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Maritime work song in general

GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Nov 22 - 05:37 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Nov 22 - 05:35 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Nov 22 - 06:35 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Nov 22 - 06:34 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Nov 22 - 06:33 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Nov 22 - 06:31 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Nov 22 - 06:31 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 19 Nov 22 - 06:29 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 15 Nov 22 - 05:19 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 15 Nov 22 - 05:16 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 15 Nov 22 - 05:07 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 15 Nov 22 - 05:05 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 15 Nov 22 - 05:04 PM
Steve Gardham 15 Nov 22 - 09:57 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 14 Nov 22 - 06:18 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 14 Nov 22 - 06:16 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 14 Nov 22 - 06:15 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 22 Oct 22 - 11:25 PM
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GUEST,Phil d'Conch 21 Oct 22 - 02:38 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 21 Oct 22 - 02:35 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 21 Oct 22 - 02:34 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 21 Oct 22 - 02:32 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 21 Oct 22 - 02:29 AM
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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Nov 22 - 05:37 PM

More on the author:
Frederic Stanhope Hill.
Frederic Stanhope Hill, author and publisher, and who formerly had served in public office, passed away on Wednesday at his home in Lake View avenue, in his 84th year. He was born In Boston on August 4, 1829, the son of Frederic Stanhope and Mary Welland (Blake) Hill. He received an academic education in Brattleboro, Vt., and the Friends' Academy in Providence, R.I. He went early in life to sea. Mr. Hill went to California in 1849 and remained there for two years. From 1852 until 1856 he was employed in the Boston post-office and in the United States custom house in Boston from 1856 until 1860. During those years he was a correspondent for the Boston Post and The New Yorker. He entered the United States navy and was an officer in service from 1861 till 1865 and was with Admiral Farragut at the capture of New Orleans and was at Vicksburg. He also served in command on the coast of Texas and in the Mississippi squadron , where he was on the "Benton" and "Tyler ."

In 1886 he bought the Cambridge Chronicle and in the early '90's Mr. Hill became editor of The Cambridge Tribune, continuing as such until January 1, 1902. He served as secretary of the Massachusetts Nautical Training School Commission from 1892 until 1908 and it was while he was acting in that capacity that the famous investigation of the conditions of the training ship "Enterprise" took place in Boston, lasting for several weeks. At that time the commander of the schoolship was the late Hear Admiral Joseph Giles Eaton, who was then a lieutenant-commander in rank.
Mr. Hill was treasurer of Christ Church for many years. He married on September 3, 186", Caroline M. Tyson, of Philadelphia, who survives him. His daughter, Gertrude Blake, married Dr. Lawrence M. Stanton, of New York City.

As a writer. Mr. Hill was the author of "Twenty Years at Sea; or, Leaves from My old Log Book," a story for boys; "The Story of the Lucky Little Enterprise," "The Continuity of the Anglican Church," "Twenty-Six Historic Ships" and "The Romance of the American Navy."

Mr. Hill was a member of the Loyal Legion, the Naval order of the United States, American Historical Association and other organizations,

The funeral will be held today at 11 o'clock at Christ Church.”
[The Cambridge Tribune, Volume XXXVI, Number 31, 27 September 1913, p.8]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Nov 22 - 05:35 PM

Also well covered in the Advent thread: Twenty Years at Sea; or, Leaves from My old Log Book," a story for boys, Hill, Frederic Stanhope, 1898.

“The cotton had already been subjected to a very great compression at the steam cotton presses in Mobile, which reduced the size of the bales as they had come from the plantations. fully one half. It was now to be forced into the ship, in the process of stowing by the stevedores, with very powerful jackscrews, each operated by a gang of four men, one of them. the "shantier," as he was called, from the French word chanteur, a vocalist. This man's sole duty was to lead in the rude songs, largely improvised, to the music of which his companions screwed the bales into their places. The pressure exerted in this process was often sufficient to lift the planking of the deck, and the beams of ships were at times actually sprung.

A really good shantier received larger pay than the other men in the gang, although his work was much less laborious. Their songs, which always had a lively refrain or chorus, were largely what are now called topical, and often not particularly chaste. Little incidents occurring on board ship that attracted the shantier's attention were very apt to be woven into his song, and sometimes these were of a character to cause much annoyance to the officers, whose little idiosyncrasies were thus made public.

One of their songs, I remember, ran something like this: —”
Note: Lyrics to Hie Bonnie Laddie follow.

Caveat: Twenty Years... is typically cited as 1840s nonfiction. It is 1890s young adult fiction. Hill is coming from the same side of the pirate opera hokum aisle as Martial, Wallack & Wagner. Based on a true story, but not the truth.

More than a few of the previously posted chanteur references above also appear in the Advent thread. However, none linking to the older salomare, celéustes &c (Landelle, Lorenzo et al.)

The one other Hie Bonnie Laddie return from a Mudcat search, also from the American Gulf Coast as it happens, there may well be others: Lyr Req: Let the Bulgine Run - New York fire?


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:35 PM

“CELEUSMA, Atis. n. (…) The cry of the … or person placed over the rowers, and the action with which he beat time as it were to them, in order that they might raise and drop their oars together; Mart.”
[A Complete Latin-English Dictionary for the Use of Colleges and Schools: Chiefly from the German, 1844]


“Il se trouvait en rade un brick vénitien prêt à mettre à la voile. Tandis que je réfléchissais à tous mes sujets de plainte, la brise du soir se leva , et le chant des matelots qui étaient à bord m'annonça qu'on levait l'ancre.”
[Anastase ou Mémoires d'un Grec Écrits à la fin du XVIIIe Siècle, Hope, Defauconpret, 1844]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:34 PM

“CELEUSMA. Jest wyraz, znaczacy krzyk wielu osób, zachecajacych sie na wzajem do bitwy albo pracy. Nequaquam Calcator Uvae.... Celeusma cantabit. Jerem. Cap. 48. Celeusma quasi Calcantium concinetur adversus omnes habitatores terrae. Jerem. Cap. 25. To jest jako ci, co wyciskaja winne jagody, czynia okrzyki zachecajac sie do pracy, tak Babilonczykowie dodawac sobie na wzajem beda serea, do wywarcia sil swych przeciw Jeruzalem i ucieszenia sie ze zguby jego.”
[Dykcyonarz Biblijny z Ksiag Pisma Swietego Starego i Nowego Testamentu, Vol.1, 1844]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:33 PM

