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From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?

John Minear 03 Oct 14 - 08:58 AM
Charley Noble 10 Dec 11 - 11:56 AM
John Minear 10 Dec 11 - 09:25 AM
John Minear 02 Nov 11 - 08:44 AM
GUEST,Bob Walser 18 Jul 11 - 12:27 PM
John Minear 31 May 11 - 10:27 AM
EBarnacle 20 Mar 11 - 08:12 PM
John Minear 20 Mar 11 - 11:57 AM
Ruaidhri 19 Mar 11 - 08:38 PM
John Minear 17 Mar 11 - 10:59 AM
John Minear 05 Mar 11 - 07:03 PM
Gibb Sahib 05 Mar 11 - 06:26 PM
Lighter 05 Mar 11 - 06:17 PM
McGrath of Harlow 05 Mar 11 - 04:46 PM
John Minear 05 Mar 11 - 08:00 AM
Gibb Sahib 05 Mar 11 - 05:03 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 04:27 PM
John Minear 10 Jan 11 - 12:31 PM
John Minear 16 Nov 10 - 10:31 AM
Gibb Sahib 16 Nov 10 - 03:49 AM
GUEST,Katedu 06 Oct 10 - 09:55 PM
John Minear 17 Sep 10 - 07:10 AM
Lighter 16 Sep 10 - 07:51 AM
John Minear 16 Sep 10 - 05:37 AM
John Minear 15 Sep 10 - 08:07 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Sep 10 - 02:20 AM
Charley Noble 06 Jun 10 - 10:17 AM
John Minear 06 Jun 10 - 07:50 AM
John Minear 21 May 10 - 06:05 PM
Gibb Sahib 21 May 10 - 04:58 PM
GUEST,Lighter 21 May 10 - 04:52 PM
Gibb Sahib 21 May 10 - 04:22 PM
John Minear 21 May 10 - 02:44 PM
Gibb Sahib 21 May 10 - 02:18 PM
John Minear 21 May 10 - 01:12 PM
Gibb Sahib 20 May 10 - 10:00 PM
GUEST,Lighter 20 May 10 - 09:02 PM
Gibb Sahib 20 May 10 - 08:14 PM
GUEST,Lighter 20 May 10 - 06:50 PM
GUEST,Lighter 20 May 10 - 06:39 PM
Gibb Sahib 20 May 10 - 05:13 PM
Charley Noble 04 May 10 - 04:05 PM
John Minear 04 May 10 - 01:40 PM
John Minear 02 May 10 - 10:23 PM
Charley Noble 02 May 10 - 11:07 AM
John Minear 02 May 10 - 10:56 AM
John Minear 01 May 10 - 07:33 AM
Charley Noble 29 Apr 10 - 09:03 PM
Lighter 29 Apr 10 - 07:56 PM
Lighter 29 Apr 10 - 01:19 PM
John Minear 29 Apr 10 - 12:49 PM
John Minear 29 Apr 10 - 12:40 PM
Lighter 29 Apr 10 - 11:38 AM
Lighter 29 Apr 10 - 11:14 AM
John Minear 29 Apr 10 - 07:29 AM
John Minear 29 Apr 10 - 07:13 AM
John Minear 28 Apr 10 - 08:35 AM
Charley Noble 28 Apr 10 - 08:18 AM
John Minear 27 Apr 10 - 11:23 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Apr 10 - 10:54 PM
Charley Noble 27 Apr 10 - 10:10 PM
John Minear 27 Apr 10 - 05:57 PM
Charley Noble 27 Apr 10 - 07:21 AM
John Minear 27 Apr 10 - 07:15 AM
Lighter 26 Apr 10 - 07:40 PM
Lighter 26 Apr 10 - 07:26 PM
John Minear 26 Apr 10 - 07:05 PM
Lighter 26 Apr 10 - 06:53 PM
John Minear 26 Apr 10 - 04:01 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Apr 10 - 03:12 PM
John Minear 26 Apr 10 - 02:51 PM
Lighter 26 Apr 10 - 02:51 PM
John Minear 26 Apr 10 - 02:41 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Apr 10 - 02:30 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Apr 10 - 02:23 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Apr 10 - 02:13 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Apr 10 - 01:46 PM
John Minear 26 Apr 10 - 12:54 PM
Lighter 26 Apr 10 - 11:41 AM
John Minear 26 Apr 10 - 10:47 AM
John Minear 26 Apr 10 - 10:17 AM
Lighter 26 Apr 10 - 09:59 AM
John Minear 26 Apr 10 - 08:42 AM
John Minear 26 Apr 10 - 07:59 AM
Charley Noble 25 Apr 10 - 10:00 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Apr 10 - 07:33 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Apr 10 - 07:31 PM
Lighter 25 Apr 10 - 07:10 PM
John Minear 25 Apr 10 - 04:07 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Apr 10 - 01:52 PM
John Minear 25 Apr 10 - 01:18 PM
John Minear 25 Apr 10 - 09:40 AM
John Minear 25 Apr 10 - 08:50 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Apr 10 - 08:27 PM
Gibb Sahib 24 Apr 10 - 06:54 PM
John Minear 24 Apr 10 - 05:42 PM
John Minear 24 Apr 10 - 11:13 AM
Gibb Sahib 23 Apr 10 - 06:19 PM
John Minear 23 Apr 10 - 06:06 PM
Gibb Sahib 23 Apr 10 - 05:19 PM
John Minear 23 Apr 10 - 04:34 PM
Gibb Sahib 23 Apr 10 - 02:47 PM
John Minear 23 Apr 10 - 02:14 PM
Charley Noble 23 Apr 10 - 09:42 AM
John Minear 23 Apr 10 - 07:58 AM
John Minear 23 Apr 10 - 07:53 AM
John Minear 22 Apr 10 - 11:06 PM
Gibb Sahib 22 Apr 10 - 08:26 PM
Charley Noble 22 Apr 10 - 08:19 PM
Lighter 22 Apr 10 - 07:48 PM
Gibb Sahib 22 Apr 10 - 07:37 PM
John Minear 22 Apr 10 - 06:59 PM
Gibb Sahib 22 Apr 10 - 05:51 PM
John Minear 18 Apr 10 - 09:03 AM
Lighter 17 Apr 10 - 10:32 AM
Charley Noble 17 Apr 10 - 10:17 AM
John Minear 17 Apr 10 - 08:17 AM
Gibb Sahib 16 Apr 10 - 08:33 PM
John Minear 16 Apr 10 - 02:19 PM
John Minear 16 Apr 10 - 02:00 PM
Lighter 16 Apr 10 - 11:36 AM
Lighter 16 Apr 10 - 11:27 AM
John Minear 16 Apr 10 - 08:52 AM
Lighter 15 Apr 10 - 02:09 PM
John Minear 15 Apr 10 - 01:29 PM
Gibb Sahib 15 Apr 10 - 01:26 PM
John Minear 15 Apr 10 - 01:23 PM
Charley Noble 15 Apr 10 - 12:34 PM
John Minear 15 Apr 10 - 09:32 AM
John Minear 14 Apr 10 - 07:16 AM
John Minear 12 Apr 10 - 05:29 PM
John Minear 11 Apr 10 - 12:37 PM
Charley Noble 09 Apr 10 - 07:56 PM
Snuffy 09 Apr 10 - 07:09 PM
John Minear 09 Apr 10 - 09:29 AM
John Minear 09 Apr 10 - 07:18 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Apr 10 - 03:33 AM
Charley Noble 08 Apr 10 - 08:19 PM
John Minear 08 Apr 10 - 05:30 PM
Lighter 08 Apr 10 - 04:12 PM
John Minear 08 Apr 10 - 12:04 PM
Charley Noble 07 Apr 10 - 04:37 PM
John Minear 07 Apr 10 - 03:59 PM
Charley Noble 05 Apr 10 - 08:58 AM
