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Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc

Azizi 25 May 08 - 12:51 AM
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Subject: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 12:51 AM

I just wrote a rather longish post about certain historical African American group referents on this Mudcat thread thread.cfm?threadid=18902&messages=53 Lyr Req: My Pretty Quadroon.

After writing that post, I thought that this topic might be of interest to other Mudcat members and guests.

As a means of sharing information and as a way that I and other people can learn more about this topic, I intend to not only repost my comment from that other thread, but will also post hyperlinks and excerpts from online sources [and perhaps other print sources] on the topic of African American group referents.

As always, I encourage Mudcat members and guests to join in this presentation of information, and hopefully join in a discussion of this subject.

Thanks, in advance, for your participation in this thread.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 01:07 AM

I've decided to divide my long post from that thread into two posts on this thread. That original post is presented with minor corrections and minor changes for clarity's sake:

Subject: RE: Lyr Req: My Pretty Quadroon
From: Azizi - PM
Date: 25 May 08 - 12:23 AM

Somewhat off-topic:

Perhaps readers of this thread may be interested in information [based on my experiences as an African American, and also based on my readings]regarding the contemporary use or non-use of group referents such as "negro" spelled with a small 'n', and "quadroon", "octoroon", and "mulatto". I'm writing this as a means of sharing information, and not to post any criticism.

We African Americans have used a number of different group names as referents for ourselves. Prior to the change in the formal referent for Black Americans to "African American" in the mid to late 1960s, in the twentieth century, the formal referent which was most often used was "Negro".

Prior to the mid to late 1950s, the referent "Negro" was commonly printed with a small 'n' by White persons in the mainsteam media and other White people. A number of Black people also followed this practice. However, in the mid to late 1950s, a number of efforts were mounted by "Negroes" to have that group referent spelled in a standard manner with a capitol 'N'. This would have meant that Negro would be spelled in accordance with the practice that was used for the spelling of other formal group names of racial, ethnic, national, and religiousd populations [for instance-English, Irish, Polish, Indian, German, Jews, Russian, Chinese, Japanese]. The reasoning behind these efforts was that because all the other populations had their formal group referents spelled with a capitol letter* to spell Negro with a small 'n' suggested that Negroes were "less than", not equal to other groups of human beings, and therefore not worthy of the respect shown them by the act of capitolizing their formal group name.

Those efforts were largely successful. At least by the mid 1960s, [that is to say, prior to the change over to the formal referent "African American", the 'n' in the word Negro was almost always capitolized [unless people were quoting 19th century songs or historical text that had that racial name written with a small 'n']. Note that the first letters of the words "African" and "American" are always capitolized.

Among African American writers [and perhaps non-African American writers], and "regular folks" who are Black or who are non-Black, might still use the referent 'Negro' to refer to a contemporary Black person. However, when "Negro" is used nowadays, it is usually a contemptuous name for a Black man or a Black woman who is abjectly servile and deferential to White people, or who does things or says things that are not in the best interest of other Black people. Uncle Tom {or "Tom"} is another referent for a contemporary Black man who acts this way. "Aunt Jemima" is the comparable term for a Black woman who acts this way {unlike "Tom", "Jemima is not used without the title 'Aunt'}.

In other words, it is a grave insult for an African American to call another African American a "Negro". That insult is heightened [deepened] when the word "Negro" is spelled with a small 'n'.

* In the United States, it's also acceptable to use "Black" as an informal referent for "African Americans". In addition, in the United States, "Black" is an accepable informal referent for other people who have some Black African ancestry.

Some African Americans and non-African Americans capitolize the word 'Black' [such as I do] when it is used as a group referent. For consistency's sake, those that capitolize the referent "Black" usually also capitolize the group referent "White". However, it's also acceptable to use a small "b" for "black" when that word is used as a group referent. Indeed, spelling 'black' with a small 'b' appears to be the norm-especially in the mainstream media, and elsewhere, and particularly among White people. Spelling the group referent 'black' with a small 'b' is probably so common because the group referent 'white' is usually spelled with a small 'w'. That said, I believe that more Black people than White people capitolize the group referent "Black". This may be for the same reasons that I indicated for capitolizing the word Negro.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 01:11 AM

It might also be of interest to persons reading this thread to know that the term "quadroon", and "octoroon" has not been formally or informally used in the USA since at least the early 1950s, and maybe earlier than that.

The term "mulatto" lasted in formal use longer than those other terms. But mulatto has also given way to the imprecise "formal" terms "mixed", "multiracial", and "biracial". Informally, you will still hear African Americans and other people [including those with this ancestry] refer to people with a Black birth parent and a non-Black birth parent as 'half and half'. I personally don't like that term. Also, I've read examples of more White people than Black people using the term "zebra" as a referent for people who have one Black and one White birth parent. I really don't like that term.

As I noted in my earlier comments, I believe that racism and the desire to maintain a fictional pure White race is the reason for the tradition of categorizing people of mixed racial ancestry as Black when one of the birth parents is Black. Theoretically, my view is that those people with that ancestry should be able to choose to belong to either and both of the races that their birth parents belong to. However, we live in the real world. And in today's real world of the USA, and in most other nations, regardless of their physical appearances, persons of mixed Black/non-Black ancestry are usually considered to be Black, even if they call themselves 'biracial.'


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 01:20 AM

Here's a link to a Wikipedia page about historical terms used in the United States and elsewhere for person of Black African/non-Black African ancestry:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadroon

Here's the information from that page, with the exception of resources and a list of other related words or terms that could be researched:

"Quadroon, octoroon and, more rarely, quintroon were historically racial categories of hypodescent used in Latin America and parts of the 19th century Southern United States, particularly Louisiana. The terms were also used in Australia to refer to people of mixed Aboriginal and European ancestry.

Quadroon" is someone of one-quarter black ancestry. A quadroon has a biracial parent (black and white) and one white parent. In other words, the person has one black grandparent and three white grandparents.

"Octoroon" means a person of fourth-generation black ancestry. An octoroon has one parent who is a quadroon and one white parent. In other words, the person has one black great-grandparent and seven white great-grandparents.

"Quintroon" is a rarely used term that means a person of fifth-generation black ancestry. A quintroon has one parent who is an octoroon and one white parent. In other words, the person has one black great-great-grandparent and fifteen white great-great-grandparents. "Hexadecaroon" is an even less common term to describe a person of fifth-generation black ancestry. Mestee or mestif (mestiffe) was also used for a person with less than one-eighth black ancestry.

Culture and law
This racial classification differed somewhat from the "one-drop theory" current in most of the United States, in that it recognized a higher social status for black-descended people by degree of majority white ancestry. Nevertheless, people of minority black ancestry in these cultures were still heavily discriminated against and often subject to slavery.

In the United States, the Jim Crow laws generally followed the "one-drop theory"; hence the case of Homer Plessy, a Louisiana man of one-eighth black ancestry who was prevented from sitting in a railroad car reserved for whites.

By the later 20th century, these terms had almost totally faded from use, being generally considered obsolete".


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 25 May 08 - 05:14 AM

Back in the early 90's I knew a Jamacian woman who referred to her niece as half-caste (her sister was married to a [white] Englishman). I'd never heard anyone use that phrase & I assumed at the time it was a slip of the tongue or a bit of very old cultural indoctrination as she'd spent half her life in Jamacia, the rest in England. My acquaintance was married to a (white) Australian & they had a child few years later, and moved overseas sometime later.

sandra

(google ads are always on the ball!! - Black Singles Photos Find Black Women online & Black Women White Men Black women who only date ... )


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 08:25 AM

Hey, Sandra! Thanks for sharing that information.