“BOULINA-HA-HA! int. Mar. (Chant des matelots français pendant qu'ils halent sur les quatre principales boulines). Boulina-ha-ha!
CÊLEUSTE, m. (anc.) Mar. (Se disait de ceux qui chantaient dans les navires pour encourager les rameurs). Celeuste, voorzanger, opzinger, m.
CÊLEUSTIQUE, f. et adj. Mil. (Se dit de l'art de transmettre des signaux au moyen d'instruments de musique). Celeustiek, toonseinkunst, f.; daartoe, behoorende.
CHANTER, v.n. Mar. (Faire certains cris de convention, pour donner le signal de l'instant où plusiers hommes, employés à une même opération, doivent réunir leurs efforts et agir tous ensemble). Opzingen.
CHANTEUR, m. Mar. (Ouvrier ou matelot qui a la voix forte, et qui par un cri de convention, donne le signal du moment où les gens qui travaillent à une même manœuvre, doivent réunir leurs efforts). Opzinger, opzanger, m.
CHANTEUR MILITAIRE, m. (anc.) Hist. Mil. (Se disait des musiciens qui chantaient à la tête des troupes, comme les musiciens actuels y jouent de leurs instruments). Krijgszanger, m.
DONNER LA VOIX, v.a. Mar. (Marquer par un cri de convention le moment où plusiers hommes doivent agir ou réunir leurs efforts pour produire un effet quelconque). Opsingen, fluiten.
HELCIAIRE, m. (anc.) Mar. (Matelot employé à haler des cordages). Helciarius, matroos, m. Le chant des ––s, Het opzingen der helciarii.
HISSA, HO, HA, HISSE! Int. Mar. (Cri ou chant d'un matelot, qui donne la voix pour faire réunir les forces des autres metelots dans le même instant, afin que tous les efforts réunis fassent un plus grand effet). Hijschen! Ho! Ha! Halen! Halen er aan!
NIGLAROS, m. (anc.) Mar. (Chant de matelots, sur la mesure duquel on réglait le mouvement des rames). Roeizang, riemzang, m.
SAILLER, v.a. (Chanter, donner la voix à des hommes qui travaillent ensemble). Opsingen bij het hijschen en halen.”
[Dictionnaire Universel, Historique et Raisonné, Français-Hollandais, Gocvic, Jansen, 1844]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:31 PM

“C'est sur un navire ainsi encombré, repeint à neuf, goudronné du matin, au bruit du chant des matelots, que les passagers s'entassent, s'apprêtant à souffrir et résignés à la mort; car, une fois l'ancre arrachée à la vase et le vent dans la voile, vous seul, ô mon Dieu! savez où vont ces hommes, suspendus sur l'abîme, et séparés de l'éternité par une planche fixée avec un clou!”
[Voyage aux Antilles, Cassagnac, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:31 PM

“†Celeusma, atis, n. El grito de los marineros para animarse á la maniobra.
Celeustes, æ, m. El còmitre de galera.”
[Diccionario Latino Español, Losada, 1843]


“CÉLE-UMA, s.m.. (Dal. gr. Celeome io comando, io esorto.) Questa voce significava quel grido col quale esortavansi presso i Greci i rematori ed i cocchieri, accio raddoppiassero i loro sforzi - Sin. Celeusma.
CÉLEU-SMA (Lett.), s.f. Lo stesso che Celeuma. Voce grecca.
CÉLEUSTA-NORÉ, n.pr.m. (Dal gr. Celeustes esortatore, e da Henorea fortezza: Esortator di fortezza.)
CÉLE-USTÉ, s.m. (Dal gr. Celero io comando.) Cosi chiamavano i Greci il capitan della nave o moderator della navigazione, il quale, or con la semplice voce, or con una specie di cantilena, ed or col suon della tromba, regolava il naviglio.”
[Dizionario Universale Portatile di Lingua Italiana, Nicola De Jacobis, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Nov 22 - 06:29 PM

From the Advent thread: "Corn-shucking in South Carolina--From the Letters of a Traveller" - William Cullen Bryant (1794–1878)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:19 PM

“Quant au triplici versu, il exprime, à mon avis, un chant trois fois répété, un cri, un hourra! une espèce de celeusma dont la tradition est vivante encore dans les bâtiments où, pour tous les travaux de force, et, par exemple, quand on hale les boulines, un matelot, le véritable hortator des anciens navires, chante: Ouane, tou, tri! Hourra! (one, two, three! hourra!— angl.). La tradition antique était pleine de force au moyen âge, à Venise, où la chiourme du Bucentaure, toutes les fois que le navire ducal passait devant la chapelle de la Vierge, construite à l'entrée de l'Arsenal, criait trois fois: Ah! Ah! Ah! donnant un coup de rame après chacune de ces acclamations. Virgile prétendit consacrer par deux vers le souvenir d'une coutume observée sans doute de son temps par les rameurs, dans de certaines occasions: et voilà tout ce qu'il voulut.”
[Annales Maritimes et Coloniales, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:18 PM

“Celeusma et Celeuma, atis. n. Cri qui sert à régler les mouvemens des rameurs. Quem nec rumpere nauticum celeusma. (Phal.) M. PHR. Nauticus exoritur clamor. V.
V. Qui voce alternos nautarum temperet ictus,
Et remis dictet sonitum, pariterque relatis
Ad numerum plaudat resonantia cærula tonsis. Sil.
Nauticus implebal resonantiá littorá clamor,
Et simul adductis percussa ad pectorá tonsis,
Centeno fractus spumabat verbere pontus. Sil.
[Gradus ad Parnassum, ou Nouveau Dictionnaire Poétique Latin-Français, Noël, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:16 PM

“HALER, v. a. C'est tirer un cordage, et faire force dessus, pour le bander ou raidir. Plusieurs matelots se mettent ensemble le long d'une manœuvre pour la hâler, et l'un d'eux, chante à haute voix de temps en temps, quelque refrain pour leur donner le signal, afin qu'ils tirent tous ensemble, et qu'ils donnent une forte secousseau cordage. Ils ont d'autres cris pour hâler différentes manœuvres; par exemple: OH! BORDE! pour aller ou border l'écoute; OH! SAILLE! etc. C'est ce qu'on appelle donner la voix. Se hâler dans le vent. C'est la même chose que s'élever dans le vent. Voy. au mot ÉLEVER.

VOIX, s. f. Donner la voix se dit d'un certain cri fait de temps en temps par un des hommes qui travaillent à une manœuvre, comme: Ho! Hisse! – Oh borde! Oh hâle! – Oh saille! – Bouline, oh! pour avertir et donner le signal ensemble, à tous les matelots qui bâlent sur un cordage, de tirer tous à la fois, et en mê. me temps, pour faire un plus grand effet.

A LA VOIX! C'est un avertissement donné aux matelots qui travaillert, de faire attention à ce cri, et de faire effort sur le cordage, etc, tous ensemble.”
[Dictionnaire Moderne des Termes de Marine et de la Navigation à Vapeur, Leméthéyer, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:07 PM

A Lexicon of Wagnerian Gibberish
or
Non-lexical vocables in music

eg:
Heia
Interjection
1. aha! come now! come on! (expressing delight, playful remonstrance, encouragement)
2. you don't say?