John Minear 05 Apr 10 - 07:57 AM
Lighter 03 Apr 10 - 11:49 AM
Charley Noble 03 Apr 10 - 09:08 AM
John Minear 03 Apr 10 - 06:06 AM
John Minear 02 Apr 10 - 08:53 PM
Gibb Sahib 02 Apr 10 - 11:25 AM
Lighter 02 Apr 10 - 10:23 AM
John Minear 02 Apr 10 - 10:21 AM
John Minear 02 Apr 10 - 08:06 AM
Charley Noble 01 Apr 10 - 07:57 AM
John Minear 01 Apr 10 - 06:27 AM
Gibb Sahib 31 Mar 10 - 02:08 PM
Charley Noble 31 Mar 10 - 12:59 PM
John Minear 31 Mar 10 - 11:33 AM
Charley Noble 31 Mar 10 - 08:28 AM
John Minear 31 Mar 10 - 07:45 AM
Charley Noble 30 Mar 10 - 09:48 PM
John Minear 30 Mar 10 - 02:25 PM
Gibb Sahib 30 Mar 10 - 01:58 PM
John Minear 30 Mar 10 - 12:31 PM
John Minear 30 Mar 10 - 10:31 AM
Charley Noble 30 Mar 10 - 08:47 AM
John Minear 30 Mar 10 - 06:18 AM
Lighter 29 Mar 10 - 07:49 PM
Lighter 29 Mar 10 - 07:28 PM
John Minear 29 Mar 10 - 05:50 PM
Charley Noble 29 Mar 10 - 10:53 AM
Charley Noble 29 Mar 10 - 07:54 AM
John Minear 29 Mar 10 - 07:12 AM
John Minear 28 Mar 10 - 08:16 PM
John Minear 28 Mar 10 - 03:46 PM
John Minear 27 Mar 10 - 08:58 AM
John Minear 26 Mar 10 - 05:45 PM
John Minear 26 Mar 10 - 04:10 PM
John Minear 25 Mar 10 - 10:20 PM
Lighter 25 Mar 10 - 10:16 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Mar 10 - 09:40 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Mar 10 - 09:40 PM
Lighter 25 Mar 10 - 09:07 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Mar 10 - 08:52 PM
Lighter 25 Mar 10 - 08:50 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Mar 10 - 08:50 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Mar 10 - 07:17 PM
John Minear 25 Mar 10 - 06:54 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Mar 10 - 06:16 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Mar 10 - 05:57 PM
John Minear 25 Mar 10 - 02:58 PM
John Minear 25 Mar 10 - 01:15 PM
John Minear 25 Mar 10 - 07:02 AM
John Minear 25 Mar 10 - 06:55 AM
John Minear 24 Mar 10 - 12:39 PM
John Minear 23 Mar 10 - 06:33 AM
Gibb Sahib 22 Mar 10 - 10:28 PM
John Minear 22 Mar 10 - 10:15 PM
Charley Noble 22 Mar 10 - 05:29 PM
John Minear 22 Mar 10 - 04:58 PM
GUEST 22 Mar 10 - 12:34 PM
Lighter 22 Mar 10 - 11:19 AM
John Minear 22 Mar 10 - 10:07 AM
John Minear 22 Mar 10 - 09:55 AM
John Minear 22 Mar 10 - 09:39 AM
John Minear 21 Mar 10 - 03:55 PM
Gibb Sahib 20 Mar 10 - 10:59 AM
Snuffy 19 Mar 10 - 12:35 PM
GUEST,Gibb Sahib 19 Mar 10 - 12:01 PM
Lighter 19 Mar 10 - 11:51 AM
John Minear 19 Mar 10 - 10:56 AM
Snuffy 19 Mar 10 - 10:36 AM
John Minear 19 Mar 10 - 09:18 AM
Charley Noble 19 Mar 10 - 08:23 AM
John Minear 19 Mar 10 - 07:01 AM
Gibb Sahib 18 Mar 10 - 09:40 PM
Lighter 18 Mar 10 - 07:34 PM
John Minear 18 Mar 10 - 06:11 PM
John Minear 18 Mar 10 - 05:03 PM
Charley Noble 18 Mar 10 - 04:07 PM
John Minear 18 Mar 10 - 03:47 PM
Lighter 18 Mar 10 - 01:45 PM
Lighter 18 Mar 10 - 01:23 PM
Lighter 18 Mar 10 - 01:21 PM
Lighter 18 Mar 10 - 01:17 PM
John Minear 18 Mar 10 - 01:09 PM
John Minear 18 Mar 10 - 12:57 PM
John Minear 18 Mar 10 - 12:51 PM
GUEST,Gibb Sahib 18 Mar 10 - 12:32 PM
Charley Noble 18 Mar 10 - 09:54 AM
John Minear 18 Mar 10 - 08:05 AM
Charley Noble 17 Mar 10 - 10:54 PM
Lighter 17 Mar 10 - 12:59 PM
John Minear 17 Mar 10 - 11:34 AM
John Minear 17 Mar 10 - 11:22 AM
John Minear 17 Mar 10 - 11:02 AM
John Minear 17 Mar 10 - 10:42 AM
Lighter 17 Mar 10 - 09:37 AM
Lighter 17 Mar 10 - 09:29 AM
Lighter 17 Mar 10 - 09:09 AM
John Minear 17 Mar 10 - 07:46 AM
Gibb Sahib 16 Mar 10 - 11:08 PM
John Minear 15 Mar 10 - 09:08 AM
Charley Noble 15 Mar 10 - 08:25 AM
Lighter 14 Mar 10 - 11:30 PM
Lighter 14 Mar 10 - 11:03 PM
Lighter 14 Mar 10 - 10:42 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Mar 10 - 10:35 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Mar 10 - 10:28 PM
Lighter 14 Mar 10 - 10:19 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Mar 10 - 09:03 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Mar 10 - 08:18 PM
Lighter 14 Mar 10 - 08:07 PM
Charley Noble 14 Mar 10 - 08:00 PM
Lighter 14 Mar 10 - 07:42 PM
Lighter 14 Mar 10 - 07:23 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Mar 10 - 06:42 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Mar 10 - 06:29 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Mar 10 - 05:55 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Mar 10 - 05:36 PM
John Minear 14 Mar 10 - 05:17 PM
Lighter 14 Mar 10 - 04:45 PM
Lighter 14 Mar 10 - 03:38 PM
Charley Noble 14 Mar 10 - 03:04 PM
Lighter 14 Mar 10 - 03:00 PM
John Minear 14 Mar 10 - 02:16 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Mar 10 - 01:45 PM
John Minear 14 Mar 10 - 01:30 PM
Charley Noble 14 Mar 10 - 11:59 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 Mar 10 - 10:29 PM
John Minear 13 Mar 10 - 09:30 PM
Charley Noble 13 Mar 10 - 08:10 PM
John Minear 13 Mar 10 - 07:59 PM
Charley Noble 13 Mar 10 - 04:43 PM
Gibb Sahib 13 Mar 10 - 03:43 PM
Gibb Sahib 13 Mar 10 - 03:13 PM
John Minear 13 Mar 10 - 01:11 PM
John Minear 13 Mar 10 - 10:50 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 Mar 10 - 09:43 AM
Gibb Sahib 12 Mar 10 - 10:28 PM
John Minear 12 Mar 10 - 11:20 AM
Charley Noble 12 Mar 10 - 09:56 AM
John Minear 12 Mar 10 - 09:23 AM
John Minear 12 Mar 10 - 09:01 AM
Charley Noble 11 Mar 10 - 08:25 PM
John Minear 11 Mar 10 - 06:33 PM
John Minear 11 Mar 10 - 06:11 PM
John Minear 11 Mar 10 - 10:55 AM