The editors of the book Slaves, Free Men, Citizens-West Indian Perspectives {Lambros Comitas and David Lowenthal; Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1973} use the term "half-breed" in their summary of a chapter called "Freed Blacks and Mulattos" {pps 74-93]. That chapter is part of a classic study of eighteenth century Jamaicans that was written by a White man who was a judge on that island for twelve years, History of Jamiaca, or General Survey of the Ancient and Modern State of that Island, 3 vol., pp.320-36 [Edward Long;originally published in London by T. Lowndes, 1774, available as Cass Library of West Indian Studies No. 12, London, Frank Cass, 1970].

In their summary statement of the chapter, the editors of Slaves, Free Men, Citizens-West Indian Perspectives write
"The free-colored population are viewed in terms of the problems they posed for the whites, who were at the same time their progenitors, rivals, and lovers. Conceiving these associations dangerous to white purity and mastery, the author [Edward Long] fulminates against local practices concerning half breeds". {p. 74]

**

The term "half-caste" is used in an account of racially mixed people that was written by C.L.R. James and was also included in the Comitas & Lowenthal compilation, The Black Jacobins [New York, Random House {second edition, revised from the 1938 edition}, 1963, pp. 36-44}. James' chapter in the Comitas & Lowenthal book is titled "The Free Colored in a Slave Society". In that book, James uses "Mulatto" as a catch-all referent for persons having any Black/non-Black mixture.

Here's an excerpt from that chapter {the page numbers I'm citing are from the Comitas & Lowenthal's book}:

"In the early days every Mulatto was free up to the age of 24, nnot by lawm but because white men were so few in comparson with the slaves that the masters sought to bind these intermediates to themselves rather than let them swell the ranks of their enemies. Yhe Negor Code of 1685 authorized marriage between the white and the slave who has children by him, the ceremony freeing hereself and her children. The Code gave the free Mulattoes and the free Negroes equal rights with the whites. But as the white population grew lager, white San Domingo discarded the convention, and enslaved or sold their numerous children like any king in the African jungle. All efforts to prevent concubinage failed , and the Mulatto children multiplied, to be freed or to remain slaves at the caprice of their fathers. Many were freed, becoming artisans and household servants. They began to amass property, and the whites, while adding unceasingly to the number of Mulattoes, began to restrict and harass them with malicious legislation...They were excluded from the baval and military departments, from the practice of law, medicine, and divinity, and all public offices, or places of trust. A white man could trepass on a Mulatto's property, seduce his wife or daughter, insult him in any way he chose, certain that at any hint of resentment or evenge all the whites and the Goverment would rush out ready to lynch...

Behind all this elaborate ton-follery of quarteroon, sacatra and marabou, was the one dominating fact of San Domingo society-fear of the slaves. The mothers of the Mulattoes were in the slave-gangs, they had half-brothers there, and however much the Mulatto himself might despise this half of his origin he was at home among the slaves, and in addition to his wealth and education, could have an influence among them which a white man could not have. Furthermore, apart from physical terror, the slaves were to be kept subjection by associating inferioerity and degration with the most obvious distinquishing mark of the slave-the black skin...No Mulatto, therefore, whatever his number of white parts, was allowed to assume the name of his white father.

But depite these restrictions the Mulattoes continued to make progress...[in 1755] in some districts some of the finest properties were in the possession of these half-castes"...

...quateroons and other fair-skinned Nulatooes [saught] too have their remote ancestors transrormed into free and noble Caribs [Indians]...

The advantage of being white were so obvious that race prejudice against the Negroes permeated the minds of the Mulattoes who so bitterly resented the same thing from the whites. Black slaves and Mulattoes hated each other. Even while in words, and by their success in life, in many of their actions, Mulattoes demonstrated the falseness of the white claim to inherent superiority, yet the man of colour who was nearly white despised the man of colour who was only half-white, who in terms despised the man of colour who was only quarter white, and so on through all the shades.

The free blacks, comparatively speaking, were not many, and so despised was the black skin tghat even a Mulatto slave felt himself superior to the free black man. The Mulatto, rather than be slave to a black, would have killed himself.

It all reads like a cross between a nightmare, and a bad joke. But these distinctions still exercise their influence in the West Indies today*.

While whites in Britain dislike the half-caste more than the full blooded Negro, whites in the West Indies favour the half-caste against the black." [pp.95, 97, 98, 102]

*In a footnote on that last page I quoted, the editors write that this is still true in the West Indies in 1961. I'm an African American with maternal West Indian ancestry [that I believe is mixed but mostly Black African. My father was "adopted" by a light skinned family in Michigan. He was lighter skinned than my brown skinned mother, but I don't know what his ancestry was. Generally speaking, as a result of my experiences as a child growing up in Southern New Jersey in the late 1940s, as well as my years in Northern Jersey in the mid to late 1960s, and my years in Western Pennsylvania since the late 1960s, I can testify to the fact that there was and still is a great deal of skin color consciousness among African Americans.
I don't know enough about the Caribbean to say whether this is still true there. However, it certainly does appear from my reading, from my interactions & conversations with Black folks from the Caribbean ["Black" here using the USA definition and therefore meaning any person of African descent regardless of their racial mixture] as well as my study of current political & cultural events in that region that as is the case in the USA, in the Caribbean there is still a considerable amount of skin color consciousness, skin color resentment, and favoring of light skinned Black people over dark skinned Black people.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 08:34 AM

In a post to the Lyr: Pretty Quadroon thread, Q provides an interesting excerpt of a White woman on a ship in 1850 who conversed with a French speaking quadroon woman. That quadroon woman was returning from her studies in a French convent, and was ostracized by all the other persons on that ship:

thread.cfm?threadid=18902&messages=53#1862881


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 09:01 AM

Surfing the Internet for this thread, I came across this website:

http://www.frenchcreoles.com/frontpage.html

I found this multi-page website to be rather difficult to navigate, but it includes some very interesting information. Among its pages is this one on the history of quadroons in Louisiana:

http://www.frenchcreoles.com/CreoleCulture/quadroons/quadroons2.htm

Here's an excerpt from that page:

"Unrestricted by the social code of the French, the quadroons could be coquettish and flirtatious in the streets and cabarets. As early as 1786 a law was passed in an effort to subdue them; any woman of color appearing in a hat on the streets of the city was subject to arrest and imprisonment.

As a woman had to have her head covered in public, the free women of color were reduced to wearing a tignon- also called chignon, a scarf wrapped about their heads in the style of the slave women. Not to be outdone, the free women of color soon devised bright madras cloths that they wrapped high on their heads and decorated with jewels and flowers.

The children born of the first generation of placage were called mulattoes, those of the second quadroons, of the octoroons and so on, according to the fraction of black blood. They did not consider themselves black but Creoles of color, they spoke French, had French names and developed their own customs. For some reason the word "quadroon" became the term applied to light-skinned mistresses in general"...


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 09:07 AM

According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Creole_people,

"Louisiana Creole (also called French Créole) refers to people of various racial descent descended from the Colonial French and Spanish settlers of Colonial French Louisiana, before it became part of the United States in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase, with claim to the culture and Creole cuisine. The common accepted definition is a mixture of (mainly) French, Spanish, African, and Native-American heritage however some may not be all of these. It should be noted however that there are also white French Creoles. Before the Civil war the term Creole was applied to most 18th century families in southern Louisiana who had French, Spanish, or African ancestry. Cajuns were always excluded from this distinction, due to their lack of social status in old Louisiana and mostly white Acadian background...