Heu
Interjection
    oh! alas! ah!, ay! (expressing dismay, grief, pain, indignation)

Wagnerian:
Opzanger Brünnhilde's heiarop ––
Hojotoho! Hojotoho!
Heiaha! Heiaha! Hojotoho! Heiaha!


See also: Columbanus & Heia Viri (above.)

PS: The Latin word for “work” is: opera.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:05 PM

c.1870
“Ein unsägliches Wohlgefühl erfasste mich, als das Echo der ungeheuren Granitwände den Schiffsruf der Mannschaft zurückgab, unter welchem diese den Anker warf und die Segel aufhisste. Der kurze Rythmus dieses Rufes haftete in mir wie eine kräftig tröstende Vorbedeutung, und gestaltete sich bald zu dem Thema des Matrosen-Liedes in meinem «fliegenden Holländer», dessen Idee ich damals schon mit mir herumtrug und nun unter den soeben gewonnenen Eindrücken eine bestimmte poetisch-musikalische Farbe gewann.”
[Mein Leben, Wagner, 1911]


“A feeling of indescribable content came over me when the enormous granite walls echoed the hail of the crew as they cast anchor and furled the sails. The sharp rhythm of this call clung to me like an omen of good cheer, and shaped itself presently into the theme of the seamen's song in my Fliegender Holländer. The idea of this opera was, even at that time, ever present in my mind, and it now took on a definite poetic and musical colour under the influence of my recent impressions.”
[My Life, Wagner, Gray trans., 1985]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 05:04 PM

The last of Reidler's three: The sound of the crew’s sea shanties echoing off the cliffs as the Thetis sailed through a fjord along the southern coast of Norway struck Wagner as “an omen of good fortune,” and became the inspiration behind the theme of the Sailors’ Chorus in Act I of his opera, Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman). [Reidler]


“Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman), WWV 63, is a German-language opera, with libretto and music by Richard Wagner. The central theme is redemption through love. Wagner conducted the premiere at the Königliches Hoftheater Dresden in 1843.

Wagner claimed in his 1870 autobiography Mein Leben that he had been inspired to write the opera following a stormy sea crossing he made from Riga to London in July and August 1839. In his 1843 Autobiographic Sketch, Wagner acknowledged he had taken the story from Heinrich Heine's retelling of the legend in his 1833 satirical novel The Memoirs of Mister von Schnabelewopski (Aus den Memoiren des Herrn von Schnabelewopski).” [wiki]
Der fliegende Holländer


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 15 Nov 22 - 09:57 AM

Hi Phil,
Does that Dana Seaman's Manual have any useful info on chanties?

Regarding the discipline and lack of verbal communication on the stricter merchant ships, this was very likely because many of the men and officers would have been ex RN and old habits die hard.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:18 PM

“CÉLEUSME ou KÉLEUSME. s. m. (ant. gr) L'air que l'on jonait ou que l'on chantait sur les vaisseaux, pour encourager les rameurs. || Kéleusme se disait aussi Des commandiements du pilote.
CÉLEUSTE. s. m. (ant. gr) Il se disait de Ceux qui chantaient dans les navires pour encourager les rameurs.
CÉLEUSTIQUE, adj. et, s.f. (art. Milit.). Il se dit de l'art de transmettre des signaux au moyen d'instruments de musique.
CÉLEUSTIQUEMENT, adv. (art milit.) Par le moyen de la celeustique.

NIGLAROS. s.m. (ant. gr.) Chant des matelots, sur la mesure duquel on réglaot le mouvement des rames. ? Petite flûte sur laquelle on jonait det air.”
[Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 1842]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:16 PM

CELEUMA, Gr. [...], vóz nautica de exercitar a maruja aos trabalhos, grita confuza dos marinheiros. Pronuncía-se com o som de (s), e se escreve com hum (c) por cauza da ethym. s. f. (Vej. Saléma, com que de algum modo se confunde.)
SALAMALE. (Vej. Salema.)
SALEMA, t. Naut. por celeuma, vozaría da gente do mar a bórdo. t. Turco, cortezía, salamalé, comprimento pondo a mão no turbante, reverencia profunda com submissão, e isto misturado de palavras; peixe vulgar da feição de fanéca; pedra com este nome (mármore) it. appellído. (Vej. Celeuma.)
[Diccionário da Maior Parte dos Termos Homónymos, e Equívocos da Lingua Portugueza, Antonio Maria do Couto, 1842]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:15 PM

“CELEUSMA, or CELEUMA, in Antiquity, the shout or cry of the seamen, by which they animated each other in their work of rowing. The word is formed from [...], to call, or give the signal.
CELEUSMA was also a kind of song or formula, rehearsed or played by the master or others, to direct the strokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour.
CELEUSTES, in ancient navigation, the boatswain or officer appointed to give the rowers the signal when they were to pull, and when to stop, He is also denominated epopius, and by the Romans portisculus, sometimes simply hortator.”
[The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol.6, Issue 1, 1842]


“...or the more distant sounds from the ships in the harbour getting under weigh to the cheerful accompaniment of the sailors' chorused chaunt….”
[The Young Officer's Death-Bed, The N.Carolina Standard, Raleigh, 1 June 1842]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:12 PM

“Suivez du regard, si vous pouvez, ces petites embarcations qui vont et viennent dans tous les sens; voyez arriver ou partir les gros navires, les uns laissant tomber l'ancre avec un bruit retentissant, les autres retirant péniblement de l'eau cette lourde masse de fer. Quel mouvement, quelle vie, quelle variété sur cette scène mobile!... Mais que signifie ce concert joyeux? C'est le chant des matelots, qui se confond avec la voix des pilotes; singulière musique, mais si bien d'accord avec tout le reste! car ce cantilène caractéristique, ou, si mieux aimez, ce bruit cadencé des matelots, n'est pas sans intérêt. Voyez-les pendant qu'ils parcourent le port, armés de leurs aussières, qu'ils attachent et détachent de navire en navire avec une adresse qui étonne les ignorants et charme les gens du métier...”
[Un Port De L'Ocean, Revue Britannique, Vol.100, 1842]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:09 PM

Celeuma, a vozeria ou cantiga da gente do mar quando trabalha – celeumear.
Celeumear, v. celeuma.
Saloma, v. celeuma.
Salomear, v. celeumear.
[Diccionario de Marinha, Amorim, 1841]


“SALÉMA, s.f. rèvérence, salut respectueux, salamalec. Fazer a ––, faire un salamalec. (t. de mar.) V. Celeuma. (t. d'hist. nat.) Saupe: poisson du genre du spare.
†ZALUMÁR, v.n. (t. de mar.) donner la voix, chanter. V. Celeuma.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire Portugais-Francais, Roquete, 1841]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 14 Nov 22 - 06:07 PM

“Having filled the ship up, in this way, to within four feet of her beams, the process of steeving commenced, by which an hundred hides are got into a place where one could not be forced by hand, and which presses the hides to the utmost, sometimes starting the beams of the ship, resembling in its effects the jack-screws which are used in stowing cotton.” [Two Years Before the Mast]


“JACK-SCREW. A purchase, used for stowing cotton.