Charley Noble 11 Mar 10 - 08:28 AM
Lighter 11 Mar 10 - 12:10 AM
Charley Noble 10 Mar 10 - 10:31 PM
John Minear 10 Mar 10 - 09:19 PM
John Minear 10 Mar 10 - 09:14 PM
Lighter 10 Mar 10 - 08:25 PM
Gibb Sahib 10 Mar 10 - 08:01 PM
Lighter 10 Mar 10 - 07:53 PM
Lighter 10 Mar 10 - 07:35 PM
Lighter 10 Mar 10 - 07:18 PM
John Minear 10 Mar 10 - 02:28 PM
John Minear 10 Mar 10 - 09:55 AM
John Minear 10 Mar 10 - 09:34 AM
John Minear 10 Mar 10 - 09:23 AM
John Minear 10 Mar 10 - 09:02 AM
Charley Noble 10 Mar 10 - 08:54 AM
Charley Noble 10 Mar 10 - 08:35 AM
John Minear 10 Mar 10 - 08:03 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Mar 10 - 05:05 PM
Charley Noble 09 Mar 10 - 03:57 PM
Gibb Sahib 09 Mar 10 - 01:15 PM
Gibb Sahib 09 Mar 10 - 12:22 PM
Lighter 09 Mar 10 - 10:48 AM
shipcmo 09 Mar 10 - 10:39 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Mar 10 - 10:32 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Mar 10 - 10:16 AM
Lighter 09 Mar 10 - 09:27 AM
Lighter 09 Mar 10 - 08:53 AM
John Minear 09 Mar 10 - 08:12 AM
Gibb Sahib 08 Mar 10 - 06:59 PM
Lighter 08 Mar 10 - 05:44 PM
Gibb Sahib 08 Mar 10 - 03:42 PM
Charley Noble 08 Mar 10 - 02:53 PM
Charley Noble 08 Mar 10 - 02:37 PM
Gibb Sahib 08 Mar 10 - 02:15 PM
Charley Noble 08 Mar 10 - 01:43 PM
John Minear 08 Mar 10 - 12:56 PM
Charley Noble 08 Mar 10 - 12:16 PM
Gibb Sahib 08 Mar 10 - 10:38 AM
Gibb Sahib 08 Mar 10 - 10:22 AM
Charley Noble 08 Mar 10 - 09:52 AM
Gibb Sahib 08 Mar 10 - 09:30 AM
John Minear 08 Mar 10 - 07:07 AM
Gibb Sahib 08 Mar 10 - 06:44 AM
Gibb Sahib 08 Mar 10 - 06:35 AM
Lighter 07 Mar 10 - 10:03 PM
Lighter 07 Mar 10 - 09:59 PM
Gibb Sahib 07 Mar 10 - 09:25 PM
Gibb Sahib 07 Mar 10 - 08:58 PM
Lighter 07 Mar 10 - 07:12 PM
John Minear 07 Mar 10 - 06:00 PM
Gibb Sahib 07 Mar 10 - 05:37 PM
Gibb Sahib 07 Mar 10 - 03:23 PM
John Minear 06 Mar 10 - 09:13 PM
Charley Noble 06 Mar 10 - 08:40 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 06 Mar 10 - 07:57 PM
Lighter 06 Mar 10 - 05:24 PM
John Minear 06 Mar 10 - 04:13 PM
Lighter 06 Mar 10 - 03:24 PM
Charley Noble 06 Mar 10 - 02:47 PM
Lighter 06 Mar 10 - 02:05 PM
John Minear 06 Mar 10 - 01:43 PM
John Minear 06 Mar 10 - 01:41 PM
John Minear 06 Mar 10 - 09:47 AM
Gibb Sahib 06 Mar 10 - 09:24 AM
Charley Noble 06 Mar 10 - 09:08 AM
John Minear 06 Mar 10 - 07:09 AM
John Minear 05 Mar 10 - 10:33 PM
Lighter 05 Mar 10 - 10:17 PM
John Minear 05 Mar 10 - 12:18 PM
Charley Noble 05 Mar 10 - 09:44 AM
Charley Noble 05 Mar 10 - 09:27 AM
Snuffy 05 Mar 10 - 09:23 AM
John Minear 04 Mar 10 - 09:16 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Mar 10 - 08:26 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Mar 10 - 08:11 PM
Charley Noble 04 Mar 10 - 07:59 PM
John Minear 04 Mar 10 - 07:40 PM
John Minear 04 Mar 10 - 07:00 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Mar 10 - 05:17 PM
Charley Noble 04 Mar 10 - 04:04 PM
Amos 04 Mar 10 - 02:59 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Mar 10 - 02:48 PM
John Minear 04 Mar 10 - 02:09 PM
John Minear 04 Mar 10 - 01:54 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Mar 10 - 01:40 PM
Charley Noble 04 Mar 10 - 12:22 PM
John Minear 04 Mar 10 - 11:37 AM
Charley Noble 04 Mar 10 - 08:18 AM
Gibb Sahib 04 Mar 10 - 12:25 AM
John Minear 03 Mar 10 - 04:36 PM
John Minear 03 Mar 10 - 04:32 PM
John Minear 03 Mar 10 - 04:27 PM
John Minear 02 Mar 10 - 11:51 AM
Charley Noble 02 Mar 10 - 10:17 AM
John Minear 02 Mar 10 - 10:08 AM
Charley Noble 01 Mar 10 - 07:57 PM
Lighter 01 Mar 10 - 06:55 PM
Gibb Sahib 01 Mar 10 - 06:10 PM
Gibb Sahib 01 Mar 10 - 06:07 PM
Gibb Sahib 01 Mar 10 - 05:36 PM
John Minear 01 Mar 10 - 03:54 PM
Charley Noble 01 Mar 10 - 03:08 PM
John Minear 01 Mar 10 - 01:16 PM
Lighter 01 Mar 10 - 12:07 PM
Charley Noble 01 Mar 10 - 09:21 AM
John Minear 01 Mar 10 - 07:25 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Feb 10 - 06:07 PM
John Minear 28 Feb 10 - 04:41 PM
Charley Noble 28 Feb 10 - 02:10 PM
John Minear 28 Feb 10 - 01:16 PM
Gibb Sahib 28 Feb 10 - 11:33 AM
Gibb Sahib 27 Feb 10 - 11:01 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Feb 10 - 10:00 PM
Charley Noble 27 Feb 10 - 09:53 PM
John Minear 27 Feb 10 - 09:16 PM
John Minear 27 Feb 10 - 11:36 AM
Charley Noble 27 Feb 10 - 10:52 AM
Gibb Sahib 26 Feb 10 - 11:01 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Feb 10 - 09:36 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Feb 10 - 09:30 PM
John Minear 26 Feb 10 - 09:16 PM
Charley Noble 26 Feb 10 - 08:34 PM
Lighter 26 Feb 10 - 06:34 PM
John Minear 26 Feb 10 - 04:09 PM
John Minear 26 Feb 10 - 12:10 PM
John Minear 26 Feb 10 - 12:05 PM
John Minear 24 Feb 10 - 07:58 AM
John Minear 23 Feb 10 - 10:07 PM
Gibb Sahib 23 Feb 10 - 07:47 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 23 Feb 10 - 04:11 PM
Charley Noble 23 Feb 10 - 03:38 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 23 Feb 10 - 02:59 PM
Charley Noble 23 Feb 10 - 12:15 PM
John Minear 23 Feb 10 - 09:57 AM
Charley Noble 23 Feb 10 - 09:14 AM
John Minear 23 Feb 10 - 08:47 AM
John Minear 22 Feb 10 - 07:42 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Feb 10 - 10:36 PM
Lighter 21 Feb 10 - 08:54 PM
Charley Noble 21 Feb 10 - 08:34 PM
Gibb Sahib 21 Feb 10 - 08:06 PM
John Minear 21 Feb 10 - 04:42 PM
John Minear 21 Feb 10 - 03:54 PM