If the American Civil War promised rights and opportunities for the enslaved, it caused anxiety for the Free Person of Color. Louisiana under the French and Spanish housed a three-tiered society, similar to that of Brazil, Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, and other French and Spanish colonies. This three tiered-society allowed for the emergence of a wealthy and educated group of mixed and black Creoles. Their identity as a Free Person of Color, or Gens de couleur libres or 'personne de couleur libre' was one they had worked diligently towards and guarded with an iron-fist. They enjoyed most rights and privileges, by law, as whites, and could and often did challenge the law in court of law winning their case against whites (Hirsch; Brasseaux; Mills; Kein etc.). Knowing that the United States did not legally recognize a three-tiered society, the American Civil War posed a considerable threat to the identity and position of the Free People of Color. Following the Union victory in the Civil War, the Louisiana three-tiered society was dismantled.

In efforts to maintain their social and political identity, the former Gens de couleur libres began using the term 'Creole' much in the same way that the white elite did beginning in 1803. The Gens de couleur libres were native speakers of both Colonial French and Louisiana Creole.

Black slaves in Louisiana, particularly in the southern realm of the state, were also Creoles. The success of the Union in the Civil War ultimately released slaves from servitude, at least on paper. Through sharecropping and Jim Crow laws, they found themselves in bondage again. However this servitude allowed for the preservation of the Creole language of the Black Creole working class of South Louisiana. They too were largely of Roman Catholic faith and saw themselves different from their Protestant English-speaking counterparts."


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 09:17 AM

Historically, some Creoles-such as Jelly Roll Morton-
vehementally rejected being categorized as African American {Black}.

There is still a debate among people of Creole descent as to whether they and historical Creole persons should be identified as African American or as Creole. For instance, here's another page from the frenchcreole.com website:

http://www.frenchcreoles.com/CreoleSurvival/henriettedellilepetition/henriettedellilepetition.htm

That page starts with the question: "What should it be 'Creole of Color' or 'African American'?" That page then write:

"Henriette Dellile has been nominated for Sainthood by the Catholic Church and has been called the First African American in the United States to be chosen for Sainthood.

We as "Creoles" again are being Denied our place in History & our Cultural Heritage! We have stated again & again that we are not African Americans but "Creoles" & again the church, above all people has chosen to label us as such! The arguments, issues and petition below are strong reasons why this Cultural Genocide must stop. Study the issues and print the petition so you may support our cause by signing this petition!"

-snip-

That petition decries what its authors consider to be the miscategorization of Henriette Dellile as African American, based on the one drop of African blood ruling. Here's an excerpt of that petition:

"...the Sisters of the Holy Family in their misrepresentation of Mother Henriette DeLille, operating under a strictly political stance, and in order to give all of her birth and sainthood credit to the AFRICAN-AMERICANS, are using the ONE-DROP POLICY RULE of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, which has been outlawed legally as far back as 1975, when before that time held that ONE DROP OF AFRICAN blood an AFRICAN did make. So as you can see that as of 1989, the ONE DROP POLICY was outlawed prior thereto.

We are also aware that the ONE-DROP POLICY RULE only
came to existence many years after the birth of Mother Henriette DeLille, and perhaps even years after her death. That rule came about almost 30 years after the Civil War of 1862 - 1864 when the South lost the Civil War and slavery was abolished; and the South therefore wanted to give vengeance to all who had any blood of the slaves in their veins.

To further that vengeance, the United States Government and especially the Southern States, legislated the racial identity of all Native-Born French Creoles to that of Negro and Black. Racial identity is something inherent to an individuald and should not be legislated by anyone. If one would check the U.S. Archive records, one will find that before the 1900 Census, all Creoles were listed as "M" for Mulatto (meaning multiracial) and all African-Americans were listed as "B" for Black.

We do not deny that Mother DeLille has African blood as part of her ancestry and we are proud of that, and we find no problem with that, but then that was only one portion of her ancestry. Therefore Mother Henriette DeLille by virtue of her ethnic makeup was of multiracial origin. And when she was born, she was automatically a Gens de Colour Libre, and in Louisiana that identification meant that you were not just African but of various ethnic origins and came under the meaning of being FRENCH-CREOLE. To wit: A person born in the New World of European and African ancestry - native to the place. In other words A FRENCH-CREOLE-AMERICAN.

The definition of a French- Creole-American states that the person has French, Spanish, African and Indian ancestry along with other various European ancestry as the case may be. In the mid 1700's and mid 1800's these various racial groups formed family unions and had offsprings which were multiracial in origin"...

http://www.frenchcreoles.com/CreoleSurvival/henriettedellilepetition/henriettedellilepetition2.htm

[Capitolizations are as found in the text of the petition]


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 09:42 AM

References to "yellow gal" or "yellow women" in 19th century and earlier secular African American and Caribbean dance songs and/or shanteys refer to quadroons or other women of Black/non-Black mixtures.

There are several songs in Thomas W. Talley's 1922 book Negro Folk Songs, Wise & Otherwise that document the tension and rivalry between light skinned "Negroes" and dark skinned "Negroes" {and vice versa}.

Here's the text of one such song:

STAND BACK, BLACK MAN

Oh!
Stan' back, Black man,
You cain'ts shine;
Yo' lips is too think,
An' you hain't my kin'.

Aw!
Git 'way black man
'You jes haint fine;
I'se done quit foolin'
wid de nappy-headed kind.

Say?
Stan' back, black man!
Cain't you see
Dat a kinky-headed cgap
Hain't nothin' side of me?

Negro Folk Rhymes, Wise & Otherwise {Thomas W. Talley, Kennikat Press Inc. edition, 1968; pps. 10, 11; originally published in 1922, The Macmillian Company}

Talley includes the following footnote about this song:

"In a few places in the South, just following the Cicil War, the Mulattoes organized themselves into a little guild known as "The Blue Vein Circle", from which those who were black were excluded. This is one of there rhymes."

**

I'm aware that there were [and still may be] "African American" social organizations and clubs throughout the USA similar to the "blue vein circle" that Talley wrote about. Indeed, the Black Greek letter sorority that I joined during college used to be such an organization.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 09:45 AM

I should have indicated that in the late 1960s I would not have been accepted into that sorority [which shall remain nameless here] if that incorporated organization still had adhered to its previous preference for light skinned women.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Amos
Date: 25 May 08 - 10:03 AM

Azizi:

I think you are doing a really good job on this topic.

As usual.


A


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 10:15 AM

Thomas W. Talley's 1922 book Negro Folk Rhymes includes a song titled "I Wouldn't Marry A Black Girl". That book also includes a song titled "I Wouldn't Marry A Yellow Girl Or A White Negro Girl". Here's the words to that last song:

I WOULDN'T MARRY A YELLOW OR A WHITE NEGRO GIRL

I sh' loves me dat gal dat dey calls Sally Black*
An' I sorter loves some of de res';
I first loves de gals fer lovin' me,
Sen I loves myse'f de bes'.

I wouldn' marry dat yaller N**ger gal,
An' I'll tell you de reason why:
Her neck's drawed out so stringy an' long,
I'se fafeared sh 'ould never die.

I wouldn' marry dat White N**ger gal,
{Fer gracious sakes!} dis is why"
Her nose look lak a kittle spiyt;
An' her skin, it hain't never dry.

Negro Folk Rhymes, Wise & Other Wise {Thomas W. Talley, editor, Kennikat Press, Inc. edition, p. 63; originally published in 1922, The Macmillan Company".

* Talley writes that "'Black' here is not the real name. The name is applied because of the complexion of the girls to whom it was sung."