...In well-disciplined vessels, no conversation is allowed among the men when they are employed at their work; that is to say, it is not allowed in the presence of an officer or of the master; and although, when two or more men are together aloft, or by themselves on deck, a little low conversation might not be noticed, yet if it seemed to take off their attention, or to attract the attention of others, it would be considered a misdemeanour. In this respect the practice is different in different vessels. Coasters, fishermen, or small vessels on short voyages, do not preserve the same rule; but no seaman who has been accustomed to first-class ships will object to a strictness as to conversations and laughing, while at day's work, very nearly as great as is observed in a school. While the crew are below in the forecastle, great license is given them; and the severest officer will never interfere with the noise and sport of the forecastle, unless it is a serious inconvenience to those who are on deck. In working ship, when the men are at their stations, the same silence and decorum are observed. But during the dog-watches, and when the men are together on the forecastle at night, and no work is going forward, smoking, singing, telling yarns, &c., are allowed; and, in fact, a considerable degree of noise and skylarking is permitted, unless it amounts to positive disorder and disturbance.”
[The Seaman's Manual, Dana, 1841]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:25 PM

““Man the bars,” now sonorously resounded from the speaking trumpet of our first lieutenant. The word was electric. Each one was at his station in a moment; the fifer thrilled off two or three notes to show that his instrument was in complete order for the occasion––the after-guard stationed at the capstan bars, took up their positions with distended arms, to give the greater force to their first movement––the mizen-topmen seated themselves comfortably upon deck close to the messenger, blessing their stars for having such a sinecure, and every one was awaiting as impatiently for a commencement of the busy scene, as an audience at the Bowery or Park before the rising of the curtain ever waited for the appearance of the inimitable Forrest, when anticipating his entré in one of his favourite characters. The order to "heave round" was now given; the fifer made the gun deck re-echo with the lively and applicable tune of "off she goes," the men at the bars kept unerring time with their feet, as they made the capstan obey the impulse of their vigorous nerves, the incessant clink of the chain was heard, as it flew through the hawsehole with a quickness scarcely to be equalled, and in as short a time as can well be imagined our ponderous anchor was short apeak.

"All hands make sail," was now thrillingly proclaimed by the boatswain and his mates, and a scene rife with bustle and liveliness immediately took place; the several sail-loosers were already in the rigging, panting with eagerness for a display of their agility; the topmen watching each other with jealous eyes, to see that no advantage was taken on either side: at the next order all were in motion, scrambling aloft with the dexterity and nimbleness of monkeys, and spreading themselves along the several yards at the word "lay out," with exact regularity, forming altogether a pleasing and imposing picture. The topsail-sheets and halliards were stretched along and manned, and the first lieutenant enquired if they were all ready aloft? "all ready, sir," was the response from half-a-dozen eager voices: "stand by; let fall." The heavy sails, as if by magic, now burst from the gaskets that had held them in such secure and graceful folds, and as the merry notes of the shrill fife re-echoed amongst the adjacent hills, sail after sail was made, the anchor was catted and fished, the yards were trimmed to the wind; our old frigate began to feel its influence—and she was soon "walking the waters like a thing of life," leaving the happy shores of Columbia in the distance.”
[Life in a Man-of-war: Or Scenes in "Old Ironsides" During Her Cruise in the Pacific. Mercier, Gallop, 1841]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:23 PM

Correction it's: The Man-o'-war's-man,Stewart, 1843.

“...Then, coming aft to the capstan, he said, Now, my lads, I expect to see you walk away with her with life and spirit. Not in the dead-and-alive way, mind me, you've lately been accustomed to see on board of a guard-ship, but smart and bravely, like the active service you now belong to. Come, serjeant, where's your fifer? Oh, I see the fellow. Come this way, my little man; stick your body up there, on the back of that carronade, and let's have something lively from you.”—“All ready in the tier, sir,” bawled the master.—“Very well, Stowage,” answered the lieutenant: “Look out there, forward!—Go round; play up fifer,” and away they all stamped, to the favourite air of the fleet, Shove her up! amid the cries of, “Well behaved, my lads; that's it, stick to her: keep it up, fifer!—Surge there, surge; gunner's-mates, look to your nippers!—Pay down, my hearties, pay down! Are you all asleep in the tier there? Light out the small bower, will you?—Come, another rally, my hearts, and away she goes!” &c. &c. until the anchor was right under; which, after a few cheering and desperate rallies, at length gave way, and was speedily at the bows….”

“...Fore-top there, main-top there!” bawled the first lieutenant, are you ready aloft ?" which being answered in the affirmative, he immediately sung out, Let fall-Sheet home! and away scampered the deck bands with the sheets until the blocks smacked together. “Belay, belay, men!” cried the officer. "Man the capstan!—Jump cheerily, my lads. Look out there, forward! Down there, tierers! Are you ready below?"- All ready, sir."—" Yo, ho! where the devil have all our hands got to? Fore-top there, main-top there! come down here all of you. Masters Ettercap and Pinafore, kick every soul of them out of the tops-a parcel of skulking lubbers!"—"Ay, ay, sir," cried the young gentlemen; and the capstan was speedily crowded. "Look out there, forward!" again bawled the first lieutenant: "Come, my lads, pluck up a spirit, and off she goes. Play up, fifer!"—And round went the capstan to a good smart step, the men beating excellent time on the hollow-sounding deck with their feet, amid the aceumulated vociferations of officers of all ranks, who, with their potent commander in presence, vied with each other in the notes of alternate encouragement and sarcasm….”
[The Man-o'-war's-man,Stewart, 1843]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:17 PM

“'Man the capstan! Jump cheerily, my lads. Look out there, forward! Down there, tierers! Are you ready below?'—'All ready, sir.'––'Yo, ho! where the devil has all our hands got to? Fore-top there! main-top there ! Come down here, all of you! Master Ettercap and Master Pinafore, kick every soul of them out of the tops—a parcel skulking lubbers!'––'Ay, ay, sir,' cried the young gentlemen ; and the capstan was speedily crowded. 'Look out there, forward!' again bawled the first Lieutenant; 'Come, my lads, pluck up a spirit, and off she goes—play up fifer; and round went the capstan to a good smart step, the men beating excellent time on the hollow, sounding deck with their feet, amid the accumulated vociferations of officers of ranks, who, with their potent commander in presence, vied with each other in the notes of alternate encouragement and ridicule.”
[Sketches of Society –– Sailing of a Man-of-War, The Atheneum, Vol.11, 1822]

