Helciarii, qui matores naus funih, trahunt canabinis aduerfus undas.”
[Officina Sive Theatrum Hisor et poeticum, 1626]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jan 22 - 10:14 PM

“I en efto no quiero fer creido fino lo rubrican i califican muchos fantos padres con autoridades de fus efcritos.

        sed quoniam è fcopulofis locis enaviganit oratio, & intersantas fpumeis fluctibus cantes fragilis in altum cimba proceffit, ex pandenda vela funt ventis, & quafitionum fcopulis transvadatis, & latantium more naviarum, epilogi celeuma cantandum eft.

Ya que mi oracion de los peligrofos efcollos fe ha efcapado, i por entre rocas candidas con las olas efpumofas fe ha metido en el golfo mi chalupa, quiero efplayar las ve las à los vientos, i pues è ya vadeado las peñas de las afperas queftiones, aguifa de retoçofos marineros, cantaré de mi epilogo el deffeado celeuma. Efto es de S. Geronimo à fu buen amigo S. Heliodoro.”
[Cartas Philologicas, Cascalas, 1634]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 23 Jan 22 - 10:08 AM

Happy to see chanty filed under a wider genre, as long as it retains its own autonomy for what we've already described. Basically I'm not interested in what modern day practitioners and commercial interests use it for. Its usage aboard merchant ships under certain conditions c1830 to c1920s is well documented and that's all I'm primarily interested in.
Having said that I'm glad someone like you is looking at a wider historical picture, and what the equivalents were in RN terms. Anyone vaguely interested in chanties will have a good idea of what they were and what they were used for.

I do advise you include explanations/translations with your posts as they mean very little to the majority of people on here.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jan 22 - 04:37 PM

Where are the threads for these terms and ideas? Before I created this new one I did a word search on Mudcat, Shanty wiki &c for Western Culture's historical salty antiphons and came up empty.

If I find translations/explanations/reviews in the document record, you can read them here & if anything Lucayan Archipelago or environs shows up, I'm your buttercup.

But I can't copypasta Greek. I have too much respect for Os Lusíadas &c to subject them to my fat-fingered, nonnative transliterations & “… it seems likely thats...”


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jan 22 - 04:39 PM

...Veftit faxea fylva per columnas.
Hinc agger fonat, hinc Arar refultat.
Hinc fefe pedes, atque eques reflectit,
Stridentum & moderator effedorum:
Curvorum hinc chorus helciariorum,
*Refponfantibus akkekuia ripis,
Ad Chriftum levat amnicum celeuma.
Sic fic pfallite nauta, vel, viator:
Namque ifte eft locus omnibus petendus,
Omnes quo via duciy ad falutem.


*Refponfantibus alleluya ripis] Dum nautæ, inquit, Alleluya decantant, id ipfum Echo in ripa refonat. Et cantici ergo lemma expreffit, voce ufus eft propria. Et cantici ergo lemma proprie celeuma carmen nauticum. Quod proinde qui canunt nautæ, ?e????te? Longo dicuntur lib. 3…. ubi & celeufma elegantiffme defcribit, & Echo in proxima valle, ut Sidonius in ripis, celeufmati, refponfantem. Sed celeumatis Sidoniani argumentum, Alleluya & Dei laudes erant. Quo more veters Chriftiani modulos fuos & cantica in Chrifti, San?torumque honorem fæpe vertebant. Ac ne a nautis difcedamus, Paulinus de reditu Nicetæ:
        Navitæ lati solitum celeufma
        Concinent verfis modulus in hymnos,
        Et pies ducent comites in aquor
                Vocibus auras
.
[Jacobi Sirmondi Opera Varia, 1696]

Note: More Martial recycled into popular music, such as it exists c.1700AD.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jan 22 - 04:40 PM

“PAUSARIUS, qui remigibus modos dabat, & remigandi officium quadam quafi pausâ moderabatur, olim dictus eft: Senecæ Keleuste. Nam in navi fuiffe Symphoniacos, qui celeufma remigibus canerent, & per affam vocem, i.e. ore, prolatam, illorum laborem demulcerent, ex Afconio ad divin. Cicer. docet Pignorius Comm. de Servis. In Argo fanè navi, teftatur Hyginus, Orphea per citharam celeufma nioderatum effe, quod & tetigit Valerius Flaccus Argonauticon l. m. v. 470.
        Nec verò Othryfius t?anftris impenditur Orpheus,
        Aut pontum remo fubigit, fed carmime tonfus
        Ire docet, fummo paffim ne gurgite pugnent.

Vide quoque eundem eod l. v. 184. Martialem l. 4. Epigram. 64. Rutilium Numatianum l. 1. &c. Nauticum hoc carmen, nauticus cantus Ciceroni eft, Nauticus clamor Virgilio Æn.l. 3. v. 128, Celeufma aliis: quod hodie, Italorum moribus, voce vel parvâ fiftulà nautis accini, Pignorius fuprà memoratus tradit. Aliam vocis notionem vide fuprà.”
[Lexicon Vniversale, Vol.III, Hofmanni, 1698]

"Via, via, cheerly mates!” [footnote to definition of the celeusma, Lexicon Universal, Hofmanni, 1698]


A minor bit of 'cheerly' fluff for Reidler's nautical themes in pop entertainment:

“We fare better; cheerly, cheerly boys,
The fhip runs merrily; my Captain's melancholy,
And nothing cures that in him but a Sea-fight;
I hope to meet a faile boy, and a right one.”
[Double Marriage, Act I, Sc.I, The Comedies and Tragedies of Beaumont & Fletcher, 1647, p.26]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jan 22 - 05:49 PM

All apologies, checked my notes again. I didn't come up completely empty. No suprise the poster:

"Subject: RE: Spanish sea shanties
From: GUEST,Q
Date: 06 Mar 03 - 08:11 PM

Saloma is the Spanish word for chantey. Spanish dictionaries that I have all equate shanty with shack.
Unfortunately, saloma is a rather common name as well so it is hard to find saloma=chantey in Google."

Spanish, from when Spain was Hiberia. One of Western Culture's eleventeen conjugations of the prehistoric Greek keleusma.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 01:31 PM

My head hurts!

Just one more request: Can you please use a modern s when posting pre-1800 quotations? The old seraph s has long been out of use and only makes the reading difficult.

To any other readers, anybody following any of this?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Reinhard
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 01:49 PM

...if he only used the long 'ſ'. Replacing it with the totally different letter 'f' does not make a citation olde and authentic but wrong, dumb and boastful.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 01:56 PM

No interest in translating equals no interest in being understood - except by those exceptionally fluent in Latin and Greek.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 03:10 PM

It hurts when I do this... Don't do that.

So, no Mudcat threads with those relevant ideas & terms you three were already familiar with?

I transcribe. I'm not going to sing them for you either. Win some-lose some.

The historical terms and ideas here, however inaccessable, are not mine. When the sources change, the citations will change. Nobody speaks every language. 100% of the early material isn't going to be in English or use 20th century type. +99% of the planet doesn't care and never did. Oh well.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 05:45 PM

But the people here obviously do care and have an interest in what you are trying to do.

Even when using English you are far from clear. 'relevant ideas and terms'. What are you trying to say, in plain words please? Gibb and others have set out what boundaries are possible and have descriptions of chanties from the early 1800s onwards up to when these songs were being used in the Gulf ports 1n the 1830s and their transference to shipboard. Influences from other genres. Up to when the term chanty was being used aboard ship. Plenty of contemporary references. What more do you want? I know Gibb is interested in what happened to the chanties once the English anthologists got hold of them and started making up bowdlerised texts, but I'm more interested in the contemporary history.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 09:02 PM

Steve: Even when using English you are far from clear. 'relevant ideas and terms'. What are you trying to say, in plain words please?.

Having said that I'm glad someone like you is looking at a wider historical picture, and what the equivalents were in RN terms. Anyone vaguely interested in chanties will have a good idea of what they were and what they were used for.

Your words. The R.N. is not shantying correct? So what do you and other shanty fanatics know about the wider historical picture for the period under discussion (<1700AD?) I got nothing when I checked, ergo this thread.

Y'all complain about Latin & Greek. Yet all the Greek and half the Latin is translated to English for you. I'm thinking this isn't about me.

Except for Reinhard. It proofs correct but posts "f" "s" "?" or "/." I gave up. No brag, just dumb and tired.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: RTim
Date: 24 Jan 22 - 10:54 PM

Phil is so unclear about everything......I am not really sure what he is trying to prove or disprove??
I can only assume he wants to prove that Chanties (by whatever spelling you prefer) - existed BEFORE 1830...but in doing so - he fills the pages of this "Blog" with Latin and Greek texts - which (I Think) nobody else can refute!
If he were to Simply say "Chanties" existed way before 1830.....he has to back that up with facts that everyone can understand...not make assumptions from "his" reading of long forgotten language and outdated texts.
Similarly.....It is widely accepted that Sung Shanties were NOT Performed on British Naval Ships, but that instruments were used instead! If he wishes to still call these "Chanties" - then that is an opinion that is not shared by most, if not all, the others who read these texts...

Whatever is your reason to be here reading this is personal - and Phil's views are also personal - that is obvious.....but please explain Why you are writing this - In plain English Please!!!
I also know - that whatever you say, it will NOT stop me singing these "songs" and I hope that others enjoys them as much as me....no matter why they feel the way they do....

Tim Radford (Who is more than silently pissed off at academic bullshit! Particularly when it is not necessary.) Yes - I did re-read this before posting..and still did!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 03:56 AM

RTim: but in doing so - he fills the pages of this "Blog" with Latin and Greek texts - which (I Think) nobody else can refute!

What Greek? And if you wish to refute the Latin-to-French, German or Spanish dictionary citations here, feel free to use the Latin-to-English dictionary citations here. Or vice versa. If you must insist on assigning me a label or side, make mine "undecided" or "neutral."

We'll get to 'your' shanty terms, glossary and ideas when we get there. For now, it's about others' not yours, apparently:
Lyr Add: Sea Shanties from 'The Complaynt' (1549)
Lyr Add: Howe! Hissa! (Shanty)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 04:12 AM

Moving on to the 18th. English-to-Latin as it happens:

“HAL.
A halfter (he which haleth and draweth a fhip or barge along the river by a rope) Helciarius, ii, m.
And halfer (a rope wherewith Barks or boats are towed or haled along ?ome channel or river) Helcium, ii, n.

ROW
A rower of a Ship, Remex, igis, m.
The mafter Rower, Paufarius, ii, m.

SHIP
He that draweth a Ship or Barge by a Rope, or that draweth Packs into a Ship, Helciarius,ii,m.
Ship Boy, Drudge or flave in a Ship, Mefonauta, æ, m.
Pole belonging to a Ship, Contus, i, m.”
[The Law-French Dictionary, 1701]

Note, see above re: chorus helciarorum, hobby horses &c.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 04:59 AM

For the record, I don't speak either language any better than island Creole:

“HALER. Haalen.
C’eft tirer, ou pefer de toute fa force fur un cable, ou fur une manœuvre, pour la faire bander ou roidir. Quand les matelots halent fur une manœuvre il faut qu’ils donnent la fecouffe au cordage tout d’un même tems, pour le bander avec plus de force; & afin de concerter le tems de cette fecouffe le Contre-maître, ou quelque autre, dit à haute voix ce mot, Hale. Tout-de-même quand il fait haler fur une bouline le Contre-maître les fait tenir prêts par ces trois paroles, favoir, Un, Deux; Trois; &c au mot de Trois ils donnent tous, d’un commun éfort, la fecouffe à la bouline. Quandles matelots qui font cette cette manœuvre, veulent railler les Oficiérs de la marine, ils prononcent eux-mêmes trois autres paroles, & au-lieu de dire, Un, Deux, Trois, ils difent, Capitaine, Lieutenant, Enfeigne. En manœuvrant les couëts, on crie auffi trois fois, Amure; &c pour l’écoute on crie trois fois, Borde; & au troifiême cri on hale furla manœuvre.

O! Hiffe, O! Hale, O! Saille! O! Ride. Dus roept-men na’t volk, om de handt aan’t werk te flaan.
Tous ces termes font criez par un matelot, dans de certains travaux, mais en différens tems, foit-qu’il faille hiffer quelque chofe, ou la haler, ou la poufler, ou rider. Ce cri fe fait pour faire réünir toutes, les forces des travailleurs, afin d’agir de concert; car lors-que celui qui donne la voix prononce un O! avec une voix lente, chacun fe prépare pour l’éfort qu’il faudra faire, & en achevant le mot, comme par éxemple, Hiffe, tous travaillent à la fois.

SAILLE. Set aan.
C’eft un mot en ufage parmi les matelots, qui eft prononcé par plufieurs enfemble, en élevant ou pouffant quelque fardeau.

UN, DEUX, TROIS. Een, Twee, Drie.
Celui qui donne la voix pour faire haler la bouline crie à haute voix, Un, Deux , Trois, & au dernier mot les travailleurs font leur éfort. Voiez, Haler, & Voix.

VOIX. A la Voix. Soo digt-by dat men malkanderen kan hoorem ?preeken, dai men bequaamelijk met malkanderen kan ?preeken.
C’e?t être à la portée de la voix.

A LA VOIX. Luiftert na commando.
Cela fe dit encore comme un commandement que l’on fait aux gens de l’équipage, pour les faire travailler à-la-fois, lors-qu’on donne la voix.

DONNER la Voix. Het woordt fpreeken.
Cela fe dit d’un homme qui avertit par un cri articulé, afin-que les gens ocupez à ce travail faffent leurs éforts tous à-la-fois. Voiez, Ho, Hiffe, &c.”
[Dictionnaire de Marine, Brunel, 1702]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:17 AM

The methodology isn't worthy of the word:
1. I don't know shanties. Keleusma I know.
2. Search keyword: keleusma.
3. Review returns for definitive keywords.
4. Rinse, repeat. I've got about one hundred at present.
5. Sort & post returns by date. Job done.

My only 'argument' or 'position,' if you insist, is: a given maritime work song literary reference appeared in year [X.] If your difficulty is with anything else, it's not about me.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:28 AM

Testing, testing 1-2-3: Okay Reinhard, all the Hebrew, Greek and long form French previews just fine. Let's see how it posts:

"???? D'où vient ???? Hedad, bruit, clameur de ceux qui pillent une une ville, ou la campagne: ou qui foulent les rai?ins dans le pre??oir: où l'un excite l'autre au travail avec joye & allégre??e: comme les Grecs parlent de leur ?e?e?sµa, cri de marine: & les Latins de leur Eleleu, cri de guerre, Jer. 5 1. 14. E?aie 16.9, 1 I. Jer.25.3o & 48.33. Ezech.7.7 C'e?t le cri de ceux qui foulent aupre??oir (dit Rabbi David) par lequel ils s'exhortent mutuellement. Saint Jerôme l'explique tantôt par la voix, c'e?t à dire, par le cridont nous venons de parler; tantôt par le celeu?ma, qui veut dire le cri des pilotes. Lentos tingitis ad celeu?ina remos. Martialis. Vous ne faites que mouiller foiblement vos rames à la voix des Pilotes Il y en a qui rapportent ce mot Hébreu à la racine Jadah; qui veut dire jetter, comme qui diroit que l'on jette une voix gaye & libre, & peut-être au??i mêlée de brocards, & de railleries. Menoch de Republ Hebr. l.7. c.8. voyez en davantage dans ce même Auteur.”
[Dictionaire de la Langue Sainte, Leigh, 1703, pp.148-149]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:31 AM

Test fail. If I can ever fix that, y'all might actually have Greek text to complain about.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Howard Jones
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:38 AM

Phil, I have followed this and similar threads with increasing bafflement. I simply cannot fathom just what it is you are trying to say, whether it's about shanties or maritime work songs in general.

It's great that you are researching maritime work song, and looking at other periods of time and other cultures than simply the 19th century Anglo-American shanty tradition. However you appear to be using Mudcat mainly as a dump for your raw data, which is untranslated and often presented without comment. When you do comment, it is often written in such an oblique style that it is unclear what your point is.

May I respectfully suggest that you complete your research and then present us with your findings? We might then be able to have an interesting and fruitful discussion, which none of the current threads seem to be able to provide.

Looking back, I see that Steve Gardham requested something similar as long ago as July 2020.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Iains
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 08:07 AM

http://www.sagaconference.org/SC03/SC03_Perkins.pdf

Make of it what you will!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 10:22 AM

Interesting, Iain.
His theories are plausible enough as they are applied to rowing chants which are pretty universal anyway. His knowledge of chanties however, seems a little thin. His one example he gives is 'The Mermaid' which might have been used as a chanty at some point but was certainly not from the main corpus and is more of a forebitter, with broadside origins.

He seems to have missed a trick presented to us by Gibb, in that a few early rowing chants/songs of the Georgia islands can be directly related to some of the earliest chanties (Sally Brown & Grog time o' day).


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 02:18 PM

Howard: However you appear to be using Mudcat mainly as a dump for your raw data, which is untranslated and often presented without comment. When you do comment, it is often written in such an oblique style that it is unclear what your point is.

Me: My only 'argument' or 'position,' if you insist, is: a given maritime work song literary reference appeared in year [X.] If your difficulty is with anything else, it's not about me.

We're having a belligerent agreement. I accept "raw data," in a spectrum of languages, is of no intrinsic value to most readers. No offence taken. Obviously y'all cannot say the same. Those months-of-the-year song list threads must really grind your teeth!

To repeat: Mark me down as 'undecided' & 'no comment' on findings now. This way your needs to refute findings I've not found in Greek text I've not posted will fall back on you where they clearly belong.

I'd be confused too, if I were you.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 03:29 PM

Clarity: What are these comments about the data (who, what, where, when, why) y'all are having problems understanding? If it's the data, maybe it can be improved. If it's my opinion of your opinion of Greek text I've never posted, lucidity is right off the menu.

Translations: I'm probably less incapable of translation than y'all but obviously more motivated. My rough count:

A little over half my data posts here are in English. The remainder are split between Dutch, French, German, Classic & Vulgar Latin, Portuguese and Spanish. Roughly half this remainder are translations themselves but not always to English.

IMNSHO: Insisting on others providing English translations of Latin-to-French, German or Spanish dictionaries is a purely emotional need. It's not really about the data.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 03:33 PM

CELEUSMA, cri de plu?ieurs per?onnes, chant de réjouï??ance que font les Mariniers quand ils prennent port,ou qu'ils aprochent de la Terre. Ilen e?t parlé en trois endroits de la Prophetie de Jeremie, Rugiens rugiet ?uper decorem ?uum: Celeu?ma qua?i calcantium concinetur, adversùs omnes habitatores terra, fai?ant allu?ion aux chan?ons de ceux qui foulent les rai?ins, ch.25.v. 3o. Dans le ch.48.v.33. il dit qu'il a ôté toute la joïe du Carmel, qu'il a fait répandre le vin des pre??oirs, & que celui qui foule les rai?ins, ne chantera plus ces cantiques acoûtumez. Nequaquam calcator uva folitum Celeufma tantabit.”
[Le Grand Dictionaire de la Bible, Vol.I, Certe, 1703]

Note: Bit of a rehash of Calvin, Old Testament, hedad &c. See previous.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: RTim
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 04:06 PM

He can't stop!!....now rehashing french text (I am NOT going to waste time checking any earlier posts!!)...all without translation. This last post adds NOTHING. I am not going to look at anymore of this...

Tim Radford.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:11 PM

Which bit of that last French/Latin copy refers to song accompanying task? I can follow most of the French. Arriving in port or approaching land. it appears to refer to rejoicing rather than accompanying any work. Perhaps the Latin bits refer to work.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:23 PM

RTim: Chill! FYI I've provided you with the accepted period English expert translations of Calvin. How you find what you find when you can't (French) and won't (English) read the "raw data" is not about me or this thread.

If you don't object to "raw data" songbook index threads with untranslated song titles, this thread should not be a problem for you.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:43 PM

Steve: That would be my rough take on it as well. Have you read the Calvin stuff? It's Hebrew-Greek-French etymology/crossovers in the Old Testament vinter's shouts; the psalms hedads and the mariner's celeusma.

We've had a similar exchange previously in the Howe Hissa! thread, you & I. There are other citations to come. "It seems likely that..." the Protestant and Catholic churches were to the celeusma what minstrelsy & pop was to become to the shanty. And just as hard to tell which one you might be looking at from a distance.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 05:53 PM

Steve: Last one got clipped. You are now my French expert, congrats. Is there any "offical" shanty or Mudcat glossary for what's going on in Dictionnaire de Marine?

Those should tie in to an Advent & Develpment post sometime fairly soon, if it didn't already get lost in the shuffle.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Lighter
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 06:01 PM

See my remarks above, 10 March 2020, 10:43 a.m.

And th-th-th-th-that's all, folks!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 06:12 PM

Just to be clear, I'm misusing "shanty" glossary. What are the c.1700AD translations/keywords for the same English merchant marine practices (I'm assuming) that I can add to the current search routines?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jan 22 - 07:23 PM

Lighter 2020: Speaking strictly for myself. The current subject is not shanties and is not to be lumped in with shanties. Do we not agree? I think we do.

From my OP:
"A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a genre of traditional folk song that was once commonly sung as a work song to accompany rhythmical labor aboard large merchant sailing vessels. They were found mostly on British and other European ships, and some had roots in lore and legend. The term shanty most accurately refers to a specific style of work song belonging to this historical repertoire. However, in recent, popular usage, the scope of its definition is sometimes expanded to admit a wider range of repertoire and characteristics, or to refer to a "maritime work song" in general." [wiki]

Hence the thread title. The lore and legend genre and mariner's general work song glossary c.400BC-1700AD used the other terms and definitions cited here. They were not to be found on Mudcat, until now. What is it you object to, or wish to refute <1703AD?

If the 1800s sources lump them all together, you'll read it here. If not, no worries eh?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Jan 22 - 12:41 AM

Took me a minute to find it. Stepping back into the 17th century just a bit:

“...And hence the Land is filled with those loud Celeusmata's*, which summons all hands to pull down the Church, and lay it even with the ground; and pitty it is, but that Church which is so great a Canibal, were so dealt with.”
[The Case of Persecution, Charg'd on the Church of England, consider'd and discharg'd, in order to her justification, and a desired union of Protestant dissenters, Long, 1689]
*Celeusmata is the plural of celeusma. Celeusmata's I'm not sure.

Nothing to do with the maritime or work song per se but one usage that came to straight to mind when the 'banning' of lyrics & chanting came up in the R.N. thread.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST
Date: 26 Jan 22 - 04:28 AM

To be honest, it's not the Dutch, French, German, Classic & Vulgar Latin, Portuguese, Spanish, Hebrew or Greek I'm struggling with; it's Phil's English that I find quite baffling.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 26 Jan 22 - 02:39 PM

'They were found mostly on British and other European ships'<<<<<

I think Gibb would have something to say about that. I think a more accurate statement would be they were published mostly in British anthologies. Evidence would suggest that at least half the references are of American origin and that's certainly where they originated, and indeed onshore. the first use of the word 'chantyman' as a worksong leader was for a stevedore in the Gulf ports.

Wiki seriously needs an update!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 02:02 AM

Perigrination: A voyage, esp. an extensive one.

Steve: Seconded on the wiki. I'm no fan. And here we see people complaining about too little c.1700 English while New Orleans is neolithic. It's been a weird timeline so far, methinks we ain't seen nuttin' yet.

Here's another example of those short, spontaneous sacred chants laid over the longer generic rowing tempos.

“Ventis vela dantur, tum carina undis fertur, dextra lævaque æque tenduntur rudentes, navis etiam clavo fuo imperiofe deducitur. Modo etiam celeuma canunt nautæ, nunc aliquibus modis exfultant, nunc ludus verbis agitur, nunc carum convitium objicitur.”
[Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti, Vol.II, D'Archery, Mabillon, Ruinart, 1701]

Note: One should be able to limp by on copypasta and Google translate with the above.

Mystery Guest: Offered to clarify any examples. Still waiting.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 02:32 AM

Re Perkins: Brünnhilde’s operatic battle cry is likely more German than Norse. Best guess, Perkin's period under discussion would include the Columbanus citations above. That will get you from Ireland to Germany at least. Note the authorship/provenance issues mentioned.

Whomever, the Germanic imagery will get mashed up with the older Norse legends in various mid-19th century Wagner opera. See also: Piratical Debauchery, Homesick Sailors and Nautical Rhythms, Reidler, 2017. (same problems there as wiki tho.)

Proper citations to follow when we get there.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 03:19 AM

Just by the numbers, complaynts notwithstanding, the English are actually doing okay here so far. The Americans however:
1492 - Columbus' log and Salve Regina. They never visited on the Mainland proper.
1627 - Smith and the Vea, vea, vea, vea, vea galley chant in the Virginia colonies.

Did I miss anything American mentioned elsewhere on Mudcat? Anyone have anything else <1700s? In any language or application?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Mystery Guest
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 06:04 AM

Now I've put something in the "From" box, am I any less mysterious than "Phil d'Conch"

"Proper citations to follow when we get there"?

"We"? I suspect you're travelling alone most of the time, Phil.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 11:02 AM

Phil,
You appear to be jumping about from your wider references to 'chanty' itself. Please distinguish between the two otherwise you lose all of us.
Anything before 1800 has no relation to 'chanty' historically. The rowing songs of the Georgia Islands c1820 have so far not been related back to African rowing chants or any others in text or tune, whilst that is always a possibility. It is more likely that the rowing songs relate to river songs and field hollers from southern slaves. As far as I'm aware these are not African related in text but are almost always in English. The main impetus for shipboard chanties came from the Gulf Ports cotton screwers c1830.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,jag
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 11:48 AM

What makes maritime work songs in general distinct from heaving/hauling/pushing work songs in general? In the case of chanteys the *connections* to work on shore seems important.

"1-2-3-pull" can be effective but might make dull work duller.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 02:16 PM

Me: Speaking strictly for myself. The current subject is not shanties and is not to be lumped in with shanties. Do we not agree? I think we do.

Steve: How can I say it with more clarity? Or do you disagree? I keep asking for Mudcatters' <1700AD salty job titles and glossary. Perhaps it would be better if you explained to me why lump c1700 maritime work song in general with shanties or is it vice versa?

Again: The only critical attribute is a nautical glossary. The only sort order is publishing date. The only 'hopping' is for ommissions and later English translations. I think it's your urges for "findings" never on offer that confuse you.

Again: If the 1800s sources lump it all together, you will read it here. If not, no worries. Either way, I'm the librarian, not the professor.

Shanties are "found" alpha-by-author in Music, under Folk, that's between Secular Choral and Popular and that's not my 'opinion' either.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 02:34 PM

Jag: See Dictionnaire de Marine, Brunel, 1702 above and
UN, DEUX, TROIS. Een, Twee, Drie. Capitaine, Lieutenant, Enfeigne.
(!!!)

Ever heard of any similar c.1700 English phrases? They'll get all manner of labels in the late 1800s and early 1900s but... what the c1700 English mariner called them I haven't found yet.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 27 Jan 22 - 03:03 PM

We have several terms for these short co-ordination chants. The most common ones other than regulated RN ones are often referred to as 'sing outs' nowadays, although the word 'sing' is perhaps misleading. It is very likely that they were such simple things that they didn't have a term for them c1700, though undoubtedly they used them. Some combination of 'heave-o' or 'hauly-hi-oh' I have seen mentioned. I'm sure people like Gibb who have studied this in greater detail have examples.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jan 22 - 08:08 PM

One minor conting song mention (leadsman.) 18th century “Cotton screwing” in the R.N. and capstan driven rowing engines:

“BOATSWAIN, is a Ship-Officer, to whom is committed the Charge of all the Tackling, Sails, and Rigging, Ropes, Cables, Anchors, Flags, Pendants, &c. He alfo calls out the feveral Gangs and Companies aboard, to the due Execution of their Watches, Works, and Spells, &c.

BOATSWAIN’s-MATE, has the peculiar Command of the Long-Boat, for the fetting forth of Anchors, Weighing or fetching Home the Anchor, Warping, Towing, or Mooring; and to give an Account of his Store.

Heave the Lead; that is, to Sound, or to find where the Ship may fail, by the Depth of Waters. He that Heaves the Lead, ftands by the Horfe, or in the Chains, and fings the Depth he finds.

ROWING-engine ...A Wheel is fitted to the Drum-head of the Cap-ftan, whofe Teeth turn a Trundle-head, thro’ which an Iron-bar is run that reaches a-crofs, and goes thro’ the Ship-Side; and on its Ends without Board, at a convenient Diftance from the Side of the Ship, are faften’d two Drum-heads, like that on the Capftan in which are fitted fix or eight Paddles, fo as to be taken out at Pleafure. And at the outermoft Ends of the Paddles is faften’d an Iron-Pin, with a Head on it: by which means, and by the Help of a Cord, taking a half Turn round about all thefe Pins, both the Paddles may be twifted, or ftrain’d and ftrengthen’d fo, that they fhall all work proportionably; and alfo the Paddles may, with a Luff-Tackle, be the more handily and eafily lifted in and out, in order to be fitted into, or taken out of the Drum-heads of the Bar. Now if the Paddle's be made proportionably large, according to the Number of Men that can be brought to the Capftan, who if they but work, the Veffle may make very good Way in fmooth Water

STEEVING, is alfo a Word ufed by Merchant men, when they ftow Cotton, or Wool, which is forc’d in with Screws; this they call Steeving their Cotton, or Wool.”
[The Gentleman's Dictionary, Bonwicke, 1705]

Notes: Roughly the same evolution as keleusma-to-salomar &c.: stevazo (Greek,) stipare (Latin,) estivador (Portuguese,) estibador (Spanish,) Stevedore (English.) So far, the steeving task appears well before job English titles, chants &c. Stevedore (etymology)

The rowing engine is typical for early mechanical propulsion experiments prior to the 19th & steam.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 03:02 AM

Companion to the previous:

“...Steeving is likewise ufed by Merchants when they ftow Cotton or Wool, which being forced in with skrews, they call Steeving their Cotton or Wool.”
[Seaman's Grammar & Dictionary, Smith, 1691]

Note: I've kept the above apart from the earlier Virginia Colony stuff. It doesn't appear in the volumes published during Smith's lifetime. The 1691 edition was revised and updated by “B.J.”


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 09:11 AM

That's somewhat more useful to our studies, Phil. 'Steeving' is particularly relevant. Now what would be great would be some early references to singing whilst steeving, as we are fairly certain that one of the main sources for chantying was screwing/steeving cotton.

Taking the term back thus far is very useful. Thank-you!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Iains
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 01:57 PM

Two Years Before the Mast is a memoir by the American author Richard Henry Dana Jr., published in 1840, (Available Gutenberg Press)
page 102 has a description of steeving hides into the ship and the whole crew bowsed the tackles home with a song.

" Two long, heavy spars, called steeves, made of the strongest wood, and sharpened off like a wedge at one end, were placed with their wedge ends into the inside of the hide which was the centre of the book, and to the other end of each, straps were fitted, into which large tackles were hooked, composed each of two huge purchase blocks, one hooked to the strap on the end of the steeve, and the other into a dog, fastened into one of the beams, as far aft as it could be got. When this was arranged, and the ways greased upon which the book was to slide, the falls of the tackles were stretched forward, and all hands tallied on, and bowsed away until the book was well entered; when these tackles were nippered, straps and toggles clapped upon the falls, and two more luff tackles hooked on, with dogs, in the same manner; and thus, by luff upon luff, the power was multiplied, until into a pile in which one hide more could not be crowded by hand, an hundred or an hundred and fifty were often driven in by this complication of purchases. When the last luff was hooked on, all hands were called to the rope—cook, steward, and all—and ranging ourselves at the falls, one behind the other, sitting down on the hides, with our heads just even with the beams, we set taut upon the tackles, and striking up a song, and all lying back at the chorus, we bowsed the tackles home, and drove the large books chock in out of sight."


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 02:12 PM

Needless to say, if anybody finds anything new or I leave out an existing Mudcat mention "...in general," please do post it here.

Teaser alert: My earliest 'steeving/skrewing chant' so far is from a British source. It's extempore verse, call-and-response but has no English, American or cotton and moves the existing timeline back hardly at all. Still searching.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 08:38 PM

“The Officers in the Navy were the Præfectus Claffis, or Admiral, and fometimes the Duumviri when two were join'd in Commiffion, together with the Trierarchus, or Captain of a particular ship, most properly of the Trireme; the Gubernator, or Mafter; the Celeuftes, or Boatfwain, and others of inferior Note.”
[Romæ Antiquæ Notitia: Or, The Antiquities of Rome, Kennett, 1696]

Note: I'll add one of these in every so often to reflect how the locals were interpreting the old job titles for themselves.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 29 Jan 22 - 08:40 PM

Show biz clamor nauticus:

“Now, being on Board, I made Observation
Of Something relating to Navigation:
For up came the Boatswain, with Countenance stern,
With a great Pair of Whiskers, and a Mouth like a Churn,
He lug'd out his Whistle, and up came the Sailers,
And all Hands aloft as nimble as Taylors:
There was Toe-le-ho, and, Boys heave away,
Whilst another was tearing his Throat with, Belay;
Then Haul Cat, Haul A damnable Yawling;
The Boatswain a Swearing, the Master a Bawling,
Helm-a-lee, ye Landlubbered Loobies;
Let go the Fore-Bowlings, ye Fresh-Water Boobies;
Haul Aft the Main-Sheet, ye Lump of a Dog,
Whist another was Singing a Tune to the Log….”
[Pax in Crumena: Or, The Trooper Turn'd Poet, Rands, 1714]

Note: It doesn't end there and, with a few minor updates, it's a serviceable 1800s American minstrel show.

Abaft the binnacle! Hatch the mizzen! Abandon ship! [Capt. Crunch]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 30 Jan 22 - 01:27 PM

Okay, at least some of these commands look genuine as observed, rather than all made up fun and games. The only slight relation to men singing at their tasks is the use of the word 'Singing' in your last line, presumably referring to the singing out of depths by the man with the lead line. Perhaps if you post the next line we can be better informed on that one. The practice was often referred to as singing which probably stems from the fact that this was such a boring but necessary task and the crew member sang it to relieve the boredom. If it is this, it doesn't relate in any way to call and response, unless other crew members were relaying the depths to other parts of the vessel.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 Jan 22 - 05:51 PM

Steve: Are the job titles keywords? Is the reference title, author and date correct? If yes, job done.

fwiw: I take it as a comedy. I wouldn't go deeper on Monty Python than: if audiences were not familiar with knights & castles, I fart in your general direction, isn't funny to them. It was never about real chemcial warfare in the first place.

PS: Look at your post history here. One gets the impression you're not looking or expecting to contribute period relevant sources. Fair?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,jag
Date: 30 Jan 22 - 06:15 PM

"often referred to as singing which probably stems from the fact that this was such a boring but necessary task and the crew member sang it to relieve the boredom."

The elongated vowels give clarity. Try it over a distance or against the sound of wind or sea.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Iais
Date: 31 Jan 22 - 04:40 PM

If in shallow water it was critical to know the depth and it had to be relayed clearly in case action needed to be taken.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h_H70Ap07bE

"For riverboat workers on the Mississippi, however, there was a time when sounding the water depth literally involved sound—you could even call it song. In 1939 Alan Lomax and Herbert Halpert, two well-known folklorists, recorded Joe Shores, a 52-year old river pilot for a ferryboat that ran between Greenville, Mississippi and Arkansas City, Arkansas performing what is called a “sounding call.” In the recording Shores slowly chants or sings out verses of terms for the depth of the water:

    No bottom, / Mark four, / Quarter less four, / Quarter less five, / Half twain, / Quarter twain…

    Quarter less four, / Half twain, / Quarter twain, / Mark twain, / Quarter less twain, / Nine and a half feet, / Nine feet, / Eight and a half feet."


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 Jan 22 - 05:02 PM

I don't know the source but if I had read that from a broadside I'd say it looked genuine enough, although it appears to be a description by someone not familiar with the scene. Yes the job titles are genuine and the language could be of 1714. I can't see anything that would make it into comedy and I've studied so-called comic pieces of the period.

I'm certainly interested in relevant sources to chanty and proto-chanty, but not in other forms of assistance to work such as practised in the RN, or of religious singing aboard ship.

Any references I come across to shipboard worksong I note, but I have lots of other interests and I don't spend a lot of time looking for them, which is why I appreciate what you are trying to do and what Gibb and Jon do very well.

As far as I can glean the taking of soundings has been common practice for many centuries in all cultures. A local version close to where I live was taking soundings with a lead line on the Dogger Bank in the North Sea to find the lucrative fishing grounds, but as Iais says it was a crucial exercise when approaching land. 'By the deep ...

As


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:03 AM

Steve: I've been corrected since I posted Rands. Epistolary poetry, so I'm told:

“The epistolary form can add greater realism to a story, because it mimics the workings of real life. It is thus able to demonstrate differing points of view without recourse to the device of an omniscient narrator. An important strategic device in the epistolary novel for creating the impression of authenticity of the letters is the fictional editor.” [Epistolary novel]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:08 AM

“14. Il a juré par fon ame, par fa vie, par luy-même. Ie te rempliray d'hommes comme de fauterelles qui vont à troupes, pour marquer le grand nombre d'ennemis qui viendront fur luy, & la chanfon celeuma, par laquelle les foldats s'exhortent au combat, fera chantée fur toy.”
[L'Explication Selon le Sens Litteral des Cinq Livres de la Sagesse, 1680]

Notes: Marching song. Not nautical. Notable for where it appears IMO: Panchatantra.

Chantée = sung. Nothing to suggest any more to it.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:10 AM

“Celeufme, m.fignifie le cry & acclamation du Comite d'une galere, par laquelle il admonéte & exhorte les Galeriens, ou à travailler, ou à defifter du travail, 't Geroep van den Bevel-hebber, die de Galey boeven, op de Galeyen ofte Roey-fchepen zittende, tot het roeyen aenmaent, of ook altemets vermaent van 't roeyen op te houden.”
[Le Grand Dictionnaire Francois-Flaman, D'Arsy, 1682]

Schiffleut/ m.pl. hi Nautæ. Das gefchrei der fchiffleuten. Hoc. Celeu?ma, clamor nauticus.”
[Lexicon Quatuor Linguarum Latinæ Germanicæ Græcæ Gallicæ, Gürtlei, 1682]

Also: 1.5 pages on the “Alleluia” ending with the usual celeusma & chorus heliciariorum sources.
[Notizia De Vocaboli Ecclesiastici, Casarenghi, 1682]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:18 AM

“Celéuma, as Celóma.
Celóma, the Mariners Cry, when they tug at a Cable, weigh Anchor, or hoi?e Sails.
Gridáre, Gridacchináre, to cry, as a common cryer doth, to cal out, to ?hout, to hollow, to ?cream, to whine; al?o to proclaim aloud; al?o to chide, to braul, to ?cold, to contend in words.
Gridáre all'árme, to call to arms, to rai?e an alarm.
Gridatóre, a Cryer or common Cryer in a Market place.
Salpáre. to weigh or heave Anchors.
Salpatóre. a weigher or heaver of Anchors.
Sciáre, to wit, to ken, or know by Science; al?o to cry together with one voice or con?ent, as Marriners do when the hoi?e ?ails or heave anchor; al?o to cut or furrow the Sea or water as a ?hip under sail doth.
*Siáre, among Mariners, it is to cry all with one voice or con?ent, as they do when they hoi?e-?ails, heave anchor, or row and hale backward; al?o to make a hor?e or oxe ?tay or go backward with the Carter's voice, as our Country-clowns u?e to cry, Hay, Haitor, Hoa.
*Sia, sia, be it, be it, among Mariners or Water-men, to will, or to encourage one to row backward, or to help, to hale and heave anchor.
*Siázza, the crying of Mariners together, to encourage one another.
[Vocabolario Italiano & Inge?e: A Dictionary, Italian and English, Florio, 1690]

Note: Revised & expanded from 1659ed., above.
The gridatóre is the future French-Caribbean griot of calypso. The grievance theme is also present.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:21 AM

celóma, le cry des mariniers, quand ils veulent ancrer.
celomáre, la crierie des mariniers.
[Dittionario Italiano, E Francese, Oudin, 1693]


“CELEUSMA, atis. n. Afeon. Pæd. of Celeuma, atis. n. Mart. Keleusma. Een bevel, of teeken, 'r welk de bevelhebberen aan matroozen en roeyers met monde, of een fleuitje gaven, om dit of dat fcheepswerk te doem. Sommige zeggen, dat dit het geluid is, welk de roeyers te gelijk geven, om te toonen dat zy alle vaardig zijn, en om den anderen tot volvoeringe van het bevolene aan te potren.”
[Dictionarium Latino-Belgicum, 1699]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:24 AM

“CELEUSTES. Operæ precium fa?turus videor, ?i hanc etiam vocem cum remigis ?ignificantione explicem. Celeu?tes autem dicitur, qui remiges hortatur, qua?i navigationis moderator: qui à Plauto Latine hortator appellatur, quod ea hortmenta faciat, quæ verbo Græco celeuƒmata dicuntur etiam à Latinis. Hoc vero celeu?ma, quod celeuma dicitur, in navibus cla??iariis affa voce interdum, interdum tibia canebatur, ita ut remiges pro modulorum atque harmoniæ ratione vel concitarent, vel inhiberent remos. Pædianus autor eft, canni remigibus celeuma per ?ymphoniacos ?ervos ?olitum olim e??e, & per a??iam vocem: id e?t, ore prolatam, & (ut in Argo navi) interdum per citharam. Cicero in Verr. A?t. i. Ab hac muliere Præfe?tus Antonii quidam ?ymphoniacos ?ervos abducebat per injuriam, quibus ?e in cla??e uti velle dicebat. Quem locum Ciceronis A?con. P?dianus exponens: Po??umus, ?aquit, intelligere ad hoc ?ymphoniacos ?ervos capi ?oler, ut in cla??e cla??icum pugnantibus canant: undeip?fitubæ cla??is, cla??icum nomen e?t po?itum/
        CELEUMA ITEM, ut nautæ, faciunt Helciarii: id e?t, qui onera funibus moliuntur: vel qui naves deducunt, ?ubducuntue, ad officia invicem ?e?e adhortantes, ut uno connixu pariter con?pirantes, admoliri univer?is viribus po??int, quod ?ingulis nequent: ut ?ieri ?æpe vidimus Venetiis in loco, qui lingua Veneta Douana vulgo appellatur.”
[Thesaurus Graecarum Antiquitatum, Gronovio, 1701]

Note: Forgot to post the wiki with the previous mention - Cithara (also – kithera.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:25 AM

“Hortator nautarum, remigium: Celeu?tes, e: ?ive is. Budaus. Navigationis ?cil. Moderator, qui remiges ?igno vocali exhortatur: Pau?arius. Sen. idem cum Celeu?te, ni?i dicamus hunc e??e, quem vulgus nauticum appellat, Sottocomito. Et qui requiemq; modumque Voce dabat remis animotrum hortator Epopeus. Ovid.3.met Ma?tx nauticus; nam ferè coa?tos remiges ma?tige ad nautica compellit opera, Aguzino di galera.
[Synonymorum, Epithetorum & Phrasium, Serræ,1701]

Note: Aguz(z)ino can translate as either “officer” or “torturer.” Eek!