Gibb Sahib 21 Feb 10 - 03:08 PM
John Minear 21 Feb 10 - 12:10 PM
Charley Noble 19 Feb 10 - 09:34 AM
John Minear 19 Feb 10 - 07:01 AM
Charley Noble 16 Feb 10 - 08:09 PM
Lighter 16 Feb 10 - 07:14 PM
Charley Noble 16 Feb 10 - 03:59 PM
Charley Noble 16 Feb 10 - 10:07 AM
John Minear 15 Feb 10 - 09:34 PM
Lighter 15 Feb 10 - 07:35 PM
Lighter 15 Feb 10 - 07:27 PM
John Minear 15 Feb 10 - 05:46 PM
John Minear 15 Feb 10 - 05:02 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 15 Feb 10 - 02:51 PM
Charley Noble 15 Feb 10 - 02:41 PM
Gibb Sahib 15 Feb 10 - 02:12 PM
John Minear 15 Feb 10 - 12:23 PM
Charley Noble 15 Feb 10 - 12:17 PM
John Minear 15 Feb 10 - 11:56 AM
John Minear 15 Feb 10 - 09:04 AM
John Minear 15 Feb 10 - 08:44 AM
John Minear 15 Feb 10 - 08:40 AM
Charley Noble 14 Feb 10 - 07:58 PM
John Minear 14 Feb 10 - 06:15 PM
Charley Noble 14 Feb 10 - 11:29 AM
Charley Noble 14 Feb 10 - 10:47 AM
John Minear 14 Feb 10 - 09:14 AM
John Minear 13 Feb 10 - 10:02 PM
Lighter 13 Feb 10 - 09:47 PM
Charley Noble 13 Feb 10 - 06:54 PM
John Minear 13 Feb 10 - 05:08 PM
Charley Noble 09 Feb 10 - 06:30 PM
Lighter 09 Feb 10 - 06:19 PM
Charley Noble 09 Feb 10 - 06:01 PM
John Minear 09 Feb 10 - 03:58 PM
John Minear 09 Feb 10 - 11:14 AM
Charley Noble 09 Feb 10 - 09:11 AM
John Minear 09 Feb 10 - 08:52 AM
Charley Noble 09 Feb 10 - 08:22 AM
John Minear 09 Feb 10 - 07:04 AM
Lighter 08 Feb 10 - 05:10 PM
John Minear 08 Feb 10 - 04:53 PM
Charley Noble 08 Feb 10 - 04:26 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 08 Feb 10 - 04:19 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 08 Feb 10 - 02:51 PM
Lighter 08 Feb 10 - 01:32 PM
Charley Noble 08 Feb 10 - 01:16 PM
John Minear 08 Feb 10 - 12:51 PM
John Minear 08 Feb 10 - 10:50 AM
Charley Noble 08 Feb 10 - 08:07 AM
John Minear 08 Feb 10 - 07:48 AM
GUEST,warren fahey 07 Feb 10 - 10:36 PM
Charley Noble 07 Feb 10 - 11:57 AM
John Minear 07 Feb 10 - 11:05 AM
John Minear 07 Feb 10 - 10:50 AM
Charley Noble 05 Feb 10 - 04:27 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 05 Feb 10 - 02:17 PM
Charley Noble 05 Feb 10 - 02:07 PM
John Minear 05 Feb 10 - 12:37 PM
Charley Noble 05 Feb 10 - 09:15 AM
Q (Frank Staplin) 04 Feb 10 - 09:37 PM
John Minear 04 Feb 10 - 09:35 PM
Charley Noble 04 Feb 10 - 08:02 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Feb 10 - 07:42 PM
John Minear 04 Feb 10 - 06:35 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 04 Feb 10 - 04:46 PM
Charley Noble 04 Feb 10 - 03:10 PM
John Minear 04 Feb 10 - 12:33 PM
Lighter 04 Feb 10 - 11:45 AM
Charley Noble 04 Feb 10 - 08:31 AM
John Minear 03 Feb 10 - 10:34 PM
Lighter 03 Feb 10 - 07:40 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 03 Feb 10 - 03:27 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 03 Feb 10 - 03:25 PM
John Minear 03 Feb 10 - 02:57 PM
Charley Noble 03 Feb 10 - 02:18 PM
John Minear 03 Feb 10 - 12:38 PM
Lighter 02 Feb 10 - 11:00 AM
Charley Noble 02 Feb 10 - 09:26 AM
John Minear 02 Feb 10 - 07:14 AM
Charley Noble 01 Feb 10 - 09:11 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 01 Feb 10 - 06:35 PM
Lighter 01 Feb 10 - 04:21 PM
Charley Noble 01 Feb 10 - 03:48 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 01 Feb 10 - 03:22 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 01 Feb 10 - 03:18 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 01 Feb 10 - 03:07 PM
Lighter 01 Feb 10 - 01:15 PM
John Minear 01 Feb 10 - 12:43 PM
John Minear 01 Feb 10 - 12:40 PM
Gibb Sahib 01 Feb 10 - 12:06 PM
John Minear 01 Feb 10 - 11:55 AM
Gibb Sahib 01 Feb 10 - 11:42 AM
Lighter 01 Feb 10 - 10:29 AM
John Minear 01 Feb 10 - 10:11 AM
John Minear 01 Feb 10 - 09:59 AM
John Minear 01 Feb 10 - 08:09 AM
Gibb Sahib 31 Jan 10 - 12:18 PM
Charley Noble 31 Jan 10 - 11:13 AM
Lighter 31 Jan 10 - 11:09 AM
John Minear 31 Jan 10 - 10:31 AM
John Minear 31 Jan 10 - 07:05 AM
Lighter 30 Jan 10 - 09:34 PM
Gibb Sahib 30 Jan 10 - 09:04 PM
Gibb Sahib 30 Jan 10 - 08:55 PM
Gibb Sahib 30 Jan 10 - 08:49 PM
Lighter 30 Jan 10 - 08:42 PM
John Minear 30 Jan 10 - 06:55 PM
Charley Noble 30 Jan 10 - 03:20 PM
John Minear 30 Jan 10 - 02:43 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 30 Jan 10 - 02:19 PM
Gibb Sahib 30 Jan 10 - 01:46 PM
Charley Noble 30 Jan 10 - 12:46 PM
Charley Noble 30 Jan 10 - 11:26 AM
Lighter 30 Jan 10 - 11:24 AM
Lighter 30 Jan 10 - 11:13 AM
John Minear 30 Jan 10 - 08:37 AM
Charley Noble 29 Jan 10 - 04:02 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 29 Jan 10 - 02:14 PM
Charley Noble 29 Jan 10 - 11:54 AM
John Minear 29 Jan 10 - 10:04 AM
John Minear 29 Jan 10 - 09:15 AM
John Minear 28 Jan 10 - 09:59 PM
Rowan 28 Jan 10 - 09:43 PM
Charley Noble 28 Jan 10 - 08:21 PM
John Minear 28 Jan 10 - 06:35 PM
Charley Noble 28 Jan 10 - 04:04 PM
John Minear 28 Jan 10 - 03:09 PM
John Minear 28 Jan 10 - 08:29 AM
Charley Noble 27 Jan 10 - 08:42 PM
John Minear 27 Jan 10 - 06:43 PM
Lighter 27 Jan 10 - 02:49 PM
Charley Noble 27 Jan 10 - 01:51 PM
John Minear 27 Jan 10 - 01:46 PM
Lighter 27 Jan 10 - 12:42 PM
Lighter 27 Jan 10 - 11:14 AM
John Minear 27 Jan 10 - 11:06 AM
Lighter 27 Jan 10 - 10:59 AM
John Minear 27 Jan 10 - 10:56 AM
Charley Noble 27 Jan 10 - 10:02 AM
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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 03 Oct 14 - 08:58 AM