See also: Life in a Man-of-war: Or Scenes in "Old Ironsides" During Her Cruise in the Pacific, Mercier, Gallop, 1841 (following.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:12 PM

Calomar, v.n. Mar. Zalomar, cantar un marinero con cierta montonia y compás, para que todos los que estan halando de algun cabo, izando alguna vela, etc., trabajen á una. V. ZALOMAR.”
[Diccionario Nacional, ó, Gran Diccionario Clásico de la Lengua Española, Vol.1, Dominguez, 1840]


A bit over one page of Latin and Greek on Aeschylus and the celeuma.
[Aischylou Persai: Aeschyli Persae, Blomfield ed., 1840]
Aeschylus (c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC)


“CELEUSMA, in antiquity, a naval shout serving as a signal for the mariners to ply their oars, or to cease from rowing. It was also also made use of to signify the joyful acclamation of vintagers, and the shouts of the conquerors over the vanquished.”
[The Scientific and Literary Treasury: A New and Popular Encyclopaedia of the Belles Lettres, Maunder, 1841]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:09 PM

“It seems that the crew, in order to pull in concert, and with greater regularity, were sometimes guided by the singing of a man, and sometimes by the sound of an instrument; and this grateful harmony served not only to regulate the motion of their oars, but to diminish and sooth their toil. This practice was anciently directed by a person called Celeustes, who gave the signal for the rowers to strike, and encouraged them by his song or cry. The song, called the celeusma, was either sung by the rowers, or played upon instruments, or effected by a symphony of many or striking sonorous tones. The commander of the rowers carried a staff, with which he gave the signal, when his voice could not be heard….”
[A Classifical and Archaeological Dictionary of the Manners, Customs, Laws, Institutions, Arts, Etc. of the Celebrated Nations of Antiquity, and of the Middle Ages, Nuttall, 1840]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 22 Oct 22 - 11:07 PM

“Or cette époque était celle où les Bretons insulaires émigraient en masse en Armorique. Le premier passage avait eu lieu sous les ordres du tyran Maxime vers 390, du plein consentement des habitants de l'ile; les autres furent forcés : les Bretons fuyaient la domination saxonne.

En allant par-delà les mers chercher leur nouvelle patrie, dit un auteur contemporain, ils chantaient sous leurs voiles, au lieu de la chanson des rameurs : « Vous nous avez livrés, Seigneur, comme des brebis pour un festin, et vous nous avez dispersés parmi les nations*. »

*Celeusmatis vice sub velorum finibus cantantes (Gildas, De excidio Bilanniæ).”
[Barzas-Breiz Chants Populaires de la Bretagne, Théodore Hersart Vicomte de La Villemarqué, 1840]

See also: Camden, 1637 (above.)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:38 AM

“Professor Orpheus (before mentioned) when belonging to the good ship Argo, under Captain Jason, was of course the originator of heaving up the anchor to a lively tune-more classic of course than our modern means of inspiration, “Off she goes,” and “Nancy Dawson,” “played up” by a fifer, and followed up by a quick step….”
[Naval Sketches, Moore, 1840]



Walker Pits to the tune of Off She Goes: Byker Hill: background info anyone?
[The Tyne Songster, 1840]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:35 AM

“MÉMOIRE N° 9.
Sur Les Navigations de Pantagruel, un Passage Maritime de la Complaynt of Scotland, et une Chanson Matelote Anglaise du Quator Zième Siècle. [p.496-554]

Voilà frère Jean en belle humeur; il chante un refrain de Noël: « Gestuy céleume, dist Épistemon, n'est hors de proposer et me plaist. » Tous les travaux de peine , toutes les manœuvres de force étaient faites à bord, — et cette habitude se conserva en France sur les bâtiments de guerre jusqu'à 1820 environ, — au bruit d'un chant rhythmé, ou d'un cri cadencé, auquel l'excitation du sifflet a fini par succéder. C'est un chant que Rabelais , avec ses habitudes grecques, appelle le celeume ou mieux celeusme, du grec celeusma. Le chanteur s'appelait celeustes(*): « Celeusma est clamor nauticus ad hortandum; ut: Nunc, nunc incumbite remis! » Servius, Æneid. , lib. viii.

Après avoir doublé le cap qui défend l'entrée du port, et les basses, ou battures, roches à la surface de la mer et bas-fonds, la nauf et son convoi entrent dans le havre (haven (angl.)). A leur arrivée , les gens de l'ile envoient, pour aider nos navigateurs à réparer leurs avaries: « deux luts (voir Mémoire n° 6 , p. 162);

(*) « On entendait le bruit monotone et mesuré de cette multitude de
« rames qui, s'élevant, ou s'arrétant, à la voix du celeuste, semblaient
« frapper toutes à la fois , et en cadence , le fleuve qui retentissait des
« cris des matelots. » Arrien, Expéditions d'Alexandre, liv. vi, chap. I

                Lentos tingitis ad celeusma remos.
                        Martial, épig. LXVII, liv. iii.

                                .... Sonmo
                Quem nec rumpere naulicus celeusma
                Nec clamor...
                        Id., épig. LXIV, liv. iv.

CÉLEUSME, chant dont les matelots grecs suivaient le rhythme, soit qu'ils halassent sur les manœuvres, soit qu'ils fissent mouvoir les rames. II, 522.

CÉLEUSTE, le chanteur, le hortator. II , 522. [p.594]
[Archeologie Navale, Vol.II, Jal, 1840, pp.496, 594]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:34 AM

“Ahissa. f. Náut. saloma.
Ahissar. a. Náut. izar, salomar.
––als gossos. azuzar, zuzar.
––en la cassa. jalear.”
[Diccionario Manual Castellano-Catalan, F.M.F. P. y M.M., 1839]



“AH. Int. de dolor equivalent á AY. Ah. Ah, hem, vah. ? Denotant alegría. Ah, oh, bueno. Evax. ? Denotant indignacío. Com AH murri. Ah, oh. Oh, hem. ? De animar ó cridar, com AH minyons. Ah, hea. Heus, hau, ah.
AHISSA. Naut. Crit que serveix per avisar als que alsan algun pes peraque tiren tots á un temps. Saloma. Nautica opera canendi acta.
AHISSAR. v.a. Titar ó pujar algun pes. Izar. Solvo, is, levo, as. ? Incitar, provocar, instigar, induhir á algú á que fassa alguna cosa. Instigar, incitar, provocar. Stimulo, as, moveo, es, impello, is. ? Abordar al gos.”
[Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana, Labernia, Pere, 1839]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:32 AM

“By Jove you'd better skip for it, or you'll have what Captain M—— says. He's hailing your station,” said Courtenay, laughing—a piece of advice immediately acted upon by Price, who was up the ladder and on the forecastle in a few seconds.— “And I must go up too. How cursed annoying to be stationed in the waste! Nothing to do, except to stop my ears against the infernal stamp-and-go of the marines and after-guards, over my head; sweet music to a first-lieutenant, but to me discord most horrible. I could stamp with vexation.”