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:27 AM

Identical definitions in two texts:

“Het teeken 't welk de bevelhebbers gaven aan de matroozen, of reilers met monde of een fluitje, om het een of 't ander fcheeps werk to doen. Celeufma, atis n.g. Afeon. Pæd. Vel celeuma, atis n.g. Mart.
[Woordenboek der Nederlantsche en Latynsche Tale, Hannot, 1704]
[Le Grand François-Flaman de Les termes & manieres de parler touchant la Marine & la Navigation, Witsen, 1704]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Feb 22 - 03:49 AM

"Informational chants" - Date: 22 Mar 20 - 01:02 PM., (above.)

Typical: "...one always gazes at the compass, and chants a kind of sweet song, which shows that all is going well, and in the same tone he chants to him that holdeth the tiller of the rudder, to which quarter the rudder itself ought to be moved:..." [Fabri, 15th century]

The Greek sounding kontus can be found on the walls of Egyptian tombs. It's the pilot's badge of office. At other extreme is Harry Belafonte's Mark Twain.

The American auctioneer's chant (Danville System) is supposedly from the same place as all of the above. Still checking the sources.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 04:45 AM

More backtracking:

“celeufna, vel celeumam, atis, neut. genr- L'enhortment des mariners, ou autres gens qui s'efforcent de faire quelque chofe.
celeuftes, celeuftæ, m, ge. Tel embarteur & donneur de courage.
paufarius, A Seneca vocatur qui remigibus modos dat & remigandi officium quadam quafi paufa moderatur.”
[Dictionariolum Latino Gallicum, 1602]


“Sirenum vox illa, quæ timebatur, erat blanda quidem, non tamen publica: at hæc quæ timenda eft, non ex vno fcopulo, fed ex omni terrarum parte circumfonat, & quafi grato celeumate ad vela explicanda, & rudentes expediendos inuitat…

...Seu nouercali laceret procellâ
Naufragam puppim, canit expeditus
Sarcinus vitæ, mediis im undis
                Dulce celeuma
:

METRICA PARAPHRASIS
...Dum portum inuehimur, quifquis es, ulsimo
Menten aduerte celeumati.

[Speculum Vanitatus, 1635]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 04:48 AM

“Gridatore] proclamator
Celeufma, tus, vel celeuma, matis, ne. ge. Mart. Grido unite di più perfone, come di Marinari à fare qualche loro opera.
Celeuftes, ftæ, mal. ge. Bud. Chi coforta i Marinari al navigare.
Clamatorius, ria, rium, Pli. Gridatore.
[Perfectissimus Calepinus Parvus Sive Corre?tiffimum Di?tioarium, Mirani, 1705]


“Quitanos los efclavos, y con fu Rofario nos ata y encadena en los abismos! Profiguio la galera fu rumbo, y divifando los navegantes las coftas de Bretaña, empezaron alegres à cantar el Rofario, como dulce y celeftial celeuma: y llegando del Puerto, hallaron en falvo quanto del vagel avian arrojado al mar en la tormenta.”
[Historia de la Vida de S. Domingo de Guzman, Miguel, 1705]

Note: Another spontaneous “Land ho!” celeusma reference.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 04:50 AM

Celeuma.
Vocatur Keleusma, Celeuma, feu Celeusma, ùt in Græco fcribitur, clamor & cantus, quo pariter laboranties fe mutuo excitant as ftrenuè agendum, v.g. nautæ feu remiges ad remigandum, milites as pugnandum, vinitores as torcular promendum. Semper in Vulgata Ceuleuma cantatur, ùt patet Jerem. 25.30. Jer. 48.33. Jer. 51.14.”
[Dictionarium in Quo Voces Omnes Difficilioris Significationis, Quae in Vulgata Nostra S. Scripturae Latina Translatione Occurrunt, Dilucide Explicantur, Bukentrop. 1706]

Note: Same treatment of scripture as Calvin et al with soldier "songs & shouts" added to the dialog.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 04:51 AM

“Celeuma, for Celeufma.
Celeufma, atis, n. The Mark-word given to keep time when the Seamen do any thing together. g.
Celeuftes, æ, m. he that makes that Noife, or Encourageth the Seamen. g.
A Halfer, Helcium.
A Halfier Helciarius.
Helciarius, ii. n. he that tows a boat or ship. *Helciarius equus, a drag horse.
Helcium, ii, n. A Horfe-collar, drawing Harnefs.
A Mafter-rower, Paufarius.
A Warpe [Sea-word] Helcium.
A Hawser, Helcium.”
[A Dictionary English-Latin, and Latin-English, Coles, 1707]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 04:57 AM

Celebro, Celeber, à… hortor, cohortor, undè & Celeufma conclamtio, &c.
Celeusma, atis. n….. hortamentum, fpecialiter nauticum. Verbale à…. fut. Prima præt… hortor, impero.
Celeuftes, a. m. ?…. hortator fpecialiter remigum,...”
[Scientia Latinitatis, Hertling, 1708]

Note: Greek text omitted.


“Celoma. Der Schissoneschen Freuden Geschren mann sie anlanden. Freuden Geschren. Acclamzione, Celoma.
Schreyer. m. Gridatore. v. Marckschreyer.”
[Dizzionario Italiano – Tedesco, Tedesco – Italiano, Castelli, 1709]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 04 Feb 22 - 05:03 AM

“As I was a Boatfwain's Mate, I had the Command of about 200 Men in the Ship, and it was my Place, to fee that the Men attended, and were prefent at the time of Worfhip; and I was diligent in the performance of that Service; and when any refufed to obey my Command, in that respe?t, I endeavour'd by force to compel them.”
[The Fighting Sailor turn'd Peaceable Chriftian, Lurting, 1710]

Note: Possible reason for R.N. style ban on boatswain's lyrics on watch.


“CELOMA, Een bevel of teeken, 't welk de bevelhebberen aan matroozen en roeijers met monde, of een fluitje gaven, om dit of day fcheepswerk te doen.”
[Il Grande Dittionario Italiano et Hollandese, Giron, 1710]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Feb 22 - 06:36 PM

Schiff-Lied/ celeusma, celoma, grido de' marinari per allegrezza.”
[Das Herrlich Grosse Deutsch-Italianische Dictionarium, Vol. 1, Kramer, 1700]


“celeufma, atis. Vel celeuma, atis, n. grido per animare i marinari.
clamor, ris. grido
exclamatio, f. efclamazione. grido.
exclamo, as. gridare, efsclamare.
Oh. grido di dolore. alle volte di allegrezza.
vociferatio, f, grido.”
[Regiæ Mercurij Conclave Latino-Italicum, Anguselli, 1710]


Ammattare, terme de marine, appeller ou crier à haute voix.
Celóma, le crie fe Mariniers, quand ils veulent ancrer.
Celomáre, la crierie des Mariniers.
a Crída, à haute voix, publiquement.
Cridatóre, crieur.
Gridatóre, crieur, criailleur, criard.
Grido, cri, bruit, renommée, plur. grida.
Iava, terme de marine, pour dire, l'on fait déja ce qui eft commandé.
Iffáre, iffer, hauffer, en terme de marine.
Oiffa, le cri du marinier pour iffer.
Stipatóre, un qui entaffe, qui charge les marchandifes, ou qui les ferre.”
[Dictionaire Italien et François, Veneroni, 1710]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Feb 22 - 06:50 PM

Ahoy (greeting)

Most of the dictionaries above include interjections not cited here. Here is that full Thesaurus Polyglottus (above) list of variations on the Latin heus:

??u.
?ebr. oi, o, ah.
Latin. oi, xoi.
Latin. heu.
Italie. oime, hai.
?ifp. hay.
Gall. helas.
German. en/even/ach/aves
Belg. ach.
?ng. allace, ach,alas eh, lord god.
Sclav. pre??m?ne, ?uuc, oh, jomene
Dalm. vay, oboy.
??lo. owe, biada.
Lufat. a'via.
Boh. Ach, ah, auwe, beda.
Hung. yay, ok.
?rafil. yere,ake eeli aka, hovaj.
?alae. bevan m?ra.
Iavenf. Ba vanaban.

Heus
Heb. hoi.
Græc. [...]
Lat. heus.
Ital. oli, o.
Hifpan. he.
Gallic. he, vien, ou, venez.
Germ holla/loh/hoscha.
Dan. heyhey.
Ang. holach, hoë hoe.
Belg. houghy.
Schav. hasha.
Polo. tichoicane.
Tur. jaha.
Hangai. halláde.
Brafil. nein.
[Thesaurus Polyglottus, 1613]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Feb 22 - 06:52 PM

“CELEUSMA, <keleusma, genit. celeufmatis. n. Afcon-Ped. Mart. Cry des Matelots, pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage ou certain fignal donne avec quelque inftrument de Musique pour le mefme effet. Coup de fiffet, pour animer les Rameurs & les Mariniers au travail.
HELCIARIUS, genit. helciarii. m. Mart. Qui tire un bafteau avec une corde.
Helciarius. Apul. Un Bourrelier. m.
HEU, Cic, Helas! Ah! Ha! *Heu ma miferum! Ter. Ha que je fuis miferable!
HEUS, (Interje?tion pour appeller quelqu'un.) Terent. Hola. *Heus tu? Terent Hola, à quoy penfes-tu? Que distu?
HORTATOR, genet. hortatoris m. Cic. Qui exhorte, qui encourage à une chofe.
PAUSARIUS, genit. paufarii. m. Sen. Comite de Galére. m. Qui commande aux forçats de ramer ou de s'arrefter.”
[Magnum Dictionarium Latino-Gallicum, Danetius, 1711]

Note: Hola, à quoy... (see previous)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Feb 22 - 06:57 PM

Celeufme] Keleusma exclamation, cry & admonition des nautonniers à haute voix, por fe donner courage. liv. 4. chap. 22.”
[Oeuvres de Maitre François Rabelais, Vol. 16, Bordesius, 1711]


“CELEUSMA, & Celeuma. Vide Alleluja, Scenopeja.”
[Hierolexicon, Sive Sacrum Dictionarium, Magri, 1712]
Note: “See Alleluja,” (another ˜1.5 pages not transcribed.)


“...Scribit Sidonius 1, 2. Epist. nautis in primâ Ecclefia ad Portum appellentibus folenne fuiffe canere Alleluja.”
Refponfantibus Alleluja ripis.
Ad Chriftum levat amnicum celeusma.
[Thronus Veritatis Evangelicæ Sex Gradibus Sublimitatus: Sive Festivale Sextuplex, Jamaigne, 1712]

Note: Sidonius in the original Latin. See chorus helciariorum, Farrar et al &c (above.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Feb 22 - 06:58 PM

“CELEUSMA,… genit, celeufmatis, n. Afcon-Ped Mart. Cry des Matelots, pour s'encourager à l'overage, ou certain fignal donne avec quelque inftrument de Musique pour le mesine effet. Coup de fifflet pour animer les Rameurs ou les Mariniers au travail.
HEI. (Interjection d'un homme qui fe plaint.) Ter.. Ha, helas.
HELCIARIUS, genit. helciarii. m. Mart. Qui tire un bateau avec une corde, comme fur la riviere de Seine & fur la Loire.
Helciarius. Apu. Un Bourrelier. m.
HORTATOR, genit hortatoris. m. Cic. Que exhorte, qui encourage à une chofe.
PAUSARIUS, genit. paufarii. m. Sen. Comite de Galére. m. Qui commande aux forçats de ramer ou de s'arrefter.”
[Magnum Dictionarium Latinum et Gallicum, Danetius, 1712]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Feb 22 - 05:31 AM

Celoma, le cry des mariniers, quand ils veulent ancrer, das Schreien der Schifleuten / waun sie andern wollen / celeufma.
Celomàre, m. la crierie des mariniers, idem.
Crìda, per grìda, cry public, der offentlidie Ausruf / proclamatio publica.
à Crìda, à haute voix, publiquement, in hoher erhabener Stimme / voceftentoreà, fonorà, altà.
Cridàre crier, ruffen / clamare, exclamare.
Cridatòre, m. crieur, der offentlidie Austruffer / proclamator, præco.
Oiffa, le cry du marinier pour iffer, ... / vox nautica, qua velorum expanfio jubentur.”
[Il Dittionario Imperiale, Veneroni, 1713]

Also: Grìda, gridànte, gridàre, gridàta, gridatòre, grìdo, iffa &.
Dictionaire Italien et François, 1710, above.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Feb 22 - 05:35 AM

Ҡ Celeuma, pro Celeufma; Afcon.

* Celeufma, atis; n. ... I. Hortamentum, Non. Five juffum. Sal… jubeo; unde &… I. hortator, Enn. juffor. Gl, ut fit adhortatio portifculi. Celeufma, nauticus eft clamor ad hortandum, Serv,… Mart. The Fhout or noife which Mariners make when they do any thing together with a joyned ftrength, at which times the cry, Ho up? or when the falute others with a What cheer? or when the Mafter calls and encourages them.

* Celeuftes, æ… m. Bud…, ijuffor, GI. hortator, Plaut. Qui Lat. portifculus die. The boatfwain; he that calleth on Mariners, to hearten them in the bufinefs.

Helciarius, rii; Mart. Qui navi onera funibus molitur…. An hafter, or he which haleth and draweth a fhip or barge along the river by a rope; a pug, a barge-man: alfo one who draws or pulls up any burden with cords.
        *Helcium, ii; n. Apul…. The harnefs of a cart-horfe, an horfe-collar, where-by he draweth in the cart, a trace.

HEUS: vocandi adv…. Ho! Do you hear? Fo ho! Alfo alas! Vir.

Hortatius, a, um; Quint… Exhortatory, incouraging.

Horator, oris; m/ verb. Cie. Suafor, au?tor… An encourager or advifer Hortator fcelerum, Ovid.

Pausarius, ii; m. á paufaThat officer in the ship who gave time to the rowers, and order to begin and leave off by words or figns. Paufarius voce remigibus modos dans, Sen.

To SHOUT or make a shout or cry. Conclamo, acclamo.
To fhout for joy Jubilo
A fhouting. Acclamatio, f.
A fhout. Clamor, m.
A fhout for joy Jubilum.
A fhout of soldiers when both armies joined. Barritus, ûs.
A fhout or noife that mariners make when they do anything together. Celeufma, n.
To give a fhout, or set up a fhout Clamorem tollere.

Stipator, orls; m. verb. Cie. à Stipando... di?t à Stipe, quam mercedis nomine acciplunt, Feft. An attendant or one of the Squires of the body; the guard; alfo one that lays in fuch fardels as are to be carried in a fhip; a Stower of goods.

Stupa...
        Stipando: omn. À gr…. The coufe part of flax, tow, hards, ockam to clk fhips with, Serv.
Stuparius, a, um; Plin… Of or belonging, or ferving to drefs or beat tow or hards withal
[A Latine Dictionary, Littleton, 4th ed. 1715]
Adam Littleton (1627–1694.) Another heavily revised and updated posthumous edition.


Notes:
Greek & Hebrew text omitted.
Steeving (stipa) etymology refers to shipyard caulker. The early definitions are for court guard or attendant.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Feb 22 - 05:39 AM

“CELEUSMA, cri de plufieurs perfonnes, chant de réjoüiffance que font les mariniers, quand ils prennent port, ou qu'ils aprochent de la terre. Il en est parlé en trois endroits de la Prophetie de Jerremie: Rugiens, rugiet fuper decorem fucem: celeusma ,quafi calcantium concinetur, adversùs omnes habitatores terre, faifant allufion aux chanfons de ceux qui foulent les raifins, ch.25. v.30. Dans le ch.48 v.33 il dit. Qu'il a ôré toute la joïe du Carmel, qu'il a fait répandre le vin des preffoirs; & que celui qui foule les raifins ne chantera plus ces cantiques accoutumez: Nequaquam calcator uva folitum celeufma catabit.
[Le Grand Dictionnaire de la Bible, Vol.I, Simon, 1717]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Feb 22 - 05:41 AM

“CELUMA. (Termo Nautico.) Vizeria dos marinheiros. Celeufma, atis. Nuet Mart.
A Celeuma medonha fe levanta
No rude marinheiro, que trabalha.
        Camoens. Cant. 2. Out. 25. Vid. Faina.
[Vocabulario Portuguez, & Latino, Vol.B-C, Bluteau, 1713]


“FAINA, Fàina. (Termo Nautico) A vozera, com que os marinheiros fe incitaõ a fazer o feu officio refpondendo, ou repetindo vozes a hum, que as entoa fó, para final de que rodo a huma maõ, ponhaõ o hombro, ou peyto ao trabalho. Celeufma, atis. Neut. Afcon. Pæd. Celeuma, atis, Neut. Martial. Nauticus clamor, is. Virgil. Fez moftra de fua, guerreira Armada, &c; & feytas as Fainas. Lemos, Cercos de Lisboa, pag.48. Commentãdo eftes verfos de Camoens, Cant.2.oit.25.
        A Celeuma medonha fe levanta
        No rude marinheiro, que trabalha Diz Manoel de Faria, En Eftilo Nautico fe llama Faena das bombas. Britto, Guerra Brafilica, 150.”
[Vocabulario Portuguez, & Latino, Vol.F-I, Bluteau, 1713]


“SALAMALE. Vid. Salema.
SALAMEAR. Termo de Marinheyro. Fazer a Saloma, ou Salema. Vid Salema. Vid. Fayna.
SALEMA. Vozaria de Marinheyros. He derivado da palavra Grego-Latina Celeuma. Vid. Fayna. (As Salemas ordinarias dos Marinheyros fe fazem com taes vozes, que não faõ ouvidas muytas vezes. Britto, Biagé do Brafil, pag.278.)
[Vocabulario Portuguez, & Latino, Vol.Q-S, Bluteau, 1720]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Feb 22 - 02:54 AM

Foreword: Panegyric verse or chant is not work song or call-and-response &c. Included for its future linkage to French-Caribbean calypso chantwells &c.

c.1700AD, the French word griot is still defined as the Morello Cherry (Prunus cerasus.)

I've not found any earlier Portuguese, French, Latin music related etymology for the African Guiriot mentioned here. (ie: criado &c.)

“The word may derive from the French transliteration "guiriot" of the Portuguese word "criado", or the masculine singular term for "servant." Griots are more predominant in the northern portions of West Africa.” [Griot]

“Quoy qu'ils n'ayent ny efprit, ny talent, ils aiment tant les loüanges, qu'ils ont des gens appellez Guiriotz, qui n'ont d'autre métier que celuy d'en donner. Les Guiriotz portent des efpéces de tambours longs de quatre ou cinq pieds, faits d'un tronc d'arbre creufé, qu'ils battent ou de la main, ou avec des bâtons. Ils ont auffi des Tambours à la Morefque, qui reffemblent à un Corbillon d'Oublieur, traverfez par des petites cordes qu'ils touchent d'une main, pendant que de l'autre ils le frapent d'un bâton…. (p.120)

Les Guiriotz accordent ces differens inftrumens au fon de leur voix peu mélodieufe, & chantent ainfi les loüanges des perfonnes confidérables. Celles qu'ils leur donnent d'ordinaire, c'eft qu'ils font grands Seigneurs, riches, auffi puiffans que les Blancs qui font les grands efclaves du Roy, & en un mot une infinité de pareilles fottifes. (p.122)

Ceux-ci font ravis de ces éloges, & récompenfent largement le Guiriot qui aura dit quelque bon mot pour eux. Ils pouffent même fi loin la reconnoiffance à cet égard, que je leur ai vû ôter jufqu'à leurs habits pour en payer ces fades & fauffes loüanges. Quand ils manquent à récompenfer ces coquins, il les décrient, en publiant d'eux dans les Villages autant de mal qu'ils en ont dit de bien, ce qui eft le plus grand affront qu'ils puiffent recevoir. (p.122)

C'eft pour eux le comble de l'honneur quand le Guiriot du Roy chante leurs loüanges, auffi eft-il bien recompenfé: car ils lui donnent jufqu'a deux & trois bœufs, & enfin la meilleure partie de ce qu'ils ont. (p.123)

Ces Guiriotz s'avifent auffi de chanter nos loüanges, en criant que nous fommes grands, riches, & Seigneurs de la mer. Mais ils ne trouvent pas leur compte avec nous, qui n'en fommes pas fi friands que les Negres. (p.123)

Alors on promene cette paigne dans le Village accompagnée de plufieurs Guiriotz, qui chantent les loüanges de la femme & le bonheur du mary. (p.144)

...Voyant qu'il ne répond point, ils s'en vont, & font place à d'autres qui en difent autant, pendant que les Guiriots ne ceffent point de chanter fes belles qualitez. (p.146)

...Les hommes s'exercent à la luite, & font en s'approchant des poftures ridicules, & en fe montrant le doigt, le poing ou le pied. Dans cette occafion il y en a toûjours quelqu'un qui fait le Guiriot, & qui frappe fur un chaudron, ou un tambour pour les encourager. Comme ils font nuds, ils ony bien de la peine à fe terrasser. Quand un l'eft, le Guiriot vante la valeur du victorieux, il l'exhorte à faire encore mieux contre le champion qui fuit celui-là. Ils fe donnent de rudes fecouffes, & le vaincu tombe lourdement. (p.155)

Les Guiriotz avec leurs inftrumens & leurs tambours, celebrérent les loüanges du victorieux, en lui difant, Tu meritois mieux cela que l'autre, le Roy t' a fait juftice, tu es plus beau, plus riche, plus vaillant, &c. (p.169)

...Ce revers de fortune fit changer de ton aux Guiriotz, & ils loüerent celui qu'ils venoient de blâmer. Telle eft la perfidie du Prince & de fes fujets. (p.170)

...Ils marchent fans aucun ordre de bataille, même dans le païs Ennemi. Les Guiriotz les excitent au Combat par le fon de leurs inftrumens.” (p.177)
[Les Voyages du Sieur Le Maire aux Iles Canaries, Cap-Verd, Senegal et Gambie, Dancourt, 1695]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Feb 22 - 02:55 AM

“Though they have no Wit, or any Talent of a Genius, yet they are exceffive Lovers of Praifes and Adulation; fo that there are a fort of People call'd Guiriotz, whofe bufinefs it is to perform this piece of Service. Thefe Guiriotz carry a fort of Drums near four or five Feet in length, made of a hollow Trunk of a Tree, which they Beat either with their Hands, or with fmall Sticks. There are alfo Morefque Drums, refembling Baskets, crofs'd over with little Cords, which the finger with one Hand whilft they strike with the other…. (p.82)

Thefe Guiriots Tune thefe feveral Inftruments to their Voice, which is very harfh; and they Sing Panegyricks of their Men of the beft account. The general Topicks are, that they are great Lords, Rich, and as Puiffant as the White Men, who are great Slaves of a King and, in a word, an infinite number of fuch foolifh expreffions. (p.83)

Thefe Perfons are Transported with theit Elogies, and largely recompence these Guiriots, who sing their Praifes. They make their Acknowledgements at fo great a rate, that I have seen them ftrip themfelves to reward these falfe and fulfom Flateries. When thefe Varlets mifs of their expected Fees they fall a railing, and pubifh in the Villages as many bafe things as they can rip together angainft them, contradicting whatever they had faid good of them; which is look'd upon to be the grandeft Affront imaginable. (p.83)

...'Tis efteem'd a very great Honour when the King's Guiriot Sings any ones Praifes and he never fails of a good Reward, they fometimes giving 2 or 3 Bullocks, and often the best part of their Goods. (p.83)

...These Guiriots do not omit the Singing the fame ftuff to us, crying, That we are Great, and Rich Lords of the Sea; but they fcarce find it worth their while amongft us, fince we are not fuch fenfelefs Boobies as the Negers. (p.84)

...Afterwards they walk about the Village, carrying this Cloth in Proceffion, being accompany'd with feveral of the Guiriots, who Sing the Praifes of the fair Lady, and their Wedding Joys. (p.96)

...Seeing he can get nothing in answer, he withdraws, and makes room for another, who fays as much: In the mean time the Guiriots do not fail of finging his Encomium. (p.98)

The Men Exercife themfelves in Wreftling, and approach each other in very ridiculous Poftures, holding up their Fingers, Fist, or Foot. On thefe occafions they always have one that plays the part of a Guiriot, rattling upon the bottom of a Kettle, or upon a Drum, to excite their Courage; as they are Naked, they have much ado to fling each other upon the Ground. When one is down, the Guiriot Sings and extols the Valour of the Conqueros, and exhorts the reft to play their Parts againft the Champion, better than he that engag'd last…. (p.103)

The Guiriots, with their Inftruments and the Drums, Celebrated the Priafes of the Victorious, faying to him, You Merit this Dignity far beyond the other, and the King has done you nothing but Juftice: You are by much the finer Man, more Rich, more Potent, and more Valiant, &c. (p.112)

...This Reverfe of Fortune foon chang'd the Notes of the Guiriots, and they began to Extol him they had before Decry'd. Such is the Perfidy of the Prince and the Inftability of his Subjects. (p.113)

...They march without any order of Difcipline, even in the Enemy's Country. The Guiriotz excite them to Combat by the found of their Inftruments.” (p.117)
[A Voyage of the Sieur Le Maire to the Canary Iflands, Cape-Verd, Senegal and Gamby, Dancourt, 1696]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Feb 22 - 03:03 AM

Chantwell: Southern Antillean Chantymen


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Feb 22 - 03:23 AM

“Celeufma, fcheepzang, fchippersdeuntje."
[Woordenschat, Meyer, 1720]

“HÓU, in Hóu, celeufma, eheus!, Hóubootsman, celeuftes' Hóulyk, Hóulyken, en Hóubaer, nubilis; zie daer van bij 't volgende HóUD, in deze Proeve.
De Wortel-en Zaek-deelen…
...Voorts Hóu! celeusma, eheus! een geroep om iemand aen- of op- te houden; waer van Hóu-bóótsman, celeuftes; als zijnde tot zulk Hou-roepen aengeftelt;..."
[Aenleiding Tot de Kennisse van het Verhevene Deel der Nederduitsche Sprake, Kate, 1723]

“Antreiben. Incitare.
Antereiber. Hortator, excitor, instigator
Reizer, Instigator, instinctor, allector, hortator, stimulator.
Schiffleuthen gefchrey. Celeufma."
[Dictionarium Latino-Germanicum, Frisius, 1723]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Feb 22 - 03:29 AM

Celeufma. oris, n. g. A mufica, ou alarido nautico do marinheiros; ou cantar de lagareiros; item, pê de quatro fyllabas breves. I. b. Mart. 3. 67.
Celeufmaticus a, um. Cousa de grita de marinheiros. I. 2.4.b.Græc.
Celeuftmatieus pes. Pê de quatro fyllabas breves. Cath.
Celeuftes, æ. m.g. O comitre, ou piloto, ou o que com gritos excitaos os marinheiros. I. b. Græc.
Celeustos, i, m. g. A dança I. b. Amalth.
Grita. Clamor, oris Conclamtio, onis.
Grita de Navigantes. Celeufma, atis.
Gritador. Clamator, oris.
Gritadora. Vociferans, antis.
Gritar. Clamo, as Vociferor, aris
Grito. Vociferat o onis Vociferatus, ûs.
Salamear os marinheiros. Celeufma acclamare.
[Prosodia in Vocabularium Bilingue, Latinum, et Lusitanum, Pereyra, 1723]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Feb 22 - 11:56 PM

Earlier African (Arabic?) Guiriot with French translation for Basteleur.

“...Les Guiriots, qui font comme leurs Bafteleurs, & dont ie parleray par occafion, courent par les Villages ayans ie ne fcay quels tambours pendus à leur col & frappans des mains deffius, crioyent que la femme de l'Akaire eftoit morte, adjouftans à ces advertiffements quantité de paroles de loüanges, à l'honneur de la deffuncte.” (p.71)

“…Ils eftoyent precedez des Guiriots, faifans grand bruit de leurs tambours: les Parents, Amis & Voifins fuiuent le corps, avec force cris, & tesmoignoyent de tres grands reffentiments.” (p.73)

“...A la fin de ce feftin, un chacun s'amaffa en une grande place pur dance, n'ayants autres inftruments que des tambours que leurs Guiriots touchent affez rudement, gardans pourtant quelque mefure...” (p.85-86)
[Relation du Voyage du Cap-Verd, S. Lo, 1637]

Note:
Bafteler: To iugle, or tumble; alfo, to play the buffoone, or foole; to talke verie much, and verie idly; alfo, to toffe, or wander uncertainely up and downe.
Bafteleur:A iugler, tumbler, puppet-player,; one that profeffeth any of thofe arts; also, one that leades bears, apes, baboons, or dauncing dogges about the country, and gets a fcuruie living by them.
[Cotgrave, 1611 & 1632]

Balatro


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Feb 22 - 12:05 AM

“The two Fleets being thus prepard for Battle, they made their Addreffes to their Gods according to Cuftom, the whole Multitude repeating with a Keleufma, or general Shout, the Words of their Chiefs; thefe however feeing the Danger they were in, were in no fmall Concern for the Succefs of the Battle.”
[Antiquity Explained and Represented in Sculptures, Vol.3rd, Montfaucon, 1722]


“celeufna, vel celeumam, atis, neut. genr- L'enhortment des mariners, ou autres gens qui s'efforcent de faire quelque chofe.
celeuftes, celeuftæ, m, ge. Tel embarteur & donneur de courage.
paufarius, A Seneca vocatur qui remigibus modos dat & remigandi officium quadam quafi paufa moderatur.”
[Dictionariolum Latino Gallicum, 1602]


opper bootfman. Celeuftes, g. ftæ, m.”
[Biglotton sive Dictionarium Teuto-Latinum Novum, Binnart, 1661]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Feb 22 - 12:06 AM

“Es antigua coftumbre en nueftros Navios, el que fiempre que fe ofrece hacer algun trabajo, forman un cantico los Marineros que llaman Salomar; en el que dicen exquifitas cofas, que verdaderamente caufan entretenimiento; y fe ha hecho tan neceffario efte modo de cantar, y Salomar, que todos exercitan las fuerças à un mifmo tiempo en el trabajo que hacen, y es gufto oìrlos, con que ferà conveniente no dexen efta coftumbre.”
[Directorio Maritimo, Màrquez, 1728]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Feb 22 - 12:07 AM

ҠCeleuma. Tis. n. &
* Celeufma, atis. n. Afc. Pæd. Cri des matelots qui rament, m. Pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage. Signal qu'on donne aux Matelots ou aux Rameurs, foit de vive voix, foit avec un fiflet, pour leur marquer les differentes manœuvres.
Celeuftes, æ. m. Bud. Celui qui a foin de faite faire le devoir aux Mariniers, ou autres Ouvriers; Comite, Piqueur. m.
Helciarius, ii. m. Apul. Bourrelier. m.
Helciarius, a, um. Mart. Qui tire un batteau avec une corde. ? Qui tire quelque chofe avec une corde.
*Helcium, ii. m. Apul. Colier m. de cheval où l'on attache les traits avec lefquels il tire.
Pausarius, ii. m. Sen. Comite m. de Galere, Officier qui fait voguer la chiourme.”
[Dictionarium Universale Latino-Gallicum , Boudot, 1728]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Feb 22 - 08:15 PM

“Alarido, I. Grita: A roaring, clamouring, or outcry.
Alarido de marinhéiros: A fhout or noife with Seamen when they join their forces, or an Huzza.

Rebém de comítre: The boatfwain of a fhip, or one that governs the feamen when coming to an anchor.

Salameár os marinhéiros: To make a noife, or huzza like the seamen.”
[A Compleat Account of the Portugueze Language, A.J., 1701]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Feb 22 - 08:15 PM

Alarido, ziet, grita. Gefchreeuw, geroep, geruchtmaaking.
Alarído de marinhéiros. Scheeps gefchreeuw, waar mede 't fcheepsvolk, bootsgefellen, of, matroofen malkanderen onder 't fcheeps werk aanmoedigen.
Gríta. Geroep, gefchreeuw.
Gríta de navogántes. Het fcheepsgeroep, of gefchreeuw, 't welk 't fcheeps-volk, onder 't doen van 't fcheeps werk makt.
Gritadór. Een roeper, fchreeuwer, geraasmaaker.
Salameár, of, marinhéiros. Een gefchreeuw, of geroep, gelyk de matroofen, of 't fcheeps-volk maaken.”
[Vocabulario das duas Liguas Portugueza e Flamenga, Alewyn, 1718]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Feb 22 - 08:17 PM

Zaloma, es la cancion, que tienen los Marineros, quando halan, y tiran de un aparejo, ò cabo, ù otra cofa, en que uno canta, ò zaloma, y los demàs refponded, y tiran à una.”
[Vocabulario Maritimo, 1722]


opper boots-man. Celeuftes, g. ftæ, m. g”
[Novum dictionarium Belgico-Latinum, Pomey, 1725]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Feb 22 - 08:19 PM

“AY'SSA, the cry of failors when the hoife anchor, or any other great weight, that they may all pull together, Our failors cry hoife.
CALOMA'R, the fong or cry of failors when they hale at a rope all together.
Yça, a word us'd by failors, to pull together, in weighing anchor or hoifing the yards, as ours cry hoife.”
[A New Dictionary, Spanish and English, Stevens, 1726]


“CALOMAR.f.m. Cierto canto y tono que hacen los marineros, quando tiran de algun cabo ò cofa que fe requiere tirar muchos juntos à una, y con efte clamór fe aunan para el punto de aplicar la fuerza, y fe animan unos à otros. Palac. Inftr. Naut. Oy fe dice Zalomar.Lat.Celeúfma,tos.
[Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana, Tom.II, Real Academia Española, 1729]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Feb 22 - 02:38 AM

“ZALAMERIA. (Zalameria) f.f. El exceffo de la adulacion en palabras, ò acciones. Viene de la voz Arábiga Zala, ù de la de Zalema. Lat. Blandiloquentia.
ZALEMA. f.f. La reverencia, ò cortefia humilde en demoftracion de fumifsion. Tómafe de la voz Arábiga Zalemaq, con que fe faludan los Moros, y los trahe Corvarr. en fu Thefóro. Lat. Summifsio humilis. Espin. Efcud. Relac.I. Defc.13. Haciendoles grandes zalemas, les dió un apofento, que tenia aderezado para los Mercaderes. Alfar. Part.2. lib.2. cap.9. Quando entró en la pieza, y vió à Dorotéa defalada, y los pechos por tierra, fe lanzó à fus pies, haciendole mil zalemas.
ZALOMA. f.f. Voz náutica efpecie de tono, con que fe llaman los Marineros, para executar juntos alguna faena. Lat. Vox ad Nautas citandos, vel vocandos. Cerv. Perfil. Lib.2 cap.21. Yá en efto, echa la zaloma, y arrojado el efquife.
ZALOMAR. v.a. Llamarfe, ò convocarfe los Marineros para alguna faena, animandofe para trabajar à un tiempo. Fórmafe de la voz Zaloma. Palac. Inftr. Naut. Lat. Nautas convocare, vel citare.”
[Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana, Tom.VI, Real Academia Española, 1730]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Feb 22 - 02:40 AM

“Comito di galera. Hic Celeuftes, celeuftis.
Tirator d' alzana. Hic Helciarius, helciarij.”
[Vocabolario Italiano, e Latino, Glaribanio, 1730]


Salêma. a gritaria dos marinheiros, melhor Celeuma. Salêma tambem he hum appellido, e nome de peixe.”
[Orthographia, ou Arte de Escrever, e Pronunciar com Acerto a Lingua Portugueza, Feijó, 1734]


“Calomar. Lûcher la gumene, ou autre cordage.
El calomar, m. Le ton que les mariniers chantent pour tirer & faire effort tout ensemble.
[Diccionario Nuevo de las Lenguas Española y Francesa, Tom.I, Sobrino, 1734]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Feb 22 - 02:42 AM

“Calomar. Il canto che fanno i marinari quando tirano d' accordo per accrefcer la forza nel tirare.
Hizar, o yzar. Vocabolo che ufano i marinari nell' accordarfi, & animarfi à levar qualche pefo, noi diremoso iffare.
Yça, Vocabolo che ufano i marinari, o forzati quando d' accordo fanno qualche forza, e noi diciamo iffa.
Yçar, Iffare vedi yça.”
[Vocabolario Español e Italiano, Franciosini, 1735]


CELEUMA, & CELEUSMA, atis. Cri, clameur des Matelots, des rameurs.
CELEUSTES, a. Piqueur, Comite.”
[Dictionnaire Universel François et Latin, 1736]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Feb 22 - 02:43 AM

Celeusta. Masculino. Antiguedades griega. Eel que daba las órdenes á los marineros y remeros…. Francés, céleuste.
Celéustica. Femenino. Diddáctica. Arte de transmitir las órdenes por medio de sonidos músicos.
Celéusticamente. Adverbio de modo. Por medio de la celéustica…. Francés, céleustique.”
[Primer Diccionario General Etimológico de la Lengua Española, Archdekin, 1737]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:44 PM

c.1650AD.
“...And the greateft part of thefe Sluces are pafs'd through with a great deal of eafe. But there are fome which are not to be fhot, but with a great deal of Pains and Danger. More efpecially one, which the Chinefes call Tien Fi-cha, or the Queen and Miftrefs of Heaven; thereby to exprefs in Hyperbolical Terms the extraordinary Height of it. When the Barks are row'd against the Stream, and come to the bottom of this Sluce, the Watermen faften to the Prow a great number of Cables and Cordage, which are drawn on both fides of the Canal, by four or Five Hundred Men, and fometimes more, according to the Burthen of the Veffel, and the Weight of the Lading. Others at the fame time labour at Capftanes plac'd upon the Walls of the Sluce, which are very broad and built of Free-Stone. Besides the Ropes already mention'd, there are others which are very strong, wound about great Pilars of Stone or Wood to hold the veffel if any of the other Cordage fhould chance to break. When these Cords are all faften'd, they begin to Haule by degrees, as it were keeping time to the found of a Bafon*, upon which they knock at firft but foftly, and with fome intervals between the ftroakes : but when half the Bark at leaft is rais'd to the height of the upper Channel, in regard the Current is then much ftronger, they knock upon the Bafon with thicker ftroaks; at what time the Four or Five Hundred Haule all together with loud Hey Boys, and give fuch a stretch, that the Veffel mounts up in a moment, and is fecur'd in the dead Water between the fides of the Canal and the middle of the of the Current.”
[A New History of China, Magalhaens, 1688]

* Gong.
Grand Canal (China)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:46 PM

“Boffeman, S.M. A Boatfwain of a ship.

Comite, S.M. The officer of a galley, who has particular command over the flaves.

Voix, (chanteur, chanteufe.) Voice, finger.

Voix, (en termes de mer.) The fong employed by failors, in hoifting, hauling, heaving, &c.

Donner la voix. To fing out, as in hauling , hoifting, heaving, &c.

A la voix! Mind the man that fings!
[The Royal Dictionary Abridged, Boyer, 1738]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:47 PM

“Hou, Anglis, Gallis, & plerisque Europæis eft Vox inhibentium curfum, impetum, &c…. eft Celeufma remigan– “tium, jubems quiefcere ac renos inhibere”.