It's been a couple of years since this thread has been aired. Here is some interesting news about Captain B.F. Pond and his ship the "Julia Ann". Martin Andersen has made a movie of the shipwreck of the "Julia Ann" and the subsequent rescue of the survivors. Here is what he says on his Face Book page:

"It is official. My film, "DIVINE PROVIDENCE:The Wreck and Rescue of the Julia Ann" will premier in one week on BYUTV at 5pm Mountain time Sunday October 5. Please tune in. It tells the story of Capt. B.F. Pond and the passengers on his ship who miraculously lived through a shipwreck in the middle of the Pacific in 1855.
Watch it on cable or Satellite TV, or catch it live on the internet at byutv.org."

There has also been a book written about this by Fred Woods. The book and a DVD are available from Amazon:

http://www.amazon.com/Divine-Providence-Wreck-Rescue-Included/dp/1462113656

And here is a bit of background on these projects, with a picture of a painting of "The Wreck of the Julia Ann" by a descendent of Captain Pond, and (finally!) a picture of Benjamin Franklin Pond himself.

http://mormonhistoricsites.org/a-divine-providence-the-wreck-and-rescue-of-the-julia-ann/

I have not yet seen either the movie or the book. I doubt if any chanties will show up in either of these or that there will be any new information about chanties that might have been sung on board the "Julia Ann" in the early 1850's before she was shipwrecked in 1855.

This is an open and ongoing thread and I am still very much interested in any new information that anyone might have about any chanties that can be documented as being sung on sailing ships out of San Francisco bound for Sydney, Australia between 1850 and 1855. You will have to scroll up a bit to see what our conclusions were in the previous research done on this thread. The documented evidence was very scant to non-existent. But that doesn't mean that it is not out there yet to be discovered!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 10 Dec 11 - 11:56 AM

John-

Thanks for the update. Gibb is definitely doing some heavy lifting when it comes to researching the origin of shanties and deserves everyone's support. I've been quite impressed with his dedication and research skills, not to mention his singing.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 10 Dec 11 - 09:25 AM

Here's a good song sung by John Tompson from his blog "An Australian Folk Song a Day." It's called "Old Sydney Town."

http://ozfolksongaday.blogspot.com/2011/12/old-sydney-town.html


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 02 Nov 11 - 08:44 AM

If you have found your way to, and through(!) this thread then you are definitely interested in sea chanties and their history. I want to recommend to you a new blog from our friend, Gibb, called "Wild Chants With Doggerel Words":

http://shantiesfromthesevenseas.blogspot.com/

It looks like this blog is going to bring together the fantastic collection of sung/performed chanties from Stan Hugill's collection that Gibb has been doing on YouTube over the last several years, and his in depth historical research that he has been doing here on Mudcat, on this thread, but especially on his "Advent and Development" thread, along with a bunch of others. This looks like another huge project, so check it out and give him your support.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: GUEST,Bob Walser
Date: 18 Jul 11 - 12:27 PM

Re: Meacom, FYI: The New England Historical and Genealogical Register lists him thus: Capt. George Meacom, sea captain, born 6 June 1839 in Beverly, Mass. Died 28 Nov. 1908 in Dorchester. Mass.

click here - Google Books

I wonder if anyone has located the original publication of this letter in the _Boston Transcript_. It would likely predate his 1908 demise and Whidden's book of the same year - but by how much?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 31 May 11 - 10:27 AM

About a year before the final voyage of the "Julia Ann", on December 3 of 1854, at Ballarat, in Victoria, Australia, the gold miners rebelled at the Eureka Stockade. Here is some history:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eureka_Rebellion

And here is a fine song, "The Cross of the South", sung by John Thompson commemorating the event:

http://ozfolksongaday.blogspot.com/2011/05/cross-of-south.html


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: EBarnacle
Date: 20 Mar 11 - 08:12 PM

The posts from 4 February of last year referring to the embargo are a specific reference to the American embargo on the importation of slaves. The United States had a small fleet of gunboats on the slave coast, many of which were built locally built. To the best of my knowledge, the last one was still in existence in the late 1980's and took part in New York's OPSail '86 as Stargate, registered in the Carolinas.

After being sold out of the service, she was converted to a merchant ship and worked for 86 years, until she was driven ashore in a storm and silted in.

Shane Granger rescued her from the sand bank in the late 70's or early 80's and fixed her up, sailing her from Dakar, Senegal to Brazil, thence to the US.

My understanding is that she was finally run up a creek and abandoned. This is despite the fact that she was built of African mahogany and rosewood, which would have sold for a significant amount as recycled timber at the time.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 20 Mar 11 - 11:57 AM

My apologies to Ruaidhri for making B.F. Pond "Captain" of the "Julia Ann" a bit prematurely in my St. Patrick's Day posting above. Ruaidhri is absolutely right that it was C.B. Davis who was the "Captain" of her on the second voyage, which was the one that brought John Mitchel to San Francisco. On the first two voyages, Pond traveled as "super cargo" (is that the proper term?) representing the owners. He is listed as "Master"/"Captain" on the third and fourth voyages. In addition to the reference above in Mitchel's Jail Journal, which says,

"We were made as comfortable on board the Julia Ann as the narrowness of the accommodations and crowd of passengers admit Capt. Davis, of Newport, Rhode Island, is our commander; and owner, Mr. Pond, of New York,is also on board." (p. 197),

here are two links to early postings in this thread where I made this a little more clear:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=650#2808140

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=650#2810350

[This discussion continues in subsequent postings following the one above.]