“Had you not better go first, and stamp afterwards?” observed the surgeon, drily.”
[The King's Own, Vol.I, Marryat, 1839]



“Saloma, sf. Sorte de cri ou de chant des matelots pendant la manœuvre
Salomar, vn * ado. mar. On le dit des matelots qui crient ou chantent tous à la fois en manœuvrant
[Dictionnaire Français-Espagnol, Espagnol-Français, Vol.2, López, 1839]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:29 AM

“After a bit the savages sits down in the circle, all of us mortally afeard, while poor young madam begins crying bitterly. We were all of us, ye see, as we expected soon to be with the can'bals––down in the mouth. After a bit in comes Mattee Waboo, the chief as saved us from being killed on the raft, along with a boy carrying Jack's fiddle-case, which he puts on the ground, when the Mattee pointed to it and wanted us to tell him the use on't––for fortinately, as we larnt afterwards, it had been shoved aside as being of no valey, until the chief had overhauled it again, and now brought it afore us.

Honest Jack's face brightened up a bit as he laid hold on his old friend, and as the savages had carried off his keys, why he breaks open the case, and takes out his wi-o-lin, as fresh as when he'd last put it by, with a long store o' fiddle-strings. When Jack, after ros'ning his bow, began to tune a bit, it would have done your hearts good jist to see how the Indees jumped up and got round him. But when Jack struck up the “Sailors' Hornpipe," the savages began shouting with pleasure, and dancing like mad. Well, the news flew like wildfire, as we a'terwards larnt, that among the strangers there was a mighty geolee waukum, or “great spirit.” Well, Jack seeing how the wind lay, and knowing the ways o' the Indees, wouldn't play without they gave him plenty o' sea room, as they got crowding too close agin him. The chiefs soon kept the others off, and Jack began a sort o' die away, “Wapping Old Stairs,” if I 'member rightly, as made the savages as soft as child's milk, until all o' a sudden he strikes up “Off she goes.” Talk of that chap Off-horse, as our booklarned bow'son's mate talks o', as made every body follow his music!––why three years pay to a glass o' grog, it warnt any thing like Jack's power over the savages with his wi-o-lin!”
[The Magic Fiddle, The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol.5, 1839]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 21 Oct 22 - 02:27 AM

“BOAT SONG.
BY CHARLES F. HOFFMAN, ESQ.

The songs written for rowers being rarely composed by practical craftsmen, are generally useless, save in the drawing-room; because the measure of the music is not timed to the stroke of oars. Placide's drinking song as the gardener in "The Marriage of Figaro,” has always been a favourite with the Boat Clubs, when rowing with a quick stroke; as “Long time ago" is, when pulling with a slow one. The following, evidently written to the air of "In early life I took a wife" substitutes some more appropriate words for those of Placide's popular favourite.

We court no gale with wooing sail,
        We fear no squall a-brewing;
Seas smooth or rough, skies fair or bluff,
        Alike our course pursuing.
For what to us are winds, when thus
        Our merry boat is flying,
While bold and free, with jocund glee,
        Stout hearts her oars are plying!

At twilight dun, when red the sun
        Far o'er the water flashes,
With buoyant song our barque along
        His crimson pathway dashes.
And when the night devours the light,
        And shadows thicken o'er us,
The stars steal out, the skies about,
        To dance to our bold chorus.

Sometimes near shore we ease our oar,
        While beauty's sleep invading,
To watch the beam through her casement gleam,
        As she wakes to our serenading;
Then with the tide we floating glide,
        To music soft receding,
Or drain one cup, to her filled up
        For whom those notes are pleading.

Thus on and on, till the night is gone,
        And the garish day is breaking,
While landsmen sleep, we boatmen keep
        The soul of frolic waking.
And though cheerless then our craft looks, when
        To her moorings day has brought her,
By the moon amain she is launched again,
        To dance o'er the gleesome water.”
[Hoffman, Boat Song, American Turf Register and Sporting Magazine, Vol.10, 1839]

Note: The c.1817 English version of The Marriage of Figaro was by Henry Bishop (composer)(1787-1855.) No sources as yet.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:30 AM

“La música del baile habia cesado en aquel momento, y solo alteraban el silencio los marineros de la flota con su melancólica saloma a llevar las anclas, para ponerse en franquía antes de amanecer, y los gritos agudos de una ave marina, que desvelada ó hambrienta, volaba inquieta por aquellos alrededores.”
[La Cartera Cubana, Vol.2, Vicente Antonio de Castro, 1839]



“It comes––the blue ripple curls––a narrow dark line stretches across the horizon in the offing––a slight rushing sound strikes the ear––the sails flap––and now they shake, loudly proclaiming the crisis arrived––they are filled––huzza! “Cast off the tow rope" "up boats” “brace forward the yards” “band strike up, off she goes” “huzza––Richard's himself again! Heaven be praised.”
[Nautical Rambles, The Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle for 1839]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:27 AM

“...The New Zealanders are decidedly a maritime people. They are fond of the sea, and make excellent sailors, and they only require virtuous and industrious Europeans to reside among them to render their services in this way most advantageous to themselves and to the British empire.*

* I was much gratified at hearing the New Zealand coxswain of an English boat; in which two of my fellow-passengers per the Roslyn Castle and myself were rowed across the Bay of Islands on a beautiful moonlight night, by four of his countrymen, calling out to them in good English, and scarcely with a foreign accent, "Pull away, my lads," “Stand to it, my boys." The New Zealanders, in reply, struck up their native boat-song in a sort of recitative, of which the chorus, like that of the Canadian boat song, is “Tohi, Tohi,” or Row, brothers, row.”
[New Zealand in 1839, Lang, 1839]
John Dunmore Lang (1799–1878)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:24 AM

“The Chang wang has charge of the king's boats. The forecastle is commanded by a P,han hoa, the stem by a P,han Thaai. The rowers or Seep,hai, are seated on benches, their feet reaching the hold or lower deck. They sing the He roo-a, or boat song, keeping time with their oars.

Boat Song.––Air Phleng rúa
        rai ue! rai chang
        cha rop kun tai sia leo doei rai rúa úe, &c, &c.
        yo tha phi-doei yo tha pi-doei


O beloved! a hundred catties of gold would not weigh against you. I use all my efforts and beat my boatmen to reach you—but still you fly my presence.