Shoute, Acclamare. shout for joy, Jubilare. shouting of mariners, Celeufma. shout before the battell, Clamor eorum, qui in hoftilem aciem irrumpere parant. Fartaffe corruptum eft verbum ex G. chathuant, Noctua; ut primò ufurpatum fit de acuto illo streperóque clamore, quem nocturno tempore edunt ululæ, poftea verò translatum quoque fit ad nauticas exhortationes ac triftem bellantium barritum five uluatum.”
[Etymologicum Anglicanum, Junius-Lye, 1743]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:48 PM

Calomar, veafe zalomar.
Comitre de galera, arraunarizaya. Lat. Remigum hortator.
Zaloma, lo que cantan, y repiten los Marienros al hazer alguna faena, es voz Bafcongada, zaloma, zaleuma, que fignifica lo mifmo, de donde la tomó el Griego, y defpues el Latin celeufma, tis, Vox hortatoria.
Zalomar, zalomatu, zaleumatu Lat. Celeufma canere.
Zalomero, zalomaria, zaleumaria, Lat. Celeuftes, æ, hortator.”
[Diccionario Triligüe del Castellano, Bascuence y Latín, Tom.I-II, Larramendi, 1745]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:53 PM

c.1745AD
Kuchelavritham Vanchippattu
Ramapurathu Warrier (1703–1753)
Chundan vallam

“Sitting two to a row along the length of the boat, there will be 64 paddlers, representing 64 art forms (or on occasion 128 paddlers). They row in rhythm of the vanchipattu ('boat[man's] song'). There will be around 25 singers in a row at the middle between the paddlers. In the middle of the second half of the boat is a platform for eight people to stand from where the cantor will lead the song. They represent the Ashtadikpalakas (Devas or gods who guard the eight directions).” [wiki]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Feb 22 - 03:54 PM

“3. K???, jubeo, to command….
† 3. alfo ti exhort, to induce… to cry out as the commanders of veffels do to failors to encourage them…. celeufma, the fhout or noife of mariners when they do any thing with joint ftrength ; voice found, exhortation, command.”
[The Primitives of the Greek Tongue, Lancelot, 1748]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Feb 22 - 03:18 AM

“VEA, VEA, VEA, [a Seaman's Cry] when they work or pull ftrongly together.”
[An Universal Etymological English Dictionary, Bailey, 1721]


*CELEUSMA, atis. n. Bibl. Cri de joie , chanfon. Celeufma nauticum. MART. Le cri des Rameurs, le fignal qu'on leur donnoit avec des inftrumens, (… , hortor.) Hinc.
*CELEUSTES, a. m. Un Comite, celui qui a foin de faire faire le devoir aux Matelots.”
[Novitius seu Dictionarium Latini Gallicum, Paris, 1750]


“Celeufma, non celeuma, atis, pc. in obl. Es la grita de los Marineros, y de otras perfonas, quando à la voz de uno refponden los otros, lo que aquel uno manda. Hier.25.cap.48. & 51. fe toma por cantar de vindimiadores, y pifadores de lagar,... porque tambien al pifar la uba fe canta. Vide ibi Rob.”
[Lexicon Ecclesiasticum Latino Hispanicum, Arias, 1750]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Feb 22 - 03:20 AM

“Noise…
The mariners noife, *Celeufma, n.”
[Thesaurus Linguae Latineas, 3rd. ed, Ainsworth, 1751]


“CELEUMA, & CELEUSMA, atis, Cri, clameur des Matelots, des rameurs.
CELEUSTES, æ. Piqueur, Comite.”
[Dictionnaire Universel Francois et Latin, 1752]


“Gridu. grido. clamor. [per fama. grido. nomen [Gridu di marinari uniformi, o Celeufma. celeufma. V.I. celeufma, vel celeuma, atis. [Gridu di cui fi doli. guajo. ejulatio, ejulatus. [Aviri, o farfi gridu. avere o farfi grido. in omnium ore, fermone verfari, vel magnam apud homines exiftimationem fibi conciliare. [Fari grida, comu un arfu, ec. v. Gridario.
[Dizionario Siciliano Italiano Latino, Vol.II, Bono, 1752]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Feb 22 - 03:24 AM

“CELEUSMA, atis. n. Afcon. Pæd. ou Celeuma, atis. n. Mart. … Ordre ?ou fignal que les Officiers donnoient aux matelots ou aux rameurs, de vive voix ou avec un fiflet, pour faire les manœuvres differentes. [Quelques-uns difent que e'eft le cri les Rameurs font tous à la fois, pour dire qu'il font tous prêts, & pour s'exhorter à executer le commandement qu'on veut leur faire.
CELEUSTES, æ. M. Bud. Celui qui a foin de faire faire le devoir aux matelotes.
CLAMÖR, oris: m. Cri, clameur. Clamor… ?clamor nauticus Virg. Le cri des matelots.”
[Dictionarium Novum Latino-Gallicum, 1753]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Mar 22 - 02:10 PM

“Celeuma, ou
Celeufma: cri, fignal qu'un donne aux matelots.
Celeuftes: commandant des mariniers, ou d'autres ouvriers, piqueur.”
[Vocabulaire Universel Latin-François, Compré-Guerin-Delatour, 1754]


“(l) *Aug, de Cant. Novo, cap.2.tom.9. Celeufma, Grita de marineros.
Zeleufma, grita de Marineros. 489.”
[Camino Real dela Cruz, Haeften, 1755]


Mariner,… Exortador dels mariners. Celeuftes, æ, hortator, oris. La exortaciò dell Celeuma, atis, celeufina. Maritim, ó cofa maritima. Maritimus, a, um.”
[Dictionarium, seu Thesaurus Catalano-Latinus, Torre-Pere, 1757]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Mar 22 - 02:11 PM

“ACCORDE. Commandement que l'on fait aux rameurs, pour les faire voguer enfemble.
CARACORE. Efpece de galere, en ufage aux Indes, & furtout dans l'ifle de Borneo & dans les Moluques…. C'est en chantant, en battant la caiffe, ou en jouant de quelque inftrument de mufique, qu'on commande aux rameurs ce qu'ils ont a faire, & ils fe reglent par-là pour la maniere dont ils doivent ramer.
COMITE. Bas officier de galere, qui commande la chiourme, & qui a foin de ne pas epargner les coups de gourdin aux forçats, pour les faire ramer. Il eft auffi chargé de placer autant d'hommes d'un côté, que de l'autre de la galere, afin qu'elle ne penche point; ce ;qu'on appelle Eftiver la galere. Les galériens l'appellent Notre homme, pour lui rappeller fans doute les fentimens d'humanité dont il eft important pour eux qu'il foit pénétré.
HALER. Ce terme fignifie généralement Roidir, tirer à foi, pefer fur un cable ou fur une manœuvre. Quand les matelots halent fur une manœuvre, plufeurs enfemble, le contre-maître dit à haute voix ce mot, hale, & à l'inftant tous les matelots agiffent fur le cordage. Le même homme, lorfqu'il faut haler une bouline, les avertit par ces trois mots, un, deux , trois, & au mot trois ils donnent tous d’un commun effort la fecouffe à la bouline. En manœuvrant les couets, on crie trois fois, amure; & pour l’écoute, on crie trois fois, borde; & au troifieme cri, on hale fur la manœuvre.
HINSER. Commandement de tirer en haut, ou de hiffer.
HISSE, HISSE. Commandement redoublé, qui marque qu'il faut hilfer promptement.
HISSER. C'eft hauffer ou élever quelque chofe.
HISSER EN DOCEUUR. C’e?t hiffer lentement ou doucement.
OH! DU NAVIRE! HOLA! Cri que l'on fait pour parler à l'équipage d’un vaiffeau , dont on ne fçait pas le nom. Si au contraire on le fçait, on le nomme en criant: oh d'un tel vaiffeau, comme du Foudroyant, de l'Intrépide, &c.
OH D'EN HAUT! C’eft ainfi que ceux qui font fur le pont d'un vaiffeau, crient à ceux qui font fur les mâts ou fur les vergues.
OH HISSE! OH HALE! OH SAILLE! OH RIDE! Ce font des cris que l'on fait en différens temps, pour s’accorder dans certains travaux où l’on eft plufieurs, foit qu’il faille hiffer, haler, pouffer ou rider quelque chofe.
UN, DEUX, TROIS. Ces trois mots font prononcés par celui qui fait haler la bouline, & au dernier les travailleurs agiffent en même temps.
VOIX. On fous-entend à la. Commandement aux gens de l'équipage, de travailler à la fois, lorfqu’on donner la voix.
        On appelle Donner la voix, lorfque par un cri, comme oh hiffe! &c. on avertit les gens de l'équipage, de faire leurs efforts tous à la fois.”
[Dictionnaire Historique Theorique et Pratique de Marine, Vol. I-II, Saverien, 1758]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Mar 22 - 02:12 PM

“CALOMAR, f.m. Cri, ton des matelots lorfqu'ils manœuvrent dans le vaiffeau. Lat. Celeufma, tos.
CHIRRIAR, T. de marine. Donner du fifflet, commande que le Comite d'une galere ou autres officiers de vaiffeau fout, pour faire manœuvrer la chiourme, ou les matelots.
ZALOMAR, v. a. T. de marine. Appeller les matelots à la manœuvre. Lat. Nautis fignum dare.
[Nouveau Dictionnaire François-Espagnol et Latin, Vol.I, 1759]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 Mar 22 - 02:14 PM

“CELEUMA, atis. n. Afc. Ped. on Celeusma, atis. n. Mart. Cri des matelots pur s'encourager à la manœuvre. Coup de fifflet pour animer les rameurs. Cri de joye. Bibl.
CELEUSTES, ae. m. Officier qui donnoit le fignal pour animer les matelots. Eud.
HORTATIVUS, a, Um. Adj. Qui fert à exhorter, à encourager. Quint.
HORTATOR, oris. m. Qui exhorte, qui follicite, qui anime, qui ecite. Cic.
PAUSARIUS, ii. m. Comite, Officier de galére, qui fait voguer la chiourme, Senec.”
[Generalis Dictionarii Latino-Gallici, 1759]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Joe Offer
Date: 02 Mar 22 - 03:32 AM

Phil - you've posted so much good stuff at Mudcat, and I've really appreciated it. There are times when I would like to contact you privately. Might you like to send me your email address, so I can contact you if I have a question.

Joe Offer, Mudcat Music Editor - joe@mudcat.org


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Apr 22 - 03:32 AM

“Celeufma, atis, Algazara de marineros quando descubren tierra y alabanzas divinas.
Celeustes, æ, m.g. Comitre de Galera.”
[Compendium Latino-Hispanum, Salas, 1761]


“STEEV'ING, is ftowing Cotton or Wool, by forcing it with Screws.
VEA, VEA, VEA, [a Seaman's Cry] when they work or pull ftrongly together.”
[An Universal Etymological English Dictionary, 1761]


“CALOMA'R, the fong or cry of failors, when they hale at a rope altogether.
To HOUT, v.n. gritár, hacér alarídos, vocerías, ò algazáras.
To hout, filvár a uno reírse del.
A HOUTING, f. grito, voceria, algazára, alarido, algaráda.
ZALO'MA, f.f. the cry ufed by failors working on board a ship.
ZALOMA'R, v.a. to cry as failors do when they work on board.”
[A Dictionary, Spanish and English, and English and Spanish, Pino, 1763]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Apr 22 - 03:34 AM

“Alarido de marinheiros. Vide Faina. Vide Celeuma.

Celeuma, (termo nautico) vozeria dos marinheiros. Cry des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage (Celeufma, atis)

Faina, (termo nautico) a vozeria com que os marinheiros fe incitaõ a fazer o feu officio refpondendo, ou repetindo vozes a hum que as entoa fó, para final de que todos a huma maó ponhaó o hombro, ou pieto ao trabalho. Cry des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage. (Celeufma, tis: nauticus clamor, oris.)

Grita de navegantes. Vide Faina.

Gritador, homem que grita muito, que grita quando fall. Criard, qui criaille, qui fait bien du bruit. (Clamtor, oris)

Salema, vozaria de marinheiros: he derivado da palavra Grego-Latina Celeuma. Vide Fayna.

Salamear, termo de marinheiro, fazer a faloma, ou falema. Vide Salema. Vide Fayna.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire des Langues Françoise et Portugaise, Marques, 1764]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Apr 22 - 03:35 AM

“VEA, VEA, VEA, (a Seaman's Cry) when they work or pull ftrongly together. Hug, Hig, Hig, een Matroozen Woord als zy faamen hard werken of trekken.”
[A New and Complete Dictionary of Terms of Art, Buys, 1768]


CELEUSMA, cri de plusieurs personnes,chant de réjouïffance que font les Mariniers quand ils prennent port,ou qu'ils aprochent de la Terre.Ilen eft par lé en trois endroits de la Prophetie de Jeremie,Rugiens rugiet fuper decorem fuum: Celeufma quafi calcantium concinetur, adversùs omnes habitatores terra, faisant allufion aux chanfons de ceux qui foulent les raifins, ch.25.v. 30. Dans le ch48.v.33. il dit qu'il a ôté toute la joïe du Carmel, qu'il a fait répandre le vin des preffoirs, & que celui qui foule les raifins, ne chantera plus ces cantiques acoûtumez. Nequaquam calcator uve folitum Celeufma cantabit.
[Le Grande Dictionaire de la Bible, Vol.I, Certe, 1703, Ponthus, 1768]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Apr 22 - 03:38 AM

“CARACORO, Spezie di galera ufata dagl' Indiani, e fingolarmente nell' Ifola di Borneo, e nelle Moluche. Ella è ftretta, aguzza, e baffa dalla poppa, e dalla prua.…

...Quando vuolfi comandare alcuna cofa a quefti rematori, ciò fi fa da coloro, o cantando, o battendo il tamburo, o fuonando al cuno inftrumento; ed effi da ciò fi regolano per la maniera, colla qua le debbon vogare.”
[Dizionario Istorico Teorico E Pratico Di Marine, Saverien, 1769]

Karakoa


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Apr 22 - 10:40 AM

“ACCORD, the order to pull together on a rope or tackle; alfo to row together, or pull uniformly with the oars.
CONTRE-MAITRE, boatfwain of a fhip.
HISSE, HISSE, hoift away! hoift heartily!
HOLA-HO, a cry which anfwers to yoe-hoe.
O! d'en haul, yoa-hoa, aloft there! maft-head there! &c, the cry from the deck to thofe who are aloft, to attend to fome order,
O! hiffe, O! hale, O! faille, O! ride, the method of finging out, as a fignal to hoift, haul, or roufe together, on a tackle or rope.
SAILLE! a manner of fhouting amongft the failors, as a fignal to pull or heave all at once.
UN, deux, trois, an exclamation, or fong', ufed by feamen when hauling the bowlines, the greateft effort being made at the laft word. Englifh failors, in the fame manner, call out on this occafion —haul-in—haul-two— haul-belay!
Donner la VOIX, to fing out; as in hauling, hoifting, heaving, &c.
WINDLASS, ...As this machine is heaved about in a vertical direction, it is evident that, the effort of an equal number of men acting upon it will be much more powerful than on the capftern; becaufe their whole weight and ftrength are applied more readily to the end of the lever employed to turn it about. Whereas, in the horizontal movement of the capftern, the exertion of their force is confiderably diminifhed. It requires, however, fome dexterity and addrefs to manage the handfpec to the greateft advantage; and to perform this the failors muft all rife at once upon the windlafs, and, fixing their bars therein, give a fudden jerk at the fame inftant, in which movement they are regulated by a fort of fong or howl pronounced by one of their number.

The moft dextrous managers of the handfpec in heaving at the windlafs are generally fuppofed the colliers of Northumberland: and of all European mariners, the Dutch are certainly the moft aukward and fluggifh in this manœuvre.
[An Universal Dictionary of the Marine, Falconer, Vol.I-II, 1769]

William Falconer (1732–c.1770)

See also: Reidler.

Note: Judging from the number of Falconer citations on Mudcat, Wiki &c, the 'proto-shanty' advent horizon is somewhere along about here.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Apr 22 - 10:41 AM

CALOMAR, f.m. Air que les mariniers chantent pour tirer & faire effort tous enfemble. Lat. Celeufma, tos.
HA, interj…. Lat. Ha! Hei! Heu!
Ha, en termes de Marine eft un cri dont on fe fert pour faire agir les matelots de concert & tous à la fois.
        O Luzbel ha! No me efcucha.
        O Soberbia ha! No me entiende.
        O Envidia ha! De oir fe ofende.

ZALOMA, f.f. Terme de Marine. Cri que font les matelots pour appeller leurs camarades lorfqu'il y a quelque manœuvrer à faire. Lat. Vox ad nautas citandos.
ZALOMAR, v.a., Appeller les matelots pour manœuvrer. Lat. Nautas convocare.”
[Sobrino Aumentado o Nuevo Diccionario de las Lenguas Española, Francesa y Latina, Vol.I-II, Corman, 1769]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Apr 22 - 10:41 AM

“O , eft fouvent une interjection, & on s'en fert pour invoquer à fon fecours, pour admirer, pour fe plaindre, pour fe moquer, invectiver, & faite toutes fortes d'exclamations. O Dieu immortel! O que cela eft beau!O qu'il eft ridicule! O que j'ai mal à la tête! &c. Omon Pere, lui dis-je tout effrayé, ces gens là étoient-ils Chrétiens! Pasc.

On fe fert fouvent de ce terme fur mer pour appeler ceux à qui on veut parler: la raifon eft que le ton de ce mot eft fort, &c f e fait entendre de loin; il rend attentifs ceux à qui on adreffe la parole. O du navire, fe dit lorfqu étant en route, on veut parler à ceux d'un navire dont on ne fair pas le nom. O du Neptune, hola, &c. pour parler à ceux du vaiffeau appelé Neptune. O d'en-haut, difent ceux qui font fur le pont; pour parler à ceux qui font fur les mats, & les vergues, &c. O hale, ô hiffe, &c. fe dit pour avertir de haler , de-hiffer, &c.”
[Dictionnaire Universel Francois et Latin, Vol.VI, Mit-Pro, 1771]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Apr 22 - 12:10 PM

“CHANTER. C'eft crier diftinctement & à pleine gorge, hiffa - ho, ha, hiffa , ho, hiffe, afin qu'au dernier mot exprimé avec plus de force que les autres, tous les gens rangés fur les manœuvres halent enfemble de toutes leurs forces. On chante de différentes manieres, felon les circonftances & l'efpèce de travail.

DONNER la voix. C'eft une maniere de crier lentement, en prononçant quelques mots, à la fin defquels tous ceux qui font rangés fur la manœuvre, tirent enfemble avec force pour faire travailler comme on le défire. Donne la voix, c'eft commander à un des Travailleurs de chanter, hiffa, ho, hi, hiffa, ho, hiffe. Voyez CHANTER.

CHANTER. Ceft crier diftinctement & à pleine gorge, hiffa – ho, ha, hiffa, ho, hiffe, afin qu'au dernier mot exprimé avec plus de force que les autres, tous les gens rangés fur les manœuvres halent enfemble de toutes leurs forces. On chante de différentes manieres, felon les circonftances & l'efpèce de travail.

O! HISSE. ô! faille. ô! hale. ô! Ride. Maniere courte de donner la voix, pour faire réunir les efforts de chaque homme dans le mème inftant, afin de produire un plus grand effet.

REPRISE de main. C'eft reprendre la Manœuvre plus haut en y portant la main; lorfqu'on hiffe main-fur-main, ou à courir; alors l'Officier qui commande crie, pour encourager les Matelots, Reprends, enfants, main-fur-main, ha! ha! ha! à courir, &c.

SAILLE.. Saille! C'eft-à-dire, Tire ou Pouff avec force & vîteffe, pour hiffer quelque chofe à courir. Lorfqu'on hiffe les Huniers, on crie Saille! & tout le monde tire en même tems, courant fur le Garan des Driffes. Saille de l'Avant, c'eft pouffer en Avant; & Sailler de l' Arriere, c'eft pouffer vers 'Arriere - c'eft un commandement. Il faut failler nos Mâts de Hunes de Rechange fur l'Avant ou fur l'Arriere... Il faut pouffer ou failler nos Bouts dehors de Bonnettes pour gréer ces Voiles.

VIRE! C'eft-à-dire, Tourne. On crie aux gens qui font rangés fur les Barres du Cabeftan, pour les animer au travail, Vire, Enfans, vire! On vire au Cabeftan pour lever fes Ancres, guinder fes Mâts de Hunes, & faire d'autres forts travaux qui ne peuvent fe faire qu'à force de Cabeftan.”
[Manuel des Marins, Vol.I, Villehuet, 1773]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Apr 22 - 12:12 PM

ALARI'DO. f.m. a cry, clamour, or outcry, a fhout. From Alla, i.e. God, the cry de guerre among the Turks, Moors, and Arabs.
Alarido de marinheiros. See CELEUMA.

CELEUMA, ou celeufma, f.f. (a fea term) the fhout or noise which mariners make, when they do any thing with joined ftrength, at which times they cry, ho-up; or when they encourage each other. Lat. celeufma; fome fay it is of the mafculine gender.”
[A Dictionary of the Portuguese and English Languages, Vieyra, 1773]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Apr 22 - 02:16 PM

“CALOMAR, f.m. Cri, ton des matelots lorfqu'ils manœuvrent dans le vaiffeau. Lat. Celeufma, tos.
ZALOMA, f.f. T. de marine. Cri ou certain fon qui fe fait dans les vaiffeaux, pour appeller les matelots à la manœuvre, Lat. Datum nautis fignum, i.
ZALOMAR, v.a. T. de marine. Appeller les matelots à la manœuvre. Lat. Nautis fignum dare.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire Espagnol-François et Latin, Séjournant, 1775]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Apr 22 - 02:17 PM

“I saw the harvest of a small field. The women reaped the corn, and the men bound up the sheaves. The strokes of the fickle were timed by the modulation of the harvest-song, in which all their voices were united. They accompany in the Highlands every action which can be done in equal time, with an appropriated strain, which has, they fay, not much meaning; but its effects are regularity and chearfulness. The ancient proceleusmatic song, by which the rowers of gallies were animated, may be supposed to have been of this kind. There is now an oar-song used by the Hebridians.”
[A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, Johnson, 1775, p.97]



“Dr. Johnfon tells us that he faw the Harveft of a fmall Field in one of the weftern Iflands:— The Strokes of the Sickle were timed by the Modulation of the Harveft Song, in which all their Voices were united:— ….. There is now an Oar Song ufed by the Hebridians —Thus far the learned Traveller. Our Sailors at Newcaftle, in heaving their Anchors, &c. ufe a Song of this Kind.”
[Observations on Popular Antiquities, Brand, 1777, p.308]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Apr 22 - 02:19 PM

“There is a species of poetry peculiar to the Gael called Iurram and Orain Luathaidh. The music of the Iurram has always that mixture of grandeur and melancholy that never fails to gain its end. They are sung on board of ships and buirlings* by the sailors, when they row or work, to deceive the time. The subject is generally the life and actions of some chief or relation. The language is such as to express the sentiments and actions described; the music, expression, and the strokes of the oars, coinciding in such exact time, both the sailor and passenger forget their hardships and fatigue, even in the most inclement seasons. The Oran luathaidh, with the same view, is sung when they work on shore, and derives its name from luthadh, milling or fulling….

...The time of this fpieces of finging** is not fo quick as that of the Reel, nor fo flow as the Iurram.”
[An analysis of the Galic Language, 2nd ed., Shaw, 1778, pp.136-37)]
*boats
**Oran luathaidh.
iomramh
Fulling songs
Origin: Skye Boat Song confusion


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Apr 22 - 03:18 PM

“Celeusma, tis, n.g. Canto, ò grita de Marineros, y, de los demás, para divertir el trabajo : quum uno aliquid jubentem omnës uniformitèr respondent, quasi sibi invicem jubentes. Martial. lib. 3. de pigris nautis.
Celeustes, tæ, m.g. El Comitre de Galera : qui à Plauto Latinè Hortator appellatur, quòd ea hortamenta faciat, quæ verbo Græco Celeusmata dicuntur etiam à Latinis. Budæus.”
[Dictionarium Redivivum, Nebrija, 1778]


“Celeufma, tis: Celeuma, tis, cri des Matelots qui rament; fignal de manœuvrer donné aux Matelots.
Celeuftes, æ le Boffeman, celui qui fait manœuvrer led Mariniers.
Pro-Celeufmaticus, i, pied de vers trèsrapide, étant compofé de quatre fyllabes bréves.”
[Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Latine ,1779]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 May 22 - 02:11 PM

“They have particular laws amongft themfelves, during thofe piratical cruifes; and keep up a certain order and difcipline. In rowing, at which, from habit, they are dextrous, they have always a fong as a kind of tactic, and beat on two brafs timbrels to keep time. I have known one man on board my little veffel opportunely, with fometimes a Molucca, fometimes a Mindano Mangaio fong, revive the reft, who from fatigue, were droufing at their oars; and operate with pleafing power, what no proffered reward could effect: fo cheared, they will row a whole night.

The Moors, in what is called country fhips in Eaft India, have alfo their chearing fongs; at work in hoifting, or in their boats a rowing. The Javans and Molucca people have theirs. Thofe of the Malays are drawling and infipid. In Europe the French provençals have their fong: it is the reverfe of lively. The Mangaio is brifk, the Malabar tender. The Greeks and Romans had their Celeufma or chearing fong. Martial feems to have made one, III. 67.”
[A Voyage to New Guinea, and the Moluccas, from Balambangan, Forrest, 1779, pp.303-304)]

See: Martial, karakoa &c, above.
Lyr Add: Chanties of Capt. Tho. Forrest

See also: Caracoro/karakoa (1769, above.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 May 22 - 02:14 PM

“I.
When firft we hear the boatfwain bray,
        With voice like thunder roaring,
All hands, my boys, get under way,
        Hark the fignal for unmooring;
To fave the joyous breeze
        The handfpikes then we feize,
In hopes to find the foe,
        The capstan here,
        The windlafs there,
We man to the tune of heo hea heo.

II.
Caft loofe your top-fails next, he cries,
        Top-ga'nt fails too, and courfes;
Clue lines and geer let go, my boys,
        Haul home your fheets like horfes
                The mizen loofe–be glib,
                Fore-stay-fail too and gib,
Your down hauls, boys, let go;
        We ftrait comply,
        And eager fly,
And obey to the tune of heo hea heo.

III.
The anchor's up, ho! Next they call:
        Avaft, boys! 'Vaft your heaving,
The cat and fifh we over-haul,
        The handfpikes nimbly leaving.
                And if a profp'rous gale,
                We crowd on every fail,
Whilft our fheets they fweetly flow,
        Along we fwim,
        Our braces trim,
And all to the tune of heo hea heo.

IV.
Then lovely Moll, and Sue, and Beck,
        Their eyes with grief o'er-flowing,
With heavy hearts come upon the deck,
        The rude wind on them blowing;
                One fhort embrace we take,
                Which makes our hearts to ach;
A while we join in woe,
        Nor to our grief
        Obtain relief,
Till charm'd by the fong of heo hea heo.”
[Plymouth in an Uproar: A Musical Farce, Dibdin, 1779]

Help: Dibdin's Naval Airs


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 May 22 - 02:24 PM

“BOSSEMAN, f. m. (Officier de l'équipage d'un navire.) A Boatfwain of a ship.

COMMANDE, impérat. Holloa! The, anfwer given by the failors to the mafter, boatfwain, &c. when he calls to them to give them fome order.

Voix, (chanteur, chanteufe.) Voice, finger.

Voix, (en termes de mer.) The fong employed by failors, in hoifting, hauling, heaving, &c.

Donner la voix. To fing out, as in hauling , hoifting, heaving, &c.

A la voix! Mind the man that fings!”
[Dictionnaire Royal François Anglois, 2nd ed., Boyer, 1780]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 01 May 22 - 02:26 PM

“Abhran. A fong. Vide Amhran.
Amhra. A dream, poem.
Amhran. A fong.
Burdan. A gibe, a fing-fong.
Eafnadh. Mufic, fong, melody.
Eafnadh. Time.
Forann. A fhort verfe, verficle, fong.
Iomramh. Iomram. } Rowing.
Iomram. Iomramham. } To row.
Iomramhaidhe. A rower.
Iuarram. Fidgeting; the oar fong, a long libel or rhime.
Oraid. An oration, prayer, declamation.
Oraideach. An orator, declaimer.
Oraidaigham. To declaim.
Oraim. To pray.
Oran. A fong.
Oranach. Full of fongs.
Oranaiche. A fong?ter.
Uran. Courtefy, affability, a fong.”
[A Galic and English Dictionary, Vol.I, Shaw, 1780]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 10:50 AM

“CHANTER, v. n. c'eft crier diftinctement & à pleine gorge; hiffa-ho, ha, hiffa, ho, hiffe, afin qu'au dernier mot, exprimé avec plus de force que les autres, tous les gens rangés fur les manœuvres halent enfemble de toutes leurs forces. On chante de différentes manières, felon les circonftances & l'efpèce de travail. ( V* B)

CHANTEUR, f. m. celui qui chante: c'est ordinairement un matelot, ouvrier ou forçat, qui a la voix forte & qui pouffe, à tue-tête, de certains fons d'ufage, pendant l'exécution d'une manœuvre, au moyen defquels les efforts des gens qui y travaillent fe'font enfemble. Voyez CHANTER. (V**)”
[Encyclopedie Methodique Marine, Vol.I, A-Des, Castries, 1783]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 10:51 AM

“We got into Rafay's carriage, which was a good ftrong open boat made in Norway. The wind had now rifen pretty high, and was againft us; but we had four ftout rowers, particularly a Macleod, a robust black-haired fellow, half naked, and bareheaded, fomething between a wild Indian and an Englifh tar. Dr. Johnfon fat high on the ftern, like a magnificent Triton. Malcolm fung an Erfe fong, the chorus of which was 'Hatyin foam foam eri,' with words of his own. The tune refembled 'Owr the muir amang the heather.' The boatmen and Mr. M'Queen chorufed, and all went well. At length Malcolm himfelf took an oar, and rowed vigoroufly. We failed along the coaft of Scalpa, a rugged ifland, about four miles in length.” [pp.184-185]

“Our boatmen fung with great fpirit. Dr. Johnfon obferved, that naval mufick was very ancient. As we came near the fhore, the finging of our rowers was fucceeded by that of reapers, who were bufy at work, and who feemed to fhout as much as to fing, while they worked with a bounding activity.” [p.187]

“Laft night Lady Rafay fhewed him the operation of wawking cloth, that is, thickening it in the fame manner as is done by a mill. Here it is performed by women, who kneel upon the ground, and rub it with both their hands, finging an Erfe fong all the time. He was afking queftions while they
were performing this operation, and, amidft their loud and wild howl, his voice was heard even in the room above.”

“Our boatmen were rude fingers, and feemed fo like wild Indians, that a very little imagination was neceffary to give one an impreffion of being upon an American river.” [p.315]
[The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides With S.Johnson, Boswell, 1785]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 11:19 AM

“Donner là voix, c'eft une manière de crier lentement, en prononçant quelques mots, à la fin defquels tous ceux qui font rangés fur la manœuvre, tirent enfemble avec force, pour faire travailler comme on le defire. Donne la voix c’eft commander à un des travailleurs de chanter, hiffa, ho, hi, hiffa, ho, hiffe. Voyez Chanter.*

HISSA, ho , ha , hiffa , ô , hiffe; cri ou chant d’un matelot, qui donne la voix pour faire réunir les forces des autres matelots dans le même inftant, afin que tous les efforts réunis faffent un plus grand effet.”
[Encyclopedie Methodique Marine, Vol.II, Des-Mur, Castries, 1786]

*Vol.II got parsed from Vol.I, above, 1783


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 11:21 AM

“CALOMAR, f.m. the fong or cry of failors when they hale a rope all together.
ZALA'MA, ZALAME'RIA, f.f. flattery, adulation.
ZALAME'RO, f.m.f, a flatterer.
ZALO'MA, f.f. the ufed by failors working on borad a ship.
ZALOMA'R, v.n. to cry as failors do wen they work on board.”
[Diccionario Español e Ingles, Tom. I, 1786]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 11:43 AM

O! hiffe, ô! faille, ô! hale, ô! Ride; manière courte de donner la voix, pour faire réunir les efforts de chaque homme dans le même inftant, afin de produire un plus grand effet, voyez CHANTER.

OH! hiffe, oh! hale, oh! faille, oh ! ride; ce font des cris que l'on fait en différens temps, our s'accorder dans certains travaux où l'on eft plufieurs , foit qu'il faille hiffer, haler, pouffer ou rider quelque chofe. Voyez ô hiffe! au mot, Hissa.

REPRISE de main, c'e?t l'action de reprendre la manœuvre plus haut en y portant la main, lorfqu'on hiffe main fur main ou à courir; alors l'officier qui commande crie pour encourager les matelots: reprend, enfans, main fur main: ha! ha! ha! à courir.

SAILLER, v. a. faille! c'eft-à-dire, tire ou pouffe avec force & vîteffe, pour hiffer quelque chofe à courir. Lorfqu'on hiffe les huniers, on crie faille! & tout le monde tire en même temps, courant fur le garan des driffes. Sailler de l'avant, c'eft pouffer de l'avant; & failler de l'arrière, c'eft pouffer vers l'arrière: c'eft un commandement. Il faut failler nos mâts de hune de rechange fur l'avant, ou fur l'arrière.... Il faut pouffer ou failler nos bouts - dehors de bonnettes pour gréer ces voiles.”
[Encyclopedie Methodique Marine, Vol.III, Nad-Z, Castries, 1787]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 11:44 AM

“CELEUMA: Esta palabra que se lee en tres lugares de Jeremías 25.30.: 48.33. y 51.14. significa el júbilo, y algazara de los vendimiadores, y se aplica á las baladronadas de los vencedores que insultan á los vencidos. El Griego Keleusma significa literalmente los gritos de los Marineros, y el Hebreo Heldad, se dice propriamente de los vendimiadores que gritan hedad, hedad, hedad.”
[Diccionario Historico, Cronologico, Geografico y Universal de la Santa Biblia, A-F, 1788]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 May 22 - 11:47 AM

CALOMáR, V. Zalomar.”
[Diccionario Castellano, Tom.I, Pando, 1786]


ZALOMA, en la Marina, es la cancion que usan los Marineros cuando halan y tiran de un aparejo, cabo, ó otra cosa en que uno canta, ó zaloma, y los demas responden y tiran á una. Dicc. M. F. Ori, ou certain son, &c. Lat. Vox hortatoria. Basc. Zaloma, zaleuma. V. Lop. De Vega, vid. De San Isidr. Canto 4.
ZALOMAR, hacer zaloma. Fr. Appeller les matelots á manoeuvre. Lat. Celeuesma canere Basc. Zalomatú.”
[Diccionario Castellano: Tom.IV, Pando, 1788]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 May 22 - 09:27 PM

Celeufma, atis, cri des matelots qui rament.
Celeuftes, æ, celui qui fait manœuvrer les matelots.”
[Dictionnaire Étymologique et Raisonné des Racines Latines, Gébelin, 1780]


“CELEUSMA, grido di molte perfone, che fi eccitano vicendevolmenteal combattimento, o alla fatica; Nequaquam (diceGeremia cap.xxxxv???.) calcator uvæ folitum celeufma cantabit. E nel cap. xxv. Celeufma quafi calcantium concinetur adverfus omnes habitatores terræ: cioè, come coloro che peftano le uve, cacciano fuori de' gridi per incoraggirfi al, travaglio, o per rallegrarfi; così i Babilo nefi s' incoraggeranno gli uni cogli altri per avventarfi contro Gerusalemme, e rallegrarfi della fua perdita.”
[Dizionario Portatile della Bibbia, Vol.1, Alletz, 1781]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 May 22 - 09:28 PM

“CELEUSTES, in the ships of the ancients, was the boatswain, or other officer appointed to give the fignal to the rowers, when to pull, and when to stop their hands. –– The strokes of the oar were directed by a fong or Formula, called Celeufma. The Celeuftes was also called Epopeus, and by the Romans, Portifculus, or fimply Hortator.–– Ovid. Met. L. 3. v. 618, &c.”
[An Archæological Dictionary: Or, Classical Antiquities of the Jews, Greeks, and Romans, Wilson, 1781]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 May 22 - 09:30 PM

“I Vafcelli del Giappone hanno comunemente 30., ovvero 50. Reinatori per tirare il Remo, allorchè il vento cade: quefti Rematori fono affifi fopra di alcuni Banchi che fono pofti dalla parte della Poppa; remano in cadenza full' aria di una canzona, o fopra il tuono di alcune parole, ovvero fopra un fuono che ferve nel medefimo tempo a regolare la loro Manoeuvre, e farli prendere coraggio, a fomiglianza degl' Antichi Greci, che venivano efortati con un grido che chiamavano Celeusma a raddoppiare i loro sforzi. Quefto grido era, fecondo Aristofane,, rhippapè ,, ovvero ,, oop ,, il Celeufma era ancora in ufo preffo i Marinari Romani, I Comandanti con i loro Celeufma, dice Arriano, ordinavano ai Rematori di cominciare, o di ceffare; ed i Rematori rifpondendo con un grido, e muovevano tutti in un medesimo tempo i loro Remi.”
[Istoria dell' Origine, e Progressi della Nautica Antica, Bechi, 1785]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 May 22 - 09:31 PM

CALOMAR, s.m. Cri des matelots lorsqu'ils manœuvrent dans le vasisseau. Lat. Celeusma.
[Nuevo Diccionario Espanola-Francesa y Latina, 1st ed, Vol.I, Pt.I, A-E, Cormon, 1789]



SALOMA, s.f. L'action de crier des matelots, dans leurs manœuvres. L. Nautica opera canendo acta.
SALOMAR, Crier tons ensemble. Se dit des matelots qui, dans leurs manœuvres, jettent des cris pour s'avertir de tirer ou de pousser en un même tems. Lat. Nauticam operam canendo agere.
[Nuevo Diccionario Espanola-Francesa y Latina, 1st ed, Vol.II F-Z, Cormon, 1789]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 May 22 - 09:32 PM

CALOMAR, s.m. Cri des matelots lorsqu'ils manœuvrent dans le vasisseau. Lat. Celeusma.
Chirriar, Terme de marine. Donner du sifflet, commandement que le comitè d'une galère ou autres officiers de vaisseau font, pour faire manœuvrer la chiourme, ou les matelots.
SALOMA, s.f. L'action de crier des matelots, dans leurs manœuvres. L. Nautica opera canendo acta.
SALOMAR, Crier tous ensemble. Se dit des matelots qui, dans leurs manœuvres, jettent des cris pour s'avertir de tirer ou de pousser en un mème tems. Lat. Nauticam operam canendo agere.”
[Dictionaire Espagnol-François et François-Espagnol, Sejournant, 1789]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 May 22 - 05:39 AM

“Calomar, fubft. m. Cri des Matelos pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage. Lat. Celeufma.
Faena, subft. f. Manœuvre, fervice des matelots fur un vaiffeau; *ouvrage, travail pénible à faire dans une maifon. Opera nautica vel domeftica.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire Espagñol et François, François et Espagñol, Vol.I, A-F, Gattel, 1790]


“CELEUSMA, the cry or fhout whereby feamen anciently animated each other to their work of rowing.
CELEUSMA was afso a kind of fong rehearsed or played by the mafter, or others, to direct the ftrokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to excite them to labour. It alfo denoted the joyful acclamations of vintagers, and the fhouts of the conquerors over the vanquished. In process of time the Chriftians fung hymns and pfalms in vessels, by way of celeufma, in which the words amen and hallelujah were frequently repeated.
CELEUSTES, the boatfwain or officer appointed, among the ancients, to give the rowers the fignal when they were to pull, and when to ftop. See CELEUSMA.”
[The New Royal Cyclopaedia; or Modern Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, Howard, 1790]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 May 22 - 05:41 AM

“CELEUSMA, or CELEUMA, in antiquity, the fhout or cry of the feamen, whereby they animated each other in their work of rowing. The word is formed from … to call, to give the fignal.
CELEUSMA was alfo a kind of fong or formula, rehearfed or played by the mafter, or others, to direct the ftrokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour. See CELEUSTES.
CELEUSTES, in ancient navigation, the boatfwain or officer appointed to give the rowers the fignal, when they were to pull, and when to ftop. He was alfo denominated epopeus, and by the Romans portifculus; fometimes fimply hortator.”
[Encyclopædia Britannica; Or, a Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature, Vol.4, 1791]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 May 22 - 05:42 AM

“NOISE
The mariners' noife, * Celeufma, atis, n.”
[A New Latin-English Dictionary, Young, 1792]


“CELEUSMA, atis, n, Afc. grido, o canto di marinari, che fcambievelmensa animanfi a vogare.”
[Vocabolario Italiano-Latino, Vol.II, 1792]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 May 22 - 10:43 AM

“CHANTER, v. n. c'eft crier diftictement & à pleine gorge; hiffa-ho, ha, hiffa, ho, hiffe, afin qu'au denier mot, exprimé avec plus de force que les autres, tous les gens rangés fur les manœuvres halent enfemble de touts leurs forces. On chante de diffèrentes manières, felon les circonftances & l'efpèce de travail. (V*B)

CHANTEUR, f. m. celui qui chante: c'eft ordinairement un matelot, ouvrier ou forçat, qui a la voix forte & qui pouffe, à rue-têt, de certains fons d'ufage, pendant l'exécution d'une manœuvre, ua moyen defquels les efforts des gens qui y travaillent fe font enfemble. Voyez CHANTER. (V**)”

“O!, hiffe, ô!faille, ô! hale, ô! Ride; manière courte de donner la voix, pour faire réunir les efforts de chaque homme dans le même inftant, afin de produire un plus grand effet, voyez CHANTER.

REPRISE de main, c'eft l'action de reprendre la manœuvre plus haut en y portant la main, lorfqu'on hiffe main fur main ou à courir; alors l'officier qui commande crie pour encourager les matelots: reprend, enfans, main fur main: ha! ha! ha! à courir.

SAILLER, v. a. faille! c'eft-à-dire, tire ou pouffe avec force & vîteffe, pour hiffer quelque chofe à courir. Lorfqu'on hiffe les huniers, on crie faille! & tout le monde tire en même temps, courant fur le garan des drisses. Sailler de l'avant, c'eft pouffer de l'avant; & failler de l'arrière, c'eft pouffer vers l'arrière: c'eft un commandement. Il faut failler nos mâts de hune de rechange sur l'avant, ou fur l'arrière.... Il faut pouffer ou failler nos bouts - dehors de bonnettes pour gréer ces voiles.

VOIX, f. f. fon qui fort de la bouche de l'homme. La marine emploie ce mot dans ces façons de parler: être à la voix, à portée de la voix; c'eft être affez près pour fe faire enténdre en parlant avec le porte-voix ou fans porte-voix. Nous commençâmes le combat à portée de la voix, & peu après nous abordâmes. Donner la voix, voyez
DONNER LA VOIX. A la voix, c'eft commander aux gens de l'équipage de travailler au fon de la voix, afin de faire effort tous enfemble.”
[Dictionnaire Encyclopedique de Marine, Vol.I-III, Duclarebois, 1793]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 May 22 - 10:46 AM

Appeller les matelots à la manouvre. Zalomar, hacer la zaloma; en la Marina es una cancion que usan los marineros cuando hacen su maniobra. V. Dice. De las quatro leng. La voz zaloma.
Celeusma, tos, m. Calomar, zalomar, voz de Marineros cuando hacen la maniobra.
Isop. Voz con que se excitan entre sí los marineros á izar las velas.”
[Diccionario Castellano, Pando, 1793]



Appeller les matleots à la manouvre. Zalomar, hacer la zaloma; en la Marina es una cancion que usan los marineros cuando hacen su maniobra. V. Dice. de las cuatro leng. la voz zaloma.
Celeusma, tos, m. Calomar, zalomar, voz de Marineros cuando hacen la maniobra.”
[Los Tres Alfabetos Frances, Latino É Italiano, Tom.IV, Pando, 1793]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 May 22 - 10:47 AM

“CELEUMA, o Celeusma. In greco …. Canzone o ritmo che s'intuonava ai remiganti per incoraggiarli alla fatico, o regoiarla, o farla cessare. Marziale:

        Quem nunc rumpere nauticum celeusma.

Corisponde a quel di Virgillio: incumbite remis. Talvolta si avvisavano I remiganti con suono di pietre battute l'una contro l'altra. Senofonte. –– Talvolta con sinfonia a più strumenti. Pediano: cani remigibus celeusma è pure l' ordine del piloto. Aristofane adopra… , vogate; e o'..., cessate.
CELEUMA. E' la voce del capo che dirige i facchini nello scaricar merci, o tirar barche.
*CELEUSTES. Nome di danza ridicola delle molte presso i Greci, Ateneo *.
CELEUSTES. Direttore dei remiganti. In greco….”
[Dizionario di Antichità Sacre e Profane, Vol.III, 1794]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 May 22 - 10:48 AM

“ALARIDO, f..m. Gritaria, clamor, vozes juntas,…
– de marinheiro, v. Faina. Celeuma. ¶Fazer, dar grandes alaridos. Crier, exciter, faire du tumulte, du trouble; trumbler. (Tumultari. Turbas facere. Cic.)

FAINA, f.f. (T.Naut.) Celeuma, vozeria com que os marinheiros fe incitão a fazer o feu officio, quando trabalhão; &c. Cri des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouverage. (Celeuma, ou Celeufma. Tis. f.n. Afc. Pæd.)
[Diccionario Portuguez Francez e Latino, da Costa. 1794]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 May 22 - 10:49 AM

“Celeusma, atis, n. grido di marinari, che vicendevolmente fi animano.

Gridatore, clamatore, oris, g.m.
Gridatore, banditore, præco, onis, g.m.