In that same book, Talley has a chapter titled "A Study In Negro Folk Rhymes". In that chapter Talley writes "...there is the Negro rhyme, 'I Wouldn't Marry A Black Girl', but along with it is another Negro rhymes 'I Wouldn't Marry A White or Yellow Negro Girl'. The two rhymes simply point out together a division of Negro opinion as to the ideal standard of beauty in personal complexion. One part of the Negroes thought white or yellow the most beautiful standard and the pother part of the Negroes thought black the more beautiful standard". [p. 249, Ibid]


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 10:18 AM

I appreciate that compliment, Amos.

I admire what you do here on Mudcat, too.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 25 May 08 - 10:19 AM

thanks from me, too, I vaguely knew the meanings of these terms and your experience & research have brought them to life.

In India there's the same preoccupation with lighter skin. Skin tone is mentioned in wedding ads, as lighter skinned young people are a more attractive marriage prospect.

sandra


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 10:47 AM

I find it rather ironic that 86 years after the first publication of Thomas W. Talley's classic compilation, Negro Folk Rhymes, the first two lines from the song "Stand Back, Black Man" can be found in "contemporary" versions of an African American children's handclap rhyme that is, in part, based on another song that is included in Talley's compilation "I Love Coffee, I Love Tea".

The children's rhyme "I Love Coffee, I Love Tea" is sometimes called "Down Down Baby". Another name for versions of that rhyme is "Shimmy Shimmy Co Co Pa" or some similar sounding title.

In "Stand Back, Black Ma", the lines given are:

"Stan' back, Black man,
You cain't shine"

-snip-

In the confrontative versions of "Down Down Baby" the lines are:

Stand back white boy
you don't shine.
I'll get a black boy
to beat your behind.

-snip-

I've not collected any examples in which the racial referents are reversed {meaning the girl says "Stand back black boy/you don't shine/I'll get a White boy to beat your behind". However, it's possible that those examples exist now, or will exist sometime in the future. I have collected one example that says "stand back White girl" and another example that say "stand back boy"}.

For clarification's sake, I'll post a complete example of that rhyme:

DOWN DOWN BABY
Down, down, baby down by the roller coaster
Sweet, sweet baby I'll never let you go

Shemie, shemie coco butter, shemie shemie pop
I like coffee, I like tea, I like a black boy and he likes me
So step back white boy, you don't shine
I'll get the black boy to beat your behind

Last night and the night before
I met my boyfriend at the candy store
He bought me ice cream he bought me cake
He brought me home with a belly ache

Mama, mama, I feel sick
Call the doctor, quick, quick, quick
Doctor, doctor, will I die
Close your eyes and count to five
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, I'm Alive!
-Tonya T. {African American female}, memories of her childhood in Crawfordville, Georgia {1979-1987};
11/2002; http://cocojams.com/games_children_play.htm


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 25 May 08 - 10:56 AM

Sandra in Sydney, here's to all people of good will throughout the world hoping for & working for a time when human beings move beyond our value based physical appearance hierarchy to a time when skin color and other indices of physical appearance are nothing more than valueless descriptors.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 26 May 08 - 11:41 AM

"Colored" was another group reference that was commonly used for African Americans.

See this excerpt from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colored

"Colored is a North American euphemism once widely regarded as a polite description of black people (i.e., persons of sub-Saharan African ancestry; members of the "Black race"). It should not be confused with the more recent term people of color, which attempts to describe all "non-white peoples", not just blacks. The term colored in particular (along with Negro) has fallen out of popular usage in the United States over the last third of the 20th century, and is now archaic and potentially derogatory, except in certain narrow circumstances such as the name of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

The term "colored" appeared in North America during the colonial era. A "colored" man halted a runaway carriage that was carrying President John Tyler on March 4, 1844. In 1863, the War Department established the "Bureau of Colored Troops." The first twelve Census counts in the U.S. enumerated "colored" people, who totaled nine million in 1900. The Census counts of 1910–1960 enumerated "negroes."
Free people of color were sometimes accorded higher status than blacks, because of the association of the latter with enslaved status. In addition, free people of color were sometimes the children of planters who may have passed on wealth in the form of property or education, including apprenticeship to a trade. In the well-established Creoles of color community in New Orleans and southern Louisiana, many people became educated and owned property, including their own businesses. but were more often considered lesser than people of separate ancestry...

The historical term free people of color refers to people of African descent during slavery who lived in freedom. A related term from the time of slavery is gens de couleur, a French expression that refers to the free descendants of white French colonists and Africans. Because so many of these people had mixed African and European ancestry, they are sometimes labeled mulatto. They are also sometimes referred to as affranchis.

Some struggle to identify with the term, arguing the word color merely refers to level of skin melanin, and so fails to define correctly those who are not noticeably non-white or whose racial background includes both races of white and non-white. It should be further noted that terms such as colored people or people of color are technically misnomers; all white people have color in their skin as well, with the exception of albinos.

The term women of color has been embraced and used to replace the term minority women. Some also prefer the term of color to the term minority because they see the latter as describing a stance of subjugation and objectification"

-snip-

That article continues by providing definitions for the group referent "coloured" in Britain, South Africa, and elsewhere. Who the term "colored" refers to differs from one nation to another.

From reading Mudcat threads, I have come to understand that the group referent "Black" also has a different meaning in the UK than it does in the United States. If I understood those posts correctly, in the UK, "black" not only refers to people of Black African descent, but also refers to people whose ancestry is East Indian, Pakistani, and [perhaps?] other racial/ethnic groups.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 26 May 08 - 12:18 PM

Here's an essay that I wrote on group referents for African Americans:

"Once upon a time, as I'm sure that you're aware, some people of African descent in the United States used the referent 'African' to describe themselves. As evidence of this, one can point to the Protestant denominations AME and AME Zion [African Methodist Episcopal and African Methodist Episcopal Zion].

Some people preferred to be called "Negroes". And other people perferred to be called "colored". "Colored" seemed an apt name for us as there is a wide range of skin colors for individuals within our group, from white, and many shades of brown, to blue black. "Colored people" is the group referent that was selected to describe us by one of our most active national organizations, the NAACP. The term "colored people" remains in the name of that organization which continues to work to protect and advance our civil rights.

In the mid to late 1960s, the referents for Black Americans were really in flux. During this time, a number of African countries were becoming independent nations. For the first time for many of us, the continent of Africa, and African cultures were getting some favorable press. For a growing number of Black Americans, it was a matter of pride to be identified with historical & contemporary mother Africa.

At that time in the United States the 'melting pot theory' was being ditched for the 'multi-cultural' mosaic theory on how American culture is shaped. As a result of this paradigm shift the mass media was paying more attention to the positive contributions that each hypenated ethnic group in the United States provided to the whole.

If was therefore not surprising that eventually the term 'Afro-American' was added to the list of hyphenated Americans [although as per Americans' custom to simplify things, the two words came to be used without the hypens]. So you heard more about "Italian Americans", "Asian Americans", "Native Americans", and "Irish Americans". And you also heard about "European Americans", although I believe California's Latino Americans started using the group referent "Anglo American" instead of "European American".

Then it was that some formerly Negro, formerly colored people argued that we should just use "black" or "black Americans' as our formal group referent. But there was a real problem with this referent. Notice that all the group names but 'black' were capitalized. Did the use of the small 'b' connote a lessened status?...Many thought it could be interpreted this way. So though "black Americans' was still used informally {often with the 'b' capitolized, the search was still on for a formal group referent.

For a while "Afro-American" appeared to be the winner. But then someone noticed that the beginning word for all these hyphenated names except 'Afro' referred to a geographical place-a homeland. Others noticed that 'afro' spelled with a small 'a' was the name of a natural hairstyle that was gaining prominence among segments of Black Americans at that time. For sure brothers and sisters didn't want their formal group name confused with the name of a hairstyle...No, the group name had to connote pride and promote a connection with the glories of Africa past and the promise of Africa now and in the future..