The King's Bargemen's Song.––Air Hè rú-a.

        hem ú-e kang kan um heo ka kee
        Su yang chim pha li pli-rom som Saman


The mighty bird Garudá––fled to Limphalee––with the Princess Karf, supporting her all unwilling close to his heart, under his umbrageous wings.”
[On the Government, the Literature, and Mythology, of the Siamese, Low, 1839]
James Low (1791–1852)


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:22 AM

“The boatswain's pipe was heard, but it was in this instance mere matter of form, for the men had quietly shipped and swifted the capstan bars; the nippers were already passed, and as soon as the summons had been given, almost the same breath piped “Heave away." Round went the lads at the capstan, at first “stamp and go;" but when they had once started the ship on end, they danced merrily to the shrill sound of the fifes as they played up “Off she goes,” and in a few minutes the Master's commands were heard, “Thick and dry for weighing.” This checked them in their speed, but the tune changed to “Come cheer up my lads, 'tis to glory we steer!" and steadily did the noble fellows walk the anchor up to the bows. “Loose sails,” shouted the first Lieutenant, as the gallant vessel no longer held to the ground was obedient to her helm, and in three minutes and a half she was clothed in canvas, from her deck to her trucks; the anchor was stowed; the studden-sails set; and onward she went”
[Leaves From My Log-Book, by Flexible Grummet, P.M., Third Series, No.II, United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine, Pt. I, Vol.29, 1839]

Heart of Oak


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:20 AM

As forebitters, which also have not been invented yet(??) --

“Between seven in the evening and nine at night was the only interval during the twenty-four hours in which, after the dreary and monotonous duties of the day, relaxation on board the Nonsuch was ever allowed.

At this,––
                “The witching time of night,"

the belles aboard (who, to their credit be it said, ever exerted their best endeavours to convert moping into merry men), were to be seen attired in their always becoming, and often captivating “shorts,”* dancing away in the waist; and despite of the rolling, lurching, and pitching of the ship, reeling with Bob and Bill, “setting” to Sam, and “footing it fine” to some such favourite lilt as “Off-she-goes,” “Jack's Delight,” “Nancy Dawson,” “Morgan Rattler,” or any other rattler, which “Black Pompey,” “Marc Antony,” or “Julius Cæsar," (for Nero never fiddled afloat) was able to “scrape-up, or knock-off,” in the way of a rattling reel.”
[Land Sharks and Sea Gulls, Vol.2, Glascock, 1838]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:18 AM

oops.

“Jerry Jones, when fidler in, (I think,) H.M.S. Isis, touched at that port; and being in very good circumstances, with the advantage of youth on his side, he “wooed and won the fair Kathleen.” She gave him her hand, (“bad luck to the day,” she was sometimes heard in her moments of irritation to confess;) and soon afterwards Jerry Jones was seated on the capstan of the ship, playing “Off she goes," as it was heaving up the anchor, which was to release the Isis from the shores of Erin.”
[The Greenwich Pensioners, Vol.I, By Hatchway (lieut, R.N., pseud.) 1838]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST
Date: 20 Oct 22 - 08:15 AM

“† CÉLEUSME. s.m. (cé-leusm) […, encourager]. … Cri des matelots qui rament pour s'encourager les uns les autres. – Signal aux matelots et aux rameurs, pour marquer les différentes manœuvres.
CÉLEUSTE. s.m. (cé-leust). … Celui qui a soin de prescrire le devoir aux matelots, aux rameurs, et aux autres ouvriers d'un bátiment.”
[Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, Tom.I, Académie Française, 1838]


“The morning was bright and beautiful; the sun, just risen, had shed his early radiance on the wooded summits of Elephantia; the fishermen were returning with their spoils; the merry capstan songs resounded from the decks of the English merchantmen; and, far as the eye could gaze, it rested on a scene teeming with interest and animation.”
[Cutch: Or, Random Sketches of Western India, Postans, 1838]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:28 AM

Method to use paddlewheel without a head of steam up. See also: Bonwicke's rowing engine, 1705, above –

“This hawser is rove as follows:––one end is first passed through the after-hole, then through the foremost fair-leader over the iron lugs alternately, then through the aftermost fair-leader, (crossing the feeding part between the fair- leaders,) and brought out through the foremost hole, where it is lashed with small line to the other end, which in the mean time has been rove through the after and foremost leading blocks, and brought to the foremost hole in readiness. When the lashing is secured, the after leading block is braced taught with a jigger—the larboard and starboard watches man their respective messengers, the band strikes up, and off she goes."...

...Thus the Medea was occasionally moved, when the shortness of the distance, or other circumstances rendered it inconvenient to use steam, and in one instance proceeded through the entrance of Malta harbour against a light breeze, at the rate of two knots an hour.”
[Baldock, Memoir of Her Majesty's Steam Ship Medea, On the Steam Engine, Vol.2, Tredgold, 1838]
Thomas Tredgold (1788–1829)
HMS Medea (1833) was one of the initial steam-powered vessels built for the Royal Navy.” [wiki]

PS: "Knots an hour" is like "ATM machine." Just had to get that out of my pedantic system.


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:14 AM

“SALOMARE. (Marin.) Sa-lo-mà-re. N. ass. V.Spagn. Dare la voce. (Salomar presso gli Spagnuoli è cantare, come fanno i marinai, nell' atto della manovra. In ebr. tsahal alzar la voce, mandar fuori la voce profe lieta, e jam mare.) (S)”
[Vocabolario Universale Italiano, Vol.6, Società Tipografica Tramater, Naples, 1838]


Can't transcribe it here, just surprised there were 1838 Ch? Nôm translations from the Latin celeusma (as heus or hò.)
[Dictionarium Anamitico-Latinum, Taberd, Béhaine, 1838]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:08 AM

“As I proceeded to the house, I saw two negroes and a peon making a kind of basket for catching fish; they had just returned from town with Senor Josef, and were singing a canoe song, very common among the Spanish boatmen of the Gulf of Paria, the chorus of which was “Sopla, Sopla, Sopla, San Antonio,” a favourite saint to invoke when a wind is required, though sometimes so unreasonably deaf is the saint to their entreaties that I have heard him cursed heartily by Spanish mariners.”
[Going to Bed Without Your Dinner, From Leaves From a Log. A West India Story. Atkinson's Casket, 1835]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:06 AM

CELEUSMA, grido di molte persone, che si eccitano vicendevolmente al combattimento, alla fatica: Nequaquam (dice Geremia cap. XXXXVIII.) calcator uvce solitum celeusma cantabit. E nel cap. xxv. Celeusma quasi calcantium concinetur adversus onnes habitalores terræ; cioè, come coloro, che pestano le uve, cacciano fuori dei gridi bia per incoraggirsi al travaglio, o per rallegrarsi; così i Babilonesi s'incoraggiranno gli uni cogli altri per aventarsi contro Gerusalemme, e rallegrarsi della sua perdita.”
[Dizionario Portatile della Bibbia, Vol.1, Aquila, 1833]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:04 AM

“Bolívar then invited him to attend a review of the army, which was about to take place; but Päez declined it, being determined to retire immediately to Cunavíchi. A flechéra, or long light canoe, carrying twelve paddles, was in readiness at the landing place, to convey the chief of the savannas and his lance-bearer over the river. As they paddled across, so rapidly as scarcely to deviate from a straight course, the Indians sung the Marri-Marri, or Orinoco canoe-song, which is generally an extemporaneous effusion, prompted by any existing circumstances that may strike their imagination.