Grido, alzata di voce, exclamatio, onis g.f.”
[Nuovo Vocabolario Osia Raccolta di Vocaboli Italiani, 1795]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 May 22 - 01:34 PM

“Calomar, il canto che fanno i marinari quando tirano d'accordo per accrefcer la forza nel tirare.

Hiçar, vocabolo con che i marinari fi vanno animando l' un l' altro nell' alzar qualche pefo, o far qualche forza infieme. E d' accordo.

Yça, vocabolo che ufano i marinari, o forzati quando d' accordo fanno qualche forza, e noi diciamo iffa.”
[Vocabulario Español e Italiano, Vol.II, Florentino, 1796]


“PAUSARIAS. Oder Keleuftes. f. Keleuftes.
Salomar. Auffingen.
Salomare. Auffingen.
Zalomar. f. Salomar.”
[Allgemeines Wörterbuch der Marine, Röding,1796]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 May 22 - 01:36 PM

CELEUSMA, or Celeuma, in antiquity, the fhout or cry of the feamen, whereby they animated each other in their work of rowing. The word is formed from keleusma, to call, to give the fignal.
Celeusma was alfo a kind of fong or formula, rehearfed or played by the mafter, or others, to direct the ftrokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour. See Celeustes.
CELEUSTES, in ancient navigation, the boatfwain or officer appointed to give the rowers the fignal, when they were to pull, and when to ftop. He was alfo denominated epopeus, and by the Romans portifculus; sometimes simply hortator.
CHANT, (cantus), is ufed for the vocal mufic of churches. In church-hiftory we meet with divers kinds of chant or fong. The firft is the Ambrofian, established by St Ambrofe. The fecond, the Gregorian chant, introduced by Pope Gregory the great, who eftablifhed fchools of chantors, and corrected the church-fong. This is ftill retained in the church under the name of plainsong; at firft it was called the Roman fong. The plain or Gregorian chant, is where the choir and people Fing in unifon, or all together in the fame manner.”
CHANTOR, a finger of a choir in a cathedral, The word is almoft grown obfolete, chorifter or finging-man being commonly ufed inftead of it. All great chapters have chantors and chaplains to affift the canons, and officiate in their absence.
[Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.IV, CAA-CHE, London, 1797]



“VOIX, fubft. fém. The fong employed by failors, in hoisting, hauling, heaving , &c.
DONNER LA VOIX. To fing out, as in hauling, hoifting, heaving, &c.”
[Vocabulaire des Termes Marine, Lescallier, 1797]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 May 22 - 01:38 PM

Alarido, m. Geschrey, Kriegsgeschren der Barbaren; Geheul, Wehflagen.
Calomar, das Geschrey der Matrosen, wann sie im Schiffe zugleich Hand anlegen.
Calomar, o. rufen, schreyen, wie die Matrosen thun, wenn sie ein Séil, Tau anziehen; absingen.
Zaloma, f. ein gewisses Zeichen mit der Stimme auf den Schiffen, um dic Matrosen an ihre Arbeit zu rufen, das Geschren, auf welches sie alle auf an einem Taue ziehen; das Absingen. S. A.
Zalomar, o. absingen, bamit alle Matrosen auf einmal an einem Taue ziehen. S. A.”
[Nuevo Diccionario Espanol-Aleman y Aleman-Espanol, Vol.I-II, 1798]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 May 22 - 01:39 PM

CALÓMA. (Náut) Grita de marineros. Crying out zaloma.
[Diccionario Nuevo de las dos Lenguas Española e Inglesa, Tom.I, A-E, Connelly, 1798]


SALÓMA. s.f. La accion de salomar. A failor's fong, the act of finging out when he hauls a rope &c.
SALOMÁR. v.n. Cantar juntos los marineros para tirar ó empujar á un tiempo en las maniobras. To fing out, ufed by failors when they work, or haul a rope together.
ZALÓMA. s.f. (Náut.) Cancion que usan los marineros quando halan de un aparejo. A fong ufed by failors when they haul a rope together.
ZALOMÁR. v.a. Hacar la zaloma. To fong and haul together a rope, as failors are wont to do.”
[Diccionario Nuevo de las dos Lenguas Española e Inglesa, Tom.II, F-Z, Connelly, 1798]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 May 22 - 01:41 PM

“The keleustes or hortator remigium, is by some considered as the Boatswain; his duty was to repeat the orders to the rowers , and to distribute their allowance to the Ship's Company…. The last Officer whom we shall notice, though several other professional names occur in antient writers, was the..., or Musician, who endeavoured both by his voice and skill on whatever instrument he performed, to cheer the spirits of the Rowers:

Acclivis malo mediis intersonat Orpheus
Remigiis, tantos que jubet neocire labores.
Statius, Theb. V. v. 343

Against the mast the tuneful Orpheus stands,
Plays to the weary'd rowers, and commands
The thought of toil away.”
[Memoirs of Navigation and Commerce from the Earliest Period, The Naval Chronicle, Vol.II, 1799, pp.186-187]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 May 22 - 01:03 AM

“CELEUSMA, atis, n. I) eigenlijk het aanfpooren tot de arbeid. 2) bij zonder van vaarenegezellen, is het of het geschreeuw der bootsgezellen, om zich op te wekken, of de daad yan den officier der roejers, als hij met den hamer alz 't ware de mact floeg, opdas zij de reimen te gelijk opbiaren, en te gelijk vallen zouden laten, Marcial. III, 60, 4. Rutil. I, 370: cf. Afcon. ad Cic. in. Caecil. 17.”
[Lexicon Latino-Belgicum Auctorum Classicorum, Scheller, 1799]



“PORTUGUESE
5175. ZALOMAR, v. to sing out
SPANISH
3481. Zalomar, v. to sing out
[A Marine Pocket Dictionary of the Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and German Languages, 1799,]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 May 22 - 01:05 AM

ZALOMA, f. f. the cry ufed by sailors working on board a fhip.
ZALOMAR, v. n. to cry as failors do when they work on board.
[A Dictionary, Spanish and English, Baretti, 1800]


“Calomar, m. das Geschrey der Matrosen, wann sie im Schiffe zugleich Hand anlegen.
Calomar, o. rufen, schreyen, wie die Matrosen thun, wenn sie ein Seil, Tau anziehen; absingen.”
[Nuevo Diccionario Español-Aleman y Aleman-Español, Vol.II, Wagener, 1800]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 May 22 - 01:06 AM

“Le son des instrumens, le cliquetis de armes, les ordres donnés par les officiers, le chant cadencé des musiciens(1), les résponses (2) des matelots, le jeu des rames, et ces sons divers répercutés souvent par les montagnes qui formoient la côte et qui sembloient comme suspendues; voilà la scène majestueuse dont les historiens présentent à notre imagination le tableau, et dont les détails se ressentent évidemment de la relation laissée par des hommes qui eurent la glorie de participer à ce magnifique triomphe.

(1) Keleusma. (N. de l'A.)
(2) C'est ainsi que Gronovius rend le mot… (N. de l'A.)”
[Voyage de Nearque, Vol.I, Vincent, 1800]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 May 22 - 01:08 AM

“Celeufma, atis, n. vox & clamor, quo portisculus remigibus fignum dat, cosque ad remigandum adhortatur, v. gr. Mart. grido, o canto di marinari, che fcambievolmente animanfi a vogare mornarsko zamjenito u vozu popjevanje.”
[Lexicon Latino-Italico-Illyricum, Stulli, 1801]



“Nódítás: Celeusma. eine Vermahnung, Aufmunterung.
Nodítom: Adhortor, Impetio, is. ich ermahne, vesmahne.
Onßolás: Hortatus, Instinctus, Cohortatio clamosa, Celeusma. die Dermahnung, Unreizung, Anfrischung mit Geschren.
Onßolom: Cohortor, Clamore impetio, ich ermahne, bermahne mit Geschren.
Onßoló kiáltás: Celeusma, wenn man fich einander mit Zurufen ermahnet.”
[Dictionarium Latino-Hungaricum, Vol.2, Páriz, Bod, Molnár, Eder, 1801]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST
Date: 30 May 22 - 01:10 AM

“(257) §. CXLI. Aux premiers cris… signifient proprement ce cri par lequel on anime les matelots à ramer avec vigueur. Il se dit aussi de la chanson que chantent les matelots en ramant. Les Latins disoient, à l'imitation des Grecs, Celeusma. Hygini, Fab. XIV, pag. 55, cum notis Munckeri et Van Staveren.”
[Histoire, Vol.3, Herodotus (Ctesias) 1802]



“CALO'MA, f.f. (Naút.) Singing out of failors when they haul a rope.
SALO'MA, f.f.
1. (Naút.) Singing out of failors.
2. (Ict.) Goldline. (Sparus Salpa, Linn.)
SALOMA'R v.n. (Naút.) To fing out.
ZALO'MA, f.f. (Naút.) Singing out of feamen when they haul with a rope.
ZALOMA'R, v.n. (Naút.) To fing out.”
[A New Dictionary of the Spanish and English Languages, Neuman, 1802]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Jul 22 - 12:16 PM

“Celeuma, tis, ó Celeusma, tis. n. Canto, grita ó algazara de marineros quando descubren tierra, y para avertir el trabajo.
Celeustes, æ. m. El cómitre de galera.”
[Dictionarium Manual Latino Hispanum, 2nd ed, Ximenez, 1802]


“Calomar, s.m. the cry of sailors when they hale a rope all together.
[Nuevo Diccionario Portatil Espanol E Ingles, Gattel, 1803]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Jul 22 - 12:17 PM

“...and the sprightly notes of the drum and fife, by which the labour of the capstan-bars is at present so much abated, was a delightful task assigned to the Grecian Trieraules, who stood before the mast, and cheered his weary shipmates with the exhilarating music of the Canaanites.

Against the mast the tuneful Orpheus stands,
Plays to the wearied rowers, and commands
The thought of toil away :
                Statius, Theb. V. v. 343”
[The Progress of Maritime Discovery, The Naval Chronicle, Vol.X, Clarke, 1803, p.407]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Jul 22 - 12:27 PM

“Song (mind the)?……...        attention à la voix?
        out (to)……        arranger un certain chant, pour faire agir des hommes ensemble et en mesure.”
[Dictionnaire de la Marine Anglaise, et traduction des termes de la Marine Française en Anglais, Romme, 1804]


celeustes. v. Aguzzino, Auzzino, Comito, Lauzzino.”
[Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, Tomo VII, V-Z, Cesari, 1804]


Note: And speaking of torture... Dibdin's Tom Tough (Yo Heave Ho) &c &c would go right about in here somewheres per the Reidler model.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Jul 22 - 01:19 PM

“Niet slechts in den kryg maar ook in andere omstandigheden had men oudstyds zekere roep. Zo vind men in 't Hebreeuwsch het woord Hedad, als de roep der geenen die in de Wynoogst de druif in de pers treedende, elkander dus opwekten om met vrolykheid te arbeiden. Sommigen denken dat het ook de roep der Stuurlieden op een Schip was: alsdan komt het overeen met het celeusma der Grieken en Latynen. Lentos tingitis ad celeusma remos. Mart.”
[Aanmerkingen Over de Dichtkonst, Drayer, 1805]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Jul 22 - 01:21 PM

“Absingen, v. a. cantar; absingen, als die Matrosen, bey der Arbeit, zalomar.”
[Diccionario Aleman y Español, Schmid, 1805]


“Saloma, sost.f. canto de' marinaj
Salomar, v.n. cantar manovrando
[Dizionario Italiano-Spagnuolo e Spagnuolo-Italiano, Vol.2, Manni, 1805]


“Calomar, s.m. cri dess matelots pour s'encourager
Saloma, s.f. chant des matelots
Salomar, v.n. chanter en manœuvrant
[Nuevo Diccionario Portatil Espanol y Frances, Vol.I, 1806]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Jul 22 - 01:22 PM

“CANTO IV
XVI.
Com ruidosa voz de prazer cheio
Grita , e diz: Levem ancora ligeiros,
Dem-se vélas aos vencos, porque creio,
Que Aurora cedo mostra os seus Luzeiros.
Do cóncavo convéz posto no meio
Com vozes animava os marinheiros:
Ouvia-se ao mover do Cabrestante
A Nautica Celeuma dissonante….

CANTO IX
XXXI
Vendo Zargo já perto amena Praia,
Qque formava huma piacida Enseada,
Onde apenas o mar, quando se espraia,
A vaga mostra hum pouco encapellada;
E a Nautica Celeuma começacia,
Colhe-se o panno, e a ancora bidente,
Cahir da prôa sobre o mar se sente.”
[Zargueida, Descobrimento da Ilha da Madeira, Poema Heroico, Francisco de Paula Medina e Vasconcellos, 1806]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Jul 22 - 05:04 PM

“Now all things ready, then without delay,
The boatswain's shrill pipe, bids them, heave away!
To fife and drum they heave the capstan round,
Weighs th’ pond’rous anchor from the oozy ground.”
[Naval Poetical Journal in Twelve Letters, Letter II, Craw, 1807, p.29]


“'Tis service now so briefly he commands,
That “to unmoor the ship be pip'd all hands:”
'Tis instant done and now with constant round
The capstan heaves, each pacing to the sound
Of fife and drum; till the expected call
Pipes shrilly for the welcome word “to pawl.”*
Now at the huge cat-fall each nerve is stretch'd,
Until the anchor to the cat-head's fetch'd;
Here they secure it, while the great fish-hook
Drags to its place the heavy crooked fluke.

*When work is done at the capstan, music is generally played to make the men step together, and do it cheerfully.—To “pawl,” is to secure the capstan—to stop.”
[The Cruise: A Poetical Sketch in Eight Cantos, A Naval Officer, 1808, p.25]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Jul 22 - 05:07 PM

“Celeuma, tis. Ó Celeusma, tis. n. Canto, grito ó algarza de marineros cuando descrubren tierra, y para divertir el trabajo.
Celeustes, æ. m. El cómitre de galera.”
[Dictionarium Manuale Latino-Hispanum, Jiménez, 1808]


“* Celeusma, atis. n. Asc. Ped. El grito de los marineros ó remeros para animarse á la maniobra. ? La señal que se da á los marineros ó remeros, sea de viva voz, ó con un silbido para señalarles las diferentes maniobras. Se halla tanbien Celeuma.
* Celeustes, æ. m. Bud. El que hace hacer su deber á los marineros ó remeros, como el cómitre.”
[Diccionario Universal Latino-Español, Valbuena, 1808]


“Calomar, s.m. cri des matelots pour s'encourager.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche François-Espagnol, Vol.II, 1809]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Jul 22 - 05:09 PM

“The Athenians man their gallies, according to their respective rates, with a due proportion of soldiers and sailors. The former are generally heavy-armed, for the endeavor to come to boarding as soon a s possible, and by engaging hand to hand, being it as near as practicable to a land-fight. The sailors are made up of mariners, who manage the sails and tackling, and rowers; both composed of citizens, contrary to the practice in other countries, where the latter are always slaves. Amongst the Athenians they divide them into three orders; those in the uppermost benches are called Thranitai, those in the middle Zeugitai, those in the lower Thalamitai. The first have the largest pay; since by the distance of the water, and length of their oars, they undergo more fatigue and danger than the others. The officers on board a fleet, besides the admiral and his lieutenants, are the Trierarchs or captains of ships, who have under them the master pilot, the Keleustes or boatswain, who directs and places the rowers, and the Logistes or purser, besides other subalterns.”
[Athenian Letters (Anarcharsis the Younger) , Vol.I, Hardwicke, 1810]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 02:51 AM

Huntington, Gale. William Litten's Fiddle Tunes: 1800 – 1802, Vineyard Haven, Mass.: Hines Point Publishers, 1977.

“"William Litton’s Fiddle Tunes 1800-1802" ~ extracts from the introduction by Gale Huntington, pages 6 & 7

This collection of fiddle tunes was made by William Litten at sea on a vessel, or on two different vessels, of the British India fleet in the years 1800, 1801, and 1802.

Everything that we know about the man is from disjointed material on the inside front and back covers of the manuscript book and from scraps of information on the pages of the book itself and from the music. The notes in the text are difficult to decipher because Litten’s handwriting and spelling are both very bad, and in places the paper has bled. On the other hand the tunes themselves were transcribed without too much difficulty, for Litten was a good musician.

The manuscript is in the library of the Dukes County Historical Society* in Edgartown, Massachusetts, on the Island of Martha’s Vineyard.

Here are some of the facts that we can gather from the scattered notes. The British India fleet sailed from England May 27th, 1800, and arrived in China February 10th, 1801.

(Note: the author in correspondence with ~ John Compston, E.D., D. Litt. of Australian National University, says that the fleet visited Australia and may have made other stops during the passage.)

The fleet consisted of sixteen war vessels. The names of the vessels and of six of the captains of them are listed on the inside back cover of the book. ~ We can not be sure which ship Litten was on on the voyage out, but on the return voyage he was evidently on H.M.S. Gorgon, for he mentions a stop of that vessel at St. Helena on June 3rd, 1802. Litten’s duty was that of ship’s musician. At that time there was no chanteying on British war vessels, for chanteying was considered much too undignified for His Majesty’s service. Instead of a chanteyman all war vessels of any size carried and official fiddle player whose music helped to lighten some of the heavier work. A little after Litten’s time the cornet began to compete with the fiddle.
~
The manuscript was brought home to the Vineyard by Allen Coffin of Edgartown. His name appears on the inside cover of the book. Allen Coffin must surely have been younger than Litten. But they may have been shipmates, if not on that voyage perhaps on a later one. Coffin was born in 1788. But many boys did go to sea at twelve or thirteen in those days, and many American were serving in the British navy, usually because they had been pressed into the service.

James Coffin, Allen’s father, had been a seaman and then a shipmaster. But by 1800 he had retired from the sea and was an Edgartown merchant and a man of real wealth for the Period. He had a fleet of small merchant vessels that sailed to all parts of the world. Such men as James Coffin often did send their sons to sea at an early age to learn the business.

We cannot be sure that Allen Coffin played the fiddle but he probably did or why would he want Litten’s book? Also there were a great many more fiddle players a hundred and seventy-five years ago than there are today. (1970s) We do know that Allen’s family was a musical one, tow of his daughters played the violin and played it well. It could be just that fact that accounts for the book’s survival.

Allen Coffin is mentioned several times in Jeremiah Pease’s diary for the early years of the 19th century. Jeremiah was a singer and he and Allen were friends. They used to go fishing and eeling through the ice together. Perhaps they made music together too.

But about William Litten we do not know even whether he was English, Scottish, Irish or American. There are some very good Irish tunes in the book and some equally good Scottish and English ones. However Litten did not seem to care too much for the typically Scottish dotted eighth and sixteenth note combination. In fact, some of his Scottish tunes play like Irish versions of them. There are even some almost American tunes in the book. That "almost" is because American fiddle tunes were rare in those days and even some tunes that we think of as American had their origin in the British Isles. # Posted by ceolachan 8 years ago.”
[Boring The Leather (jig)]
*Now part of The Martha’s Vineyard Museum

On Worldcat: William Litten's Fiddle Tunes: 1800-1802
On Mudcat: RE: Tune Add: Bacon & Greens


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 02:53 AM

“CHANTER, pour agir ensemble = Zalomar.
Donner La Voix, chanter pour faire effort ensemble = Salomar.
SALOMAR = Donner la voix, chanter pour faire effort ensemble.
VOIX, donner la voix, agir a la voix = Salomar.
        A la voix! = Listo!
ZALOMAR (voyez salomar).
[Dictionnaire des Termes de Marine Français-Espagnols et Espagnols-Français, Petit, 1810]


“Calomar, m. the cry of the sailors when they hale a rope altogether
Saloma, f. The singing of the sailors. Salomar, n. to sing together, as sailors do.”
[The First Dictionary of Two Languages Under a Single Alphabet, English and Spanish, Feranadez, 1811]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 02:56 AM

North American rowing songs – lyrics &c posted here:

Lyr Req: V'la l' Bon Vent (Ian & Sylvia)
Le Canard blanc (chanson)
J'ai vu le loup

Journal of a Voyage up the River Missouri - 1811, 2nd ed, Brackenridge, 1816, pp.57-58
Travels in the Interior of America 1809-1811, Bradbury, 1817, pp.12-13


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 03:00 AM

Negro Boat Song
...We started from Purrysburgh about two o;clock and were rowed by four negroes, for canoes are not paddled here as in Canada. They seemed to be jolly fellows, and rowed lustily to a boat song of their own composing. The words were given by one of them, and the rest joined the chorus at the end of every line. It began in the following manner:
                                                                        CHORUS
        We are going down to Georgia, boys,        Aye, aye,
        To see the pretty girls, boys,                Yoe, yoe.
        We'll give 'em a pint of brandy, boys,        Aye, aye.
        And a hearty kiss besides, boys.        Yoe, yoe.
                &c. &c. &c.


The tune of this ditty was rather monotonous, but had a pleasing effect, as they kept time with it, at every stroke of their oars. The words were mere nonsense; any thing, in fact, which came into their heads. I however remarked, that brandy was very frequently mentioned, and it was understood as a hint to the passengers to give them a dram*. We had supplied ourselves with tis article in Purrysburgh, and were not sparing of it to the negroes in order to encourage them to row quick.”
[Travels Through Lower Canada, and the United States of North America, in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808, Lambert, 1810]

Origin: Johnny Come Down to Hilo
New evidence for 'shanty' origins?

*See also Smith (above) – A fresh Spell is to releeve the Rowers with another Gang, give the Boat more way for a dram of the bottell, who saies Amends, one and all, Vea, vea, vea, vea, vea, that is, they pull all strongly together.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Jul 22 - 03:03 AM

“The corn of this island [Raasay] is but little. I saw the harvest of a small field. The women reaped the corn, and the men bound up the sheaves. The strokes of the sickle were timed by the modulation of the harvest song, in which all their voices were united. They accompany in the Highlands every action, which can be done in equal time, with an appropriated [sic] strain, which has, they say, not much meaning; but its effects are regularity and cheerfulness. The ancient proceleusmatic song, by which the rowers of galleys were animated, may be supposed to have been of this kind. There is now an oar-song used by the Hebridians.”
[A Journey to the Western Islands &c., The Works of Samuel Johnson, Vol.VIII, 1811]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:55 PM

“Swift o'er the deck the busy boatswain goes,
And his shrill call at ev'ry hatchway blows :
"All hands unmoor!" aloud at each he cries,
"All hands unmoor!" each ready mate replies.
Rous'd by the sound, on deck the seamen swarm,
For music can the rudest bosom charm!
And, near the capstan, lo! a motley band
Of naval minstrels take their noisy stand!
The crew whose hands the plane and chissel guide,
Fix the huge levers in the capstan's side.
Deep in the hold, secluded far from day,
Some seamen coil the pond'rous rope away.
Hark! hark! the rugged melody I hear!
The piercing fife assails my shrinking ear;
The creaking fiddle, and the bagpipe's drone,
Which pours its sorrows in a mono-tone!
The drum crowns all; and to its leaden beat,
The crew keep time with deck-destroying feet!”

“Around the embers of the galley-fire,
For song and glee the cheerful tars retire.
There, while the cordial grog goes gaily round,
And recent trouble in the bowl is drown'd,
Again they fight their former battles o'er,
Or drink to those, belov'd, they left on shore.
Alternately the laugh and jest prevail,
And now the song is heard, and now the tale.
Hark! with a voice that stuns the deafen'd ear,
Whose rugged notes 'twere agony to hear,
Stentorophontus (best such name may suit
The man whose voice out-yells the fiercest brute)
With mouth extended, roars the rough-spun lay
That paints the perils of some fierce affray.
Rough bellowing quavers hang on ev'ry note,
As if a top-chain rattled in his throat;
Whilst in the chorus all the seamen join,
And pay the songster in his proper coin.
Anon, a tar, whose destiny severe,
For music gave him neither voice nor ear;
To furnish out his quota of delight, T
Begins some wond'rous story to recite,
Of goblins, sprites, and all the horrid crew
That ever fear conceiv'd, or terror knew;
Whilst, with attentive ear, the seamen round,
Hang on his lips in silence most profound.

So flies the time, till now th' extinguish'd fire
Warns them on other bus'ness to retire;
The warning they receive, and soon they go,
Those to their watch, and these to rest below.”

“Now swift canoes, with paddles short and strong,
To measur'd notes of music skim along,
And oft, the sable rowers, as they time
Their skilful strokes, their mellow voices chime.”
[Britain's Bulwarks or The British Seaman, Woodley, 1811, pp.57, 80-81, 129-130]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:56 PM

“DITHYRAMBO VI.
Assustáo-se os nautas, e a rouca celeumam
        A's estrellas vòa;
        De tristes gemidos
        O ar se povòa:…


Nos cheirosos lagares
Da Celeuma (I) o alaridosSe espalha pelos ares,
Do Eco repetido;
Enchendo de alegri
A rude companhia.

(I) Ainda que esta voz se costuma applicar á grita, que os Marinheiros fazem, excitando-se mutamente com ella ao trabalho; a sua original significaçao he exprimir a grita alegre dos Vindimadores. Isaias cap.16. v.10 Jeremias cap.48. v.33.”
[Poesias de Antonio Diniz da Cruz e Silva, 1812]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:57 PM

SALOMA, s.f. Sorte de cri on de chant des matelots pendnt la manœuvre.
SALOMAR, v.n. On le dit des matelotes qui crient ou chantent tous à la fois en manœuvrant.”
[Diccionario Español Frances y Frances Español, Taboado, 1812]


“Alarido de marinheiro, cri des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage
Celeuma, s.f. (t. de mar.) cri des matelots pour s'encourager à ramer
Faina, s.f. cri des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage
Salema, s.f. stokfiche; chant des matelots en ramant
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche Francais-Portugais, Sociedade de Literator, 1812]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 08:59 PM

“CELEUMA, or CELEUSMA, [from… to call] in antiquity; 1. The shout or cry of the seamen, whereby they animated each other in the work of rowing. 2. A kind of song or formula, rehearsed or played by the master, or others, to direct the strokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour. See next article.
CELEUSTES, in ancient naivgation, the boatswain or officer appointed to give the rowers the signal, when they were to pull, and when to stop.”
[The Imperial Encyclopaedia; Or, Dictionary of the Sciences and Arts, Vol.I, Johnson, Exley, 1812]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 23 Jul 22 - 09:00 PM

“Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the crews of each of the said ships of seventy-four guns, shall consist of two hundred able seamen, three hundred ordinary seamen and boys, three serjeants, three corporals, one drummer, one fifer, and sixty marines.”
[An Act: To increase the Navy of the United States, Naval Chronicle, Vol.XXIX, 1813, p.238]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jul 22 - 01:59 AM

“CHANTER. v. n. To song. Cest faire- certains cris de convention, pour donner le sigual de l'instant où plusieurs hommes, employés à une même opération, doivent réunir leurs efforts et agir tous ensemble. — La manière de chanter ou le cri de convention est variable suivant les chanteurs.

CHANTEUR. S. m. Ouvrier qui, agissant concurremment avec d'autrès, leur donne le signal, par un cri de convention, du moment où ils doivent déployer ensemble toutes leurs forces, pour produire par leur réunion, mi effet déterminé, qui exige non seulement toutes ces puissances, mais aussi leur concours simultané.

DONNER la voix, c'est marquer par un cri de de convention, le moment où plusieurs hommes rassemblés doivent agir ou réunir leurs erforts pour produire un effet quelconque.

O! INTERJECTION employée par les marins pour donner le signal à des hommes rassemblés pour une même opération, de réunir leurs efforts au même instant, afin de produire tout l'effet dont ils sont capables par le concours de leurs forces; c'est ainsi qu'ils disent à haute voix: ô hisse? ô hale? ô saille? ô saque? ô ride? pour annoncer le moment où ils doivent tous ensemble, ou hisser, ou haler, ou saillir, ou saquer, ou rider (Voy. ces mots).

REPRISE. s. f. C'est l'action de reprendre; voy. ce mot, et toutes les diverses acceptions dans lesquelles il est employé.

SAILLER. v. a. C'est ponsser une pièce de bois par une de ses extrèmités pour la faire glisser sur un plan, dans le sens de longueur, et lorsque plusieurs hommes rassemblés doivent concourir ensemble pour produire cet effet, l'un d'eux crie à haute-voix le mot Saille? Rousse? pour annoncer le moment où ils doivent réunir leurs efforts et agir en même temps avec la force dont ils sont capables.”
[Dictionnaire de la Marine Francoise, Romme, 1813]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jul 22 - 02:01 AM

Vintage. This season was accompanied with feasts and great rejoicings. Isaiah says. xxv. 6. In this mountain shall the Lord of hosts make unto all people, a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees, well refined. Literally, a feast of fatness, a feast of lees, of marrowy fatnesses, of clarified lees. And, Isai. xvi. 10. Gladness is taken away, and joy out of the plentiful field; and in the vineyards there shall be no singing, neither shall there be shouting; the treaders shall tread out no wine in their presses; I have made their vintage shouting to cease. Hebrew, out of Carmel. Carmel signifies an excellent vineyard And Jeremiah says, xlviii. 33. Joy and gladness is taken from the plentiful field (from the Carmel) and from the land of Moab, (which was fruitful in vines) and I hate caused wine to fail from the winepresses, none shall tread with shouting. their shouting shall be no shouting; Hebrew, literally, they shall no longer tread the grape, and he that cries hedad, shall no more cry hedad, hedad. This last term is the cry of the vintagers, from whence is formed heth, and de heth, [Huzza! Bravo!] with vigour, with courage, cheerfully.”
[Calmet's Great Dictionary of the Holy Bible, Vol.II, 1813]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 25 Jul 22 - 02:02 AM

Alarido: celeuma nautica. § Clamor de quem bulha com outrem.
CELÈUMA, s.f. A vozeria, que faz a gente do mar, quando trabalha. Cam. Lus. II. 25. A celeuma medonha se levanta No rudo marinheiro, que trabalha.
CELEUMEÁR, v.n. Levantar celeuma: outros dizem Salamear.”
[Diccionario da Lingua Portugueza, Silva, 1813]



“CELEUMA, atis, n. Asc, Oed. et CELEUSMA, atis, n. (…exhorter). Cri par lequel les rameurs s'encouragent. ? Signal qui indique aux matelots les différentes manœuvres.
CELEUSTES. æ, m. Bud. Celui qui veille sur les matelots ou autres ouviers, comite, piqueur.”
[Dictionarium Latino-Gallicum, Noel, Facciolati, 1813]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jul 22 - 09:18 PM

Accorde! zieht alle zugleich das Ruder an! (ist ein Commando an die Matrosen un Ruderknechte).
Accorder, v.a. (tirer ou haler d'accord) bei dem Rojen oder einem Tau alle zugleich anholen, welche letztere Arbeit gewöholich unter Auffangen geschieht, zugleich rudern.
Hissa, ho ha, hissa, ô, hisse! das Aufsingen beim Hissen.
Voix, s.f., das Aufsingrn, Wort.
        Donner la voix, aufsingen.
        A la voix! gebt aufs Aufsingen oder aufs Wort Acht.
        Saluer de la voix, (s Saluer).
[Dictionnaire de Commerce, de Marine et de Droit, François-Allemand, Lemmens, 1811]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jul 22 - 09:20 PM

“The command to heave round the capstern was given; some music, which we had on board, struck up a lively tune, and in less than twenty minutes the small bower anchor was secured to the larboard bow of the ship…”
[The Log-Book, No.VI, The Calcutta Magazine and Monthly Register, No.XXXII, By B (anon.), August, 1832]
Note: Royal Navy c.1814.



“Behold! At thy return, commerce unfurls her lightly flowing sails; and the busy mariner again in prospect beholds a return of that source of industry of which plenty was the reward; and while the gentle gales swell the canvas, the song of yo heave ho resounds along the river's banks, and the busy hum of men enlivens that scene which erst has seemed a dreary leafless forest.”
[Intellectual Regale; Or, Ladies Tea Tray, Volume 1, 1814]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Jul 22 - 09:22 PM

“HAUL,
Haul at the song. Alzate al segno de richietto. Halez a la voix. Halez au chant.
To haul cheerily. Alare con forza, allegramente. Pesare sulia corda. Pesen.”
[Vocabolario di Marina in Tre Lingue, Vol.3, Stratico, 1814]



“Gally-slave, s. Tràill-iomramh
Iomram, Iomramh, s. Rowing
Iurram, s, An oar song, &c.”
[A New and Copious Vocabulay in Two Parts, Macfarlane, 1815]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 03:44 AM

MUSCULAR STRENGTH COMPARED WITH THE POWERS OF THE MIND.
'Twere well if thoughts were like mechanic powers,
And double mind made double knowledge ours.
Two men at levers placed of equal length,
Their equal efforts joined, have double strength;
And two to these we gain the strength of four,
So in proportion with a thousand more;
As here combined, their pressure gives of course,
At one fixed point, one time, their whole united force.
'Tis thus their sinewy strength the sailors show,
Who gain an extra power with “Yoe, heave ho.”
But 'tis not so with MINDS,– these stand alone;
And two, though joined, have but the strength of one,
No “Yoe heave” here can help the other on!...”
[Poetic Flowers, Sandham, 1815]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 03:45 AM

“Un, deux, trois! (t. de Marine), Haul-in– haul to– haul belay! Song used by seamen when hauling the bowlines.

Voix [t. de Marine] The song (employed by sailors, in hoisting, heaving, &c.) Donner la voix, To sing out (as in hauling, hoisting, heaving, &c.) A la voix, Mind the man that sings! Saleur de la voix. V. Saleur.”
[Dictionnaire François-Anglois et Anglois-François, Tom.I, Pt.II., Chambaud, 1815]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 03:46 AM

“We proceeded in a piade along the northern shore of the sea of Marmara, to the city of Constantine: eight Turks formed our crew, who rowed with the greatest velocity for six or seven hours at a time; while the songs with which they enlivened their exertions; the beautiful scenery along which we passed; and weather so fine, that our night was spent upon the water, though the day had been far from sultry, heightened the pleasure of approaching Constantinople.”
[Douglas on the Ancient and Modern Greeks, The Analectic Magazine, Vol.VI, 1815]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 Aug 22 - 04:09 PM

“Sæ-leoð, celeusma.”
[Vocabularium Anglo-Saxonicum, Lexico Gul. Somneri magna parte auctius, Benson, Somner, 1701]

More than you might ever want to know about Somner:
“...Nevertheless, a handful of entries from the Historical Thesaurus sample do contain something more than the minimum amount of detail. Of these, the entry for leoð is perhaps most interesting in the context of the current study. Somner’s definition runs as follows:

Carmen, pœan, oda, celeasma. a verse, a song, a song of rejoycing, an ode or psalm, the shout or noise which mariners make when they doe any thing together, or when the Master doth call and encourage them.

The first three definitions supplied in the Latin, and the first four in English, are relatively typical for Somner’s entries. They briefly identify a basic meaning for the Old English term, but do not indicate in detail either the character of an Old English leoð or the contexts in which one might be encountered or composed. In contrast, the last definition is surprisingly specific; it is the only part of the entry to follow the traditional model of defining by means of a genus that identifies the category to which the definiendum belongs (here, a leoð is said to be a type of ‘shout or noise’) and the differentiæ that distinguish it from other members of that category (unlike other shouts or noises, a leoð is made by a specific group of people, mariners, in specific circumstances).[105] What is more, it is unlike the other definitions given for this headword in that it does not indicate that a leoð is a musical or poetic form. The increased specificity and (in Early Modern English) length of this definition might lead readers to interpret this sense as having particular significance. In fact, the definition appears to be derived from a single glossary entry in London, British Library Cotton Cleopatra A.III, which reads, ‘Celeumatis sæleoþes’. The Dictionarium also contains an entry for sæleoð, defined as follows:

Celeusma. the mariners shout, noise, or cry in hoisting anchor or sail.

It seems natural to conclude that Somner was influenced in both cases by the glossary entry for sæleoð. This implies that he recognised the element -leoð as being common to both and so had successfully analysed the compound into its constituent parts. Interestingly, however, he still carried the maritime sense from sæleoð into his definition for leoð (though it lacks the element sæ-, ‘sea’). What is more, despite recognising a leoð as being a kind of song, or having musical associations, he does not apply this knowledge to his definition of sæleoð as a ‘shout, noise, or cry’.

The Cleopatra glossary supplied Somner with the Latin equivalent for sæleoð (and hence for leoð); the lengthiness of the Early Modern English, however, is evidently due to the fact that Somner was working closely from a Latin-English dictionary. It is hard to be certain which of the many such dictionaries in circulation, which often had considerable overlaps in content, Somner would have worked from, but a clearly related entry can be found s.v. celeusma in a Latin-English dictionary from the sixteenth century:

Celeusma, or Celeuma, atis, n.g. Mart. The showt or noise that mariners make, when they doe anie thing togeather with ioyned strength, as in drawing the anchor, &c. or when the Master doth call and encourage them (Thomas, 1587).

Another source that presumably helped Somner define these headwords is Canterbury, Cathedral Archives LitMS/D/2, a fifteenth-century manuscript of the Latin dictionary (with sporadic Middle English glosses) known as the Medulla Grammatice. This particular copy was well used by Somner, who added copious glosses providing the Old English equivalents of the Latin headwords, as well as inserting additional Latin headwords when he wished to provide an Old English word that did not already have a Latin equivalent in the Medulla. [106] It appears that that Somner did not prepare this material for publication, and therefore that his additions probably represent his private work in studying Old English and preparing the Dictionarium. In the Canterbury Medulla, we find the following entry:

Celeuma. tis id est clamor nauticus et cantus (McCleary, 1958:169)

This is annotated by Somner with the Old English sæleoþ, suggesting that the Medulla’s definition of the Latin celeu(s)ma may have been another influence on Somner in writing his Dictionarium definitions….

[105] On this approach to definition, see Atkins & Rundell (2008:414).
[106] A diplomatic edition of LitMS D2, including Somner’s additions, has been produced by J. Marie van Zandt McCleary (1958).
[108] Hetherington (1980:148-9) notes a single explicit reference made to the Medulla in the Dictionarium, s.v. niþing. However, as has been seen elsewhere, Somner is not exhaustive in his citation of such sources, so this observation does not rule out his having drawn silently on the Medulla in other entries.”

[Master's Thesis, William Somner’s Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum: Method, Function and Legacy, Fletcher, U. of Glasgow, 2017]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 03 Aug 22 - 09:28 PM

1804 - Origins: Canadian Boat Song (Thomas Moore)

"Based on" J'ai Trop Grand Peur des Loups or Dans mon chemin j'ai rencontré.
French Canadian songs


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'conch
Date: 03 Aug 22 - 09:39 PM

“ATTENTI, al comando, alla voce, A la voix. Silence, or Mind the Song. Avverimeato che ai da a' marinaj che manovrano, di far attenzione al comiando e di operare d' accordo.

SALOMARE, v.a. Dare la voce. Donner la voix. To sing out. Salomare è preso dallo spagnoolo.

VOIX, s.f. Voce. Song.
        Donner la voix Dare La Voce. To sing out. E il gridare che si fa di tempo io tempo dagli uomioi che lavorano all siessa manovra.
        Donne la voix quelqu'un. Da la Voce. Sing out there a hand.
        A la voix Attente Alla Voce. Mind the song. E un comando di star attente al grido che si darà per far forsa dd' accordo su d' una manovra.”
[1813 - Vocabulaire de Marine en Trois Langues, Vol.I-II, 1813]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:08 AM

“The canoes, when they take their departure from La Chine, are loaded to within about six inches of the gunwales, or edge of the canoe. Instead of oars, they use paddles, which they handle with great dexterity. They strike off, singing a song peculiar to themselves, called the Voyaguer Song: one man takes the lead, and all the others join in a chorus. It is extremely pleasing to see people who are toiling hard, display such marks of good humour and contentment, although they know, that for a space of more than 2000 miles their exertions must be unremitting, and their living very poor; for, in the little space allowed in the canoe for provisions, you find none of the luxuries, and a very scanty supply of the necessaries of life. The song is of great use: they keep time with their paddles to its measured cadence, and, by uniting their force, increase its effect considerably.”
[Letters from Canada Written During a Residece in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1809, Gray, 1809]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:10 AM

VOCABULARY OF THE LOO-CHOO
English                                Loo-Choo
Song                                        Oóta*

*Words of Loo-Choo songs:
“Sas sangcoomeh sangcoomeah kadee yooshee daw, tantoong tantoong tang.”
A boat song: “Whee-yo ee.–Whee yo ee.” The steersman gave “Whee,” and was followed by the other men with a repitition of “Whee yo ee.”
Another boat song: “Quee yay hanno ha.–Quee yay hanno ha.” To both these airs the rowers kept very good time.”

“The words of the dance song were “ Sasa sangcoomah, sangcoomee ah! sangcoomee ah! kadee yooshee daw;" when they came to the last word they all joined in the chorus and clapped their hands.”
[Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast of Corea (1816-1817,) Clifford, 1818]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:15 AM

“They continued their usual supplies, bringing us even fresh water on board in their boats; and, understanding we required some wood for spars, they felled fir trees, floated them down the river, and towed them alongside, singing their usual boat song, which had a very plaintive and pleasing effect.”
[McLeod, Narrative of a Voyage in his Majesty's late ship Alceste to the Yellow Sea, The Literary Panorama, and National Register, Vol.7, 1818]

HMS Alceste (1806)
Basil Hall (1788 – 1844)
Sir Murray Maxwell (1775 – 1831)

“On the return journey, she struck a reef in the Java Sea; her wreck was subsequently plundered and burned by Malayan pirates.” [wiki]

Note: The rescue of HMS Alceste's survivors is a true-to-life pirate tale.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Aug 22 - 02:18 AM

“Calomar, s.m. cri des matelots pour s'encourager
Saloma, s.f. chant des matelots
Salomar. v. n. chanter en manœuvrant
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche François-Espagnol et Español-Francés, 1816]


“Calomar, m. the cry of sailors when they hale a rope all together.
Saloma, f. The singing of the sailors. Salomar, n. To sing together, as sailors do
[A dictionary of the Spanish and English languages, Fernandez, 1817]


“Alarido, f.m. Vozeria dos que entraõ em combate. Celeuma da gente do mar. Clamor dos que brigaõ.
Celêufma, ou Celêuma, f.f. Gritaria de gente do mar, quando trabalha.
Celêufmear, ou Celêmear, v.n. Fazer celêfma.”
[Novo Diccionario da Lingua Portugueza, 1817]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:07 AM

“La condition des rameurs étoit la plus pénible et la plus dure. J'ai déjà observé que les rameurs , aussi-bien que les matelots, étoient tous citoyens et libres, et non esclaves ou étrangers comme aujourd'hui. Les rameurs étoient distingués par degrés. Ceux du plus bas s'appeloient thalamites, ceux du milieu zugites, ceux d'en haut thranites. Thucydide remarque qu'on donnoit à ces derniers une plus forte paie, parce qu'ils manioient des rames plus longues et plus pesantes que celles des degrés inférieurs. Il paroît que la chiourme, pour se mouvoir avec plus de justesse et de concert, étoit quelquefois conduite par le chant d'une voix, ou par le son de quelque instrument; et cette douce harmonie servoit non seulement à régler leurs mouvemens, mais encore à diminuer et à charmer leurs peines….