What name would it be? "Why, 'African American' of course!" the leaders exclaimed. And the people followed their leaders' lead as people usually do.

So that was how "African American" won the "what-should-we-be called?" contest. And that is why "African American" remains the formal referent for Black Americans today.

[Sat on a pin. My story end.]


Reposted with minor corrections from thread.cfm?threadid=77610#1386594
Cross cultural marriages


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Amos
Date: 26 May 08 - 12:18 PM

There is still a lot of currency for the term "colored" as a noun, in parochial Southern communities.

It is a heinous piece of cultural stupidity.

A


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 26 May 08 - 12:30 PM

Ha, Amos!

We crossed posted at the same time. Great minds, and all of that.

:o)

I think that the term "Negro" was doomed as our group referent after the rise of multiculturalism was that "Negro" isn't linked to any geographical place. But another reason why I think that the term "Negro" was doomed to be used as our group referent was when it became known that it meant "black" in Spanish.

I think that one reason that "colored people" was preferred at one time by African Americans is that there are so many different shades of skin colors in our race. So this is much more an inclusive term than "black". And there was a time-not very long ago-when it was an insult for a Black person [meaning an African American] to be called "Black". Unfortunately, still today many Black children will start to fight if they are called "black" or "blackie".

There's still a lot of work to do to help Black children [and other children] feel good about their racial/ethnic group, and about themselves.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: quokka
Date: 26 May 08 - 12:48 PM

Azizi, they used to 'grade' Indigenous Australians according to the percentage of 'black blood' they had as well - the terms 'quadroon' etc were also used here in Oz for most of the twentieth century, to categorise and often incarcerate people. There was a documentary shown recently about the Freedom Rides here in the 1960's based on the principles of the American Civil Rights movement that is well worth looking up.
Cheers,
Quokka


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 26 May 08 - 01:06 PM

With regard to my 25 May 08 - 10:47 AM post to this thread, I've collected some examples of that "Down Down Baby" rhyme that use the term "colored boy" instead of "black boy". The source for one of these examples described hereself as a Puerto Rican woman, Yasmin Hernandez. Yasmin indicated that she knew this rhyme when she lived in a mixed neighborhood in New York City that consisted of Black families and Puerto Rican families.

Here's that example:

Down, down baby
Down, down the roller coaster
Sweet, sweet baby
I'll never let you go
Chimey chimey cocoa pop
Chimey, chimey pow
Chimey, chimey cocoa pop
Chimey, chimey pop
I like coffee, I like tea
I like a colored boy and he likes me
So lets here the rhythm of the hands, (clap, clap) 2x
Let hear the rhythm of the feet (stomp, stomp) 2x
Let's hear the rhythm of the head (ding dong) 2x
Let's hear the rhythm of the hot dog
Let's hear the rhythm of the hot dog
Put em all together and what do you get
(Clap clap, stomp stomp), ding dong, hot Dog!
-Yasmin Hernandez, East Brooklyn, New York, November, 2004 {from her memories of the 1980s}


-snip-

A Mudcat guest posted a similar version of "I Like Coffee I Like Tea" that contain these lines:

"I like coffee I like tea
I like a colored boy and he likes me
so step back white boy
you don't cause a cool colored boy gonna bet* your behind

* probably a typo for beat, as the next lines continue the theme of beating.

thread.cfm?threadid=81350#1493555

**

When collecting children's rhymes, I believe that when you can it's important to collect demographical information-including race/ethnicity. I believe that demographics may make a difference in the recognition of slang terms or references to current celebrities. For instance, there's one foot stomping cheer that was [is still?] widely known among Pittsburgh, PA African American girls in my neighborhood in which they say that they are "kickin it with Genuwine". Not only do you have to know that one definition of "kickin it" means "relaxing, spending tome with [hangin out with]. But you also have to know that Genuwine was [is?] the name of a popular young African American R&B singer.

Another reason why I believe that it's important to as much as possible collect demographical information along with the examples of children's rhymes is that these rhymes provide a glimpse into the life, worldview, concerns, and aspirations of specificgroups of children who recite them. Just as the types of rhymes, and the performance of the same rhyme or similar rhymes may differ among different groups of children, the psycho-social meanings of these rhymes may differ among various populations of children.

I'm wondering if the use of that word "colored" in American English children's rhymes could be a way of dating the rhyme and/or if you know that the rhyme was currently recited, the inclusion of that word could be a way of determining that the children saying it are non-Black [because since the late 1960s, "colored" isn't a group referent that African American children would be familiar with or use.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 26 May 08 - 01:22 PM

Quokka, thanks for that information about Australia. It seems that many people around the world have suffered as a result of value based color consciousness. In my opinion, the attitudes and actions resulting from value based color consciousness negatively impacts White people as well as people of color.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: John on the Sunset Coast
Date: 26 May 08 - 03:36 PM

Azizi- This is a most informative discussion. Would that it could be somehow consolidated for easier reading.

It is truly a shame that folks still think in terms of color, and worse, in shades of color. I remember a TV show episode wherein the Black protagonist was invited to a businessmen's club. The used the brown (shopping) bag test to see if he was light enough to be invited to join. He refused their offer.

My mother, of blessed memory, never could change current terminology, and still referred to Blacks as a Colored fella or woman, but never meant disrespect by it. A woman who I have coffee with regularly, a college graduate and former teacher also uses the term Colored; I guess old habits are hard to break for some.

During my Jr. High (Middle School) days, I used to walk to school with kids of Asian descent and Black-African descent. By high school the races self-segregated, except for the few Blacks who were athletes or had other special talents..

I have to go now, but I'd like to continue this in PMs if that is good with you.

John


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 26 May 08 - 04:31 PM

John on the Sunset Coast, thanks for your comments.

I look forward to your pm.

**

See the next comment I'm posting to this thread which is in reference to folks not changing the group name for Black Americans that they are used to.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 26 May 08 - 04:33 PM

This is an excerpt of an essay that was written in 1999 by a friend of mine. This is posted with her permission:

From Colored People To Black
[Barbara Ray]

I remember a time when "black" was not even remotely considered attractive – let alone "beautiful"… we were called "colored-people" and it was an insult to be called "black." In fact, I know an elderly woman personally – right now-who still refers to (us) as colored and I want to correct her every time she says it – I did before but – old habits (way of life) are hard to break.

You just don't know how happy and blessed I felt when the "change" took place .. Black and Beautiful .. I am Black and I'm Proud.. And not just for my own sake...My daughter was teased a lot in school and the community because of her dark skin tone .. but in the late 60's we begin to grow and calling us "black" didn't hurt no mo!


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: catspaw49
Date: 26 May 08 - 05:02 PM

BTW........Persons/people of color was used at the turn of the previous century to a great extent and by many leaders of the community including DuBois. The term "Colored People" was chosen by the founders based upon that terminology for the NAACP.

I have nothing but respect for the organization and for men like Julian Bond who I was fortunate enough to spend some tme with on his visits to Berea College in the '60's. So my question is, why has the term never changed? I can't believe it bothers the organization a lot if they still use it.

Spaw


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 26 May 08 - 05:21 PM

Spaw, I assume that you mean why hasn't the NAACP changed the organization's name to the "new" group referent.

My guesses are
1. the Board of Directors of that organization wanted to preserve that name since it was already a well respected "brand". To change it not only would have involved some economic costs, but would mean that the organization would have to spend time & money familarizing
the public with that new name.

2. the Board of Directors of that organization might have wanted to wait to see which name "won the contest" since in the mid to late 1960s there were a number of group referents vying for the title of the formal group name [Afro-American; Afra-American;
African-American]

3. the Board of Directors of that organization may have decided that NAAAAP [the National Association for the Advancement of African American people] was too many A's. I certainly think so.