[13] "Marrimarri! Pachócos hermanos
        "Rompen canalétes con brío;—
"Pues llevamos el flor de los Llanos,
        "Päez, el guapo invencído Caudillo.

"Sus lancéros le estan atizbando
        "En la playa dedonde saliò;
"Pues, al llegar el Xefe a su mando,
        "Los llenara de gloria ý valòr.

"No desmayen al soplar el viento!—
        "Los chuvascos no hay que temer!—
Voguémos, llenos de contento,
        "Desde el Alva hasta al anochecer."

“Note 13, p. 155.
The following is an imitation of the Marri-Marri, or Orinoco canoe song.

"Márrimárri! why so slow,
"Brethren of the lance and bow?
"Let each Indian strain his oar;––
"The Chieftain seeks Varínas' shore.

"On the bank his lancers stand,
"Waiting Päez's lov'd command:
"He shall lead them on to fame;
"Ever honour'd be his name.

"Márrimárri! brothers row;
"Fear not tho' chuvascos blow:
"Through mid-day heat and ev'ning dew,
"Brothers! speed the light canoe."
[Tales of Venezuela, Pt. 2: The Savannas of Varinas, Vowell, 1831]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 19 Oct 22 - 09:03 AM

“As Lodewyk assured him, with not a few oaths in his peculiar dialect, that there was nothing else of value in the vessel, he again shook hands, and stepping into his boat, ordered her to be shoved off. The pirates pulled merrily for their schooner, singing in chorus the well-known West Indian canoe song;––

        “The captain's gone ashore;
        “The mate has got the key;
        “Hurrah! my jolly boys,—
        “'Tis grog time o’day.”

The boat was cleared and hoisted up, and the schooner filled her sails and stood away for the Westward, before Sluiker recovered from his astonishment at this unwelcome visit….”
[Tales of Venezuela, Pt.I, The Earthquake of Caraccas, Vol.II, Vowell, 1831]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Oct 22 - 05:17 PM

“The talent of one of the itinerant musicians was put in requisition; seated upon the capstan head, with a shrill fife he struck up a lively air, and away we gyrated with the capstan bars spinning round and round with a “stamp and go,” keeping time to the measure: the anchor was aweigh, the wind fair, and I soon took my farewell gaze at Britain.”

“Accordingly nineteen canoes, each containing, on average, fifteen persons, set off one afternoon, and a very animating spectacle it was. The air resounded with their different songs and energetic shouts, the paddles keeping time to the measure; each canoe had a singer; but the one in ours was the most famous on the river: the refrain was joined in by all hands, and the canoe would seem to be ploughing through the water.”

“A - - - way!
Away! Away! The white man's here,
The morn shines bright, the stream runs clear;
Row, brothers, row! Cheer, brothers, cheer!
        Te - - - na!”
Refrain of a New Zealander's Boat-song.”
[Rovings in the Pacific, 1837-1849, Vol.I, anon, 1851, pp. 16, 91, 124]

“It is a great treat on moonlight nights to listen to them chanting beneath the umbrageous grove; the women taking the first part, the men the second… I was desirous of procuring the original and took a person well skilled in the language to write them down for me; when, to my great surprise, I discovered that both the words and the air we a beautiful modulation of our sailors' capstan song of “Round the corner, Sally!”
[Rovings in the Pacific, 1837-1849, Vol.II, anon, 1851, p. 82]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Oct 22 - 05:15 PM

“CONSONAR. a. ant. SALOMAR. || n. Sonar un cuerpo sonoro, instrumento musico ó bélico, dando el mismo tono ó la tercera, quinta y octava del que da otro con quien está acorde. Musicè consonare. || met. Tener algunas cosas igualdad, conformidad ó relación entre sí. Convenire, congruere. || Poet. Tener dos voces las mismas letras desde la vocal en que carga el acento hasta el fin. Voces similiter desinere, cadere.
CONTRAMAESTRE. m. Náut. Oficial de mar que manda las inaniobras del navio, y cuida de la marinería bajo las órdenes del oficial de guerra. Navis, nautarumque subpræfectus. || En algunas fábricas de seda y de lana cierto veedor que hay sobre los maestros de tejidos. Textrina subpræfectus.
SALOMA. F. La accion de salomar. Nautica opera canendo acta.
SALOMAR. n. Náut Gritar el contramaestre ó guardian diciendo varias retahilas para que al responder a ellas tiren todos á un tiempo del cabo que tienen en la mano.”
[Diccionario de la Lengua Castellana, Real Academia Española, 1837]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Oct 22 - 05:13 PM

“* CELEUMA, atis, n, Asc. Ped. et CELESMA, atis, n. (…., exhorter). Cri par lequel les rameurs s'encouragent. ? Signal qui indique aux matelots les differentes manœuvres.
CELEUSTES, æ, m. Bud. Celui qui veille sur des matelots ou des ouvriers comite, inspecteur de travaux.”
[Dictionnaire Latin-Français, Noël, Forcellini, 1837]


leis] Celeuma est canticum nautarum vel messorum, een schippers of maijers leis G. leyssen. Un lay ou chanson qu'on chante à Noel. Cantio natalitia P. Cantio natalitia, sic dicta quod eleison et kyrie - elei - son saepius in ea repetatur K.”
[Horae Belgicae, Studio Atque Opera Henrici Hoffman Fallerslebensis, Vol.2, 1837]


“A cet encombrement se joignait encore un tapage assourdissant: c'était le bruit aigu des sifflets des contre-maitres, le cri des matelots qui halaient à bord le chevaux et les bœufs, le retentissement du marteau des sculpteurs et des calfats, les reprises bruyantes des trompettes et des hautbois qui s'exerçaient à l'avant;...”
[Jean Bart et Louis XIV Drames Maritimes du XVII Siecle, Beauce, 1837]


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Subject: RE: Maritime work song in general
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 18 Oct 22 - 07:14 AM

“Venetianischer Schiffergesang (Salve Regina). XXIX. 500”
[Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, Vol.1-50, 1798]


“schëf?LIET g. liedes n. schiffergesang.
schëf?SANC g. -nges n. Schiffergesang; celeuma Sum. 24.”
[Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch zum Handgebrauch, Ziemann, 1837]


“CELEUMA, sf. (t. De mar.) cris des matelotes.
SALEMA, sf. stokfiche. V. Celeuma.”
[Nouveau Dictionnaire Portatif des Langues Française et Portugaise, Constâncio, 1837]


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