Plus de deux 296. cents galères , ornées de dépouilles ennemies, s'avançoient avec une contenance majestueuse, la chiourme faisant une espèce de concert par l'ordre uniforme et réglé avec lequel les rames étoient mises en mouvement. Elles étoient suivies d'un nombre infini de petits batimens; de sorte que le port, quelque vaste qu'il fût, pouvoit à peine les contenir, et que toute la mer étoit couverte de voiles.”
[Œuvres Complètes de Ch. Rollin: Histoire Ancienne, Rollin, 1817]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:11 AM

“I know not that these poor souls are worse treated in Carolina and Georgia, nor have I any reason to believe so; certain it is, however, that they discover an unwillingness amounting almost to horror, at the idea of being sold there; and have a simple song which they sometimes, as I am told, sing with a mournful melancholy cadence, as they row along the rivers, in remembrance of home. It is merely the language of nature:

        Going- away to Georgia, ho, heave, O!
        Massa sell poor negro, ho, heave, O!
        Leave poor wife and children, ho, heave, O! &c. &c
.”
[Letters from the South*, Vol.I, 1817]
*
1817: By The author of John Bull and Brother Jonathan, &c. &c.
1835: By A Northern Man
2022: James Kirke Paulding (1778 – 1860.)

“Among Paulding's government positions were those of secretary to the Board of Navy Commissioners in 1815–23 and Naval Agent in New York in 1824–38. President Martin Van Buren appointed him Secretary of the Navy in June 1838. As Secretary, he was a conservative figure, whose extensive knowledge of naval affairs was balanced by notable lack of enthusiasm for new technology. He opposed the introduction of steam propelled warships declaring that he would "never consent to let our old ships perish, and transform our Navy into a fleet of (steam) sea monsters." Nevertheless, his tenure was marked by advances in steam engineering, wide-ranging exploration efforts, enlargement of the fleet and an expansion of the Navy's apprenticeship program.” [wiki]
Cousin: Hiram Paulding (1797 – 1878) retired a Rear Admiral, USN.

Origins: Run, Nigger, Run & Lambert (above,), the Advent thread, &c &c.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:14 AM

Cheer Up! pull away.
A Boat-Song From Forrest's Travels
Composed and Dedicated to William B. Finch Esq. of the United States Navy
By T.V. Wiesenthal

2x
Cheer up! pull a-way,
Cheer up! pull a-way,
We'll gain the ocean far away,


Be-hold yon is land a far,
What fishes a-bound in its main.
Be-hold yon cloud a-far,
Haste, haste let's the fishes obtain.

2x
Cheer up! pull a-way,
Cheer up! pull a-way,
We'll gain the ocean far away,

Fast by the Capezine land,
Castilian dances you will find,
My lads to gain the Capezine land,
Pull pull with the whole of you mind.

2x
Cheer up! pull a-way,
Cheer up! pull a-way,
We'll gain the ocean far away,
[Sheet Music, Wiesenthal, Thomas, 1818, 4 pages]
See Forrest, 1779 (above.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Aug 22 - 05:18 AM

IX. Vult Proceleusmaticus brevibus constare quaternis.
Proceleulsmaticus derives its name from keleusma, clamor adhortatorius nautarum. It is contracted by the poets into three syllables; as, abiete, abjete, áriete, arjete, pituita, pitvita, tenuia, tenvia. Virg.”
        Quadribrevis Proceleusmaticus de murmure nautae. Busbey.
[A Latin Grammar, 6th ed., Ross, 1818, p.155]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:48 AM

“While the crews of both ships were on the ice to-day, tracking the Isabella along between two floes, one of the most ludicrous scenes occurred that I have witnessed for some time past. It may be, perhaps, considered too frivolous to mention; but from the laughter it excited at the time, I cannot refrain from introducing it. One of the men belonging to the Isabella, who plays the violin, was, as usual, giving the men a tune on that instrument, to cheer them along in their laborious task, when all of a sudden, in the middle of a lively air, both the fiddler and the fiddle disappeared, he having dropped through a hole in the ice. The consternation of all hands, at the first moment, on finding the music so suddenly stopped, and the burst of laughter which ensued on discovering the cause, may be more readily conceived than described. The poor fellow got up again without sustaining any other damage beside a cold ducking and a wet fiddle.”
[Journal of a Voyage of Discovery to the Arctic Regions, 1818, Greely, 1818]

William Edward Parry (1790 – 1855)
Isabella (1813 ship)
Discovery expedition (1818-1819): The LR data does not recognize that the Admiralty hired Isabella in 1817 for a discovery expedition in 1818. She sailed with another hired vessel, Alexander, and the whole expedition was under the command of Commander John Ross, who was sailing in Isabella. Of Isabella's crew of 54 men, four officers were clearly from the navy, as were her six marines. The other officers and men were probably civilians, as were Benjamin Lewis (the master and Greenland pilot), and Thomas Wilcox (the mate and also a Greenland pilot). (Generally when the navy hired a vessel, it would put a naval officer in command, but keep on the master and crew.) There were also three supernumeraries — Captain Sabine and a sergeant from the Royal Artillery (Sabine being the scientific observer), and the Eskimo Sacheous, who was being repatriated.” [wiki]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:50 AM

“The night was so exquisitely beautiful, that Jeanie, instead of immediately directing her course towards the Lodge, stood looking after the boat as it again put off from the side, and rowed out into the little bay, the dark figures of her companions growing less and less distinct as they diminished in the distance, and the jorram, or boat-song of the rowers, coming on the ear with the softened and sweeter sound, until the boat rounded the headland, and was lost to her observation.”
[The Heart of Mid-Lothian, Tales of My Landlord, Second Series, Vols.1-4, Scott, 1818]

Sir Walter Scott (1771 – 1832) (Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, The Lady of the Lake &c.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:51 AM

BOULENA, A sea cheer, signifying, Hale up the bowlings. Complaynt S.
BUFF NOR STYE. He cou'd neither say buff nor stye, S. i.e. “He could neither say one thing nor another.” It is also used, but I suspect, improperly, in regard to one who has no activity; He has neither buff nor stye with him S.B.
Teut. bof, celeusma, a cheer made by mariners. Stye might be viewed as referring to the act of mounting the shrouds, from Su. G. stig-a, to ascend.
CAUPONA, “a sailor's cheer in heaving the anchor.”                Complaynt S.
CHYRE, Cheer, entertainment.        Dunbar.
Heys and How, A sea cheer.        Douglas.
HOW, HOU, s.l. The sound made by owl. Fr. hu-er to hoot.        Doug.
2. A sea cheer.        Complaynt S..
OURWORD, OWERWORD, s. 1. Any word frequenty repeated, S.        Burns.
2. The burden of a song.        Dunbar.”
[An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, Jamieson, 1818]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 01:56 AM

“Celeusma: grido con cui su esortavano i naviganti - … (celeuo) commando. V. Proceleusmatico p.65.
Proceleusmatico: piè metrico di quattro brevi – . (proceleusmaticos), … (celeusma) esortazione nautica; perchè i versi fatti con questi piedi a cagione della loro speditezza si usavano per animare i marinai.”
[Almanacco Etimologico Scientifico per l'anno 1819, 1818]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 02:01 AM

“It was about the close of day we prepared to cross the river St. John's, at a part about five miles above the bar. The sun lingered upon the extensive forests of its banks, and undulated upon the trembling surface of its waters; the evening was pure and serene, and presented every object in the most alluring character. The noise of the oars, as they cut their liquid way, rousing the echoes of its banks, were answered by the noisy cadence of the negroes' boat-song, amusing and beguiling our way. As we entered upon the waters of the St. John's, we saw several canoes returning from fishing, their rovers were also chaunting the canoe-song, emulating at the same time the rapidity of our progress; we really flew along the glassy surface, such was the celerity of our movements.”
[Narrative of a Voyage to the Spanish Main In the Ship "Two Friends”, 1819]

Amelia Island affair


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 07 Aug 22 - 02:03 AM

“365. Is trom an ioram, is an t-iomram.
366.[sic] Heavy [sad] is the sea-song and the rowing. (p)

(p) The iorum, or boat-song, here alluded to, must be of a wailing cast, corresponding to the double stroke of the oar, when, most likely, the corpse of a Chief was conveyed to Iona, (the ancient place of internment on that sacred island), whence the Gaël and Scandanavians, Scoto and Anglo Saxons, received the light of the Gospel.– Vide Bedes Eccl. Hist.”
[Collection of Gaelic proverbs and familiar phrases ... To which is added, 'The way to wealth' by Benjamin Franklin, Mackintosh, 1819]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:02 AM

“Le chef de nos rameurs entonne un chant nautique, et la mer retentit de nos voix réunies qui le répètent.”
[Héléne, Tragédies d'Euripid Traduites du Grec, Vol.2, Euripedes, 1848]
Euripides (480 – 406BC)


“CELEUSMA, or Celeuma, in Antiquity, the fhout or cry of the feamen, whereby they animated each other in their work of rowing.
        The word is formed from …, to call, to give the fignal.
        Celeusma was alfo a kind of fong or formula rhearfed or played by the master or others, to direct the ftrokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to kabour. See Celeustes.
        Aquinus, without much foundation, extends the celeufma to the military fhouts in land armies.
        When Chriftianity got footing, hymns and pfalms were fung in veffels by way of celeufma, in which the words amen and hallelujah were frequently repeated.
CELEUSTES,in Ancient Navigation, the boatfwain or officer appointed to give the orwers the fignal when they were to pull, and when to ftop. See Celeusma.
        He was alfo denominated epopeus, and by the Romans portifculus; fometimes fimply hortator.
CELEUSUS, in Ancient Geography, a place in Germany between Gemanicus and Arufena, at the mouth of a fmall river which runs into the Danube.”
[The Cyclopædia; Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature, Vol 7, Rees, 1819]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:04 AM

1819:
“We took in a cargo of hemp at Cronstadt, the stowing of which by means of jackscrews was the work of the Russian serfs, whose brawny limbs were fed on nothing better than black bread of a very sour flavour and garlic. But they were kept in heart by glasses of fiery "bottery," which it was my office to give them at stated hours; and they lightened their heavy labour by improvised chants sung in untiring chorus, under a leader, who gave the improvisations.”
[Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne, 1892, p.26]
Note: Reprinted as – From cabin-boy to Archbishop: Autobiography of…
William Bernard Ullathorne (1806–1889)

Cotton screwing songs


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:06 AM

1819:
“...The wind was generally against us, so that after reaching the point where the river spreads into Lake St. Francis, we were obliged to rely wholly on rowing. Fortunately our crew were fine singers, and amused us with several little French ballads, though I could not find that they knew any thing of the Canadian Boat Song.”
[Travels, The Club-Room, Issues 1-4, 1820]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 08 Aug 22 - 01:07 AM

“BOULINA-HA-HA! Arrache! Boulina-ha-ha, déralingue! Etc. Ancien chant des matelots français pendant qu’ils hâlent sur les ‘quatre principales boulines , notamment celle du grand et du petit hunier. Ce chant est si ridicule que plusieurs capitaines militaires le défendent.

BOULINER, v. a. Action de haler la bouline. Des matelots français ont encore la mauvaise habitude de chanter: boulina-ha-ha! arrache! eu palanquant sur les quatre principales boulines.

CHANTER, v. n. Vieil usage de faire crier quelques hommes qu’on nommait chanteurs, pour donner le signal de réunion d’efforts à faire par plusieurs sur une bouline, ou pour toute autre opération qu’on exécute dans les ports et sur les grands bâtimens. Dans un bâtiment de guerre bien ordonné, on ne permet plus de chanter ainsi. Voy. Boulina.

HALE , imper. Hàle à courir! hále ensemble! hále main sur main! avec force et vivement, c'est faire háler, tirer à la main sur un cordage qui appel horizontalement.

HISSA, O, HA, HISSE: chant de l’homme qui donne la voix pour réunir les efforts de plusieurs autres sur un même cordage afin de produire un plus grand effet. Ce chant ou cri n'a plus guère lieu que dans quelques ports.

Ô! interj. Les marins l’emploient comme signal, à plusieurs hommes réunis, de faire effort ensemble: ils crient: ô! saille! — Ô! hisse! — Ô! ride! — Ô! hale!

SAILLE! adv. Réponse que font les matelots du gaillard d'avant au commandement du maître d’équipage, pour faire haler sur une des principales boulines. Oh! saille! sorte de cri en chantant, qui est aujourd’hui moins permis; ils terminent parle mot blaye.

VOIX , s.f. On dit qu’on est à portée de la voix d’un bâtiment quand on peut s’en faire entendre au moyen d’un porte-voix; on commande à la voix, on salue de la voix; on donne la voix, on fait passer la voix.”
[Dictionnaire de Marine, 1st ed., Willaumez, 1820]
Jean-Baptiste Philibert Willaumez (1763–1845)

Note: 1825ed. of the above also covered in the Advent & Development thread.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:24 PM

“Deffeando la feñal de fu partida:
Pues no le fue mas tiempo diferida,
Que con zaloma el ancora levada,
Y repitiendo el nombre de Cañete,
Largò la Capitana fu trinquete.”
[Arauco Domado, de Oña, 1605]
Pedro de Oña (1570 – 1643)
Arauco War


“el calomar, le ton que les mariniers chantent tout d'un temps pour tirer de faire effort tous ensemble, il suono, che i marinari cantano ad un tempo tutti insieme per tirare piu forte.”
[Tesoro de las Tres Lenguas Francesa, Italiana, y Española, Victor-Rovière-Crespin, 1606]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:29 PM

“...The oar of the boatman measures each stroke by the heart-enlivening iram,* as he cuts the rippling wave, bringing to shore a load of fush for the bridal banquet, now in preparation throughout all the vaults of the castle,…

*Iram, the Gaelic name for a boatman's song.”
[La Belle Assemblée, Vol.13, 1816]



“Calomar, fm. Cri des matelots pour s'encourager,m.
Saloma, s.f. chant des matelots, m.
Salomar, vn. Chanter en manœuvrantâ
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche François-Espagnol et Espagnol-François, Hamonière, 1820]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:33 PM

En boo lé ma lo di
ce o boon co lom ba si ba do
*

The second is a Serere air, a boat song, sung by the crew whilst rowing. It is more simple and more common than the above, and seems to appertain almost entirely to what the Greeks termed the Phrygian mode. According to our system of harmony we should refer it to the key of D minor, although it deviates in some respects from our manner of modulating. The letters R above the stave shew the moment when the oars are raised, and the letters L denote their being lowered into the water. This air, therefore, is most strictly regular as to rhythm. Whatever may be the interior changes from triple to common measure, the time which the respective changes consume must be equal; for what can be more isochronous than the movement of the oars of a well trained boat's-crew ? Simple, however, as this composition may appear, its execution in strict time is likely to put our best timeists to a severe trial; and were Mr. Braham himself with the paper in his hand to direct the strokes of a six-oared wherry, the jolly watermen, in all probability, would not form a very exalted opinion of his steadiness in musical measure. Our Serere songsters, we entertain no doubt, would obtain the prize in a trial of skill with the first vocalist in Europe.”
[Africa: Containing a Description of the Manners and Customs, with Some Historical Particulars of the Moors of the Zahara, and of the Negro Nations Between the Rivers Senegal and Gambia, 1821]
*Music included.

Serer people

Note: There are chapters on the guiriot class but nothing related to work song.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:36 PM

“Celeusma, heave ho, in pulling together
[A Vocabulary of Latin Nouns and Adnouns, Atkinson, 1822]


“SALOMA. He a cantiga, ou gritaria, que fazem os marinheiros , quando alão algum cabo, cujo salomear he prohibido nos nossos Navios de Guerra.”
[Vocabulario Marujo, Campos, 1823]

Note: Closest thing so far to a “ban” on work song in any State navy.
Chanteys in Royal Navy?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Aug 22 - 07:38 PM

“The boat was like one before described, but much larger, as we were now certainly not less than fifty passengers;… The sailors accompany their exertions in rowing by a short lively song, which had only one variation and tone, and is always sung with great spirit; it is one of the many in use in Egypt,* and the only one here….

*The favourite song with Reiss Bedoui, the captain of our cangee, and that which seemed most effectual in stimulating his sailors, was nearly as follows:– Reiss Bedoui. “Sailors, pull at your oars.” Chorus of sailors. “God and Mahommed.” Reis. “May God bless and assist you.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “You are men, not children.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reiss. “My boys, you shall ride in chariots.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “The sheep is killed.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “May your wives be beautiful and fruitful.” Cho. “God,” &c. Reis. “The wind and the current are against us, but God is with us.” Cho. “God,” &c.– The verse is given out in a kind of hoarse recitative by the captain, but the effect of the whole is peculiarly animating and agreeable, and productive of sensations known only to those who have glided down between the palmy shores of the Nile on a calm moonlight evening.”
[Waddington's Travels in Ethopia, The Literary Gazette, Vol.6, 1823]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Sep 22 - 07:35 PM

“I LEFT Charleston in the afternoon of the 28th of August, and proceeded in a pilot boat to the corvette John Adams, then lying at single anchor outside of the bar. We reached the ship a little after sunset; I was received kindly and hospitably by Captain R., who introduced me to my fellow-passengers and to the officers of the ship. Orders were immediately given to weigh anchor, and the men ran round the capstern cheerily, to the sound of the drum and fife. The anchor was soon a-trip; the sails filled with a favourable breeze, and the ship under way.”
[Notes on Mexico made in the Autumn of 1822, Poinsett, 1825]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Sep 22 - 07:39 PM

SALOMA. He a cantiga, ou gritaria, que fazem os marinheiros , quando alão algum cabo, cujo salomear he prohibido nos nossos Navios de Guerra.”
[Vocabulario Marujo, Campos, 1823]
Note: Banned in Brazil.

“Mar.
O! CAZZA; O! hisse
O! SAGLIA; O! Saille
Voci che son date da un marinajo in certi travagli, sia per tesare un cavo, che per alare, o tirar sopra qualunque altra cosa, onde far forza tutti in un punto, e di concerto: Delle volte quando si pronunzia O! a voce lenta, allora tutti i travagliatori si preparano per lo sforzo che devono impiegarvi, ed alla voce cazza, eseguono il resto del movimento; quasi che la prima voce è di prevenzione, e la seconda è di esecuzione.”
[Dizionario Italiano-Scientifico-Militare, Ballerini, 1824]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 06 Sep 22 - 07:44 PM

“...and the cry of the itinerant vender of sherbert and iced orgeats on the shore blended with the capstern song of the British sailor in the offing, or the ballad of the merry Greek, as he gaily trilled in his caique the deeds of Boukovallos and his Kleftis.

...The day was closing, and as we sat in the little cabin, the sailors came down one by one to cross themselves and repeat a prayer before the image of the Virgin; on their returning upon deck, we heard them singing their vesper hymn as they slowly hove up the anchor, shook out the sails, and prepared to bear away.”
[Letters From the Ægean, Vol.I, Emerson, 1825; Supplement to the Connecticut Courant, 1829]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Sep 22 - 04:18 AM

“Bring to,” cried the first Lieutenant. “All ready, Sir.’—“Heave round at the capstan, and run the anchor up to the bows.” Away danced the men to the tune of “Off she goes.”
[The Greenwich Hospital, The Literary Gazette, 1824]
Origins: Off She Goes


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Sep 22 - 04:19 AM

IURRAM. aim, s.m. (Ir. id.) An oar-song; a boat song; tedious rhyme; a song sung during any kind of work, by way of lightening its burden; a fidgetting. Iurram a dh?isgeas an spiorad, a spirit-stirring boat-song.—Macfar. Iurram, fidgetting.—Shaw.

The iurram, or boat-song, seems to have been intended to regulate the strokes of the oars; so also, in ancient times,
                stat margine puppis
Qui voce alternos nautarum temperet ictus,
Et remis dictet sonitum pariterque relatis,
Ad numerum plaudat resonantia caerula tonsis.

IURRAMACH, a. Like an oar-song.
[A Gaelic Dictionary, 1825]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Sep 22 - 04:28 AM

“On n'entendait que le chant des matelots (1) et le bruit léger de la vague, qui battoit doucement le flanc du vaisseau.

(1) Qui chantoient “Yo heave yo.””
[À La Riviére Démérary, Bibliothèque Britannique, ou Recueil Extrait des Ouvrages Anglais Périodiques et Autres, Vol.40, 1809]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Sep 22 - 04:30 AM

1825
“Saturday, 8th July—Mr. G—— who had lately come down from Leeds, having consented to return there with me, he and I embarked on board a batteau, for St. Nicholas's Mills. While sailing up the river, we were entertained with the simple melody of the Canadian boat song : the men sang a verse, or part of a verse, and were then followed by the females, who took up their part very readily; and their fine clear voices, keeping time with the motion of the oars, had a pleasing effect...

No cheering sounds disturbed the silent air.—The boatman's ballad, wild, such as, while rowing down the tide in day's delightful dawn, assists his " labouring oar," no more was heard: the seaman's cheerful song while hoisting in the freight, which, all day long, amused the passing ear, had long since ceased ; the birds, in downy nests retired, and wrapt in sleep, relieved their warbling throats... The zephyr's gentle breath, expanding wide our sail, impelled us slowly on; but even this, as if at length fatigued with long-protracted toil, and prone to join the universal rest, died soft away.—Our oars came next in use: these, gently splashing in the quiet flood, urged on our sluggish bark; and music's powerful aid increased our speed apace—the Canadian boatman's song now sounded with effect: it first disturbed the peace that reigned around ; and, mildly falling on the stilly air, proclaimed our dark approach….

Man your topsail sheets, and overhaul your clue-lines and buntlines !" cried the mate; the seamen sprang to their places with the greatest alacrity, and the command was soon executed. The topsail haliards, or rope by which the topsail is hoisted, was next ordered to be manned, and the hoisting was accompanied by a lively song, the words of which, being the extemporary
composition of the seaman who led, afforded me a good deal of amusement.— One man sung, and the rest joined lustily in the chorus. The following is a specimen :—

Oh rouse him up,
Chorus—Oh, yeo, cheerily;
Now for Warrenpoint,
        Oh, yeo, cheerily;
Oh-mast-head him,
        Oh, yeo, cheerily;
Cheerly men,
        Oh, yeo, cheerily;
Newry girls,
        Oh, yeo, cheerily;
Rouse him up cheerly,
        Oh, yeo, cheerily;
Oh, with a will,
        Oh, yeo, cheerily;
Oh, oh, yeo,
        Oh, yeo, cheerily
.

From some of these few simple words, the effusions of the heart, at the moment, no doubt, an important inference is plain.
[A Journal of a Voyage to Quebec in 1825, Finan, 1828, pp.138, 167-168, 328-329]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Sep 22 - 11:40 PM

“As a plain sailor with his boisterous chime.

The present Manager of the Chatham Garden Theatre, was formerly a Lieutenant in the British Navy. He was afterwards on the boards of the Norwich Company in England. He was principally applauded for singing a common sailor's chant in character – having a sort of “Sally Brown, oh, ho,” chorus; and requiring the action of pulling a rope, spitting upon the hand, and the accompaniment of a horrid yell….”
[Horace in New York, Campbell, 1826]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Sep 22 - 11:41 PM

“MORNING
In the Isle of Wight.
...Then, the landsman 'gins to mow
The perfumed crop on grounds above,
And sailors chant the “yeo, heave, yeo.”
Then young hearts wake to life and love.”
[The English Spy, v.II, Blackmantle, 1826]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Sep 22 - 11:42 PM

“CELESTIS, era presso gli antichi Greci una melodia per i Flauti di una danza de'barcajuoli.

PARAKELEUSTICON. Canzone degli antichi barcajuoli greci.

PARAKOUTAKION. Nome d'un canto alternativo nella Chiesa greca.”
[Dizionario e Bibliografia della Musica, Vol.I, Lichtenthal, 1826]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Sep 22 - 11:43 PM

CALOMAR, s.m. Cri des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouvrage.
SALOMA s.f. Chant des matelots pendant la manœuvre.
SALOMAR, v/n/ Se dit des matelots qui chantent tous à la fois en manœuvrant.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire Français-Espagnol et Espagnol-Français, Vol.2, Trapani, 1826]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Sep 22 - 10:57 PM

Backtracking a bit:

“ALARIDO, f..m. Gritaria, clamor, vozes juntas,…
– de marinheiro, v. Faina. Celeuma. ¶ Fazer, dar grandes alaridos. Crier, exciter, faire du tumulte, du trouble; troubler. (Tumultuari. Turbas facere. Cic.)
CELEUMA, f.f. (T. Marit.) Vozeria dos marinheiros. Cri des matelots qui rament, pour s'encourager à l'ouverage. (Celeufma. tis. f. n. Afc. Pæd.)
FAINA, f.f. (T.Naut.) Celeuma, vozeria com que os marinheiros fe incitão a fazer o feu officio, quando trabalhão; &c. Cri des matelots pour s'encourager à l'ouverage. (Celeuma, ou Celeufma. Tis. f.n. Afc. Pæd.)
SALEMA, … §Fayna. Vozeria dos marinheiros. Cri des matelots qui rament, pour s'encourager à l'ouverage. (Celeufma. tis. f. n. Afc. Pæd.)
SALAMEAR, v.n. (T. de Marineheiro.) Fazer a faloma, ou a falema. Donner des cris en ramant, pour s'encourager à l'ouverage: (On ledit des matelots.)(Celeufma edere, ou facere.)”
[Diccionario Portuguez Francez e Latino, da Costa. 1794]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Sep 22 - 10:59 PM

“CALÓMA. (Naut.) Grita de marineros. Crying out zaloma.
SALÓMA. s.f. La accion de salomar. A failor's fong, the act of finging out whe nhe hauls a rope &c.
SALOMÁR. v.n. Cantar juntos los marineros para tirar ó empujar á un tiempo en las maniobras. To fing out, ufed by failors when they work together.
ZALÓMA. s.f. (náut.) Cancion que usan los marineros quando halan de un aparejo. A fong ufed by failors when they haul a rope together.
ZALOMÁR. v.a. Hacer la zaloma. To fing and haul together a rope, as failors are wont to do.”
[Diccionario Nuevo de las Dos Lenguas Española e Inglesa, Tom.I-II, Conelly-Higgins, 1798]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Sep 22 - 11:02 PM

“Calomar, m. das Geschrey der Matrosen, wann sie im Schiffe zugleich hand anlegen.
Calomar, o. rufen, schreyen, wie die Matrosen thun, wenn sie ein Seil, Tau anziehen; absingen.”
[Nuevo Diccionario Espanol-Aleman y Aleman-Espanol, 1798]


“*Celeusma, atis, n. the mufical cry, by which feamen incited one another to ply their oars.
[A Compendious Dictionary of the Latin Tongue: For the Use of Public Seminaries and Private Students, Adam, 1805]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Sep 22 - 10:19 PM

“RIME, f.f. On écrivoit autrefois Rhyme, du mot grec, qui fignifie tout ce qui fe fait d'une maniere égale.
        Donner longue rime eft un terme de Mer, qui fignifie predre beaucoup d'eau avec la rame ou la pelle des avirons, & tirer longement deffus.”
[Manuel Lexique, Ou Dictionnaire Portatif Des Mots François, Vol.L-Z, Du Boille, 1788]


“Saloma. s.f. Chant des matelots pendant la manœuvre.
Salomar, v.n. Se dit des matelots qui chantent tous à la fois en manœuvrant.”
[Diccionario Portátil y de Pronunciacion, Español-Frances y Frances-Español, Cormon, 1800]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Sep 22 - 10:22 PM

“...and the cry of the itinerant vender of sherbert and iced orgeats on the shore blended with the capstan song of the British sailor in the offing, or the ballad of the merry Greek, as he gaily trilled in his caique the deeds of Boukovallos and his Kleftis.”
[Letters from the Levant (From the London Magazine.) Meyer's British Chronicle, No.I, Vol.II, 1827]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Sep 22 - 10:23 PM

“We transcribe his account of the following incident. It relates to his voyage down the Volga, from Tchebocsar to Kazan:–
        “At one in the afternoon we commenced our voyage, having a very fine day, and a fresh breeze, which towards evening sunk into a calm, so that we were obliged to take to our oars, with which we proceeded merrily enough, the crew singing their national airs in concert, so as to remind me forcibly of the Canadian boat-song. Our harmony was at length interrupted by an occurrence,…

...When it concluded, the parties betook themselves to rowing and singing, as before.”
[Holman's Travels Through Russia, Meyer's British Chronicle, No.XXII, Vol.II, 1827]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 18 Sep 22 - 07:09 AM

These 1820s anecdotes are very tantalising. It is not easy to relate them to what was happening in the 1840s or to the embryonic chanties of the rowing slaves. Some titles or hints of what they were singing would be useful and more conclusive. The fact that there was a Sally Brown song being sung on stage is also intriguing but without further details again we can't draw any other conclusions.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Sep 22 - 06:49 PM

Steve, if you are so inclined, start here: Origins: Faithless Sally Brown

I believe it was Alcibiades who drafted Chrysogonus' tragic actor brother as his boatswain upon the former's return from exile c.408 BC. Show biz... the more it changes.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Sep 22 - 04:52 AM

“The customary hour for exertion had now arrived, and the sounds of labour were beginning to be heard from every quarter of the place. The songs of the mariners were rising on the calm of the morning, with their peculiar, long-drawn intonations.”
[The Red Rover, Vol. I, Cooper, 1827]

“By this time, the crew, under the orders of the pilot, were assembled at the windlass, and had commenced heaving-in upon the cable. The labour was of a nature to exhibit their individual powers, as well as their collective force, to the greatest advantage. Their motion was simultaneous, quick, and full of muscle. The cry was clear and cheerful. As if to feel his influence, our adventurer lifted his own voice, amid the song of the mariners, in one of those sudden and inspiriting calls with which a sea officer is wont to encourage his people….

Man the windlass there! We will try the breeze again, and work the ship into the offing while there is light….

The clattering of the handspikes preceded the mariners' song. Then the heavy labour, by which the ponderous iron was lifted from the bottom, was again resumed, and in a few more minutes, the ship was once more released from her hold upon the land.”
[The Red Rover, Vol. II, Cooper, 1827]
The Red Rover


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Sep 22 - 04:53 AM

“I had often before seen small canoes paddled by a couple of Indians, but it was a very different thing to feel oneself flying along in this grand barge, as it might be called, nearly forty feet long, by upwards of five in width. She was urged forward at the rate of nearly six miles an hour, by fourteen first-rate and well-practised Canadian Voyageurs….

Each Voyageur wields a short, light paddle, with which he strikes the water about once in a second, keeping strict time with a song from one of the crew, in which all the others join in chorus. At every stroke of the fourteen paddles, which in fact resemble one blow, such is the correctness of their ear, the canoe is thrown or jerked forward so sharply, that it is by no means easy to sit upright on the cloaks and cushions spread nearly in its centre.”
[Travels in North America in the Years 1827 and 1828, Hall, 1829]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Sep 22 - 04:54 AM

The Burmese Empire.
The Burmahs, generally speaking, are fond of singing, and, in some instances, I have heard many very good songs. The war-boat song, for example, is remarkably striking. The recitative of the leading songster, and then the swell of voices when the boatmen join in chorus, keeping time with their oars, seemed very beautiful when wafted down the Irrawaddy by the breeze; and the approach of a war-boat might always be known by the sound of the well-known air."
[Journal of an Embassy from the Governor General of India to the Court of Ava, in the year 1827, Crawford, American Quarterly Review, Issues 13-14, 1830]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Oct 22 - 07:07 PM

CELEUMA, CELEUMA, CÉLEUME, Filol., da ?e?e?? (celeuò), ordinare. Canto o grido nautico, composto, secondo Igino, dall'argonauta Orfeo nella spedizione del Vello d'oro: intonato dai naviganti o per esortarsi a remigare, o per addoleir le noje della navigazione, o per esprimere l'allegrezza d'esser giunti al sospirato porto. Virg. Aen. lib. III, v. 129.
CELEUSMA, CELEUSMA, CÉLEUSME, Filol., da ?e?e?? (celeuò), comandare, ordinare. Specie di cantilena usata dal Capitano di una nave. E sinonimo di Celeuma. V. CELEUSTE.
CELEUSTE, CELEUSTES, CÉLEUSTE, Filol., da ?e?e?? (celeuò), comandare. Capitano della nave o moderatore della navigazione, da Plauto chiamato hortator, che or colla semplice voce, or con una specie di cantilena detta Celeusma, ed ora col suon ella tromba, esortava i remiganti ad ammainare, spiegare, alzare od abbassar le vele, a menar con forza i remi o rallentar la voga. Steph. Doletus, de re naval, apud Gron. Tom. XI. V. CELEUSMA.”
[Dizionario Tecnico Etimologico Filologico, Tom.I, Marchi, 1828]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Oct 22 - 07:09 PM

“The shrill notes of the boatswains' pipes were now heard, a contagious bustle spread along the line, and soon distant music was heard through the fleet, as the men hove round the clattering capstans. Loud voices soon proclaimed, "Short,"—and "Loose sails," was the word.”
[The Night Watch, Vol.I, 1828]



“The bell had just gone one in the first watch, and it was dark. The lobster fifer turned up his whistle, and up we were lugging it, stamp and go, when, by the Lord Harry! I run foul of the Samson's port, and was all but jammed in the snatch-block….”
[The Night Watch, Vol.II, 1828]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Oct 22 - 07:15 PM

“At six o'clock on the morning of the tenth, the sound went forth, all hands up, anchor ho o o ey. Ship the capstain bars there, carpenters, bring too forward, jump down there, tier men, and coil away the cable. Aye, aye, Sir. Are you ready there forward ? All ready Sir. Heave away. What kind of a drawling tune is that you Fifer? Strike up, "Off she goes,” or “drops of brandy.” Aye, that is the tune. Keep step there, all of ye, and stamp and go. Light round the messenger there, aft, hand forward the nippers, you boys. The anchor is a-peak, Sir. Very well. Thick and dry for weighing there below.”
[Sam Spritsail, Chap. IV., The Paisley Magazine, Vol.1, 1828]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 05 Oct 22 - 07:18 PM

“The following morning we had enough to do to replace crippled yards, repair broken rigging, and to get underweigh; for our modest north-easter was peeping out again, and, seeing nothing of the boisterous south, whispered to us that we might lift our anchor; and that was soon done, you may be sure, with a few hearty yeo, heave ho's! The same cheering song, was issuing from about fifty sail of vessels, of all sizes, from a Scotch smack to a seventy-four, the harbour, at the same time, thickly studded with pilot- boats, bomb-boats, and boats of all descriptions.”
[No,XI, Letter of a Traveller, The British Channel – Outward Board, The Kaleidoscope: or, Literary and Scientific Mirror, Vol.9, No,438, 1828]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Oct 22 - 04:45 AM

“1827
...The Laguna Indians were fond of singing, although they knew less about it than even myself. Towards sunset, I used occasionally to sing them the Canadian boat-song, when they would give way, keeping time with their paddles; and Mr. Hinde and his canoe would soon be out of sight, if I did not stop singing, to heave the lead. These people appeared infected with some sullen contagion, that it was not easy to overcome.”
[Maw, Journal of a Passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic, The Eclectic Review, Vol.1, 1829]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Oct 22 - 04:49 AM

Salomáre. T. di mar. Dare la voce.”
[Dizionario Portatile della Lingua Italiana, Vol.2, Cardinali, 1828]


“The Proceleusmatic, is composed of two pyrrhics, ? ? ? ? hominibus. (celeusma) is the word of command given to sailors or soldiers; probably in double quick time.”
[The Art of Latin Poetry, By and Fellow of a college in Cambridge Master of Arts, 1828]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Oct 22 - 04:50 AM

“The “capstan was manned” in a moment by above fifty of the crew….

..."Now," continued he, addressing the people employed at the capstan, "now, recollect, my lads, I want no more than the "double-quick" step, for I always suspect there's a good deal of "heaving thro' all," when there's any fast running round; so now––

"Left foot––
"Double-quick––
"Heave."

The capstan was instantly set in motion, the seamen marking their quick-measured step to the mellifluous strains of a woolly headed African cat-gut scraper, who, as occasion required, catered for the carnal appetites of the crew below in the galley as cook's-mate, or restrained their brute force like Orpheus of old, by measured modulation.

In consequence of the steady step preserved by the men at the capstan in their circumambulatory march, the cabal was not only hove in with great celerity, but with an equable motion that permitted the people below leisurely to bend and coil it away, without any of those interruptions or stoppages at the capstan, common on such occasions to most ships in the service. A few minutes served to bring the brig near enough to her anchor to render it necessary the circumstance should be announced by Burton, who exclaimed––
"Hove short, Sir."
[Sailors and Saints Or Matrimonial Manœvres, Glascock, 1829]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Oct 22 - 04:52 AM

“...The wind was favourable, and we had a large sail to assist us; so that we very soon had an opportunity of hearing a genuine Canadian boat-song. In it there was a vast deal more noise than music, nor of all the others that I heard these men sing during the voyage, did the melodies bear the slightest resemblance to any I had heard before. The refrein of one of these songs I happen to recollect, and it is as follows*:

        Sommes nous au mi – lieu du bois,
        Sommes nous au ri – vage – – e.

This, they roared out without mercy, in full chorus, and one at a time sang the song itself, which treated of the hardihood of the Voyageurs, the troubles and difficulties they encounter, not forgetting their skill and bravery in surmounting them.”
[Forest Scenes and Incidents, in the Wilds of North America, Head, 1829]

* Includes music.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Oct 22 - 04:53 AM

“*PROCELEUMATICO e PROCELEUSMATICO. Add. ed anche sust, al masc. Term. de' Poeti greci e latini. Piede di verso cosi detto, perchè lunghissimo e velocissimo, per essere di quattro sillabe brevi composto; ed è anche metro, nel quale entrano piedi proceleumatici. Distico fatto in quel metro e misura di verso che chiamasi proceleumatica (ossia da vogatori) ec. Salvin. Diog. e Cas. (A)”
[Dizionario della Lingua Italiana, Vol.5, M-Q, 1829]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Oct 22 - 04:56 AM

“*SALOMARE. Dare la voce. Termine de Marineria. Salomare è preso dallo Spagnuolo. (S)
[Dizionario della Lingua Italiana, Vol.6, Volumes 1-7, Federici, 1829]


“Consonar, v.a. V. Salomar.
Saloma, f. der Gesang der Matrosen, beim Manöuvriren ze.
Salomar, (beim Manövriren; indem die Matrosen die Taue, Segel ze. regieren) singen ze.”
[Nuevo Diccionario Portátil Español-Aleman, Vol.1, Franceson, 1829]


Just fwiw:
“P. Y en el catalan cuándo usaremos la idzeta?
R. En el catalan apenas tiene uso, pues en su lugar se escriben dos eses asi ss., esceptuando estas palabras zalamar, zarpar, zel, zelós, zisanya., su pronunciacion es mas suave que el de la ese.”
[Elementos de Gramática Castellana-Catalana, Circuns, 1829]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 09 Oct 22 - 04:58 AM

“salomar.                donner la voix.

VOIX. s. f.
angl. voice. –– esp. voz. –– all. laut. –– it. voce. –– prol. voz.

V. porte-voix. Saluer de la voix, passer à portée de voix pour hêler. V. hêler et arraisonner.

La voix est un son formé dans la gorge et dans la bouche, par la glotte. La voix est un instrument fragile, et pour ne pas l'endommager, il faut qu'elle soit habituée à servir. Un officier qui n'a pas l'habitude de commander, 's'enroue dans un moment. Se faire entendre dans une tempête, quand la rapidité du vent ne permet pas à l'air de vibrer au loin sous l'action de la voix, est une chose souvent impossible. Souvent celui qui commande crie, on l'entend moins, et il s'enroue plus vite. On a remarqué que les sons des notes médiantes, et les sons aigus ne sont pas ceux q?i s'entendent le mieus. La voix rauque est la meilleure; elle gêne beaucoup quand on n'y est pas accoutumé, mais quand la glotte y est habituée, on ne s'enroue plus, on commande sans crier, et l'on se fait beaucoup mieux entendre.

        Donner la voix, V. chanter et donner.
        Faire courir la voix, c'est répéter le commandement.

zalomar. Donner la voix en halant.”
[Répertoire Polyglotte de la Marine, à l'usage des Navigateurs et des Armateurs, Louis Marie Joseph O'hier de Grandpré, 1829]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Oct 22 - 12:30 AM

“Liberia, February 15, 1829

I have at length gotten through with this much-talked-off African fever; and, after all, do not think it any great thing. A Carolina or Georgia fever is just as bad, and as for an Alabama fever, it would be worth two of it. I continued to use precautions and take medicines for six weeks after my arrival, and enjoyed perfect health; but I at length became tired and careless, and the consequence was—the fever. I was well taken care of, and had every attention that could be afforded; and since I am through with it, I am glad I have had it, as it will exempt me entirely from it hereafter*….

...The river from its mouth is most beautiful: its banks are high and broken, and covered with the most dense and variegated verdure. Along the banks here and there, we observed an African town, with the thatched huts intermingled with the broad green leaf of the plantain, of which the beautiful pea-green colour distinguishes it from all surrounding verdure. On our approach to one of those villages, which is always announced by our boatmen with their African Boat Song, we generally found all the inhabitants, men, women, and children, assembled on the beach to see and receive us.”
[Randall, Expedition up the St. Paul's, The African Repository and Colonial Journal, Vol.5, 1830]
Richard Randall (1796–1829)

*“Shortly before his death, he was conducting important negotiations with King Boatswain… Randall died of fever in Liberia on April 19, 1829” [wiki]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Oct 22 - 12:34 AM

“NORTH: By the bye, I have a letter this morning from a friend of mine now in Upper Canada. He was rowed down the St Lawrence lately, for several days on end, by a set of strapping fellows, all born in that country, and yet hardly one of whom could speak a word of any tongue but the Gaelic. They sung heaps of our old Highland oar-songs, he says, and capitally well, in the true Hea bridean fashion ; and they had others of their own, Gaelic too, some of which my friend noted down, both words and music. He has sent me a translation of one of their ditties-shall I try how it will croon?

OMNES: O, by all means-by all means.

NORTH: Very well, ye'll easily catch the air, and be sure you tip me vigour at the chorus. [Chants,

CANADIAN BOAT-SONG –– (from the Gaelic.)