Welcome to our ongoing discussion Ruaidhri. We are very glad and honored to have a direct descendent of Captain Davis as a participant. My first question to you is, of course, do you know of any chanties being sung on board the "Julia Ann" on that second voyage? Or, do you know of any chanties being sung at all in the first half of the 1850's in either California or Sydney? And, do you have any family history that talks about any chanties being sung on any of Captain Davis' voyages? We are looking for all of these things here.

Your question about the ship's name is a new one. I think if you follow the links in the early postings on this thread they will document that it was the "Julia Ann" on the Mitchel voyage and on the later shipwreck voyage. I don't have a good explanation for the apparent discrepancy. It does seem probable that we are talking about one and the same ship and set of voyages. Here is a link to a previous posting that sums up the latest information I have about these four voyages:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=650#2872740

I look forward to hearing more from you.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Ruaidhri
Date: 19 Mar 11 - 08:38 PM

This is my first post on this forum. I joined because of this thread and John Minear's mention of the ship Julia Ann and the rescue of Irish patriot John Mitchel from Australia. My Great Grandfather was Charles Button Davis who was, in fact, the captain of the ship that brought John Mitchel to San Francisco as was mentioned on page 197 of Mitchel's Jail Journal. Mr. Pond was the owner of the ship, not the captain. There has been much family lore about this event. I remember as a child being told that Captain Davis was forced to quit traveling to British ports for fear of being arrested as a Pirate. Where I'm confused is with the name of the ship. Our family history and Captain Davis Tombstone list the name as Julian, not Julia Ann. There were ships with both names at the time of John Mitchel's escape. I expect that Capt. Davis would know the name of his ship and I wouldn't be amazed if John Mitchel got it wrong in his Jail Journal. That would bring into question that the same ship was used to save John Mitchel and later shipwrecked while transporting mormons in 1855.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 17 Mar 11 - 10:59 AM

&hlIn October of 1853, the "Julia Ann" arrived in San Francisco on her second return voyage from Sydney, Australia. She had on board John Mitchel and his family, a famous Irish patriot who had escaped from the penal colony of Van Diemen's Land. Captain Pond and the "Julia Ann" assisted him in this escape. They picked him up in Tahiti on September 13th and brought him to San Francisco. Here is a link to Mitchel's account of this:

http://books.google.com/books?id=9_efAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA197&dq=John+Mitchel+%26+the+%22Julia+Ann%22&hl=en&ei=miCCTZfmLMGcgQfOnpjPCA&s

And here is another account:

http://books.google.com/books?id=FXxmAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA29&dq=John+Mitchel+%26+the+%22Julia+Ann%22&hl=en&ei=miCCTZfmLMGcgQfOnpjPCA&sa

And here is the Wikipedia account of John Mitchel:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Mitchel

Happy St. Patrick's Day!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 05 Mar 11 - 07:03 PM

The wreckage of the "Julia Ann" as been discovered and some archeological recovery work has been going on. Here are a couple of sites that mention this work.

http://articles.latimes.com/1997-03-30/local/me-43550_1_julia-ann

http://famhist.us/histories/julia_ann_articles.html

http://books.google.com/books?id=yP0DAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=wreck+of+the+%22Julia+Ann%22&source=bl&ots=5FwpcMtjxG&sig=Uc15


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Mar 11 - 06:26 PM

That's a lotta leagues from Ushant to Scilly.

We'll chant and we'll roar like South Seas Kanakas....


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 05 Mar 11 - 06:17 PM

James Cook evidently named the "Scilly Islands" of the South Pacific in 1769.

The native names weren't much used in English till the late nineteenth century.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: McGrath of Harlow
Date: 05 Mar 11 - 04:46 PM

...she was ship-wrecked in the South Seas near the Scilly Islands.

So when did the Scilly Islands move from the South Seas to their present position a few miles off the Cornish mainland?

There is an atoll in the Society Islands, Manuae which is sometimes called Scilly Atoll. Could this be where the shipwreck took place?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 05 Mar 11 - 08:00 AM

Gibb, thanks for this info. It is strange, but I believe we've found more information on chanties on the Australian end of the "SF to Sydney" connection than we have on the California end. I haven't gone back over everything here to check this for sure, but it is my impression. It is also my impression that the Australian information is usually located on voyages other than from California. We do know that gold diggers were leaving California and heading to the new gold fields in Australia. And we know that there was developing commerce between California and Australia. But no information on chanties from that direction.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Mar 11 - 05:03 AM

No Frisco here, but it is a memory of chanties sung in 1853 to/from Australia (and Ireland) in gold rush days.

1903        Webb, Alfred. "Sailors' Chanties." _The Irish Monthly_ (January 1903): 37-42.

Irishman Webb heard/sang chanties in 1853 when he was about 19 yrs old, when he went to Australia for his health (and tried his hand at gold digging). Here he recalls three unique versions of the chanties "Cheer'ly Man," "Stormy," and "Bowline." Those three are consistent with what we've established elsewhere as among the most common for the time period.

Fifty years ago I made two long voyages in old wooden sailing ships of the period, of seven hundred and one thousand tons respectively, innocent of double topsails, wire rigging, or modern appliances. Upon the first I took somewhat to sailor work. Upon the second I served with the starboard watch, working on deck and aloft, and in bad weather having to live in the wet clothes and do with the broken rest incident to sailoring. My experiences then will never be forgotten as long as life lasts. …

The first I shall give is "Cheerily, men!" generally used when hoisting the topsail yards after reefing.
[w/ score, in 4/4]

Cheerily men!
Oh upreef'd topsail hi ho!
Cheerily men!
High in the sky, hi ho!
Cheerily men!
Oh! rouse him up, her, hi ho!
Cheerily, men!
Oh! he hi ho,
Cheerily, men!

I remember a second verse. How nonsense and often worse stick in the memory while the better is forgotten:—

    Cheerily men! 

Who stole my jacket, hi ho!
    Cheerily men! 

Sold the pawn ticket, hi ho!
    Cheerily men! 

Oh, that was shameful, hi ho!
    Cheerily men! 

Oh ! he hi ho,
Cheerily men!
...

The next is one of the best known of these chanties, "Storm along."

[w/ score]

I wish I was old Stormy's son.
Storm along, my hearties.
Gathering nuggets all the day,
Storm along, my hearties,
Away, away, away, away.
O'er the roaring seas, my hearties.
Storm along, my hearty boys.
Storm along, my hearties.

No second verses need be given. It will be seen how admirably these chanties are fitted for improvisation. All the performer here has to do, indefinitely to prolong the song, is to think of places where he and his fellows would like to be, and what they would there like to be doing. They can wish to be " in Liverpool town," "drinking whiskey all the day," or "in Erin's Isle," "with my true love all the day," and so on.
....

The third and last of my own recollection I shall give is "Haul the bowline." Different words could be alternated in the second and third bars. It has not been explained why the "bowline" in this and other sea songs is so honoured. It is a rope of secondary importance in the rigging of a vessel, and hauling upon it generally implied the blowing of a contrary wind.

[w/ score]
Haul the bowline, Katey is my darling,
Haul the bowline, the bowline haul!


http://books.google.com/books?id=fskaAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22irish+mo


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 10 Jan 11 - 04:27 PM

I only wish "Frank" Marryat had said more about chanties. It seems he should have had the opportunity to hear them as he traveled to the U.S. However, the example he gives also happens to be the one chanty that his dad emphasized in his own writings. The senior Marryat was a British Navy officer in the 1830s, which is presumably why he didn't note any chanties until he heard "Oh, Sally Brown" off-duty in America.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 10 Jan 11 - 12:31 PM

Here is a note from Gibb over on the "Advent & Development of Chanties" thread with a reference to the singing of "Sally Brown" by sailors in the gold mines of California in 1852. This is an important find! It is one of the very few instances where we have any mention of any chanties being sung in relation to the Gold Rush, from that actual period.

Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib - PM
Date: 10 Jan 11 - 01:48 AM

1855 Marryat, "Frank". _Mountains and Molehills_. London: Longman, Brown, Green. and Longmans.

Marryat is mining at Tuttletown (Tuolumne County) in California during the Gold Rush. It is January 1852.

//
A sailor in the mines is at best a rough and uncomely fellow to the sight; but will you show me anything more pleasing to contemplate than that sturdy fellow there who plies his pickaxe to the tune of " Oh, Sally Brown! " that he may take at night to his sick friend in the tent hard by the luxuries he needs ? The sailors in the mines have been ever distinguished for self-denial; and whenever I see " prim goodness" frown at the rough, careless sailor's oath that will mingle now and then with his " ye-ho ! " I think to myself, " Take out your heart, 'prim goodness,' and lay it by the side of Jack's and offer me the choice of the two, and maybe it won't be yours I'll take, for all that you are faultless to the world's eye."
//

The son of Frederick Marryat would certainly know "Sally Brown."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 16 Nov 10 - 10:31 AM

Gibb, I continue to 'get that feeling" as well. These are some helpful examples. And thanks for that link. There are some other interesting (and early) songs there. It's not clear that they are all "minstrel" pieces in that section. But I can't tell.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 16 Nov 10 - 03:49 AM

Just an idea, though nothing new per se, on "South Australia", which we were discussing once here. I was saying how the song strikes me as "downhome," by which I mean it has the sort of musical style of Southern US music -- the shared tradition of country and popular music that seems to be mixed up with both "folk" music and minstrelsy.

John and I were both imagining hearing a hypothetical 'original' inspiration for South Australia in a Southern or other minstrel song.

http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=126347#2871899

Something like, "In Alabama I was born...amongst the cotton and the corn" -- which would be ripe for parody as "In South Australia I was born...South Australia 'round Cape Horn."

Anyways...before I forgot I just wanted to log in these (other) possibilities for inspiration.

In 1840s, NEGRO SINGER'S OWN BOOK had this version of

WALK JAWBONE, JENNY COME ALONG, IN COME SALLY WID DE BOOTEES ON

(A copyright song)
Sung by Jenkins, Hallet, Cool White and others.

Tune - first part of Cracovienne

In Caroline whar I was born,
I husk de wood, and I chop de corn
A roasted ear to de house I bring,
But de driver cotch me and he sing--
    Walk jawbone, Jenny come along
    In come Sally wide de bootees on,
    Walk jawbone, Jenny come along
    In come Sally wide de bootees on.

A version of "Old Pee Dee," in an 1847 collection, runs:

THE OLD PEE DEE.

In Souf Carolina whar I was born
I husk de wood, an chop de corn,
A roasted ear to de house I bring,
Den de driver kotch me an I sing.
    Ring de hoop, sound de horn,
    I neber seen de like since I was born,
    Way down in the counteree,
    Four or five miles from de ole Pee Dee,

http://books.google.com/books?id=yRkNAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA2-PA269&dq=%22like+since+i+wa

NEGRO SINGER'S also has a song called "Ole John Tyler," which appears to be a variation on "Old Dan Tucker" -- that tune is indicated.

In ole Virginny, whar I whar born
I eat hoe-cake an' hoe de corn;
And Massa Tyler, he not slow
To shew me how to hoe my row....

I am not suggesting that "South Australia" was necessarily a rewrite of any of these songs, just marking the prevalence of the opening line of "In X where I was born." Which, like I said, is nothing new...but it does help me place the feeling that the SA lyrics are "downhome" and not quite "South Australian"!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: GUEST,Katedu
Date: 06 Oct 10 - 09:55 PM

Wow, this is a long thread and I didn't read it all. However, I wanted to respond to the person looking for songs that Hughill wrote were mentioned in a source. I am guessing that he was not infallible and that he indeed might have mis-remembered some things, because I went through "Landsman Hay" with a fine-toothed comb and only found mention of two of the three fiddle tunes Hughill said were in there. It's still possible I missed the third, but I really tried hard to find it!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 17 Sep 10 - 07:10 AM

I wondered about that, too, Lighter. Speaking of Roger Abrahams, I am currently reading another of his books entitled SINGING THE MASTER, THE EMERGENCE OF AFRICAN AMERICAN CULTURE IN THE PLANTATION SOUTH (1992). I've found a couple of references to this book on Mudcat, but not necessarily with regard to its primary focus, which is the "corn-shucking ceremony." Since this ceremony has come up in our discussions here a number of times in relationship to work songs that may be related to chanties or precursors to them, I thought this might be of interest. The book is well written and gives a lot of background on the Southern Plantation system and culture and also on the ways of interaction between master and slave. Abrahams is particularly concerned with how the two groups perceive each other and how the "entertain" each other.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 16 Sep 10 - 07:51 AM

The "Calais to Dover" bit sure doesn't sound local to the West Indies.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 16 Sep 10 - 05:37 AM

Since this thread is still up this morning, I would like to add to the "Sally Brown" collection/discussion. I don't believe that this item has been mentioned. In his book, DEEP THE WATER, SHALLOW THE SHORE, Roger Abrahams has given us "Feeny Brown" (p. 59), from the island of Nevis. We have already looked at "Feeny". But in addition to this he gives two verses from the Barouallie whalers of St. Vincent (p. 117), about the "the whores of Rosebank. His source says:

   "The shanty was made up on the people of Rosebank. He belongs to Barouallie here. He used to be down there fishing. Perhaps he ain' make it up, but he is the first person we heard sing it. Mr. Swaby Fredrick.

   The whores on shore love sailor' man money
   Roll, roll, roll and go.
   Roll and go from Calais to Dover
   (I) spend my money on the whores on shore.

   Those Rosebank whores love sailor's money
   Roll, roll, roll and go.
   Roll and go from Calais to Dover
   (I} spend my money on the whores on shore."

This version is less ambiguous about how one's money is to be spent than some of the more recent versions I have heard. Abrahams says of this song:

   "And, as in every West Indian tradition, there are a few songs of contempt for people in neighboring towns. The following takes aim at the girls of Rosebank, branding them as whores."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 15 Sep 10 - 08:07 AM

Hey, Gibb, good to hear (& see!) from you. I think you have finally managed to clear the Clancy Bros. out of my head with this version of "South Australia". I like the way this one goes on for awhile. At first I felt impatient, and then I found myself settling into it and ended up actually wanting to go do some work. That's pretty good.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 15 Sep 10 - 02:20 AM

RE: The "South Australia" discussion, I finally got around to interpreting Harlow's version.

Harlow's "South Australia"

I think Harlow's version is pretty important to the historiography of the chanty, however I've never hear anyone record it (?)

The lyrics sound like a good portion of them were probably ad libbed, and Harlow probably cobbled together the memory of what he'd heard into something with slightly more narrative coherence.