:o)


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Tangledwood
Date: 26 May 08 - 06:22 PM

".. they used to 'grade' Indigenous Australians according to the percentage of 'black blood' they had as well - the terms 'quadroon' etc were also used here in Oz for most of the twentieth century, to categorise and often incarcerate people. Cheers,
Quokka "

I'm surprised to hear that. I can only assume that it was used in a specific region or in particular walks of life. The only place that I came across the term was in a series of novels set in the southern USA. During the last quarter of the twentieth century I lived in Melbourne, Broken Hill, Arnhem Land, Adelaide, and a couple of years in Papua New Guinea, without ever encountering it. With so many races in Australia I think it would be a very brave, or naive, person that would attempt to categorise percentages of blood lines.

I'm not sure where this discussion is heading though. Given that some offensive words should be removed from current use, no amount of politically correct name changing, e.g. American Indian/Native American/First Nation, will remove bigotry where it exists. Conversely, if you are my friend that doesn't change if you decide to call yourself Negro instead of Afro-American.

Humans love to put each other into categories; Blond/brunette, black/white, Hindu/Moslem, Scottish/Irish, north or south of the river - just because you may be placed into a particular category doesn't necessarily mean that there is any negative judgement attached.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 26 May 08 - 08:26 PM

I'm not sure where this discussion is heading
-Tangledwood

Tanglewood, with regard to your sentence that "Humans love to put each other into categories; Blond/brunette, black/white, Hindu/Moslem, Scottish/Irish, north or south of the river - just because you may be placed into a particular category doesn't necessarily mean that there is any negative judgement attached", I agree.

With regard to your question that I placed in italics, I generally write my purpose for starting threads in my first post to that thread. Although it could have better written, I stated that I had just read a Mudcat thread on the song "My Pretty Quadroon". A couple of people in that thread wrote comments in which they used a lower case letter for the group referent "Negro". As a means of sharing information, and not criticising those posters, I wrote a comment on that thread that addressed to a small degree the history of that group referent, and how, after the mid 1960s we [African Americans] don't use it except as a pejorative. O also addressed the meaning for us of capitol "N" and small "n" for that word.

In this thread, I wanted to explore and wanted other posters to join me in exploring the use-in real life, and in song-of the other referents that have been used for African Americans. In some sense this is akin to an "anthropological study" for its on sake. I also believe that talking about differences can help people learn about other people and cultures, and can help us realize that we are more alike than different.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 26 May 08 - 08:28 PM

In my last post, O=I

Any other typos will have to fend for themselves.

:o)


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: GUEST,Artbrooks in Seattle
Date: 26 May 08 - 10:53 PM

I recall a story a friend (who was a deep chocolate brown in skin tone) told me about going to a family reunion for the first time - the kind that my family doesn't have, with multiple iterations of third cousins twice removed. He was amazed that there seemed to be two very distinct groups there; those who were light and and those who were dark skinned. After some inquiry, he learned that a certain set of his relatives had begun to "marry white" (his term, not mine) generations before - that is, to actively seek out lighter-skinned mates. It was as though there were two separate get-togethers, since the two groups did not mingle. He said that he was uncomfortable enough with this entire situation that he and his family soon left.

Just a couple of unconnected points - isn't the United Negro College Fund still a very active and well respected organization?

And, BTW, I've never heard the term "zebra" used in reference to a "mixed-race" individual.

As always, an interesting discussion - and I will attempt to keep my personal antipathy toward the use of colors (ie, black and white) to describe people that cover the full range of hues from pink through tan to brown.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: GUEST,Louise
Date: 26 May 08 - 11:47 PM

Interesting discussion Azizi. I teach in a practical nursing school where many of my students are African immigrants or children of immigrants, so when I teach classes on cultural diversity I usually feel that my students know much more about this subject than I do. Still, many of them don't have much of an understanding of how the history of slavery and bigotry here in the US still influences people's attitudes and behavior. When talking about the "one drop theory" I couldn't resist pointing out that such an attitude actually is expressing the fear that the "African blood" i.e. heritage is *stronger* than any amount of "white blood."
To me this is an example of the underlying/unconscious fear that any group of oppressors must feel toward any people they are mistreating. Underneath all the bluster about the innate superiority of the group doing the oppressing is the realization that, given the opportunity, the oppressed could oppress the oppressors in exactly the same way. Fear twists human thinking and behavior in such strange ways.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 27 May 08 - 10:28 AM

Artbrooks, you're right. The United Negro College Fund is another institution that kept a retired group referent in its name.

Also, Art, with regard to the word "zebra" as used as an informal referent for people of interracial birth, I've only seen and/or heard that word used by White people. Among Black people-including those who themselves have one birth parent who is Black and one birth parent who is non-Black, the informal referents that I've seen in print and heard are "mixed" and "half and half".

And, btw, I agree with you that color words are problematic, particularly with children, since they know that their skin doesn't look like the color "white" or the color "black". I suppose that I've yielded to societal pressure and use the terms "black" and "white" for people. However, I really don't like the color terms "red" and "yellow", and won't use them as referents for people. I know. I'm not being consistent. But, being inconsistent is a part of life, too.

:o)


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 27 May 08 - 10:30 AM

When talking about the "one drop theory" I couldn't resist pointing out that such an attitude actually is expressing the fear that the "African blood" i.e. heritage is *stronger* than any amount of "white blood."
-Louise

Louise, that's an interesting point. I hadn't thought of the "one drop theory" in those terms. I also like the way you phrased the statement that "Fear twists human thinking and behavior in such strange ways". You have a great way with words, Louise. Kudos!

Also, Louise, I'd like to encourage you {and other guests who may be reading this thread} to join Mudcat. Membership is free and easy to do. Just click on the word "Membership" that is on the right at the top of the page, and follow those instructions.

I hope to "see" your comments on other Mudcat threads!


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 27 May 08 - 10:44 AM

Speaking of color referents for people, the word "redbones" is used to describe people of Black/non-Black ancestry who often have a reddish tinge to their skin.

Here's an excerpt from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redbone_(ethnicity) :

"Redbone" is a term used to describe certain racially mixed ethnic groups in the Americas. Many use the term "redbone" for African Americans with light skin. This still seems to cause controversy and confusion among people. A related term is "yellowbone". The two terms tend to blur when one can say someone is "so light that you can see the red blood flowing though their bones".

There are two classes of "Redbones" and are two separate ethnic people. The first ethnic group who were called "Redbones" were groups of multi-ethnic families with similar or the same English surnames who were labeled as Free Persons of Color, Mulatto or Indian by early American census takers. The term was used for these mixed race multi-ethnic groups of families in Louisiana, South Carolina, Mississippi and East Texas...

The ancestry is said to consist of a combination of two or more of the following ethnicities; Northern European, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, South Asian, Native American and African ancestry of various degrees and mixtures...

Redbone" is seemingly a term common in the Neutral Zone and East Texas among nineteenth century era Euro-Americans and African Americans who thought they were referencing people of multi-ethnic genetics. Later generations of these two ethnicities seemingly continued to reference the descendants of these racially obscure people to the extent that some of these descendants seemingly began to think of themselves as "redbone." A usage is also claimed for an isolated enclave in South Carolina whose complexions confounded their neighbors. Close scrutiny reveals only vaguely distinct differences between the culture of the referenced people and the culture of the dominant Euro-Americans surrounding them wherever the epithet is used.

"Melungeon" is simply another epithet seemingly used in similar fashion with evidenced history to about the same era which produced the terms "redbone", "moor", "brass ankle", etc. All these terms have been associated with many of the same surnames. The term "melungeon" was seemingly common among Euro Americans and African Americans in Tennessee and Kentucky before its usages was recently expanded through tourism promotions and genealogy marketers."...