Listen to me, as when ye heard our father
        Sing long ago the song of other shores ––
Listen to me, and then in chorus gather
        All your deep voices, as ye pull your oars:

CHORUS.
Fair these broad meads — these hoary woods are grand;
But we are exiles from our fathers' land.


From the lone shieling of the misty island
        Mountains divide us, and the waste of seas ––
Yet still the blood is strong, the heart is Highland,
        And we in dreams behold the Hebrides:
Fair these broad meads — these hoary woods are grand;
But we are exiles from our fathers' land.


We ne'er shall tread the fancy-haunted valley,
        Where 'tween the dark hills creeps the small clear stream,
In arms around the patriarch banner rally,
        Nor see the moon on royal tombstones gleam:
Fair these broad meads — these hoary woods are grand;
But we are exiles from our fathers' land.


When the bold kindred, in the time long-vanish’d,
        Conquer'd the soil and fortified the keep, —
No seer foretold the children would be banish’d,
        That a degenerate Lord might boast his sheep:
Fair these broad meads — these hoary woods are grand;
But we are exiles from our fathers' land.


Come foreign rage-let Discord burst in slaughter!
        O then for clansman true, and stern claymore —
The hearts that would have given their blood like water,
        Beat heavily beyond the Atlantic roar:
Fair these broad meads — these hoary woods are grand;
But we are exiles from our fathers' land.


SHEPHERD. Hech me! that's really a very affectin' thing, now.— Weel, Doctor, what say you? Another bowl?”
[Noctes Ambrosianæ, No. XLVI., Blackwood's Magazine, Vol.26, 1829]
John Wilson of Elleray (1785–1854)
Noctes Ambrosianae


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Oct 22 - 12:35 AM

“The Hallelujah was principally used during the interval between Easter and Whitsuntide. Augustine informs us that, “Alleluja etiam in aliis diebus cantatur alibi atque alibi, ipsis autem Quinquaginta diebus ubique” –– “the Hallelujah was also sung here and there on other days, but during the fifty days every where.” The word is thus illustrated by the same distinguished father: “Our praises are a Hallelujah. But what is a Hallelujah? It is a Hebrew word: Hallelujah, praise the Lord: Hallelujah, praise God. Let us sing it, and mutually excite each other to praise God; and thus while we speak with the heart better than with the harp, let us sing Hallelujah, praise to God; and when we have sung, we retire on account of infirmity to refresh our bodies.” Some of the celebrated theologians of the middle ages, as Anselm, Durandus, Alcuin, and others, finding the word but once in the New-Testament, and nowhere in the Latin or Greek authors, and unacquainted with its Hebrew origin, supposed it to be immediately revealed from heaven as a peculiar gift to the New Testament Church. “From Rev. 19. we know,” says Bona, “that this canticum Hallelujah has descended from heaven into the new Church of Christ.” Isidore of Spain deemed it too sacred to be translated into any other language. It was not always however deemed too sacred for secular purposes. It was taught and sung as a lullaby to infants in the cradle, used as a watchword in the camp and a war cry on the field of battle, and employed by the Romans in their formula of their judicial oath: “Truly as I hope to hear and to sing the Hallelujah.” More appropriate was the use of it made by the inhabitants of Bethlehem, according to Jerome's charming description. “In the village of Christ all is rural, (rusticitas.) Silence reigns throughout, except the singing of psalms. Wherever you turn, the ploughman at his work chants a Hallelujah. The sweating reaper alleviates his toil with psalms; and the keeper of the vineyard, pruning his vines, sings some of David's notes –– aliquid Davidicum. These are the hymns — these are what are called the amatory songs used in this region.” Even the sailor introduced the sacred word into his boat song, and chanted Hallelujah while tugging at the oar.

Curvorum binc chorus helciariorum,
Responsantibus Hallelujah ripis,
Ad Christum levat amnicum celeusma,
Sic, sic psallite nauta et viator.*

The chorus hence of bending oarsmen,
The shores re-echoing Hallelujah,
To Christ address the mariner's song.
Thus sing, O sailor, thus, O traveller!
* Sidonius Appollinaris, Ep. Lib. II. ep.10

Among the authorities consulted, we find no notice of any thing like a Psalm-book, or collection of Church poetry, earlier than the council of Laodicea, (An. 370,) at which the following Canon was enacted: “The Canonical Cantors, or choristers alone, who stand on an elevated place in the Church, shall sing the psalms, from the parchments lying before them." The precise meaning and object of this Canon are not obvious; and it has accordingly been variously interpreted. Whether the Choristers, in their elevated desks, were required to perform the entire musical service of the Church to the exclusion of the congregation, to avoid the discord often heard in a promiscuous assembly, as is sometimes done by the choirs in modern days; or whether they were merely to select the tunes and lead the music, the congregation accompanying as well as they could, according to the general practice of our own times, seems undecided by the ambiguous expression of the Canon. The latter however is most probable, as the universal practice of the primitive Church made it the duty and the privilege of the whole Church, and not merely of a few select artists, to sing the praises of God their Saviour in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs. The choristers were required to occupy a conspicuous station, and sing, … — from the parchments — then the common material of books. Hence the order was equivalent to requiring them to sing the words from the book lying before them, and not from memory, as they would be liable to errors and inaccuracies. But no description of the book or parchment however is furnished, and we are left to form our opinions from conjecture, or content ourselves without an opinion on the subject. An obscure expression of Socrates, an early historian of the Church, has been thought to refer to this subject….”
[The New Princeton Review, Vol.1, 1829]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Oct 22 - 12:38 AM

“...then the rattling of the ropes on the deck, the heavy tread of the sailors, the singing noise they made in hoisting,...”
[The Children's Robinson Crusoe, Defoe, Farrar, 1830]


“Chanter, v. a. Cantar: dícese de la voz humana, y de algunos pájaros....= Cantar: celebrar en verso las acciones heróicas. = (náut.) Zalomar….”
[Diccionario Francés-Español y Español-Francés, Tomo.I, Taboada, 1830]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Oct 22 - 12:39 AM

“The smooth bosom of the St. Lawrence teemed with life and gaiety; ships, schooners, and brigs passed the shores of the island in rapid succession, while several large canoes traversed the river in all directions, filled with Canadians of both sexes, clad in their holiday clothes, and cheerfully keeping time with their paddles to the boat song; the whole being highly calculated to produce a striking and novel effect on the eye and ear of a European….

...We knocked out the stern-port; several rafts of fine oak were brought alongside, and a stevedore, with a gang of thirteen Canadians, came on board, who commenced stowing the timber in the hold, while our own crew was employed hoisting it in. I was and still am highly amused by the lively strains of the different crews, while at their work; the whole port seems a scene of bustle and cheerfulness: the sounds of 'Haul, boys, haul!'   'Pull away, my jolly boys!'   'Haul, Nancy, O!' 'Hurra, for pretty Nancy, O!' resound from thousands of voices.

...The ships decked with their gayest colours; while the Canadian boat-song floated harmoniously over the bosom of the glassy stream. Expressing my admiration of its melody, Mr. C. politely sang it, his son and daughter adding a cheerful chorus. 'Twas thus we spent the happy moments, until 2½ P.M., when we landed on the island.

...But, hark! I hear the pleasing sound of the boat-song, and the regular splashing of, the paddles. With such a prospect, and music too, one might almost fancy one's self in the poets' famed Elysium; every thing around me, but the troublesome flies, invites to soothing melancholy and pensive contemplation.”
[The Fugitives; Or, a Trip to Canada, Chiefly Founded on Facts, Lane, 1830]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 10 Oct 22 - 12:41 AM

“SAILOR'S SONG.
By Dick Wills, the Poet of Greenwich Hospital.

When the topsails are set, and the bars are all shipp'd,
And the drums and fifes merrily play,
Round the capstan we dance, till our anchor is tripp'd,
When the boatswain bawls “Heave and away:”
        To the fife's shrill sound,
        While the joke goes round,
We step with a pleasing delight;
        Dry nippers clapp'd on,
        We soon here the song,
“Heave, heave, my brave boys, and in sight." Then the sails are all trimm'd, and the anchor we stow,
Britain's white cliffs recede from our view,
Boundto sea on a cruise, we look out for the foe––
As one man is the whole of our crew:
        From mast-head they hail,
        “I see a strange sail,”
We obey (hope gladdening each face);
        The boatswain's shrill call,
        And the mate's hoarse bawl,
“All hands to make sail in the chase.”

Old Albion's proud flag at our peak we display,
And the tri-colour plainly discern:
“Cock your locks," cries the captain, now keep her way––
Steady! Point your guns right at her stern,
“Fire! fire! and rake her,
Now the shots shake her,
See, see, how her masts rattle down;
        The helm hard a-lee,
        Bold lads follow me!”
We board, and the frigate's our own
Then our ensign, so brave, o'er the tri-colour flies,
        Back to England our course we pursue;
The breezes are fair-moor'd in port with our prize––
And the king gives poor sailors their due;
        Rigg'd out so fine, oh,
        Plenty of rhino,
Grog, fiddles, and lasses so gay;
        We spend it on shore,
        Till duty once more
Cries “Heave! And the anchor's away.”



“...D'ye see, every order was exposed publicly for the ship's company to read, so that every man fore and aft knew what he had to do. This was his plan; 'Do your duty, and no one shall wrong you; neglect it and I'll punish.' Among other orders, there was one, that no man should sing out either in pulling a rope or any other duty, but all were to be silent as death. One day we we mooring ship, when some one sung out at the capstan, 'Hurrah, my boys, heave!' The captain heard it, 'Send that man on deck, directly.” The officer immediately pick'd him out, and, he was ordered aft under the sentry's charge.”
[Greenwich Hospital, The Log Book, Or, Nautical Miscellany, 1830]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Oct 22 - 05:17 AM

XLong post and then some:
“...»Mais à l'époque déjà fort reculée, où l'on avait en marine l'usage bruyant et pittoresque de commander et d'exécuter la manoeuvre, par versets et répons en quelque sorte, selon un rituel nautique assez compliqué, –– au coup de sifflet suivi d'un commandement du maître d'équipage, les gens de quart répondaient: –– A la bonne heure! –– Les manœuvres manquant alors de la précision qu'elles ont acquise depuis, s'exécutaient en effet au petit bonheur; on a vu la même idée se traduire dans le vieux commandement: A Dieu vat!

Au cri à la bonne heure, succéda le répons commande qui paraît s'être perpétué jusqu'au commencement de ce siècle, car l'amiral Willaumez le mentionne en ajoutant: –– Ce cri n'est plus guère permis.–– (Dict. de mar., art: Commande.)

On rencontre dans Rabelais plusieurs exemples des ripostes collectives des gens de l'équipage aux commandements du pilot (sic).

–– Vien du lo. Pres et plain. Hault la barre!
–– Haulte est, respondoyent les matelotz.
–– Haye, haye, dist le pilot, double le cap et les basses.
–– Doublé est, respondoyent les matelotz.

Au nombre des licencieuses coutumes de l'ancienne marine se trouvait le charivari, burlesque clameur usitée en virant au cabestan. Un loustic criait gaiement: — « Charivari! » les camarades demandaient en masse: « Et pour qui? » à quoi le premier ripostait par quelque grossière pasquinade rimant en i, généralement caustique, souvent brutale, et n'épargnant personne, sous-officiers, officiers, capitaine, ni amiral.

–– « Pour qui? –– Pour le capitaine d'armes, un pousse-caillou fini. –– Pour qui? –– Pour le lieutenant, un vieil abruti!..» Tous les maris étaient affublés de l'épithète si fréquemment employée par Molière et que M. Paul de Cock arbora un beau jour sur la couverture d'un roman in-8º, aussi, marri, couci-couci venant parfaire l'indispensable rime. On se demande comment la discipline put jamais tolérer ainsi jusqu'à l'insulte publique? –– Nous douterions des excès du charivari, si, depuis 1830, nous ne l'avions entendu chanter à bord d'un navire de guerre mal tenu, –– sur une barque du bon Dieu où naviguaient de pair la faiblesse et tous les désordres.

A propos des cris de veille: Bon quart! –– et ouvre l'eil aux bossoirs! on a vu que chanter fut le verbe propre pour tous les cris qui, généralement, tiennent du chant et sont encore usités sur les bâtiments de pêche, de cabotage ou de long cours. –– On fit le commandement: chante! qui obligeait quelques hommes, proprement dits chanteurs, à psalmodier un certain refrain pour donner la mesure quand on exécutait une manœuvre de force.

Le voyageur qui, pour la première fois, visite un port de commerce, est frappé tout d'abord par les cris cadencés, sortes de mélodies sauvages ou au moins bizarres, qui se font entendre à bord des navires où travaillent les matelots. Suivant leur nation, suivant les travaux qu'ils exécutent, ils varient leurs chants de manœuvre.

Parfois, sur les bâtiments hanovriens, prussiens et hambourgeois, ou encore sur quelques navires de l'Adriatique, on entend des chœurs qui ne sont pas dépourvus des charmes de l'harmonie. Certaines notes gutturales, fréquemment répétées, étonnent et plaisent à la fois. Mais, en général, c'est à l'unisson , sans le moindre sentiment autre que celui de l'ensemble, que les cris de hâlage ou de guindage sont poussés par les marins.

Ainsi, les Anglais, les Américains du nord, les Français se bornent à marier leurs efforts à l'aide d'un motif de la plus monotone simplicité: un éternel refrain « la-houra, cheerly-men, hálihaló, hissâ-hissoué », à peine interrompu par le soliste qui donne la mesure , reviendra sans cesse.

Tel est le chant maritime proprement dit.

Il remonte à la plus haute antiquité; on le retrouve chez tous les peuples.

Les Grecs donnaient le nom de ... au cri d'ensemble des rameurs et des marins à l'ouvrage. On a déjà vu que le ...; le Céleuste, était le chanteur qui donnait le signal; mais il n'est pas sans intérêt de faire remarquer combien la racine de ces mots, c'est-à-dire le verbe ..., ordonner, exhorter, d'où ..., encourager les matelots et les rameurs par des cris , chanter le ..., se rapproche d'un troisième verbe ... que Planche traduit aborder, arriver au port, démarrer, courir vite, sens techniquement trop divers pour être des traductions exactes. ... signifie généralement manœuvrer, et manœuvrer à l'aviron, soit pour aborder, soit pour démarrer ou déborder, pour entrer dans le port comme pour en sortir, pour naviguer, ramer en souquant.

Les matelots grecs qui lèvent l'ancre, chantent: ... ou ... suivant que le mouvement se précipite ou se ralentit. –– « Cette cantilène, dit M. Fauriel, est d'un grand effet en mer, et surtout dans le voisinage des côtes , quand elle est répétée et prolongée par les échos. Elle exerce sur les marins Grecs le même empire que le Ranz des vaches sur les pâtres suisses, et, selon toute apparence, elle est aussi ancienne que la navigation. Déjà vieille lors de la guerre de Troie, elle aurait présidé aux manœuvres des Argonautes. »

Les Chinois , les Hurons, les Polynésiens ont des cris d'ensemble pour ramer, guinder et touer.

Les nègres, libres ou esclaves, affectionnent ces mélodies sans fin qui retentissent incessamment dans leurs pirogues.

Les chants des pirates scandinaves sont demeurés célèbres; ils avaient pour refrains des cris analogues à notre La-houra et à l’... des Grecs.

Sévèrement bannis des navires de guerre, où les remplacent le sifflet du contre-maître, le fifre ou même le clairon, les chants de manœuvre sont, en résumé, peu nombreux. Chaque nation en compte deux ou trois au plus; et encore le matelot, cosmopolite par métier, adopte-t-il fort souvent la mélodie de la nation voisine, au détriment de la sienne qui tombe en désuétude; en sorte que le nombre des refrains usités tend plutôt à diminuer qu'à s'accroître.

C'est ainsi que le cri anglais Cheerly men! (gaiement les hommes) a été emprunté depuis vingt ans au plus, par nos matelots aux marins des États-Unis. Il s'est propagé ensuite sur nos bâtiments de long cours, nos navires de guerre et notre littoral, où il a subi les plus étranges métamorphoses. On chante, par exemple, chélimen! Célimène ou sel hymen, chérie mène, etc..., etc... Sans attacher à ces mots plus de sens qu'à tous les houra, la houra, hissa-hó! hissoué ! charivari ! Boulinâ-ha, et autres cris successivement usités, puis tombant en désuétude, puis redevenant en vogue.

« Boulina-ha-ha! –– Arrache! –– Boulina-ha-ha! Déralingue! –– dit l'amiral Willaumez, est l'ancien chant des matelots français, pendant qu'ils hâlent les boulines. Il est si ridicule que plusieurs capitaines militaires le défendent. » (Dict. de mar.) –– Ridicule est une épithète singulièrement adoucie; car obscène ou ignoble ne diraient rien de trop, attendu tout ce que les hâle-bouline se permettaient d'arracher, déralinguer ou casser en paroles.

Au commandement du maître pour faire hâler les boulines, les matelois criaient en chantant: –– Oh! Saille! — et au moment où le sifflet leur ordonnait de tenir bon pour amarrer, ils terminaient par Blaie ou belay en allongeant sur la dernière syllabe. –– Nous avons connu plusieurs officiers qui affectaient de commander à l'anglaise Belay (de to Belay, amarrer) au lieu de se servir du commandement français, cent fois plus sonore: Amarre!

Pour prouver qu'il a bien entendu les commandements de l'officier de service, le timonnier ou l'homme de barre qui gouverne , doit les répéter textuellement à haute voix:

–– Loffe!... Arrive!... Pas au vent!... Près et plein!... Plein la voile!... Comme ça!

Comme cà, le seul de ces commandements qui n'ait pas encore été expliqué porte son explication avec lui. — Lorsque le navire qui loffe ou qui arrive en vient à avoir le cap dans la direction voulue ,l'officier dit: Comme cà! –– ni en decà, ni au delà, ne loffez plus! n'arrivez plus, assez, bien, gouvernez droit comme nous voici maintenant, –– comme cà!

Si simple que soit ce commandement, il effarouche toujours les passagers, qui le trouvent barbare.”
[Le Langage des Marins, Landelle, 1830]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Oct 22 - 05:20 AM

““Man the capstan! Jump cheerily, my lads. “Look out there, forward! Down there, tierers! Are you ready below?”– “All ready, sir.”-“Yo, ho! where the devil has all our hands 'got to? Fore-top there! main-top there! Come down here, all of you! kick every soul of them out of the tops—a parcel of skulking lubbers!”—“Ay, ay, sir," cried the young gentlemen; and the capstan was speedily crowded, “Look out there, forward!” again bawled the first lieutenant; “Come, my lads, pluck up spirit, and “off she goes—play up fifer;" and round went the capstan to a good smart step, and the men beating excellent time on the hollow sounding deck with their feet, amid the accumulated vociferations of officers of all ranks, who, with their potent commander in presence, vied with each other in the notes of alternate encouragement and ridicule.”
[Three Weeks in the Downs, Or, Helen and Edmund: A Sea Tale, Comprehending a View of Naval Society and Manners, Founded on Fact by an Officer's Widow, Vol.2, 1830]
The Downs (ship anchorage)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Oct 22 - 05:27 AM

RE: J'ai Trop Grand Peur Des Loups (above) and another Mudcat thread –

“Edward Ermatinger, fur trader with the Hudson's Bay Company, heard and took down this song c.1830, while traveling with voyageurs, along with ten other songs. These were the first folk songs recorded from Canada.

Marius Barbeau, 1954, The Ermatinger Collection of Voyageur Songs, JAFL, vol. 67, no. 264, 1954. Also p. 159, En Roulant Ma Boule.”
French Canadian songs


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Oct 22 - 05:27 AM

ALARIDO, s.m. vozeria (dos que rompem a batalla) celeuma; gritos (de quem bulha com o:i-trem).
CELEUMA, ou CELEUSMA, s.f. vozeria dos maritmos.
CELEUMEAR, v.n. levantar celeuma.
SALAMEAR, v.n. naut. cantar alternadamente.”
[Novo Diccionario da Lingua Portugueza, Fonseca, 1831]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Oct 22 - 05:29 AM

“CACHUCHA. s.f. A.N. Segun algunos de los diccionarios que se han tenido á la vista, es una embarcacion de remos que se usa en los puertos y rios de América; y tan pequeña, que no caben en ella arriba de tres personas.

CACHUCHO. s.m. fig. A.N. y Nav. Apodo que se da á un barco muy pequeño, que tambien se dice cachumbo, cachumbillo, asi como cachumbon por buque malo ó marchante estrafalario.

Chanter. Salomar.
Chanteur. Salomador.

CONSONA R. v. a. ant. Man. V. Salomar.

Salma. Carga, Saloma.
Salmastra. Mogel.
Salmastrare. Amogelar.
Salomare. Salomar.

SALOMA. s.f. Man. Especie de grito ó canto de los marineros al trabajar en alguna faena ó maniobra.

SALOMADOR. s.m. Man. El que saloma; y el que lleva la voz en la saloma.

SALOMAR. v.a. Man. Animar el que manda á los marineros, y llevar estos unidos sus movimientos ó esfuerzos en una faena, con el canto llamado saloma. En lo antiguo se decia consonar, segun alguno de los diccionarios consultados”
[Diccionario Marítimo Español, 1831]

Folklore: The Cachucha (song & dance)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Oct 22 - 05:33 AM

“After his emigration to the borders of the Mississippi, his chief occupation became that of a boatman, and none pulled a better oar, or sung with truer cadence the animating notes of the boat song, than Michel de Coucy. The Canadian boatmen are the hardiest and merriest of men; if their boat is stranded, they plunge into the water, in all weathers, diving and swimming about as if in their native element; if it storms, they sleep or revel, under the protection of a high bank; and when pulling down the stream, or pushing laboriously against it, the shores ring with their voices. One will recount his adventures, another will imitate the Indian yell, the roar of the aligator, the hissing of the snake, or the chattering of the paroquet, and anon the whole will chant their rude ditties concerning the dangers of rapids, snags, and sawyers, or the pleasures of home, the vintage, and the dance. Michel was an adept at all these things, and he loved them, as a Cossack loves plunder, or Dutchman hard work and money. He was the darling of the crew; for he could skin a deer, cook a fish, scrape a chin or a fiddle, with equal adroitness; and always performed such offices so good humouredly, that his companions in compliment to his universal genius, kept it in continual employment. When the boat was in motion he was always tugging at the oar, or the fiddle-bow; when it landed, and the crew sat round their camp fire, he cooked, sung, and told merry stories; on Sunday he shaved the whole company, even at the risk of neglecting his own visage, and was after all the merriest and most respectable man in the boat."
[Michel de Coucy, Illinois Monthly Magazine, Vol.1, 1831]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Oct 22 - 06:29 PM

“Facevano que'marinari quello, che sogliono tutti gli altri, quando vogliono alleggerirsi dalla fatica del vogare. Uno di loro capo degli altri intuonava certe canzoni marinaresche; al quale tutti gli altri, a guisa di coro, con gran concordia di voci rispondevano a tempo. La qual cosa quando essi facevano in aperto mare, la voce. dispersa ió quell'immenso spazio d'aria svaniva: ma quando peryennero a passare una certa punta di scoglio, ed entrarono in una insenata a mezza luna, concava, e larga, udivasi lo strepitare de' femi più forte, e giungeva a testa benissimo scolpita l'intonazione e la risposta del coro. Imperocchè il terreno in quel luogo al mare vicino, era una vota vallata sotto ad una costa di monte, la quale ricevendo in sè, come canna d'organo, ogni voce, fatta imitatrice di tutt’i suoni, quelli puntualmente ripeteva, facendo sentire a parte le percosse de' remi in acqua, e a parte il canto de marinari, una consolazione ad udire.”
[Opere in Versi e in Prosa del Contr Gasparo Gozzi Viniziano, Vol.11, 1794]
Gasparo, count Gozzi (1713–1786)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 11 Oct 22 - 06:49 PM

Another Canadian Boat Song. This from the Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, 16 January, 1822. Posted in: Lyr ADD: A La Claire Fontaine


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Oct 22 - 06:58 AM

LUFF'S LAY.
Mr. Editor, Having these several days past swept the “Political Horizon” with my Dollond's day and night telescope, I have, in common no doubt with many of my old shipmates, been highly elated with the idea of once more getting our corns soaked in salt-water; musing by the space of a dog-watch over my nuts and swizzle, I yesterday spun the following yarn, which is at your service.         Luff!

Air—“A reg'lar capstan, stamp and go.”

BRING to, clap on, both thick and dry,
Heave round, my lads, so cheerly;
Once more “Blue Peter” bids good b'ye
To the land we love so dearly.
The sheets are home, the haulyards man,
Our ship she casts to sea, boys,
Up-cheer the man who leads the van,
Our King! with three times three, boys.

Come clear the decks, in order place
The bottles and the glasses;
All hands a-hoy! splice the main-brace,
And toast our favourite lasses:
Now fill a bumper, all prepare,
So hearty and so free, boys;
Up—cheer the fairest of the fair,
Our Queen! with three times three, boys.

Britannia's made of good old stuff,
And trimly put together;
She’ll wear and stay, in smooth and rough,
In calm or stormy weather:
No vessel boasts a stauncher crew,
Her officers ne'er fail her,
Commanded by a Captain too,
Who's every inch a sailor.

Close-hauled, and free, and all aback,
Strange sails strange courses steer now;
Britons! keep on your good old tack,
With “very well, thus”—“no near” now:-
But should they dare to cross our hawse,
And brave our flag so free, boys,
Up-cheer the tar who'll lead our cause—
The King! with three times three, boys.

Huzza! huzza! huzza! &c.
Our King! with three times three, boys.”
[Luff's Lay, The United Service Journal, Pt.I, 1831, p.356]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Oct 22 - 06:59 AM

IORRAM. A boat song; a rowing song.
IURRAM. -AIM, -AN, s.f. See Iorram.
[A Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Macleod, Dewar, 1831]



“†CELEUSME. s.m. Cri des matelots qui rament pour s'encourager les uns les autres.– Signal qu'on donne aux matelots et aux rameurs, soit de vive voix, soit avec un sifflet, pour leur marquer les differentes manœuvres.
†CELEUSTE. s.m. Celui qui a soin de faire ou preserire le devoir aux matelots, aux rameurs, et aux autres ouvriers d'un bàtiment.
HOURA*. s.m. Cri de guerre des Cosaques, des troupes russes, etc.– † mar. mot répété à haute voix par les matelots lorsqu'ils hàleut ensemble un cordage”
[Dictionnaire Général de la Langue Française, Raymond, 1832]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Oct 22 - 07:00 AM

Nódítás. Celeusma. M.A.

ONSZOL, onszolja. Cohortatur, clamore, impellit. M.A.L. Unszol.
ONSZOLÁS. Hortatus, instinctus, cohortatio clamosa, celeusma. M.A.
ONSZOLÓ. Instigator. vide Onzoló. M.A.
        Onszoló kiáltás. Celeusma. M.A.

ONZOL. Lásd Onszol, Unszol.
ONZOLÁS. Instigatio, instinctus, cohortatio. M.A.
        Onzolásnak kiáltása. Celeusma. M.A.
ONZOLÓ. Instigator. M.A.

UNSZOL, unszolja, Instigat, instimulat. it. Invitat. M.A.
Unszolás, Instigatio, abhortatio, instimulatio. M.A. A' gyakor unszolás indítja a' gyermeket. km.
Unszolat. Celeusma, stimulus, incitamentum. S.I.”
[Magyar Szotar Gyökerrenddel es Deakozattal, Vol.II, L-Z, Kresznerics, 1832]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Oct 22 - 07:03 AM

“Vogue á la calmie! (commandement aux rameurs.) Pull away now the wind lulls!
[Le Nouveau Dictionnaire Universel, Garner, Boyer, 1832]



“Celeusma, âtis, g.m. Algazara de marineros cuando descubren tierra y alabanzas divinas.
Celeustes, æ, g m. Cómitre de galera.
[Compendium Latino-Hispanum, Salas, 1832]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 12 Oct 22 - 03:02 PM

Hi Phil,
Can you please explain the relevance of the Dibdinesque piece by Luff?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 12 Oct 22 - 08:07 PM

Steve: In this thread only, relevance = search term = stamp and go = Air—“A reg'lar capstan, stamp and go.

Been on the list here since year one but no hits until just lately. So far, so few, it's all capstan work. Obviously, something will have to give before the expression makes it to the Sea Shanty wiki style “stamp & go.”

And one suspects “Sam Spritsail” and “Landsman Hay” might share a branch somewhere on the old family tree.

Small world: Lay's new King here is William IV, aka: The Sailor King. We've chatted about the HRH's mistress Dorothea Jordan 's stage work here: Lyr Add: I Am a Brisk and Sprightly Lad. Jordan & Latour co-published at least one piece as well.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 07:13 AM

Just a quick reminder on the thread title: However, in recent, popular usage, the scope of its definition is sometimes expanded to admit a wider range of repertoire and characteristics, or to refer to a "maritime work song" in general. [Sea Shanty wiki]

This one's on the wiki proper. The East India Fleet crew is singing to a fiddle and working a capstan. The wiki authors themselves can't really relate it to shanties or shantying and 1832 is a long ways from “recent” ––


“Always giving a fillip to conversation by some anecdote or enlivening jest:–– the capstan bars move at the word heave, when accompanied by his usual exclamation of “cheerly, my lads! Cheerly!…”

HEAVING AT THE CAPSTAN.
All who have been on board ship must recollect heaving at the capstan. It is one of the many soul-stirring scenes that occur on board when all hands are turned up; the motley group that man the bars, the fiddler stuck in a corner, the captain on the poop encouraging the men to those desperate efforts that seem, to the novice, an attempt at pulling up the rocks by the root. It's a time of equality; idlers, stewards and servants, barbers and sweepers, cooks' mates and cooks-mate's ministers, doctors' mates, and loblolly boys; every man runs the same road, and hard and impenetrable is that soul that does not chime in with the old ditties, "Pull away now, my Nancy, O!" and the long" Oh!" that precedes the more musical strain of

"Oh her love is a sailor,
His name is Jemmy Taylor,
He's gone in a whaler,
To the Greenland sea:"

or

"Oh ! if I had her,
Eh then if I had her,
Oh! how I could love her,
Black although she be."
[The Quid or Tales of my Messmates, anon, 1832]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 07:15 AM

CRÓCCHIA. Sust. f. Canzone rozza. (Dal verbo Crocchiare in senso di quel cantare che fa la chioccia quando ha i polcini.) Come sogliono i marinari per alleggiamento della lor fatica, vogando e cantando, n'andavano; e nel cantare avevano tra loro un commandatore che a guisa di papasso stando in prua, e dando il tempo del remo, era il primo ad imporre certe crocchie marinaresche; ed imposto ch'egli avéa, tutti li altri, al calar della sua voce, come un coro a voce pari con la battuta de'remi rispondevano. Car. Daf. rag. 3, p. 118. (Nel test. gr. a crocchie marinaresche corrisponde nauticas odas. Il Gozzi tradusse semplicemente canzoni marinaresche. V. anche CELEUSMA nel Forcellini.)
[Supplimento a' Vocabolarj Italiani: C-E, Gherardini, 1833]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 07:16 AM

CELEUS'MA (Ant.) ..., a shout of encouragement, which mariners make to one another whilst they are engaged in any work, similar to “Ho up,” and such like words, used among sailors in modern times.
Mart. 1.4, ep.64, v.21.

Quem nec rumpere nauticum celeusma.

Serv. in Æn.1. 8; Gloss. Cyrill.; Gyrald. de Navig. c.16; Bud. in Pandect. p. 106; Scheff. de Mil. Nav. l.3, c.1.

CELE'USTES (Ant.) he who shouted the celeusma to the mariners. [vide Celeusma]”
[Universal Technological Dictionary, Vol.1, Crabb, 1833]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 07:22 AM

“...and when it is recollected, that the “best bower,” of ninety hundred weight, has often to be dragged out of a muddy anchorage, some idea may be formed of the immense power demanded; it accordingly requires the simultaneous effort of sixty or eighty men, who “man the capstan,” to effect it: a drum and fife play a lively air to encourage them in their exertions, and to time their efforts.”
[Some Account of a Ship, The Saturday Magazine, Vol. III, July Supplement, 1833]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 07:26 AM

“I wrote the foregoing a day or two since, and have now to address you on the part of O'Doggrell, who having insisted on going aloft to hand the gaff topsails, when he was " three sheets in the wind," slipped the sixth or seventh ratline, and though he fortunately fell inboard, yet has he received an ugly "confusion" on his skull, besides spraining his right hand. The effect of said "confusion" has been to make him thrice more poetical than ever, and he has "bothered" the ship's company ever since, with alternate poetical effusions, on all subjects, and nautical imprecations in good prose on his accident. In order to quiet him I have volunteered to be his amanuensis, and present you with a song of his on the "Revenge," which he intends should send both Dibdin and Campbell "hull down to leewards."

It blows a merry breeze— Ho, boys, cheerily.
We can work her as we please— Ho, boys, cheerily.
Her sails are fast asleep,
And fast a-head we creep.
Along the slumbering deep,
                Ho, boys, cheerily.

But let it blow a gale— Ho, boys, cheerily,
With a double-reefed main sail—Ho, boys, cheerily.
'Tis then that shell make way,
Heeding neither wind nor sea;—
Give the old Revenge fair play.
                Ho, boys, cheerily.

As for your Sunday craft—Ho, cheerily,
Square rigged—or fore and aft— Ho, cheerily.
'Tis now as 'twas of yore,
We're at sea, when they're on shore;
While the stormy winds do roar,
                Ho, boys, cheerily.

In a calm they make some play—Ho, cheerily,
And will boast for many a day—Ho, cheerily.
But let them but be seen,
Where the tempest's path has been,
And they'll own her for their queen.
                Ho, boys, cheerily.

Still ready shall we be—Ho, cheerily,
To meet friend or enemy—Ho, cheerily.
With a friend our all to share,
We both hands and hearts prepare,—
But let a foe beware,
                Ho, boys, cheerily.

Then here's to the ship and crew—Ho, cheerily,
Both are staunch, and brave, and true—Ho, cheerily.
And while they can stretch a sail,
Be it calm, or breeze, or gale,
Neither ship nor crew will fail,
                Ho, boys, cheerily.


PATRICK O'DOQGRELL.

Thus you have my trusty and well beloved cousin's production.
P.O.T.
[Irish Monthly Magazine, Vol.I, May'32-Apr.33, 1833]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 07:28 AM

“Athenæus has preserved the Greek names of different songs as sung by various trades, but unfortunately none of the songs themselves. There was a song for the corn-grinders; another for the workers in wool; another for the weavers. The reapers had their carol; the herdsmen had a song which an oxdriver of Sicily had composed; the kneaders, and the bathers, and the galley-rowers, were not without their chant. We have ourselves a song of the weavers, which Ritson has preserved in his 'Ancient Songs' and it may be found in the popular chap-book of 'The Life of Jack of Newbury;' and the songs of anglers, of old Isaac Walton, and Charles Cotton, still retain their freshness.

Mr Heber has beautifully observed, in his Bampton Lectures, that among the Greeks the hymn which placed Harmodius in the green and flowery island of the Blessed was chanted by the potter to his wheel, and enlivened the labours of the Piræn mariner.

Dr Johnson is the only writer I recollect who has noticed something of this nature which he observed in the Highlands. 'The strokes of the sickle were
timed by the modulation of the harvest song, in which all their voices were united. They accompany every action which can be done in equal time with an appropriate strain, which has, they say, not much meaning, but its effects are regularity and cheerfulness. There is an oar song used by the Hebrideans.'

But if these chants 'have not much meaning,' they will not produce the desired effect of touching the heart, as well as giving vigour to the arm of the labourer. The gondoliers of Venice while away their long midnight hours on the water with the stanzas of Tasso. Fragments of Homer are sung by the Greek sailors of the Archipelago ; the severe labour of the trackers, in China, is accompanied with a song which encourages their exertions, and renders these simultaneous. Mr Ellis mentions, that the sight of the lofty pagoda of Tong-chow served as a great topic of incitement in the song of the trackers toiling against the stream, to their place of rest. The canoe-men, on the Gold Coast, in a very dangerous passage, 'on the back of a high-curling wave, paddling with all their might, singing or rather shouting their wild song, follow it up,' says M'Leod, who was a lively witness of this happy combination of song, of labour, and of peril, which he acknowledges was ' a very terrific process.' Our sailors at Newcastle, in heaving their anchors, have their ' Heave, and ho ! rum-below !' but the Sicilian mariners must be more deeply affected by their beautiful hymn to the Virgin! A society instituted in Holland for general good do not consider among their least useful projects that of having printed at a low price a collection of songs for sailors.

It is extremely pleasing, as it is true, to notice the honest exultation of an excellent ballad-writer, C. Dibdin, who in his Professional Life, p. 8, writes — 'I have learnt my songs have been considered as an object of national consequence; that they have been the solace of sailors and long voyagers, in storms, in battle ; and that they have been quoted in mutinies, to the restoration of order and discipline.' It is recorded of the Portuguese soldiery in Ceylon, at the siege of Colombo, when pressed with misery and the pangs of hunger, that they derived, during their marches, not only consolation, but also encouragement, by rehearsing the stanzas of the Lusiad.”
[Songs of Trades, or Songs for the People, Vol.III, D'Israeli, 1833]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 07:33 AM

“Ô!...
Ô! hisse. ô! Hale, ô! Saille, ô! Saque, ô! Ride, (method of singing out as a signal to hoist, haul or rouse together, on a tackle or rope, or to push a beam.)
VOIX [terme de marine] The song (employed by sailors in hoisting, heaving, &c.) Donner la voix. To sing out (as in hauling, hoisting, heaving, &c.) A la voix! Mind the man that sings! Saleur de la voix. V. Saleur.”
[A French and English Dictionary, Vol.1, Wilson, 1833]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 11:05 AM

Some really interesting and intriguing stuff coming out in the 1830s.

The air "A reg'lar capstan, stamp and go." The way that is set out suggests that the title of the air is the title of a song rather than a description if you see what I mean.

Just a little query re work aboard the RN vessels. Okay the capstan was spun to the accompaniment of an instrument, but work aloft couldn't have been co-ordinated in this way. Would for instance reefing a sail have involved the short 'sing out'?

Despite his frequent use of 'Yeo ye' I'm not aware of any Dibdin material ever being used in a chanty, although some of the words of Upton's 'Outward Bound' c1800 did for a while later on, no doubt helped by the popularity of the song in all circles.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 03:39 PM

Another from the wiki. There are several snippets in the Advent thread but nothing with the notes to the lyrics and the usual nauticus clamour for ambiance:

“Send the hands aft, Mr. Spunyarn, to loose the mainsail.” The tyers were speedily cast off, and the sail adrift.

“Man the main and peak haulyards;–– away aloft, and ride them down."

In an instant a dozen of the men and boys were at the mast-head, catching hold of the running part of the haulyards, hanging by their hands, descending by their weight, and hoisting the sail much quicker than by any other means.

“Belay that,” said the mate, when the sail was properly set. “Heave short, Mr. Spunyarn,––keep a range of the cable on deck. Here, you cook! where's Scaldings, the cook? let him take down the chain. How does the cable grow, Mr. Spunyarn?"
        “Two points on the starboard bow, Sir.”
        “Port your helm, Mr. Blowhard."
        “Hard-a-port, Sir,” exclaimed the gunner, who was at the helm.
        “Heave away, lads !"
        “She's short, Sir,” bawled the boatswain.
        “Very well, Mr. Spunyarn; man the jib and fore haulyards––hoist away––keep the starboard fore-sheet to windward.”

The handspikes were again manned, and in a few minutes the anchor was at the bows, catted and fished.

“Heave diwn the bob-stay––there, belay that––all hands sweat up the jib.”

On board a well-disciplined man-of-war, no person except the officers is allowed to speak during the performance of the various evolutions. When a great many men are employed together, a fifer or fiddler usually plays some of their favourite tunes; and it is quite delightful to see the glee with which Jack will “stamp and go,” keeping exact time to “Jack's the lad,” or the “College Hornpipe.” On board a revenue cruiser for want of music, it is customary for one of the men to give them a song, which makes the crew unite their strength, and pull together. The following is a specimen of this species of composition:

O, haul pulley, yoe.
[Chorus, piano.]
Cheerly men,
O long and strong, yoe, O.
Cheerly men,
O, yoe, and with a will,
Cheerly men,

        [Grand Chorus, forte.]
        Cheerly, cheerly, cheerly, O.

A long haul for widow Skinner,
Cheerly men,
Kiss her well before dinner,
Cheerly men,
At her, boys, and win her,
Cheerly men,
Cheerly, cheerly, cheerly, O.

A strong pull for Mrs. Bell,
Cheerly men,
Who likes a lark right well,
Cheerly men,
And, what's more, will never tell,
Cheerly men,
Cheerly, cheerly, cheerly, O.

O haul and split the blocks,
Cheerly men,
O haul and stretch her luff,
Cheerly men
Young Lovelies, sweat her up,
Cheerly men,
Cheerly, cheerly, cheerly, O.

For time out of mind this song has been attached to revenue cutters, and sometimes the burden is not celebrated for its decency.”
[R.B., A Cruise of a Revenue Cutter, The United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine, Pt.I, 1834]

Instrumental = Sailor's Hornpipe
Accompanied, chanted, sung, &c = Jack's the Lad
Lyr Req: Sailor's Hornpipe

Fwiw: I would mark Spunyard, Blowhard &Co. as copper-bottom hokum, but that's just me.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 03:43 PM

Steve: If the evolution were performed in proper “...away aloft, and ride them down" United Service Spunyard & Blowhard fashion, I would think no music, singing or chanting would be effective. Splints & bandages oth… The Bricklayer's Song .

Fwiw: Fife and drum had the most range but any audible method was impractical over any considerable distance, vertical or horizontal, ambient noise only made things worse. In real world rowing, the interaction is just with the aft-most benches (strokesmen.) Everybody else guides on sight.

On more than one Caribbean island guidon oarsmen were “Bonnie Boys,” and very well paid crew but darned if I can find any sources as yet.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 13 Oct 22 - 05:26 PM

Ah, that's THE quotation. Nice to see it in full here. I like to think of that as the earliest English chanty as opposed to the Gulf chanties.
And we know this is real stuff because there are plenty of later versions and quotes.

Spunyard and Blowhard, yes hokum, but definitely a solid part of writers about maritime as used extensively by Dibdin and his contemporaries and imitated later. it has the dual purpose here of using expected generic names and keeping the real participants anonymous.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Oct 22 - 10:00 AM

“Acclamatio, onis. f. verb. A calling alound, Col. a shouting in applause, a huzza, Cic. Sometimes, a crying against, an exploding, Id.
Acclamo, as. (1) To shout, to huzza by way of honor, or rejoicing. (2) Sometimes, to cry out against. (1) Populus cum acclamavit ita esse, Cic. (2) Hostis omnibus qui acclamássent, Id..
Charge [burden] Onus. ¶ Ease me of this charge, Leva me hoc onere.
The charge [of a bishop, or judge, &c.] Hortatio, adhortatio, cohortatio, exhortatio.
*Evax. Interj. Exsultantis, A voice of joy, a huzza, Plaut.
Hip [interj.] Eho, heus.
Ho! Hem! heus! eho!
Holla! Heus! Hem!
A huzza, Clamor, lætus clamor, vociferatio.
To huzza, Vociferor.
Nauticus cantus, The seamen's holloa or huzza, Cic.

NOISE,…
The mariner's noise
, * Celeusma.
[Latin Dictionary: Morell's Abridgment, Ainsworth, Jamieson, 1828]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Oct 22 - 10:02 AM

“The vast expanse of water undulating onward, until it softened into the distant line of the horizon; the gentle curling of the crisp blue waves, as they were agitated by the passing breeze; the hoarse scream of the sea mew, as it blended with the lulling cadence of the billows; the occasional dash of distant oars, as the pleasure-boat or fishing smack glided gaily past upon the glassy surface before them; the cheerful note of the rower, as he timed the stroke of his oar to the rough measure of his song; the distant shouts of yo heave ho from the small trading vessels, as they were unlading or taking in their cargoes on the opposite shore,–– all imparted a variety and picturesque harmony to the scene, producing those lively emotions, which make us forget for a while the progress of time, when the objects that surround us are such as to entrance our attention and to elate our feelings.”
[The Sand Bank, The Athenæum Journal of English Literature and the Fine Arts, Vol.IV, 1833]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Oct 22 - 10:03 AM

BOULINE. s.j. … Bouline, ha! Ha! Ancien cri des marins halant sur les Boulines, pour s'encourager et pour agir ensemble; il vaut mieux réunir ses efforts au coup du sifflet….
CHANTER, v.n. To sing out. (zalomar) Ancien usage des matelots quic onsiste à manœuvrer et à agir ensemble à la voix d'un d'entre eux; aujourd'hui, à bord bâtimens de guerre, le chant est interdit; le sifflet peut indiquer l'elan; et s'il faut un effort soutenu, on enploie le fifre et le tambour.
COMMANDE!, Cri des matelots en réponse au comp du sifflet d'attention du maitre; ce cri n'est plus permis.
DONNER, v.a. et n. To order, to get, to spare, to run, to shape, to run right. (dar, dirigir). Donner la voix: marquer un effort simultané à faire, par un cri convenu….
VOIX (DONNER LA). To sing out. (salomar), Pour l'exp. Voy. au mot Donner.”
[Dictionnaire Abrégé de Marine, Bonnefoux, 1834]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Oct 22 - 10:04 AM

“Celeuma, tis. ó Celeusma, tis. n. Canto, grita ó algazara de marineros cuando descubren tierra, y para divertir el trabajo.
Celeustes, æ. m. El cómitre de galera.”
[Diccionario Manual Latino-Español, Gimenez, 1834]


“...The axe of the woodman still is heard in the distant forest, the splash of the water fall keeps music with the wheel of the manufacturer, the "yeo heave
ho” of the sailor enlivens the wharves of our cities, and the sound of the hammer is cheering our country with the honest and useful labours of the mechanic.”
[The Gleaner (Boston) 24 May, 1834]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Oct 22 - 08:17 PM

““Let fall—sheet home and hoist away the topsails—cheerly with the main, cheerly.” At the word, all the canvass, which heretofore had been concealed by being neatly folded on the yards, fell at the same instant into beautiful festoons, and the men briskly descended to the deck. The next moment the topsails were hoisting, and the fifes playing “The girls we left behind us," as the crew marched along the deck with the haulyards, keeping time to the music.

“Tramp the deck boys, tramp the deck," cried the second lieutenant in an encouraging tone, and the time was marked louder than ever.

“High enough with the mizen—belay the mizen topsail haulyards,” cried the fifth lieutenant. “Belay the mizen topsail haulyards,” echoed a midshipman in a youthful key, and the boatswain's mate piped, belay!

“Belay the fore-topsail haulyards—high enough with the main-belay the main topsail haulyards," succeeded pretty rapidly, attended by the same echoing and piping as before.

Again the capstan bars were placed, or rather "shipped,” and the order given to “heave round." The next moment, the “second” cried, “high enough.”

“Pall the capstan—unship the bars—forward to the cat—move, lads, move—” replied the “first” in the full tone of a manly voice, unaided by his trumpet. A few seconds only passed, and the anchor rested on the bows.”
[Three Years in the Pacific: Including Notices of Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, Ruschenberger, 1834]
William Ruschenberger (1807–1895)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Oct 22 - 08:19 PM

“† SALOMARE, v.a. Dare la voce T. di mar. Donner la voix.”
[Dictionnaire Francais-Italien et Italien-Francais, Vol.II, Alberti di Villanuova, 1834]


“VOCE...
19. Dare la voce. dicesi quando con un grido come o issa ec. Si avverte l' equipagio a fare I suoi sforzi di conserva, Id.”
[Dizionario Enciclopedico delle Scienze, Vol.8, T-Z, Bazzarini, 1835]


“SALOMÁRE, att. (Marin.), v. spagnuola che significa dare la voce. Str.”
[Ortografia Enciclopedica Universale Della Lingua Italiana, Vol.VII, S, Bazzarini, 1835]


Saloma, sf. Chant des matelots m.
Salemar, va. Chanter en manœuvrant.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire de Poche Français—Espagnol et Espagnol—Français, Berbrugger, 1835]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Oct 22 - 08:21 PM

“And now, let us leap over those jealous bulwarks which hide the interior operations of a man-of-war, and stand on the deck of the United States' frigate C— .

In that motley throng of officers and men on the quarter-deck, — in that hubbub of voices, in which are distinguishable only the hoarse growl of a boatswain's mate, or the shrill command of a junior midshipman, — a landsman perceives nothing but confusion — a man-of-war's man, the most perfect order. Just abaft the main-mast, the deck resounds heavily to the tramp of the crew, as they slowly, but steadily, heave round the capstern. With a measured tread, which keeps time with the animating music of the fife, they struggle with cheerful ardor against the formidable force of the rocks beneath, though there is yet no sign that their labor will be rewarded by success. In every part of the quarter-deck, at the different sheets and halyards, are groups of seamen, waiting but the signal to 'hoist away!' while officers are seen scattered in every direction, — here a lieutenant, there a midshipman, — who repeat, at short intervals, the inspiriting order of 'Heave cheerly, my lads, — heave cheerly!' Every man is at his station. The captain, mounted on the lee horse-block, looks with cool collectedness, now toward the quarter from whence the gale comes rushing on, then at the reef of rocks to leeward; and the first lieutenant, now the ostensible commander, at a few paces from him on the deck, from time to time makes the hoarse tones of the trumpet distinctly heard, amid the discordant din of creaking masts, — the heavy tramp of the crew heaving round the capstern, — the shrill whistling of the boatswain and his mates, — and the fearful roaring of the wind through the rigging.”
[Breakers, The Knickerbocker Monthly, Vol.VI, No.6, December, 1835]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Oct 22 - 08:22 PM

“At a signal from the judges, the oarsmen stopped, and the usual signal of victory—the hoisting of oars—announced to Harby his discomfiture. Both boats wheeled for the shore, one with a quick stroke, the other with a measured sweep, keeping time to the gay song her oarsmen were echoing over the flowing waters. The songs of the southern boatmen are at all times imposing. Nothing can be more like martial music than the songs in which the whole crew repeat with their leader. On a stilly night their songs are rich with melody. It is really astonishing to hear a full chorus at midnight—all nature seems hushed, save the wild notes gladdening along the moon-lit waters.”
[Cassimer Saral: A Tale, Reyonds, 1835]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Oct 22 - 08:27 PM

Earliest New Orleans ref. so far (I think) –

“We are hourly expecting our tow-boat the Whale. When she arrives we shall immediately, in the company of some other ships, move up for New-Orleans. The morning is delightful, and we have the prospect of a pleasant sail, or rather tow, up the river. A hundred snow-white sails are reflecting the rays of the morning sun, while the rapid dashing of the swift pilot-boats about us, and the slower movements of ships getting under weigh to cross the bar, and work their own way up to the city-together with the mingling sounds of stern commands, and the sonorous "heave-ho-yeo!" of the labouring seamen, borne upon the breeze, give an almost unparalleled charm and novelty to the scene….


...If the market at New Orleans represents that city, so truly does New-Orleans represent every other city and nation upon earth. I know of none where is congregated so great a variety of the human species, of every language and colour. Not only natives of the well known European and Asiatic countries are here to be met with, but occasionally Persians, Turks, Lascars, Maltese, Indian sailors from South America and the Islands of the sea, Hottentots, Laplanders, and, for aught I know to the contrary, Symmezonians.

Black women, with huge baskets of rusks, rolls and other appurtenances of the breakfast table, were crying, in loud shrill French, their “stock in trade,” followed by milk-criers, and butter-criers and criers of every thing but tears: for they all seemed as merry as the morning, saluting each other gayly as they met, “Bo'shoo Mumdsal”––“Moshoo! adieu," &c. &c., and shooting their rude shafts of African wit at each other with much vivacity and humor.


...After the grinding is finished, the negroes have several holidays, when they are quite at liberty to dance and frolic as much as they please; and the cane-song––which is improvised by one of the gang, the rest all joining in a prolonged and unintelligible chorus—now breaks night and day upon the ear, in notes “most musical, most melancholy." This over, planting recommences, and the same routine of labour is continued, with an intermission except during the boiling season, as above stated upon most, if not all plantations, of twelve hours in twenty-four, and of one day in seven throughout the year.”
[The South-West, Vol.1, A Yankee*, 1835]
* Penciled in underneath: Joseph Holt Ingraham (1809–1860).


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Pl d'Conch
Date: 15 Oct 22 - 05:41 AM

Long winded one for the “Bo'shoo Mumdsal”––“Moshoo! adieu" cohort (Bonjour mademoiselle –– Monsieur adieu) –

ACCORDER (s'). v.a. Agir simultanément, ensemble; cette expression s'emploie pour exprimer l'action de plusieurs hommes ou de plusieurs forces agissant dans un même but, et sur un même objet. Dans une embarcation, il est de rigueur que les rameurs s'accordent, qu'ils impriment parfaitement ensemble la force que leurs rames transmettent au canot pour lui donner de l'impulsion. Les rames devant être tour à tour dans l'eau et hors de l'eau, il faut, pour que cela soit, accorder les rames.

Lorsque les matelots abraquent et tirent sur un cordage pour que la force des actions réunies soit plus complète ils s'accordent; c'est en chantant qu'ils obtiennent de résultat. Il est pen de personnes qui, étant allées dans un port de mer, ne se souviennent d'avoir entendu, le long des quais, les marins s'aidant dans leur travail par ces chants pleins d'harmonie, et dans lesquels l'entente des parties musicales, les rapports des tierces, des toniques, des faussets et des basses sont admirablement combinés. Il y a de ces chants dont les motifs hardis et riches en accords fourniraient des thêmes fort brillans à une imagination d'artiste; ce qu'il y a de plus étonnant dans cette aptitude qu'ont la plupart des marins à chauter avec leur voix puissante, âpre, sauvage et mélancolique à la fois, c'est la facilité avec laquelle ils passent aisément dans ces chants, dans ces chorus, d'un mode musical à l'autre. Ainsi, presque tous les chants de corde ont un premier motif majeur et une reprise en ton mineur; le couplet est chanté par celui des matelots qui possède la voix la plus timbrée; celui-là, comme on dit, donne la voix; le mineur, qui est presque toujours une sorte de ritournelle, est chanté en chorus par les autres matelots; la reprise est en majeur. Tous n'ont pas de voix, mais au moins fort peu d'entre eux ne sont-ils pas capables de se joindre au chorus, et l'oreille ne leur manquera pas. C'est des Américains que sont venus ces chants matelotesques qui appartiennent à la poétique de la marine. Cela est quelquefois d'un saisissant effet. Je me souviens de ces nuits d'orage, où les voix du vent jettent de lugubres menaces dans l'air, ou d'ironiques sifflemens dans les cordages. Les lames roulent de graves mélodies, les mâts et la charpente crient et gémissent sous les efforts de la voilure; parfois on entend sur sa tête des bruits sinistres qui flottent dans le vent, sans qu'on puisse les attacher à quelques idées: on dirait des cris de naufragés en détresse; quelquefois ce sont de pauvres oiseaux qui se plaignent en rasant le contour des lames; cette grande nature s'envoloppe d'un sombre manteau que traversent parfois de curieux éclairs, les cordages chantent des notes graves aux vibrations que leur imprime la brise, et à tout cela les matelots viennent mêler leurs chants! Le vent les emporte ou les mêle à ses voix aiguës, le matelot n'en tient pas compte, il chante, parce qu'il faut s'accorder; la voile obéit à la transmission de la force qu'on lui imprime, la voix du matelot domine à l'accalmie; quand il s'entend au milieu de cette atmosphère menaçante, il est heureux.

Les paroles des chants du marin ne sont pas une poesie spéciale. Il y a bien dans les travaux des ports, au débarquement des marchandises, quelques couplets dont le sens a pour but d'inviter au travail; les promesses du délassement au cabaret sont les refrains obligés de ces strophes libres, souvent improvisées sur in air adopté. Mais le plus souvent les paroles ne sont que des monosyllabes, dont les consonnes trainantes se fondent dans les notes du chant. Beaucoup de mots de la langue maritime anglaise sont à la mode dans les chants de mer. Le mot hourra, qui est un synonyme de courage, y est souvent répété.

Dans les colonies françaises, les nègres ont une merveilleuse facilité d'improvisation pour s'accorder par ces sortes de chants. L'accident le plus futile, l'impression la plus passagère va leur inspirer une douzaine de couplets, pauvres de rhythme et misérablement rimés sans doute, mais empreints d'une certaine causticité d'un instinct d'observation remarquable. En revanche, leur mélodie est moins riche, elle roule sur des tierces seulement; mais cela lui donne une allure plus hardie, plus guerrière peut-être. Dans l'inde seulement, les chants des noirs sont plus riches de combinaisons musicales, et présentent plus motifs.

A bord des bâtimens de l'Etat les marins ne chantent guère, et c'est au son du sifflet du maitre d'équipage qu'ils s'accordent. Ce commandement musical sera expliqué au mot Sifflet.”
[Dictionnaire Pittoresque de Marine, Lecomte, 1835]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Oct 22 - 05:43 AM

“The moment the steamer reached the ship's side, she was there stoutly secured by hawsers. The bars which had been lying against the windlass were shipped, and a dozen or more jolly tars, headed by a stout, boatswain-looking second mate, rose upon them with the energy of strong bodies and stout hearts, making the palls of the windlass rattle as they hove round, and the whole harbour resound with the long-drawn and monotonous, yet not unpleasing song with which they accompanied and gave concert to their labour.

Our anchor was soon apeak; the steamer started her engine, and we moved boldly ahead, despite the flood tide which was still running….


...The handspike was heard striking three times on the forecastle; “All hands ahoy!" was the cry that followed. Our topsails were close reefed, with many a plaintive “ho, heave ho!" as they tugged at the struggling canvass; the mainsail too was furled;...”
[The American in England, Vol.1-2, Mackenzie, 1835]
Alexander Slidell Mackenzie (1803–1848)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:21 AM

“...He informed us that he had despatched a two-oared boat to meet us with bait on the river; and while he was yet speaking, Mr. Dalton's splendid eight oared canoe Devilfish, which had been launched from her hiding place in the swamp, was rowed gallantly up to the landing in sight, her oarsmen, with their shirt sleeves rolled up to the shoulders, exhibiting the powerful muscular development of their black arms, as they made the tough ash of their oars buckle, and buried the prow in foam, keeping time the while to a merry boat-song, in which was extemporized a welcome, general and particular, to the party on shore.”
[Captain Willick's Times, Southern Literary Journal and Monthly Magazine, Vol.1, Nov., 1835]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:49 AM

Wiki on Dana in 70 words or less: Such simple or brief chants survived into the 19th century. First-hand observers such as Frederick Pease Harlow, a sailor of the 1870s, attested to their ubiquity, saying that they were brought into use whenever a brief task required one.[29] In historical hindsight these items have come to be generically called "sing-outs"; yet even before the known advent of the term shanty, Richard Henry Dana referred to "singing out".

The Advent thread has quite a lot on the author as well but only as it relates to the shanty that is still yet to come. Neither source addresses the Italians &c on their own terms.

Granted, the term is relatively new here as compared to the practice done under other names but more than one dictionary above literally defines zalomar (&c.) as a “sing out.”

So, maritime work song in general on Dana is going to be more like +1500 words. I was tempted to open a dedicated thread but, here it is in multiple posts.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:50 AM

“The wind was whistling through the rigging, loose ropes flying about; loud and, to me, unintelligible orders constantly given and rapidly executed, and the sailors "singing out" at the ropes in their hoarse and peculiar strains.” [p.8]

Hugill/Dana's missing shanties


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:52 AM

“In no operation can the disposition of a crew be discovered better than in getting under weigh. Where things are done "with a will," every one is like a cat aloft: sails are loosed in an instant; each one lays out his strength on his handspike, and the windlass goes briskly round with the loud cry of "Yo heave ho! Heave and pawl! Heave hearty ho! " But with us, at this time, it was all dragging work. No one went aloft beyond his ordinary gait, and the chain came slowly in over the windlass. The mate, between the knight-heads, exhausted all his official rhetoric in calls of "Heave with a will!" — "Heave hearty, men! — heave hearty!" — "Heave and raise the dead! — Heave, and away!" etc.; but it would not do. Nobody broke his back or his handspike by his efforts. And when the cat-tackle-fall was strung along, and all hands — cook, steward, and all — laid hold, to cat the anchor, instead of the lively song of "Cheerily, men! " in which all hands join in the chorus, we pulled a long, heavy, silent pull, and — as sailors say a song is as good as ten men — the anchor came to the cat- head pretty slowly. "Give us ' Cheerily!' " said the mate; but there was no "cheerily " for us, and we did without it. The captain walked the quarter-deck, and said not a word. He must have seen the change, but there was nothing which he could notice officially.” [pp.117-18]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:52 AM

“At twelve o'clock the Ayacucho dropped her fore topsail, which was a signal for her sailing. She unmoored and warped down into the bight, from which she got under weigh. During this operation, her crew were a long time heaving at the windlass, and I listened for nearly an hour to the musical notes of a Sandwich Islander, called Mahannah, who 'sang out" for them. Sailors, when heaving at a windlass, in order that they may heave together, always have one to sing out; which is done in a peculiar, high and long-drawn note, varying with the motion of the windlass. This requires a high voice, strong lungs, and much practice, to be done well. This fellow had a very peculiar, wild sort of note, breaking occasionally into a falsetto. The sailors thought that it was too high, and not enough of the boatswain hoarseness about it; but to me it had a great charm. The harbor was perfectly still, and his voice rang among the hills, as though it could have been heard for miles.” [pp.134-35]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:54 AM

“Soon after breakfast, a large boat, filled with men in blue jackets, scarlet caps, and various colored under-clothes, bound ashore on liberty, left the Italian ship, and passed under our stern ; the men singing beautiful Italian boat-songs, all the way, in fine, full chorus. Among the songs I recognised the favorite "O Pescator dell' onda.” [p.160]

“After breakfast, we had the satisfaction of seeing the Italian ship's boat go ashore, filled with men, gaily dressed, as on the day before, and singing their barcarollas.” [p.167]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:56 AM

“There was only one point in which they had the advantage over us, and that was in lightening their labors in the boats by their songs. The Americans are a time and money saving people, but have not yet, as a nation, learned that music maybe "turned to account." We pulled the long distances to and from the shore, with our loaded boats, without a word spoken, and with discontented looks, while they not only lightened the labor of rowing, but actually made it pleasant and cheerful, by their music; So true is it, that—

        "For the tired slave, song lifts the languid oar,
                And bids it aptly fall, with chime
        That beautifies the fairest shore,
                And mitigates the harshest clime.” [p.169]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:56 AM

“The yards were then trimmed, the anchor weighed, the cat-block hooked on, the fall stretched out, manned by "all hands and the cook," and the anchor brought to the head with "cheerily men!" in full chorus.” [p.197]

“The great sail bellied out horizontally as though it would lift up the main stay; the blocks rattled and flew about; but the force of machinery was too much for her. "Heave ho! Heave and pawl! Yo, heave, hearty, ho!" and, in time with the song, by the force of twenty strong arms, the windlass came slowly round, pawl after pawl, and the weather clue of the sail was brought down to the water-ways.” [pp.219-20]

“The watch, too, seemed very busy trampling about decks, and singing out at the ropes.” [p.235]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:57 AM

The sailors' songs for captains and falls are of a peculiar kind, having a chorus at the end of each line. The burden is usually sung by one alone, and, at the chorus, all hands join in, — and the louder the noise, the better. With us, the chorus seemed almost to raise the decks of the ship, and might be heard at a great distance, ashore. A song is as necessary to sailors as the drum and fife to a soldier. They can't pull in time, or pull with a will, without it. Many a time, when a thing goes heavy, with one fellow yo-ho-ing, a lively song, like 'Heave, to the girls!" "Nancy oh!" "Jack Cross-tree," etc., has put life and strength into every arm. We often found a great difference in the effect of the different songs in driving in the hides. Two or three songs would be tried, one after the other, with no effect; — not an inch could be got upon the tackles — when a new song, struck up, seemed to hit the humor of the moment, and drove the tackles "two blocks" at once. "Heave round hearty!" "Captain gone ashore!" and the like, might do for common pulls, but on an emergency, when we wanted a heavy, "raise- the-dead" pull, which should start the beams of the ship, there was nothing like "Time for us to go!" "Round the corner," or "Hurrah hurrah! my hearty bullies!"

This was the most lively part of our work. A little boating and beach work in the morning; then twenty or thirty men down in a close hold, where we were obliged to sit down and slide about, passing hides, and rowsing about the great steeves, tackles, and dogs, singing out at the falls, and seeing the ship filling up every day.” [p.286]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:58 AM

“Among her crew were two English man-of-war's-men, so that, of course, we soon had music. They sang in the true sailor's style, and the rest of the crew, which was a remarkably musical one, joined in the choruses. They had many of the latest sailor songs, which had not yet got about among our merchantmen, and which they were very choice of. They began soon after we came on board, and kept it up until after two bells, when the second mate came forward and called “the Alerts away!” Battle-songs, drinking-songs, boat-songs, love-songs, and everything else, they seemed to have a complete assortment of, and I was glad find that “All in the downs,” “Poor Tom Bowline,” “The Bay of Biscay,” “List, ye landsmen!” and all those classical songs of the sea, still held their places. In addition to these, they had picked up at the theatres and other places a few songs of a little more genteel cast, which they were very proud of; and I shall never forget hearing an old salt, who had broken his voice by hard drinking on shore, and bellowing from the mast-head in an hundred north-westers, with all manner of ungovernable trills and quavers – in the high notes, breaking into a rough falsetto – and in the low ones, growling along like the dying away of the boatswain's “all hands ahoy!” down the hatchway singing, “Oh no, we never mention him.”...

The next day, the California commenced unloading her cargo; and her boats' crews, in coming and going, sang their boat-songs, keeping in time with their oars. This they did all day long for several days, until their hides were all discharged, when a gang of them were sent on board the Alert, to help us steeve our hides. This was a windfall for us, for they had a set of new songs for the capstan and fall, and ours had got nearly worn our by six-weeks' constant use. I have no doubt this timely reinforcement of songs hastened our work several days.” [pp.290-91]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:59 AM

“For a few minutes, all was uproar and apparent confusion: men flying about like monkeys in the rigging; ropes and blocks flying; orders given and answered, and the confused noises of men singing out at the ropes.” [p.301]

“Our spirits returned with having something to do; and when the tackle was manned to bowse the anchor home, notwithstanding the desolation of the scene, we struck up "Cheerily ho" in full chorus. This pleased the mate, who rubbed his hands and cried out — "That's right, my boys; never say die! That sounds like the old crew!" and the captain came up, on hearing the song, and said to the passenger, within hearing of the man at the wheel, — "That sounds like a lively crew. They'll have their song so long as there're enough left for a chorus!" [p.341]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 03:01 AM

“When we came to mast-head the topsail yards, with all hands at the halyards, we struck up "Cheerily, men," with a chorus which might have been heard half way to Staten Land.” [p.356]

“Sail after sail, for the hundredth time, in fair weather and in foul, we furled now for the last time together, and came down and took the warp ashore, manned the capstan, and with a chorus which waked up half the North End, and rang among the buildings in the dock, we hauled her in to the wharf.” [p.459]
[Two Years Before the Mast, Dana, c.1835]

Note: The page numbers above are from the 1911ed.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 16 Oct 22 - 02:13 PM

Interesting that 'Cheerily Men' gets by far the most mentions. We have had this before in the British revenue cutters.

Do we have some text to 'Captain gone ashore'? I seem to remember Gibb has several early references to this one. The others are probably just mentions of shore songs being tried out and then discarded.

Also interesting that some of the mentions of worksong use refer to steeving hides, quite similar to screwing cotton.

Also of note is the reference to Americans (likely African Americans) using the songs to greater effect. A lot of Gibb's early references to the earlier songs are of African American rowers, in e.g., the Georgia Sea islands.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Oct 22 - 03:47 AM

“They are dextrous boatmen, vigorous and adroit with the oar and paddle, and will row from morning unto night without a murmur. The steersman often sings an old traditionary French song, with some regular burden in which they all join, keeping time with their oars; if at any time they flag in spirits or relax in exertion, it is but necessary to strike up a song of the kind to put them all in fresh spirits and activity. The Canadian waters are vocal with these little French chansons, that have been echoed from mouth to mouth and transmitted from father to son, from the earliest days of the colony; and it has a pleasing effect, in a still, golden summer evening, to see a batteau gliding across the bosom of a lake and dipping its oars to the cadence of these quaint old ditties, or sweeping along, in full chorus, on a bright sunny morning, down the transparent current of one of the Canadian rivers.”
[Irving, Astoria; or Enterprise beyond the Rocky Mountains, Museum of Foreign Literature & Science, Vol.II, 1836]
Washington Irving (1783–1859)

Rip Van Winkle (1819) & The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1820) &c.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Oct 22 - 03:48 AM

“All except the top and forecastle men walked in well trained tactics to the music of the drum and fife around the capstan; and while the boatswain's mates piped loudly the signal to unfurl the sails, the top men scaled the shrouds and laid out upon the yards—loosed the main sails, the quartermaster stood prepared to cun*, and in five minutes the anchor was catted—the canvass sheeted home, and the gallant ship under a press of sail.”
[The Voyages and Five Years Captivity in Algiers, Pfeiffer, Rupp, 1836]

*The interweb/wiki dictionary universe is conflicted on this word but one route is: Alternative form of conn (“direct or steer a ship”.) From the obsolete spelling cond.

Fwiw: It's some type of pilot's task and the old world instrument and symbol of office was the sounding pole or contus.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Oct 22 - 03:51 AM

“The navigation of the Nile employs a great number of the native of Egypt. The boatmen of the Nile are mostly strong, muscular men. They undergo severe labour in rowing, poling, and towing; but are very cheerful; and often, the most so when they are most occupied; for when they frequently amuse themselves by singing….

The boatmen of the Nile very often use an earthen dar'abook'keh; but of a larger size than that used in hharee'ms: generally from a foot and a half to two feet in length. This is also used by some low storytellers, and others. The boatmen employ, as an accompaniment to their earthen drum, a double reed pipe, called zoomma'rah. There is also another kind of double reed pipe, called arghoo'l; of which one of the reeds is much longer than the other, and serves as a drone, or continuous base. This, likewise, is used by boatmen; and sometimes it is employed, instead of the na'y, at zikrs….”

The natural liking of the Egyptians for music is shown by their habit of regulating their motions, and relieving the dulness of their occupations, in various labours, by songs or chants. Thus do the boatmen, in rowing, &c.; the peasants raising water; the porters in carrying heavy weights with poles; men, boys, and girls, in assisting builders, by bringing bricks. Stones, and mortar, and removing rubbish: so also, the sawyers, reapers, and many other labourers….

In many boats, the crews amuse themselves and their passengers by singing, often accompanied by the darabook'keh and zooma'rah; and some private parites hire professional musicians to add to their diversion on the river.”
[An account of the manners and customs of the modern Egyptians, Vol.2, Lane, 1836]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Oct 22 - 03:54 AM

“...No language can convey an idea of the dexterity exhibited by the Canadian boatmen, who pass safely through rapids, whirlpools, and narrow channels, where by the strength of such an immense body of water forcing its way, the stream, as in the present instance, is lifted in the middle, to a perfect convexity. In such places, where you think the next moment must dash the frail skiff and its burden of human beings to destruction among the steep rocks, these fellows approach and pass over with astonishing coolness and skill, encouraging themselves and one another with a lively and exulting boat-song. We reached the junction of the Spokan River the same afternoon, having in the short space of eight hours accomplished a distance of ninety miles, which will give some idea of the rapidity of the current; ...”
[Companion to the Botanical Magazine, Vol.2, Hooker, 1836]
William Jackson Hooker (1785–1865)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Oct 22 - 07:00 PM

Thought there was a dedicated Captain Gone Ashore/Grog Time thread but can't find it now. The Advent thread has quite a bit on it:

“...Messieurs the people have no mercy for their servants, but goad them on, beyond their strength––and hunt them for cowards, whenever they show any signs of fatigue, or love of life. Every body can remember when it was preferred as a serious charge against a naval officer, that he stooped to dodge a chainshot!

“Hello!” continued the steward, "where dat blood for, on dog's nose? Guess you Bill British been 'noculate him for coward."

“Get out, you Hethiopian, or I'll shoot you!”

“Oh don't, now; who sarve a de grog, nigger gone to he wooden jacket?

        'When de cap’un go ashore,
        An de mate he hab de key,
        You want a nigger steward
        When it's grog time o' day.
                Grog time o' day!'”

A sharp, angry bark from the dog, and he had the soldier by the neck. He had watched him, till he saw him off his guard, and then pounced on him, like a Tiger, as he was. Immediate interference was necessary, to save the soldier's life, for the dog would most assuredly have finished him, had he been let alone. The steward was in the very ecstacy of delight—he hugged Tiger, and jumped round the forecastle, like a baboon. “Hee! choke a dam Cholo nigger! Top his weason, a brack sojer—good feller, Tiger !” The gambols of the dog and his friend had become too annoying—it was evident that it had been grog time with the steward. His eyes protruded from his head, and were, at the same time, dim with the mist with which alcohol smothers the vision.

“I tell ye, you Hethiopian, I'll shoot you, if you don't quit your monkey shines!”

        “'When a buckra man come,
        Hol ’um gun up higher,
        Tell a nigger shoot him,
        Nigger he tan fire!'

’pecially when a gun hab no powder in him! Hee!" And Ebony turned a somerset over the heel of the bowsprit.

        “'Possum up a gum tree,
        Racoon in de holler,'—….”
[Tar Brush Sketches, At Sea, by Benjamin Fiferail, Corrected Proofs, Weld, 1836]
Horatio Hastings Weld (1811–1888)


Lyr Req: Old Zip Coon
rabbit up a gummy stump poem or song?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 17 Oct 22 - 07:03 PM

“He heard the merry notes of the fife as the men worked at the capstan to the stamp and go, keeping time with the music on board the Glasgow; and when the 'Away aloft!' was shouted, away went the hands scudding up the rigging to obey the orders….”
[Ben Brace, the Last of Nelson's Agamemnons, Vol.1, Chamier, 1836]


“Neadling a slave, mariner, v. nydling.
Nydling, nedling, nidling, neadling, es; m. [nyd, neod need, ling a condition, state] One who serves of necessity, a slave, bondman, servant, mariner; qui ex necessitate servit, nauta, Bd. 3, 15.
Sæ-leoð a sea song, a sailor's shout in hoisting an anchor or sail; marina cantilena: nautica hortatio. Keleusma, Cot. 53.”
[A Dictionary of the Anglo Saxon Language, Bosworth, 1837]

See also: Vocabularium Anglo-Saxonicum, 1701 (above.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Oct 22 - 07:11 AM

c.1794
“...On board the yachts constant mirth and good humour prevailed among the seamen. When the weather was calm, the vessels were generally pushed on by means of two large sculls or oars turning upon pivots that were placed in projecting pieces of wood near the bow of the vessel, and not the stern, as is the practice of most other nations. From six to ten men are required to work one of these oars, which, instead of being taken out of the water, as in the act of rowing, are moved backwards and forwards under the surface, in a similar manner to what in England is understood by sculling. To lighten their labour, and assist in keeping time with the strokes, the following rude air was generally sung by the master, which the whole crew used to join in chorus:

[Note: Hai-yo hai-yau –– Master and crew call and reply w/sheet music included.]

On many a calm still evening, when a dead silence reigned upon the water, have we listened with pleasure to this artless and unpolished air, which was sung, with little alteration through the whole fleet. Extraordinary exertions of bodily strength, depending, in a certain degree, on the willingness of the mind, are frequently accompanied with exhilarating exclamations among the most savage people; but the Chinese song could not be considered in this point of view; like the exclamations of our seamen in hauling the ropes, or the oar song of the Hebridians, which, as Doctor Johnson has observed, resembled the proceleusmatick verse by which the rowers of Grecian galleys were animated, the chief object of the Chinese chorus seemed to be that of combining chearfulness with regularity.

“Verse sweetens toil, however rude the sound.”

Of their honesty, sobriety, and carefulness, we had already received convincing proofs. Of the number of packages, amounting to more than six hundred, of various sizes and descriptions, not a single article was missing nor injured, on their arrival at the capital, notwithstanding they had been moved about, and carried by land, and transhipped several times.”
[Travels in China, Barrow, 1804]
Sir John Barrow, 1st Baronet (1764–1848)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Oct 22 - 07:14 AM

“Venetianischer Schiffergesang (Salve Regina). XXIX. 500”
[Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, Vol.1-50, 1798]


“schëf?LIET g. liedes n. schiffergesang.
schëf?SANC g. -nges n. Schiffergesang; celeuma Sum. 24.”
[Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch zum Handgebrauch, Ziemann, 1837]


“CELEUMA, sf. (t. De mar.) cris des matelotes.
SALEMA, sf. stokfiche. V. Celeuma.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire Portatif des Langues Française et Portugaise, Constâncio, 1837]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Oct 22 - 05:13 PM

“* CELEUMA, atis, n, Asc. Ped. et CELESMA, atis, n. (…., exhorter). Cri par lequel les rameurs s'encouragent. ? Signal qui indique aux matelots les differentes manœuvres.
CELEUSTES, æ, m. Bud. Celui qui veille sur des matelots ou des ouvriers comite, inspecteur de travaux.”
[Dictionnaire Latin-Français, Noël, Forcellini, 1837]


leis] Celeuma est canticum nautarum vel messorum, een schippers of maijers leis G. leyssen. Un lay ou chanson qu'on chante à Noel. Cantio natalitia P. Cantio natalitia, sic dicta quod eleison et kyrie - elei - son saepius in ea repetatur K.”
[Horae Belgicae, Studio Atque Opera Henrici Hoffman Fallerslebensis, Vol.2, 1837]


“A cet encombrement se joignait encore un tapage assourdissant: c'était le bruit aigu des sifflets des contre-maitres, le cri des matelots qui halaient à bord le chevaux et les bœufs, le retentissement du marteau des sculpteurs et des calfats, les reprises bruyantes des trompettes et des hautbois qui s'exerçaient à l'avant;...”
[Jean Bart et Louis XIV Drames Maritimes du XVII Siecle, Beauce, 1837]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Oct 22 - 05:15 PM

“CONSONAR. a. ant. SALOMAR. || n. Sonar un cuerpo sonoro, instrumento musico ó bélico, dando el mismo tono ó la tercera, quinta y octava del que da otro con quien está acorde. Musicè consonare. || met. Tener algunas cosas igualdad, conformidad ó relación entre sí. Convenire, congruere. || Poet. Tener dos voces las mismas letras desde la vocal en que carga el acento hasta el fin. Voces similiter desinere, cadere.
CONTRAMAESTRE. m. Náut. Oficial de mar que manda las inaniobras del navio, y cuida de la marinería bajo las órdenes del oficial de guerra. Navis, nautarumque subpræfectus. || En algunas fábricas de seda y de lana cierto veedor que hay sobre los maestros de tejidos. Textrina subpræfectus.
SALOMA. F. La accion de salomar. Nautica opera canendo acta.
SALOMAR. n. Náut Gritar el contramaestre ó guardian diciendo varias retahilas para que al responder a ellas tiren todos á un tiempo del cabo que tienen en la mano.”
[Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana, Real Academia Española, 1837]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Oct 22 - 05:17 PM

“The talent of one of the itinerant musicians was put in requisition; seated upon the capstan head, with a shrill fife he struck up a lively air, and away we gyrated with the capstan bars spinning round and round with a “stamp and go,” keeping time to the measure: the anchor was aweigh, the wind fair, and I soon took my farewell gaze at Britain.”

“Accordingly nineteen canoes, each containing, on average, fifteen persons, set off one afternoon, and a very animating spectacle it was. The air resounded with their different songs and energetic shouts, the paddles keeping time to the measure; each canoe had a singer; but the one in ours was the most famous on the river: the refrain was joined in by all hands, and the canoe would seem to be ploughing through the water.”

“A - - - way!
Away! Away! The white man's here,
The morn shines bright, the stream runs clear;
Row, brothers, row! Cheer, brothers, cheer!
        Te - - - na!”
Refrain of a New Zealander's Boat-song.”
[Rovings in the Pacific, 1837-1849, Vol.I, anon, 1851, pp. 16, 91, 124]

“It is a great treat on moonlight nights to listen to them chanting beneath the umbrageous grove; the women taking the first part, the men the second… I was desirous of procuring the original and took a person well skilled in the language to write them down for me; when, to my great surprise, I discovered that both the words and the air we a beautiful modulation of our sailors' capstan song of “Round the corner, Sally!”
[Rovings in the Pacific, 1837-1849, Vol.II, anon, 1851, p. 82]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:03 AM

“As Lodewyk assured him, with not a few oaths in his peculiar dialect, that there was nothing else of value in the vessel, he again shook hands, and stepping into his boat, ordered her to be shoved off. The pirates pulled merrily for their schooner, singing in chorus the well-known West Indian canoe song;––

        “The captain's gone ashore;
        “The mate has got the key;
        “Hurrah! my jolly boys,—
        “'Tis grog time o’day.”

The boat was cleared and hoisted up, and the schooner filled her sails and stood away for the Westward, before Sluiker recovered from his astonishment at this unwelcome visit….”
[Tales of Venezuela, Pt.I, The Earthquake of Caraccas, Vol.II, Vowell, 1831]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:04 AM

“Bolívar then invited him to attend a review of the army, which was about to take place; but Päez declined it, being determined to retire immediately to Cunavíchi. A flechéra, or long light canoe, carrying twelve paddles, was in readiness at the landing place, to convey the chief of the savannas and his lance-bearer over the river. As they paddled across, so rapidly as scarcely to deviate from a straight course, the Indians sung the Marri-Marri, or Orinoco canoe-song, which is generally an extemporaneous effusion, prompted by any existing circumstances that may strike their imagination.

[13] "Marrimarri! Pachócos hermanos
        "Rompen canalétes con brío;—
"Pues llevamos el flor de los Llanos,
        "Päez, el guapo invencído Caudillo.

"Sus lancéros le estan atizbando
        "En la playa dedonde saliò;
"Pues, al llegar el Xefe a su mando,
        "Los llenara de gloria ý valòr.

"No desmayen al soplar el viento!—
        "Los chuvascos no hay que temer!—
Voguémos, llenos de contento,
        "Desde el Alva hasta al anochecer."

“Note 13, p. 155.
The following is an imitation of the Marri-Marri, or Orinoco canoe song.

"Márrimárri! why so slow,
"Brethren of the lance and bow?
"Let each Indian strain his oar;––
"The Chieftain seeks Varínas' shore.

"On the bank his lancers stand,
"Waiting Päez's lov'd command:
"He shall lead them on to fame;
"Ever honour'd be his name.

"Márrimárri! brothers row;
"Fear not tho' chuvascos blow:
"Through mid-day heat and ev'ning dew,
"Brothers! speed the light canoe."
[Tales of Venezuela, Pt. 2: The Savannas of Varinas, Vowell, 1831]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:06 AM

CELEUSMA, grido di molte persone, che si eccitano vicendevolmente al combattimento, alla fatica: Nequaquam (dice Geremia cap. XXXXVIII.) calcator uvce solitum celeusma cantabit. E nel cap. xxv. Celeusma quasi calcantium concinetur adversus onnes habitalores terræ; cioè, come coloro, che pestano le uve, cacciano fuori dei gridi bia per incoraggirsi al travaglio, o per rallegrarsi; così i Babilonesi s'incoraggiranno gli uni cogli altri per aventarsi contro Gerusalemme, e rallegrarsi della sua perdita.”
[Dizionario Portatile della Bibbia, Vol.1, Aquila, 1833]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:08 AM

“As I proceeded to the house, I saw two negroes and a peon making a kind of basket for catching fish; they had just returned from town with Senor Josef, and were singing a canoe song, very common among the Spanish boatmen of the Gulf of Paria, the chorus of which was “Sopla, Sopla, Sopla, San Antonio,” a favourite saint to invoke when a wind is required, though sometimes so unreasonably deaf is the saint to their entreaties that I have heard him cursed heartily by Spanish mariners.”
[Going to Bed Without Your Dinner, From Leaves From a Log. A West India Story. Atkinson's Casket, 1835]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:14 AM

“SALOMARE. (Marin.) Sa-lo-mà-re. N. ass. V.Spagn. Dare la voce. (Salomar presso gli Spagnuoli è cantare, come fanno i marinai, nell' atto della manovra. In ebr. tsahal alzar la voce, mandar fuori la voce profe lieta, e jam mare.) (S)”
[Vocabolario Universale Italiano, Vol.6, Società Tipografica Tramater, Naples, 1838]


Can't transcribe it here, just surprised there were 1838 Ch? Nôm translations from the Latin celeusma (as heus or hò.)
[Dictionarium Anamitico-Latinum, Taberd, Béhaine, 1838]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:28 AM

Method to use paddlewheel without a head of steam up. See also: Bonwicke's rowing engine, 1705, above –

“This hawser is rove as follows:––one end is first passed through the after-hole, then through the foremost fair-leader over the iron lugs alternately, then through the aftermost fair-leader, (crossing the feeding part between the fair- leaders,) and brought out through the foremost hole, where it is lashed with small line to the other end, which in the mean time has been rove through the after and foremost leading blocks, and brought to the foremost hole in readiness. When the lashing is secured, the after leading block is braced taught with a jigger—the larboard and starboard watches man their respective messengers, the band strikes up, and off she goes."...