-snip-


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 27 May 08 - 10:58 AM

Here's a link to the Redbone Heritage Foundation:

http://www.redboneheritagefoundation.com/

Under its name on the home page is this statement:
"Taking Pride in Who We Are"

**
Here is the organization's "About Us" statement:

"The Redbone Heritage Foundation is a not for profit organization chartered in the state of Louisiana. Our purpose is to foster research into the origins, the history, the culture, and the ethnicity of those people known as Redbones. Members will be encouraged to conduct such research in a scientific manner without prejudice or predetermined conclusions. Material pertaining to these people will be preserved, published, and made available to other researchers."

-snip-

This website may have been recently launched, as there are no other pages that I could access. Perhaps the information on the website is for members only. There is a "to join" feature on the home page, but I didn't click it.

**

The Melungeon Heritage Association is a multipage website with a number of features.
Here's that association's mission statement:

"ur mission is to document and preserve the heritage and cultural legacy of mixed-ancestry peoples in or associated with the southern Appalachians. While our focus will be on those of Melungeon heritage, we will not restrict ourselves to honoring only this group. We firmly believe in the dignity of all such mixed ancestry groups of southern Appalachia and commit to preserving this rich heritage of racial harmony and diversity."

-snip-

And here's an excerpt from one of the essays on their home page:

"Plecker's Infamous 1943 List

The head of Virginia's Bureau of Vital Statistics from 1912 to 1946, Walter Ashby Plecker, believed "there is a danger of the ultimate disappearance of the white race in Virginia, and the country, and the substitution therefore of another brown skin, as has occurred in every other country where the two races have lived together." This "mongrelization," in Plecker's view, caused of the downfall of several earlier civilizations. He was determined to prevent this in America, or at least in Virginia.

In January of 1943, Plecker sent a circular to all public health and county officials in Virginia, listing, county by county, the surnames of all families suspected of having African ancestry. The cover letter stated that they were "mongrels" and were now trying to register as white. The names listed in the southwestern Virginia counties included Collins, Gibson, Moore, Goins, Bunch, Freeman, Bolin, Mullins, and others described as "Chiefly Tennessee Melungeons." You can read more inside..."

[The word "inside" is hyperlinked on that page]

-snip-

Here's another excerpt from that home page:

"First Union Gallery

In July of 1997, members of an online mailing list decided to gather in Wise, Virginia, to celebrate their Melungeon heritage. The organizers expected about 50 people; instead, more than 600 showed up. First Union attracted people from all over America - researchers, writers, and most of all, people who were curious about their ancestry and were exploring their Melungeon roots, whether known or suspected. From First Union, the Melungeon Heritage Association was chartered. Inside, you'll find a photo gallery of that weekend in July 1997".


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: PoppaGator
Date: 27 May 08 - 12:08 PM

There were significant differences in racial attitudes in the English-speaking American colonies as opposed to the French and Spanish areas of the New World, notably Louisiana.

While Africans were enslaved in both areas, they were much more thoroughly dehumanized in the English colonies. In Louisiana (the area of which I am most knowledgeable), a significant population of middle-income, well-educated gens libre de coleur ~ free people of color ~ was allowed to develop.

These folks considered themselves, and were considered by others, to be of an entirely separate category from enslaved Africans. It was not until after the Civil War, during the era when Jim Crow laws emerged, that mixed-race or "Creole" Louisianans were first looked upon as "colored" or "Negro," that is, as members of the same social/"racial" category as the freed slaves. That was when the "one drop theory" took hold, which was so eloquently described above by Louise.

It's sad but true that the legalized,codified prejudices of the societies into which we are born "colors" our perception of each other as fellow human beings [pun intended]. In the US, all of us, black and white alike, generally see anyone who exhibits any trace of African ancestry as African-American or black.

In South Africa, on the other hand, longstanding apartheid laws always distinguished between "blacks" (native Africans with little or no "mixed" ancestry) and "coloreds" (people with any mixture of European and African ancestry, seen as "less inferior" than the 100% Africans, and subject to less stringent legal limitations).

Even now, after tremendous political change in South Africa, I'm sure that people there still see each other not as either black or white, but as black, colored or white. And, to folks brought up in such a culture, African-Americans, almost all of whom have a degree of mixed ancestry, do not look "black"; they are seen as "colored."

The fact that legalized segregation/apartheid was abolished a generation ago in the US, and more recently in the RSA, while of course steps in the right direction, did not and could not immediately cancel the prejuducual effects of decade after decade of life-experience in a society within which racism has been institutionalized.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 27 May 08 - 04:53 PM

PoppaGator, thanks for your well written post. As you said, while we are moving in the right direction, people are still experiencing the the effects of centuries of racism. There is much to do to help eradicate and lessen personal racism as well as institutional racism in housing, the education system, the criminal justice system, and the mass media etc.

**

I have one question for you though PoppaGator. What is the RSA? Does that refer to South Africa? Or is that a typo for the USA?


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: paula t
Date: 27 May 08 - 05:25 PM

The issue of categorising people by colour always perplexes me.A Black friend of mine said that she preferred to be called Black even though she was "officially" categorised as "mixed race".The term "Black" to her was a political term which related to her experience of society and the way she was treated within it. It was related to a perceived lack of power.Azizi, I would value your opinion about this. Is this still the case?(unfortunately my friend died in the late 1990s)
I believe that there is still a great deal of ignorance.Hopefully we have moved on a little since the printing of a set of encyclopedias which I picked up in an antiques shop a few years ago (c1930s).It contained a chapter about "The 5 races of Man"and these races were"White, Black, Brown, Red and Yellow".Where to start eh?A terrifying reflection of attitudes in our not too distant past!


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 27 May 08 - 06:29 PM

Many people who have one African American birth parent and one non-African American birth parent consider themselves to be African American. Some don't. Senator Barack Obama is an example of a person of Black/non-Black ancestry who considers himself African American. I have read that champion golfer Tiger Woods does not.

In my opinion, Americans and other Western nations throughout the world rely on visual clues to help them determine who is or is not a member os specific races. In that sense, individual people lack the power to decide which race they belong to since their physical appearance-their skin color, facial features, and hair texture-largely make that determination for them. If they choose to go against societal norms, and declare themselves to be White even if they don't "look White", regardless of whether or not they were raised with very little contact with African American people, they will have a difficult time convincing other people that they are, indeed, White.

I've met people who I and who other people would consider to be African American based on their physical features. Those people had Black and Native American ancestry, and were raised as Native Americans. Some of them self-selected their racial group to be only Native American, and some of them indicated that their race is both African American and Native American. I think that American society is much more accepting of a person saying that they belong to both the Black race and the Indian race, then they are with a person saying that they belong to both the White race and the Black race.

The "powers that have been and the powers that still be" have made what was once legal rulings and what is now is still social determinations that a person cannot be considered a member of the White race if they have any known degree of "Black blood". However, this White exclusivity rule has been weakened because nowadays people can claim Native American ancestry and still be considered White {if they look White}. Maybe that is also the case for people who have some Asian ancestry.

Because the one drop of Black blood rule is undoubtedly racist, I believe that the time will come when more people of Black/non-Black parentage who don't "look White", will insist that they are White. And the time will come when more people of Black/White ancestry who don't "look White" will insist that they are members of both the Black and the White race. I believe that time will come, sooner rather than later. But I hope that those people who make the decision not to be legally counted as Black, recognize that some members of society will probably still consider them to be Black. And I hope that those people who "opt out of membership" to the Black race, will not make that decision because they are prejudiced against Black people.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: GUEST,Joseph de Culver City
Date: 27 May 08 - 06:44 PM

Azizi, You've done a fine thing here. Thanks for your scholarship and generosity. I have nothing substantive to add to the discussion, but I wanted to say that I find your many posts on this topic inspiring. You remind me of my grandma (and that's saying something).