...Thus the Medea was occasionally moved, when the shortness of the distance, or other circumstances rendered it inconvenient to use steam, and in one instance proceeded through the entrance of Malta harbour against a light breeze, at the rate of two knots an hour.”
[Baldock, Memoir of Her Majesty's Steam Ship Medea, On the Steam Engine, Vol.2, Tredgold, 1838]
Thomas Tredgold (1788–1829)
HMS Medea (1833) was one of the initial steam-powered vessels built for the Royal Navy.” [wiki]

PS: "Knots an hour" is like "ATM machine." Just had to get that out of my pedantic system.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:15 AM

“† CÉLEUSME. s.m. (cé-leusm) […, encourager]. … Cri des matelots qui rament pour s'encourager les uns les autres. – Signal aux matelots et aux rameurs, pour marquer les différentes manœuvres.
CÉLEUSTE. s.m. (cé-leust). … Celui qui a soin de prescrire le devoir aux matelots, aux rameurs, et aux autres ouvriers d'un bátiment.”
[Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, Tom.I, Académie Française, 1838]


“The morning was bright and beautiful; the sun, just risen, had shed his early radiance on the wooded summits of Elephantia; the fishermen were returning with their spoils; the merry capstan songs resounded from the decks of the English merchantmen; and, far as the eye could gaze, it rested on a scene teeming with interest and animation.”
[Cutch: Or, Random Sketches of Western India, Postans, 1838]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:18 AM

oops.

“Jerry Jones, when fidler in, (I think,) H.M.S. Isis, touched at that port; and being in very good circumstances, with the advantage of youth on his side, he “wooed and won the fair Kathleen.” She gave him her hand, (“bad luck to the day,” she was sometimes heard in her moments of irritation to confess;) and soon afterwards Jerry Jones was seated on the capstan of the ship, playing “Off she goes," as it was heaving up the anchor, which was to release the Isis from the shores of Erin.”
[The Greenwich Pensioners, Vol.I, By Hatchway (lieut, R.N., pseud.) 1838]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:20 AM

As forebitters, which also have not been invented yet(??) --

“Between seven in the evening and nine at night was the only interval during the twenty-four hours in which, after the dreary and monotonous duties of the day, relaxation on board the Nonsuch was ever allowed.

At this,––
                “The witching time of night,"

the belles aboard (who, to their credit be it said, ever exerted their best endeavours to convert moping into merry men), were to be seen attired in their always becoming, and often captivating “shorts,”* dancing away in the waist; and despite of the rolling, lurching, and pitching of the ship, reeling with Bob and Bill, “setting” to Sam, and “footing it fine” to some such favourite lilt as “Off-she-goes,” “Jack's Delight,” “Nancy Dawson,” “Morgan Rattler,” or any other rattler, which “Black Pompey,” “Marc Antony,” or “Julius Cæsar," (for Nero never fiddled afloat) was able to “scrape-up, or knock-off,” in the way of a rattling reel.”
[Land Sharks and Sea Gulls, Vol.2, Glascock, 1838]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:22 AM

“The boatswain's pipe was heard, but it was in this instance mere matter of form, for the men had quietly shipped and swifted the capstan bars; the nippers were already passed, and as soon as the summons had been given, almost the same breath piped “Heave away." Round went the lads at the capstan, at first “stamp and go;" but when they had once started the ship on end, they danced merrily to the shrill sound of the fifes as they played up “Off she goes,” and in a few minutes the Master's commands were heard, “Thick and dry for weighing.” This checked them in their speed, but the tune changed to “Come cheer up my lads, 'tis to glory we steer!" and steadily did the noble fellows walk the anchor up to the bows. “Loose sails,” shouted the first Lieutenant, as the gallant vessel no longer held to the ground was obedient to her helm, and in three minutes and a half she was clothed in canvas, from her deck to her trucks; the anchor was stowed; the studden-sails set; and onward she went”
[Leaves From My Log-Book, by Flexible Grummet, P.M., Third Series, No.II, United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine, Pt. I, Vol.29, 1839]

Heart of Oak


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:24 AM

“The Chang wang has charge of the king's boats. The forecastle is commanded by a P,han hoa, the stem by a P,han Thaai. The rowers or Seep,hai, are seated on benches, their feet reaching the hold or lower deck. They sing the He roo-a, or boat song, keeping time with their oars.

Boat Song.––Air Phleng rúa
        rai ue! rai chang
        cha rop kun tai sia leo doei rai rúa úe, &c, &c.
        yo tha phi-doei yo tha pi-doei


O beloved! a hundred catties of gold would not weigh against you. I use all my efforts and beat my boatmen to reach you—but still you fly my presence.

The King's Bargemen's Song.––Air Hè rú-a.

        hem ú-e kang kan um heo ka kee
        Su yang chim pha li pli-rom som Saman


The mighty bird Garudá––fled to Limphalee––with the Princess Karf, supporting her all unwilling close to his heart, under his umbrageous wings.”
[On the Government, the Literature, and Mythology, of the Siamese, Low, 1839]
James Low (1791–1852)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:27 AM

“...The New Zealanders are decidedly a maritime people. They are fond of the sea, and make excellent sailors, and they only require virtuous and industrious Europeans to reside among them to render their services in this way most advantageous to themselves and to the British empire.*

* I was much gratified at hearing the New Zealand coxswain of an English boat; in which two of my fellow-passengers per the Roslyn Castle and myself were rowed across the Bay of Islands on a beautiful moonlight night, by four of his countrymen, calling out to them in good English, and scarcely with a foreign accent, "Pull away, my lads," “Stand to it, my boys." The New Zealanders, in reply, struck up their native boat-song in a sort of recitative, of which the chorus, like that of the Canadian boat song, is “Tohi, Tohi,” or Row, brothers, row.”
[New Zealand in 1839, Lang, 1839]
John Dunmore Lang (1799–1878)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:30 AM

“La música del baile habia cesado en aquel momento, y solo alteraban el silencio los marineros de la flota con su melancólica saloma a llevar las anclas, para ponerse en franquía antes de amanecer, y los gritos agudos de una ave marina, que desvelada ó hambrienta, volaba inquieta por aquellos alrededores.”
[La Cartera Cubana, Vol.2, Vicente Antonio de Castro, 1839]



“It comes––the blue ripple curls––a narrow dark line stretches across the horizon in the offing––a slight rushing sound strikes the ear––the sails flap––and now they shake, loudly proclaiming the crisis arrived––they are filled––huzza! “Cast off the tow rope" "up boats” “brace forward the yards” “band strike up, off she goes” “huzza––Richard's himself again! Heaven be praised.”
[Nautical Rambles, The Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle for 1839]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:27 AM

“BOAT SONG.
BY CHARLES F. HOFFMAN, ESQ.

The songs written for rowers being rarely composed by practical craftsmen, are generally useless, save in the drawing-room; because the measure of the music is not timed to the stroke of oars. Placide's drinking song as the gardener in "The Marriage of Figaro,” has always been a favourite with the Boat Clubs, when rowing with a quick stroke; as “Long time ago" is, when pulling with a slow one. The following, evidently written to the air of "In early life I took a wife" substitutes some more appropriate words for those of Placide's popular favourite.

We court no gale with wooing sail,
        We fear no squall a-brewing;
Seas smooth or rough, skies fair or bluff,
        Alike our course pursuing.
For what to us are winds, when thus
        Our merry boat is flying,
While bold and free, with jocund glee,
        Stout hearts her oars are plying!

At twilight dun, when red the sun
        Far o'er the water flashes,
With buoyant song our barque along
        His crimson pathway dashes.
And when the night devours the light,
        And shadows thicken o'er us,
The stars steal out, the skies about,
        To dance to our bold chorus.

Sometimes near shore we ease our oar,
        While beauty's sleep invading,
To watch the beam through her casement gleam,
        As she wakes to our serenading;
Then with the tide we floating glide,
        To music soft receding,
Or drain one cup, to her filled up
        For whom those notes are pleading.

Thus on and on, till the night is gone,
        And the garish day is breaking,
While landsmen sleep, we boatmen keep
        The soul of frolic waking.
And though cheerless then our craft looks, when
        To her moorings day has brought her,
By the moon amain she is launched again,
        To dance o'er the gleesome water.”
[Hoffman, Boat Song, American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine, Vol.10, 1839]

Note: The c.1817 English version of The Marriage of Figaro was by Henry Bishop (composer)(1787-1855.) No sources as yet.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:29 AM

“After a bit the savages sits down in the circle, all of us mortally afeard, while poor young madam begins crying bitterly. We were all of us, ye see, as we expected soon to be with the can'bals––down in the mouth. After a bit in comes Mattee Waboo, the chief as saved us from being killed on the raft, along with a boy carrying Jack's fiddle-case, which he puts on the ground, when the Mattee pointed to it and wanted us to tell him the use on't––for fortinately, as we larnt afterwards, it had been shoved aside as being of no valey, until the chief had overhauled it again, and now brought it afore us.

Honest Jack's face brightened up a bit as he laid hold on his old friend, and as the savages had carried off his keys, why he breaks open the case, and takes out his wi-o-lin, as fresh as when he'd last put it by, with a long store o' fiddle-strings. When Jack, after ros'ning his bow, began to tune a bit, it would have done your hearts good jist to see how the Indees jumped up and got round him. But when Jack struck up the “Sailors' Hornpipe," the savages began shouting with pleasure, and dancing like mad. Well, the news flew like wildfire, as we a'terwards larnt, that among the strangers there was a mighty geolee waukum, or “great spirit.” Well, Jack seeing how the wind lay, and knowing the ways o' the Indees, wouldn't play without they gave him plenty o' sea room, as they got crowding too close agin him. The chiefs soon kept the others off, and Jack began a sort o' die away, “Wapping Old Stairs,” if I 'member rightly, as made the savages as soft as child's milk, until all o' a sudden he strikes up “Off she goes.” Talk of that chap Off-horse, as our booklarned bow'son's mate talks o', as made every body follow his music!––why three years pay to a glass o' grog, it warnt any thing like Jack's power over the savages with his wi-o-lin!”
[The Magic Fiddle, The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol.5, 1839]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:32 AM

“By Jove you'd better skip for it, or you'll have what Captain M—— says. He's hailing your station,” said Courtenay, laughing—a piece of advice immediately acted upon by Price, who was up the ladder and on the forecastle in a few seconds.— “And I must go up too. How cursed annoying to be stationed in the waste! Nothing to do, except to stop my ears against the infernal stamp-and-go of the marines and after-guards, over my head; sweet music to a first-lieutenant, but to me discord most horrible. I could stamp with vexation.”

“Had you not better go first, and stamp afterwards?” observed the surgeon, drily.”
[The King's Own, Vol.I, Marryat, 1839]



“Saloma, sf. Sorte de cri ou de chant des matelots pendant la manœuvre
Salomar, vn * ado. mar. On le dit des matelots qui crient ou chantent tous à la fois en manœuvrant
[Dictionnaire Français-Espagnol, Espagnol-Français, Vol.2, López, 1839]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:34 AM

“Ahissa. f. Náut. saloma.
Ahissar. a. Náut. izar, salomar.
––als gossos. azuzar, zuzar.
––en la cassa. jalear.”
[Diccionario Manual Castellano-Catalan, F.M.F. P. y M.M., 1839]



“AH. Int. de dolor equivalent á AY. Ah. Ah, hem, vah. ? Denotant alegría. Ah, oh, bueno. Evax. ? Denotant indignacío. Com AH murri. Ah, oh. Oh, hem. ? De animar ó cridar, com AH minyons. Ah, hea. Heus, hau, ah.
AHISSA. Naut. Crit que serveix per avisar als que alsan algun pes peraque tiren tots á un temps. Saloma. Nautica opera canendi acta.
AHISSAR. v.a. Titar ó pujar algun pes. Izar. Solvo, is, levo, as. ? Incitar, provocar, instigar, induhir á algú á que fassa alguna cosa. Instigar, incitar, provocar. Stimulo, as, moveo, es, impello, is. ? Abordar al gos.”
[Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana, Labernia, Pere, 1839]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:35 AM

“MÉMOIRE N° 9.
Sur Les Navigations de Pantagruel, un Passage Maritime de la Complaynt of Scotland, et une Chanson Matelote Anglaise du Quator Zième Siècle. [p.496-554]

Voilà frère Jean en belle humeur; il chante un refrain de Noël: « Gestuy céleume, dist Épistemon, n'est hors de proposer et me plaist. » Tous les travaux de peine , toutes les manœuvres de force étaient faites à bord, — et cette habitude se conserva en France sur les bâtiments de guerre jusqu'à 1820 environ, — au bruit d'un chant rhythmé, ou d'un cri cadencé, auquel l'excitation du sifflet a fini par succéder. C'est un chant que Rabelais , avec ses habitudes grecques, appelle le celeume ou mieux celeusme, du grec celeusma. Le chanteur s'appelait celeustes(*): « Celeusma est clamor nauticus ad hortandum; ut: Nunc, nunc incumbite remis! » Servius, Æneid. , lib. viii.

Après avoir doublé le cap qui défend l'entrée du port, et les basses, ou battures, roches à la surface de la mer et bas-fonds, la nauf et son convoi entrent dans le havre (haven (angl.)). A leur arrivée , les gens de l'ile envoient, pour aider nos navigateurs à réparer leurs avaries: « deux luts (voir Mémoire n° 6 , p. 162);

(*) « On entendait le bruit monotone et mesuré de cette multitude de
« rames qui, s'élevant, ou s'arrétant, à la voix du celeuste, semblaient
« frapper toutes à la fois , et en cadence , le fleuve qui retentissait des
« cris des matelots. » Arrien, Expéditions d'Alexandre, liv. vi, chap. I

                Lentos tingitis ad celeusma remos.
                        Martial, épig. LXVII, liv. iii.

                                .... Sonmo
                Quem nec rumpere naulicus celeusma
                Nec clamor...
                        Id., épig. LXIV, liv. iv.

CÉLEUSME, chant dont les matelots grecs suivaient le rhythme, soit qu'ils halassent sur les manœuvres, soit qu'ils fissent mouvoir les rames. II, 522.

CÉLEUSTE, le chanteur, le hortator. II , 522. [p.594]
[Archeologie Navale, Vol.II, Jal, 1840, pp.496, 594]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:38 AM

“Professor Orpheus (before mentioned) when belonging to the good ship Argo, under Captain Jason, was of course the originator of heaving up the anchor to a lively tune-more classic of course than our modern means of inspiration, “Off she goes,” and “Nancy Dawson,” “played up” by a fifer, and followed up by a quick step….”
[Naval Sketches, Moore, 1840]



Walker Pits to the tune of Off She Goes: Byker Hill: background info anyone?
[The Tyne Songster, 1840]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:07 PM

“Or cette époque était celle où les Bretons insulaires émigraient en masse en Armorique. Le premier passage avait eu lieu sous les ordres du tyran Maxime vers 390, du plein consentement des habitants de l'ile; les autres furent forcés : les Bretons fuyaient la domination saxonne.

En allant par-delà les mers chercher leur nouvelle patrie, dit un auteur contemporain, ils chantaient sous leurs voiles, au lieu de la chanson des rameurs : « Vous nous avez livrés, Seigneur, comme des brebis pour un festin, et vous nous avez dispersés parmi les nations*. »

*Celeusmatis vice sub velorum finibus cantantes (Gildas, De excidio Bilanniæ).”
[Barzas-Breiz Chants Populaires de la Bretagne, Théodore Hersart Vicomte de La Villemarqué, 1840]

See also: Camden, 1637 (above.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:09 PM

“It seems that the crew, in order to pull in concert, and with greater regularity, were sometimes guided by the singing of a man, and sometimes by the sound of an instrument; and this grateful harmony served not only to regulate the motion of their oars, but to diminish and sooth their toil. This practice was anciently directed by a person called Celeustes, who gave the signal for the rowers to strike, and encouraged them by his song or cry. The song, called the celeusma, was either sung by the rowers, or played upon instruments, or effected by a symphony of many or striking sonorous tones. The commander of the rowers carried a staff, with which he gave the signal, when his voice could not be heard….”
[A Classifical and Archaeological Dictionary of the Manners, Customs, Laws, Institutions, Arts, Etc. of the Celebrated Nations of Antiquity, and of the Middle Ages, Nuttall, 1840]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:12 PM

Calomar, v.n. Mar. Zalomar, cantar un marinero con cierta montonia y compás, para que todos los que estan halando de algun cabo, izando alguna vela, etc., trabajen á una. V. ZALOMAR.”
[Diccionario Nacional, ó, Gran Diccionario Clásico de la Lengua Española, Vol.1, Dominguez, 1840]


A bit over one page of Latin and Greek on Aeschylus and the celeuma.
[Aischylou Persai: Aeschyli Persae, Blomfield ed., 1840]
Aeschylus (c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC)


“CELEUSMA, in antiquity, a naval shout serving as a signal for the mariners to ply their oars, or to cease from rowing. It was also also made use of to signify the joyful acclamation of vintagers, and the shouts of the conquerors over the vanquished.”
[The Scientific and Literary Treasury: A New and Popular Encyclopaedia of the Belles Lettres, Maunder, 1841]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:17 PM

“'Man the capstan! Jump cheerily, my lads. Look out there, forward! Down there, tierers! Are you ready below?'—'All ready, sir.'––'Yo, ho! where the devil has all our hands got to? Fore-top there! main-top there ! Come down here, all of you! Master Ettercap and Master Pinafore, kick every soul of them out of the tops—a parcel skulking lubbers!'––'Ay, ay, sir,' cried the young gentlemen ; and the capstan was speedily crowded. 'Look out there, forward!' again bawled the first Lieutenant; 'Come, my lads, pluck up a spirit, and off she goes—play up fifer; and round went the capstan to a good smart step, the men beating excellent time on the hollow, sounding deck with their feet, amid the accumulated vociferations of officers of ranks, who, with their potent commander in presence, vied with each other in the notes of alternate encouragement and ridicule.”
[Sketches of Society –– Sailing of a Man-of-War, The Atheneum, Vol.11, 1822]

See also: Life in a Man-of-war: Or Scenes in "Old Ironsides" During Her Cruise in the Pacific, Mercier, Gallop, 1841 (following.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:23 PM

Correction it's: The Man-o'-war's-man,Stewart, 1843.

“...Then, coming aft to the capstan, he said, Now, my lads, I expect to see you walk away with her with life and spirit. Not in the dead-and-alive way, mind me, you've lately been accustomed to see on board of a guard-ship, but smart and bravely, like the active service you now belong to. Come, serjeant, where's your fifer? Oh, I see the fellow. Come this way, my little man; stick your body up there, on the back of that carronade, and let's have something lively from you.”—“All ready in the tier, sir,” bawled the master.—“Very well, Stowage,” answered the lieutenant: “Look out there, forward!—Go round; play up fifer,” and away they all stamped, to the favourite air of the fleet, Shove her up! amid the cries of, “Well behaved, my lads; that's it, stick to her: keep it up, fifer!—Surge there, surge; gunner's-mates, look to your nippers!—Pay down, my hearties, pay down! Are you all asleep in the tier there? Light out the small bower, will you?—Come, another rally, my hearts, and away she goes!” &c. &c. until the anchor was right under; which, after a few cheering and desperate rallies, at length gave way, and was speedily at the bows….”

“...Fore-top there, main-top there!” bawled the first lieutenant, are you ready aloft ?" which being answered in the affirmative, he immediately sung out, Let fall-Sheet home! and away scampered the deck bands with the sheets until the blocks smacked together. “Belay, belay, men!” cried the officer. "Man the capstan!—Jump cheerily, my lads. Look out there, forward! Down there, tierers! Are you ready below?"- All ready, sir."—" Yo, ho! where the devil have all our hands got to? Fore-top there, main-top there! come down here all of you. Masters Ettercap and Pinafore, kick every soul of them out of the tops-a parcel of skulking lubbers!"—"Ay, ay, sir," cried the young gentlemen; and the capstan was speedily crowded. "Look out there, forward!" again bawled the first lieutenant: "Come, my lads, pluck up a spirit, and off she goes. Play up, fifer!"—And round went the capstan to a good smart step, the men beating excellent time on the hollow-sounding deck with their feet, amid the aceumulated vociferations of officers of all ranks, who, with their potent commander in presence, vied with each other in the notes of alternate encouragement and sarcasm….”
[The Man-o'-war's-man,Stewart, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:25 PM

““Man the bars,” now sonorously resounded from the speaking trumpet of our first lieutenant. The word was electric. Each one was at his station in a moment; the fifer thrilled off two or three notes to show that his instrument was in complete order for the occasion––the after-guard stationed at the capstan bars, took up their positions with distended arms, to give the greater force to their first movement––the mizen-topmen seated themselves comfortably upon deck close to the messenger, blessing their stars for having such a sinecure, and every one was awaiting as impatiently for a commencement of the busy scene, as an audience at the Bowery or Park before the rising of the curtain ever waited for the appearance of the inimitable Forrest, when anticipating his entré in one of his favourite characters. The order to "heave round" was now given; the fifer made the gun deck re-echo with the lively and applicable tune of "off she goes," the men at the bars kept unerring time with their feet, as they made the capstan obey the impulse of their vigorous nerves, the incessant clink of the chain was heard, as it flew through the hawsehole with a quickness scarcely to be equalled, and in as short a time as can well be imagined our ponderous anchor was short apeak.

"All hands make sail," was now thrillingly proclaimed by the boatswain and his mates, and a scene rife with bustle and liveliness immediately took place; the several sail-loosers were already in the rigging, panting with eagerness for a display of their agility; the topmen watching each other with jealous eyes, to see that no advantage was taken on either side: at the next order all were in motion, scrambling aloft with the dexterity and nimbleness of monkeys, and spreading themselves along the several yards at the word "lay out," with exact regularity, forming altogether a pleasing and imposing picture. The topsail-sheets and halliards were stretched along and manned, and the first lieutenant enquired if they were all ready aloft? "all ready, sir," was the response from half-a-dozen eager voices: "stand by; let fall." The heavy sails, as if by magic, now burst from the gaskets that had held them in such secure and graceful folds, and as the merry notes of the shrill fife re-echoed amongst the adjacent hills, sail after sail was made, the anchor was catted and fished, the yards were trimmed to the wind; our old frigate began to feel its influence—and she was soon "walking the waters like a thing of life," leaving the happy shores of Columbia in the distance.”
[Life in a Man-of-war: Or Scenes in "Old Ironsides" During Her Cruise in the Pacific. Mercier, Gallop, 1841]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:07 PM

“Having filled the ship up, in this way, to within four feet of her beams, the process of steeving commenced, by which an hundred hides are got into a place where one could not be forced by hand, and which presses the hides to the utmost, sometimes starting the beams of the ship, resembling in its effects the jack-screws which are used in stowing cotton.” [Two Years Before the Mast]


“JACK-SCREW. A purchase, used for stowing cotton.

...In well-disciplined vessels, no conversation is allowed among the men when they are employed at their work; that is to say, it is not allowed in the presence of an officer or of the master; and although, when two or more men are together aloft, or by themselves on deck, a little low conversation might not be noticed, yet if it seemed to take off their attention, or to attract the attention of others, it would be considered a misdemeanour. In this respect the practice is different in different vessels. Coasters, fishermen, or small vessels on short voyages, do not preserve the same rule; but no seaman who has been accustomed to first-class ships will object to a strictness as to conversations and laughing, while at day's work, very nearly as great as is observed in a school. While the crew are below in the forecastle, great license is given them; and the severest officer will never interfere with the noise and sport of the forecastle, unless it is a serious inconvenience to those who are on deck. In working ship, when the men are at their stations, the same silence and decorum are observed. But during the dog-watches, and when the men are together on the forecastle at night, and no work is going forward, smoking, singing, telling yarns, &c., are allowed; and, in fact, a considerable degree of noise and skylarking is permitted, unless it amounts to positive disorder and disturbance.”
[The Seaman's Manual, Dana, 1841]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:09 PM

Celeuma, a vozeria ou cantiga da gente do mar quando trabalha – celeumear.
Celeumear, v. celeuma.
Saloma, v. celeuma.
Salomear, v. celeumear.
[Diccionario de Marinha, Amorim, 1841]


“SALÉMA, s.f. rèvérence, salut respectueux, salamalec. Fazer a ––, faire un salamalec. (t. de mar.) V. Celeuma. (t. d'hist. nat.) Saupe: poisson du genre du spare.
†ZALUMÁR, v.n. (t. de mar.) donner la voix, chanter. V. Celeuma.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire Portugais-Francais, Roquete, 1841]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:12 PM

“Suivez du regard, si vous pouvez, ces petites embarcations qui vont et viennent dans tous les sens; voyez arriver ou partir les gros navires, les uns laissant tomber l'ancre avec un bruit retentissant, les autres retirant péniblement de l'eau cette lourde masse de fer. Quel mouvement, quelle vie, quelle variété sur cette scène mobile!... Mais que signifie ce concert joyeux? C'est le chant des matelots, qui se confond avec la voix des pilotes; singulière musique, mais si bien d'accord avec tout le reste! car ce cantilène caractéristique, ou, si mieux aimez, ce bruit cadencé des matelots, n'est pas sans intérêt. Voyez-les pendant qu'ils parcourent le port, armés de leurs aussières, qu'ils attachent et détachent de navire en navire avec une adresse qui étonne les ignorants et charme les gens du métier...”
[Un Port De L'Ocean, Revue Britannique, Vol.100, 1842]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:15 PM

“CELEUSMA, or CELEUMA, in Antiquity, the shout or cry of the seamen, by which they animated each other in their work of rowing. The word is formed from [...], to call, or give the signal.
CELEUSMA was also a kind of song or formula, rehearsed or played by the master or others, to direct the strokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour.
CELEUSTES, in ancient navigation, the boatswain or officer appointed to give the rowers the signal when they were to pull, and when to stop, He is also denominated epopius, and by the Romans portisculus, sometimes simply hortator.”
[The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol.6, Issue 1, 1842]


“...or the more distant sounds from the ships in the harbour getting under weigh to the cheerful accompaniment of the sailors' chorused chaunt….”
[The Young Officer's Death-Bed, The N.Carolina Standard, Raleigh, 1 June 1842]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:16 PM

CELEUMA, Gr. [...], vóz nautica de exercitar a maruja aos trabalhos, grita confuza dos marinheiros. Pronuncía-se com o som de (s), e se escreve com hum (c) por cauza da ethym. s. f. (Vej. Saléma, com que de algum modo se confunde.)
SALAMALE. (Vej. Salema.)
SALEMA, t. Naut. por celeuma, vozaría da gente do mar a bórdo. t. Turco, cortezía, salamalé, comprimento pondo a mão no turbante, reverencia profunda com submissão, e isto misturado de palavras; peixe vulgar da feição de fanéca; pedra com este nome (mármore) it. appellído. (Vej. Celeuma.)
[Diccionário da Maior Parte dos Termos Homónymos, e Equívocos da Lingua Portugueza, Antonio Maria do Couto, 1842]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:18 PM

“CÉLEUSME ou KÉLEUSME. s. m. (ant. gr) L'air que l'on jonait ou que l'on chantait sur les vaisseaux, pour encourager les rameurs. || Kéleusme se disait aussi Des commandiements du pilote.
CÉLEUSTE. s. m. (ant. gr) Il se disait de Ceux qui chantaient dans les navires pour encourager les rameurs.
CÉLEUSTIQUE, adj. et, s.f. (art. Milit.). Il se dit de l'art de transmettre des signaux au moyen d'instruments de musique.
CÉLEUSTIQUEMENT, adv. (art milit.) Par le moyen de la celeustique.

NIGLAROS. s.m. (ant. gr.) Chant des matelots, sur la mesure duquel on réglaot le mouvement des rames. ? Petite flûte sur laquelle on jonait det air.”
[Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 1842]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 09:57 AM

Hi Phil,
Does that Dana Seaman's Manual have any useful info on chanties?

Regarding the discipline and lack of verbal communication on the stricter merchant ships, this was very likely because many of the men and officers would have been ex RN and old habits die hard.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:04 PM

The last of Reidler's three: The sound of the crew’s sea shanties echoing off the cliffs as the Thetis sailed through a fjord along the southern coast of Norway struck Wagner as “an omen of good fortune,” and became the inspiration behind the theme of the Sailors’ Chorus in Act I of his opera, Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman). [Reidler]


“Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman), WWV 63, is a German-language opera, with libretto and music by Richard Wagner. The central theme is redemption through love. Wagner conducted the premiere at the Königliches Hoftheater Dresden in 1843.

Wagner claimed in his 1870 autobiography Mein Leben that he had been inspired to write the opera following a stormy sea crossing he made from Riga to London in July and August 1839. In his 1843 Autobiographic Sketch, Wagner acknowledged he had taken the story from Heinrich Heine's retelling of the legend in his 1833 satirical novel The Memoirs of Mister von Schnabelewopski (Aus den Memoiren des Herrn von Schnabelewopski).” [wiki]
Der fliegende Holländer


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:05 PM

c.1870
“Ein unsägliches Wohlgefühl erfasste mich, als das Echo der ungeheuren Granitwände den Schiffsruf der Mannschaft zurückgab, unter welchem diese den Anker warf und die Segel aufhisste. Der kurze Rythmus dieses Rufes haftete in mir wie eine kräftig tröstende Vorbedeutung, und gestaltete sich bald zu dem Thema des Matrosen-Liedes in meinem «fliegenden Holländer», dessen Idee ich damals schon mit mir herumtrug und nun unter den soeben gewonnenen Eindrücken eine bestimmte poetisch-musikalische Farbe gewann.”
[Mein Leben, Wagner, 1911]


“A feeling of indescribable content came over me when the enormous granite walls echoed the hail of the crew as they cast anchor and furled the sails. The sharp rhythm of this call clung to me like an omen of good cheer, and shaped itself presently into the theme of the seamen's song in my Fliegender Holländer. The idea of this opera was, even at that time, ever present in my mind, and it now took on a definite poetic and musical colour under the influence of my recent impressions.”
[My Life, Wagner, Gray trans., 1985]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:07 PM

A Lexicon of Wagnerian Gibberish
or
Non-lexical vocables in music

eg:
Heia
Interjection
1. aha! come now! come on! (expressing delight, playful remonstrance, encouragement)
2. you don't say?

Heu
Interjection
    oh! alas! ah!, ay! (expressing dismay, grief, pain, indignation)

Wagnerian:
Opzanger Brünnhilde's heiarop ––
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha! Hojotoho! Heiaha!


See also: Columbanus & Heia Viri (above.)

PS: The Latin word for “work” is: opera.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:16 PM

“HALER, v. a. C'est tirer un cordage, et faire force dessus, pour le bander ou raidir. Plusieurs matelots se mettent ensemble le long d'une manœuvre pour la hâler, et l'un d'eux, chante à haute voix de temps en temps, quelque refrain pour leur donner le signal, afin qu'ils tirent tous ensemble, et qu'ils donnent une forte secousseau cordage. Ils ont d'autres cris pour hâler différentes manœuvres; par exemple: OH! BORDE! pour aller ou border l'écoute; OH! SAILLE! etc. C'est ce qu'on appelle donner la voix. Se hâler dans le vent. C'est la même chose que s'élever dans le vent. Voy. au mot ÉLEVER.

VOIX, s. f. Donner la voix se dit d'un certain cri fait de temps en temps par un des hommes qui travaillent à une manœuvre, comme: Ho! Hisse! – Oh borde! Oh hâle! – Oh saille! – Bouline, oh! pour avertir et donner le signal ensemble, à tous les matelots qui bâlent sur un cordage, de tirer tous à la fois, et en mê. me temps, pour faire un plus grand effet.

A LA VOIX! C'est un avertissement donné aux matelots qui travaillert, de faire attention à ce cri, et de faire effort sur le cordage, etc, tous ensemble.”
[Dictionnaire Moderne des Termes de Marine et de la Navigation à Vapeur, Leméthéyer, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:18 PM

“Celeusma et Celeuma, atis. n. Cri qui sert à régler les mouvemens des rameurs. Quem nec rumpere nauticum celeusma. (Phal.) M. PHR. Nauticus exoritur clamor. V.
V. Qui voce alternos nautarum temperet ictus,
Et remis dictet sonitum, pariterque relatis
Ad numerum plaudat resonantia cærula tonsis. Sil.
Nauticus implebal resonantiá littorá clamor,
Et simul adductis percussa ad pectorá tonsis,
Centeno fractus spumabat verbere pontus. Sil.
[Gradus ad Parnassum, ou Nouveau Dictionnaire Poétique Latin-Français, Noël, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:19 PM

“Quant au triplici versu, il exprime, à mon avis, un chant trois fois répété, un cri, un hourra! une espèce de celeusma dont la tradition est vivante encore dans les bâtiments où, pour tous les travaux de force, et, par exemple, quand on hale les boulines, un matelot, le véritable hortator des anciens navires, chante: Ouane, tou, tri! Hourra! (one, two, three! hourra!— angl.). La tradition antique était pleine de force au moyen âge, à Venise, où la chiourme du Bucentaure, toutes les fois que le navire ducal passait devant la chapelle de la Vierge, construite à l'entrée de l'Arsenal, criait trois fois: Ah! Ah! Ah! donnant un coup de rame après chacune de ces acclamations. Virgile prétendit consacrer par deux vers le souvenir d'une coutume observée sans doute de son temps par les rameurs, dans de certaines occasions: et voilà tout ce qu'il voulut.”
[Annales Maritimes et Coloniales, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:29 PM

From the Advent thread: "Corn-shucking in South Carolina--From the Letters of a Traveller" - William Cullen Bryant (1794–1878)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:31 PM

“†Celeusma, atis, n. El grito de los marineros para animarse á la maniobra.
Celeustes, æ, m. El còmitre de galera.”
[Diccionario Latino Español, Losada, 1843]


“CÉLE-UMA, s.m.. (Dal. gr. Celeome io comando, io esorto.) Questa voce significava quel grido col quale esortavansi presso i Greci i rematori ed i cocchieri, accio raddoppiassero i loro sforzi - Sin. Celeusma.
CÉLEU-SMA (Lett.), s.f. Lo stesso che Celeuma. Voce grecca.
CÉLEUSTA-NORÉ, n.pr.m. (Dal gr. Celeustes esortatore, e da Henorea fortezza: Esortator di fortezza.)
CÉLE-USTÉ, s.m. (Dal gr. Celero io comando.) Cosi chiamavano i Greci il capitan della nave o moderator della navigazione, il quale, or con la semplice voce, or con una specie di cantilena, ed or col suon della tromba, regolava il naviglio.”
[Dizionario Universale Portatile di Lingua Italiana, Nicola De Jacobis, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:31 PM

“C'est sur un navire ainsi encombré, repeint à neuf, goudronné du matin, au bruit du chant des matelots, que les passagers s'entassent, s'apprêtant à souffrir et résignés à la mort; car, une fois l'ancre arrachée à la vase et le vent dans la voile, vous seul, ô mon Dieu! savez où vont ces hommes, suspendus sur l'abîme, et séparés de l'éternité par une planche fixée avec un clou!”
[Voyage aux Antilles, Cassagnac, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:33 PM

“BOULINA-HA-HA! int. Mar. (Chant des matelots français pendant qu'ils halent sur les quatre principales boulines). Boulina-ha-ha!
CÊLEUSTE, m. (anc.) Mar. (Se disait de ceux qui chantaient dans les navires pour encourager les rameurs). Celeuste, voorzanger, opzinger, m.
CÊLEUSTIQUE, f. et adj. Mil. (Se dit de l'art de transmettre des signaux au moyen d'instruments de musique). Celeustiek, toonseinkunst, f.; daartoe, behoorende.
CHANTER, v.n. Mar. (Faire certains cris de convention, pour donner le signal de l'instant où plusiers hommes, employés à une même opération, doivent réunir leurs efforts et agir tous ensemble). Opzingen.
CHANTEUR, m. Mar. (Ouvrier ou matelot qui a la voix forte, et qui par un cri de convention, donne le signal du moment où les gens qui travaillent à une même manœuvre, doivent réunir leurs efforts). Opzinger, opzanger, m.
CHANTEUR MILITAIRE, m. (anc.) Hist. Mil. (Se disait des musiciens qui chantaient à la tête des troupes, comme les musiciens actuels y jouent de leurs instruments). Krijgszanger, m.
DONNER LA VOIX, v.a. Mar. (Marquer par un cri de convention le moment où plusiers hommes doivent agir ou réunir leurs efforts pour produire un effet quelconque). Opsingen, fluiten.
HELCIAIRE, m. (anc.) Mar. (Matelot employé à haler des cordages). Helciarius, matroos, m. Le chant des ––s, Het opzingen der helciarii.
HISSA, HO, HA, HISSE! Int. Mar. (Cri ou chant d'un matelot, qui donne la voix pour faire réunir les forces des autres metelots dans le même instant, afin que tous les efforts réunis fassent un plus grand effet). Hijschen! Ho! Ha! Halen! Halen er aan!
NIGLAROS, m. (anc.) Mar. (Chant de matelots, sur la mesure duquel on réglait le mouvement des rames). Roeizang, riemzang, m.
SAILLER, v.a. (Chanter, donner la voix à des hommes qui travaillent ensemble). Opsingen bij het hijschen en halen.”
[Dictionnaire Universel, Historique et Raisonné, Français-Hollandais, Gocvic, Jansen, 1844]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:34 PM

“CELEUSMA. Jest wyraz, znaczacy krzyk wielu osób, zachecajacych sie na wzajem do bitwy albo pracy. Nequaquam Calcator Uvae.... Celeusma cantabit. Jerem. Cap. 48. Celeusma quasi Calcantium concinetur adversus omnes habitatores terrae. Jerem. Cap. 25. To jest jako ci, co wyciskaja winne jagody, czynia okrzyki zachecajac sie do pracy, tak Babilonczykowie dodawac sobie na wzajem beda serea, do wywarcia sil swych przeciw Jeruzalem i ucieszenia sie ze zguby jego.”
[Dykcyonarz Biblijny z Ksiag Pisma Swietego Starego i Nowego Testamentu, Vol.1, 1844]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:35 PM

“CELEUSMA, Atis. n. (…) The cry of the … or person placed over the rowers, and the action with which he beat time as it were to them, in order that they might raise and drop their oars together; Mart.”
[A Complete Latin-English Dictionary for the Use of Colleges and Schools: Chiefly from the German, 1844]


“Il se trouvait en rade un brick vénitien prêt à mettre à la voile. Tandis que je réfléchissais à tous mes sujets de plainte, la brise du soir se leva , et le chant des matelots qui étaient à bord m'annonça qu'on levait l'ancre.”
[Anastase ou Mémoires d'un Grec Écrits à la fin du XVIIIe Siècle, Hope, Defauconpret, 1844]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Nov 22 - 05:35 PM

Also well covered in the Advent thread: Twenty Years at Sea; or, Leaves from My old Log Book," a story for boys, Hill, Frederic Stanhope, 1898.

“The cotton had already been subjected to a very great compression at the steam cotton presses in Mobile, which reduced the size of the bales as they had come from the plantations. fully one half. It was now to be forced into the ship, in the process of stowing by the stevedores, with very powerful jackscrews, each operated by a gang of four men, one of them. the "shantier," as he was called, from the French word chanteur, a vocalist. This man's sole duty was to lead in the rude songs, largely improvised, to the music of which his companions screwed the bales into their places. The pressure exerted in this process was often sufficient to lift the planking of the deck, and the beams of ships were at times actually sprung.

A really good shantier received larger pay than the other men in the gang, although his work was much less laborious. Their songs, which always had a lively refrain or chorus, were largely what are now called topical, and often not particularly chaste. Little incidents occurring on board ship that attracted the shantier's attention were very apt to be woven into his song, and sometimes these were of a character to cause much annoyance to the officers, whose little idiosyncrasies were thus made public.

One of their songs, I remember, ran something like this: —”
Note: Lyrics to Hie Bonnie Laddie follow.

Caveat: Twenty Years... is typically cited as 1840s nonfiction. It is 1890s young adult fiction. Hill is coming from the same side of the pirate opera hokum aisle as Martial, Wallack & Wagner. Based on a true story, but not the truth.

More than a few of the previously posted chanteur references above also appear in the Advent thread. However, none linking to the older salomare, celéustes &c (Landelle, Lorenzo et al.)

The one other Hie Bonnie Laddie return from a Mudcat search, also from the American Gulf Coast as it happens, there may well be others: Lyr Req: Let the Bulgine Run - New York fire?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Nov 22 - 05:37 PM

More on the author:
Frederic Stanhope Hill.
Frederic Stanhope Hill, author and publisher, and who formerly had served in public office, passed away on Wednesday at his home in Lake View avenue, in his 84th year. He was born In Boston on August 4, 1829, the son of Frederic Stanhope and Mary Welland (Blake) Hill. He received an academic education in Brattleboro, Vt., and the Friends' Academy in Providence, R.I. He went early in life to sea. Mr. Hill went to California in 1849 and remained there for two years. From 1852 until 1856 he was employed in the Boston post-office and in the United States custom house in Boston from 1856 until 1860. During those years he was a correspondent for the Boston Post and The New Yorker. He entered the United States navy and was an officer in service from 1861 till 1865 and was with Admiral Farragut at the capture of New Orleans and was at Vicksburg. He also served in command on the coast of Texas and in the Mississippi squadron , where he was on the "Benton" and "Tyler ."

In 1886 he bought the Cambridge Chronicle and in the early '90's Mr. Hill became editor of The Cambridge Tribune, continuing as such until January 1, 1902. He served as secretary of the Massachusetts Nautical Training School Commission from 1892 until 1908 and it was while he was acting in that capacity that the famous investigation of the conditions of the training ship "Enterprise" took place in Boston, lasting for several weeks. At that time the commander of the schoolship was the late Hear Admiral Joseph Giles Eaton, who was then a lieutenant-commander in rank.
Mr. Hill was treasurer of Christ Church for many years. He married on September 3, 186", Caroline M. Tyson, of Philadelphia, who survives him. His daughter, Gertrude Blake, married Dr. Lawrence M. Stanton, of New York City.

As a writer. Mr. Hill was the author of "Twenty Years at Sea; or, Leaves from My old Log Book," a story for boys; "The Story of the Lucky Little Enterprise," "The Continuity of the Anglican Church," "Twenty-Six Historic Ships" and "The Romance of the American Navy."

Mr. Hill was a member of the Loyal Legion, the Naval order of the United States, American Historical Association and other organizations,

The funeral will be held today at 11 o'clock at Christ Church.”
[The Cambridge Tribune, Volume XXXVI, Number 31, 27 September 1913, p.8]


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