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: artbrooks
Date: 27 May 08 - 07:24 PM

"What people want to be called" reminds me of an experience early in my career in Federal personnel administration. We (the VA) wanted to get all of the possible points for employing "minorities", especially in professional and supervisory positions, so we were sent a printout of the "racial" breakdowns among our employees, which was based entirely upon their personal self-identifications. It said that we had no Negro (the term then in use) physicians, which seemed to me to be incorrect. I went to speak to the member of our staff who was from Ethiopia (and who was very dark-complected), and asked him for permission to "correct" his records. He told me in no uncertain terms that (1) Negro only referred to people from south of the Niger River, (2) that he was a direct descendant of the Queen of Sheba and (3) he considered himself to be a Caucasian (the term then in use). I said, "thank you, doctor", went away, and his record remained untouched.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: robomatic
Date: 27 May 08 - 07:47 PM

My father used the term 'colored' most of his life as a standard (non-derogatory) term for people I call black. He was probably aware that it was becoming archaic but we are creatures of habit. He did not have a racist bone in his body.

I remember meeting a very interesting man at a Bahai gathering, his background was Jewish Portugues, Native American, and Black. He appeared to be a black haired Caucasion but he told me at family gatherings he was the stand-out.

- - - - - - The one drop of blood rule taken to a comedic extreme:

In the movie "Dogma" by Kevin Smith, protagonist Linda Fiorentino is supposed to be an nth level descendant of Jesus. When original disciple Chris Rock reveals that the Savior was indeed "a brother", Jason Mewes looks over at Linda and goes: "she's black?"


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Jack Campin
Date: 27 May 08 - 08:00 PM

Following on Sandra's comment, I've heard "half-caste" quite often in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. I assume it's a relic of the Empire, i.e. from India. It was almost invariably derogatory - in New Zealand the implication was that such people didn't even have the perceived redeeming value of "pure-blooded" Maori, being mostly urbanized proletarians with no traditions of deference. There was a whole raft of ugly stereotypes about being mixed-race in NZ, though when they got politicized it was more in the direction of European fascism than the American slave-society model.

I never did figure out *why* "Negro" became perceived as an insult. On arriving in the US from New Zealand in 1974, I used it when talking to my Afro-American neighbour and he looked at me as if I'd just been chipped out of a dinosaur fossil deposit. I got his point, but it had never occurred to me that the word itself could carry any negative connotations, any more than "Maori" did; in fact, to this day I don't think I've ever heard it used as a derogatory term.


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Charley Noble
Date: 27 May 08 - 08:49 PM

Azizi-

Thanks again for provoking a very important thread and for providing your perspective for sorting it out.

I grew up in Maine, where Black students were few and far between, and the ones in my high school were considered minor celebrities (late 1950's).

When I was accepted for the Peace Corps (1960's) and assigned to teach high school in Ethiopia I had to reconfigure categories. I was to teach Africans (Ethiopians) who considered themselves "White" although they looked "Black" to me but it was the "Bantu" that they (the Ethiopians) looked down on as "slaves." Frankly I never did figure it out, other than one's ethnic group also played a role in how one was ranked.

We, as "Americans" got away with a lot because of where we came from. There were also Hindu and Sikh teachers in the high schools and I never figured out where they were ranked by the Ethiopians. Well, we were busy teaching and if we could get by as teachers, that was more than enough!

"We" tended to look down on the Hindu and Sikh teachers because they tended to write there lessons on the blackboard for the students to copy while we churned out reams of paper via our state-of-the-art Gestetna (Hah! I bet you don't know what that is!) stencil printing machines.

The Ethiopians were puzzled in turn by our Black volunteers. But they were obviously "Americans" and generally were accepted as such.

Of course when I was doing my initial library research on where I was being sent, I found such lovely exploration books titled as ETHIOPIA: Hellhole of Creation, and National Geographic "exploration" articles; they were less than useful for me at the time (prior to training), although interesting (and even amusing) in retrospect.

Most of us were "Whites" in a country where the resident "Blacks" had no sense of inferiority via colonialism. There were internal politics which we never did understand, and external politics which we were too naive to comprehend. As Peace Corps high school teachers we were a third of the teaching staff of the country, which had a major impact on the education system of that country. One wonders what kind of impact that was!

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 27 May 08 - 09:49 PM

Jack, in my opinion, "Negro" is derogatory and degrading, as it carries the negative, historical baggage of the pre 1970s-before we "said it loud/I'm Black & I'm proud". Few African Americans under sixty years of age still use the term "Negro" in spoken language or in print, unless we mean it as a put down {insult}. For instance, if a Black man or Black woman acts in a subservient, currying for favors manner toward White people, he or she may be called a "Negro". If he or she really does that uncle tom, aunt jemina thing up, than he or she is a negro with a small n, which means the insult has been multiplied to the x degree.

We {African Americans} realize that most White people have difficulty keeping up with our slang and colloquial expressions-particularly since we often change them if they become used too often by White people. :o)

But we figure that it's been almost forty years since we decided on the formal referent "African American". Therefore, by now, we think that White people should be used to saying and writing "African American" instead of "Negro". The best we can say of a White person from the USA who doesn't use "African American" as the formal term for Black people is that they are old fashioned. But "old fashioned" suggests that they may be stuck in the pre-1970s when many White people didn't respect Black people's humanity. Using "Negro" would call into question whether that [non-Black] person is just simply stuck in the past because of his or her inability to stay current, or is using a long retired referent on purpose to convey the message that Black people should have remained second class citizens.

Notice that I said "African American" and not
"Afro-American". These two terms are absolutely not the same.
Using "Afro-American" as our group referent means the non-African American person is trying. But using the term "Afro-American" means for some reason or reasons-good, bad, or indifferent-that person hasn't kept up with the times. Instead, they are stuck in that brief interim period between the late 1960s and the late 1970s or so before "African American" had been solidified as the approved referent for Black Americans.

Of course, a non-Black person could just say "Black people" or "Black Americans", though both of those terms refer to more people in the African Diaspora than African Americans. But my suggestion is not to say "the Blacks" [or "the Whites"] or "the Black community". "Black" should always be used with another noun. Why? Well, to do otherwise has come to be interpreted as a person generalizing, and lumping all Black people together into one person, And that is a big no no. It harks back to that "all Black people look alike" syndrome. There is more than one Black person. There are tons of Black people, numerous Black communities, and different Black cultures. We aren't a homogeneous people who think alike, talk alike, look alike, or act alike.

I wish there were at least one other Black person on this forum who publicly acknowledged his or her Blackness. I wish there were times when we [that person and me] could go at it about politics or religion or culture or what have you and then folks would see that Black people don't always agree.

Maybe I'd disagree with that person just to prove my point that all Black people are not the same.

Well, maybe not.

:o)


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Subject: RE: Racial Referents-Negro, Quadroon, etc
From: Azizi
Date: 27 May 08 - 09:55 PM

Oh well, another font command gone wrong. I can see it happened after the word "communities". Oh well, practice makes perfect, or so they say.

Sorry 'bout that.

But while I'm here, the "maybe not" that I wrote at the end of my last post refers to me disagreeing for disagreement's sake with that other Black person who should show up on this forum as a regular poster sometime soon {I hope}.

It does not mean that I disagree with the point that I made that all Black people are not alike. That should be obvious.


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