Ironically, though I have recorded it to give the example of the unique specimen of Harlow, I could not bring myself to sing the melody *exactly* as notated because I think the transcription has some errors -- or more accurately, that it reflects the incidental performance of one time thru a verse, but not necessarily the "ideal" form that most verses would shoot for...if that makes any sense.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 06 Jun 10 - 10:17 AM

I think there are a lot of additional connections that can and will be made between shanties and prison work songs, field songs, riverboat songs, and Appalachian songs and tunes.

I was always intrigued by the occasional Southern Appalachian song such as "Handsome Molly" that resonated sailortown origins but was collected in the those Southern hills and valleys.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 06 Jun 10 - 07:50 AM

In a couple notes that I posted back at the end of February, I mentioned the work of Bruce Jackson, and in particular his book WAKE UP DEAD MAN!, and the CD of some of the music behind that book. I was struck by a comparison between the Southern penitentiary chain-gang songs that he documents and the maritime work songs we call chanties. There seemed to be some common roots of origin. Here are the original notes:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347#2852320

and

thread.cfm?threadid=126347#2852454

I have just come across a video done by Jackson and Pete & Toshi Seeger of these Black chain gang songs on folkstreams.net. You can see it here:

http://www.folkstreams.net/film,122

As we continue to explore the origins and development of sea chanties, I think that this connection to Black work songs is important, both with regard to form and to content.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 21 May 10 - 06:05 PM

That's a great addition, Gibb. Important, too. I like that tune. Maybe it will encourage some new materials out there.

Lighter, I tend to agree with you about "covers" (when did that word enter our musical lexicon?). Which leads me to say that I am always amazed at how "thin" (that's a real technical term) seems to be the "backstory" research on a lot of contemporary (last 50 years) recordings of old songs. Speaking in the broadest of generalizations, it seems to me that many don't go beyond the hearing of someone else's recording. There is some interesting "folk processes" that take place along the way.

I wonder when someone will write a study on the evolution of particular chanties over the past half century. I'll bet that there is not going to be much more documentation on the last fifty years than we've been able to turn up on that fifty year period from 1820-1870! Relatively speaking. Every time I ask "Where did you get that from?" I tend to get inconclusive answers. For a whole lot of varied reasons. I'm thinking of my friend Danny's response on his version of "Shallow Brown". A good honest answer from a good honest and great singer. And that's been the nature of a lot of the folk processes of the last fifty years, it seems to me. Do we really need to know more? Well, I for one would like to know if there is any connection between "Shallow Brown" and "East Virginia" and it's derivatives as far as tunes go. That information might add significantly to our understanding of the historical context for the emergence of "Shallow Brown". Does it come strictly from a Black background or is it possible that it was musically influenced by Southern Appalachian mountain music as well.

I am currently reading that very wonderful book called BLACK JACKS, by W. Jeffrey Bolster about "African American Seamen in the Age of Sail". I am really learning a lot of new stuff from this book. It seems clear to me that the back and forth nature of commerce and sailing along the Eastern Seaboard and around the Chesapeake Bay, etc. certainly provided the opportunity for the intermixing of music and that it's very possible that tunes "leaked" out of the mountains and made their way to the port cities, just as they came off of the plantations and down the rivers. In fact it is often very difficult to determine whether certain songs found along the inland rivers are of White of Black origins, especially when they become instrumental pieces.

Two areas, that are intertwined historically, that we have not really looked at in terms of sources for chanties are first of all these White, Appalachian Mountain songs, and secondly, the whole area of both White and Black religious music. I was fascinated by Bolster's account of the African American preachers/sailors in the Dartmoor Prison during the early 1800's. And he suggests that on board ship, it was the Black sailors who were often more religious. Some chanty tunes must have been influenced by this.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 21 May 10 - 04:58 PM

OK! My attempt at "South Australia" as it appears in SfSS:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSfDiW4sC24


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 21 May 10 - 04:52 PM

The explanation may be that folkies mostly learn their songs from the same recordings.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 21 May 10 - 04:22 PM

Thanks, John!

Stay tuned for a version of the Hugill SSfS melody, which I will put up soon, if only for reference purposes.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 21 May 10 - 02:44 PM

Perhaps it would have been more accurate for me to just say that the "Lloyd" version sure seems to have dominated the recordings of "South Australia", and that I, too, am surprised that there doesn't seem to be recordings using the "earlier" tunes, verses, etc. And I still like your "truck-driving" version as a nice variation on the "revival" melody. And I'm still working on getting the Clancy Bros. and Burl Ives to sit on the shelf long enough so I can hear these songs in a different way. I like both the Clancy's and Ives very much, but I now hear them in a different way as well.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 21 May 10 - 02:18 PM

Disclaimer: I don't want to reify the suggestion that Lloyd's and Laurie/Doerflinger's were necessarily related. It's just a theory. Nor do I want to reify the idea of two tune strains, which is again just a way of working out possibilities. The main thing is that I am surprised that what seems to have been a once-current style of singing the song, never seems to have reared its head in the revival era, even with access to popular texts and even with Hugill's performances.

My old YouTube version is (in the moving truck), again, not based off the "old" (?) melody, but rather off of the commonly established "revival" melody. I had heard Hugill himself sing that melody, and thought that, "Well, oral trumps print." I still think it does, ultimately, but for historical interest I hope that the other version is someday acknowledged.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 21 May 10 - 01:12 PM

It's interesting to me how influential the "Laurie/Doerflinger-Lloyd/Howard" tune (and some verses) has been over the last 50+ years. I did a quick cruise through the fifty options on I-Tunes for "South Australia" and I think that every one of them uses this tune. The variations tend to be in speed and accompaniment choices. It was almost possible for me keep moving down the list and not miss a beat! It is a rousing good song in this version, but it's curious to me that the modern shanty culture has not been more varied in its approach to this song. Why hasn't the "other" tune strain been tried, to say nothing of the words offered by Smith and Harlow? I'm not saying that the I-Tunes list is exhaustive, and there may well be many versions out there that I haven't heard. I would be interested in what they might be and who did them.

One of the aspects of trying to re-imagine what was happening in the 1850's is to try to get as "true" a version as possible. In this case I mean "true to the time and place" of either SF or Sydney in the middle of the 19th century. It has been a steady learning experience for me to discover and separate out what I would call contemporary shanty culture interpretations from what might have been more "true" earlier on. In other words I seriously doubt that anybody was singing the "South Australia" version we know and love back then. They may have been singing Harlow's version in the 1870's and perhaps Laura Smith's version as well. But maybe not the "L/D-L/H" version.

I recognize that my idea of "true" is full of potential headaches and I mean it to be taken lightly, please. And I like Gibb's "truck-driving" version of this song (although I can't quite tell if he's in a truck or not.) Here:

http://www.youtube.com/user/hultonclint#p/c/58B55DD66F22060C/100/s65rUw-Z2Og


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 20 May 10 - 10:00 PM

Lighter,
Yes! Those are the correspondences I am talking about. The similarity in tune --similar enough (less melodious or not) to be considered of the same strain IMO -- between Lloyd's and Laurie/Doerflinger's, along with the correspondence of heave-haul --conspicuously absent elsewhere, and unlikely in the first place -- are the connections. I am not looking at solo verses. We don't know what Ted Howard sang like, so my suggestion is that, while Lloyd may have heard him sing the song and took some solo verses from him, that the Doerflinger text may have been the source for Lloyd to fuller re-construct the song.

It's again a matter of interpretation, but mine is that tunewise Lloyd and Doerflinger are similar enough and all other documented versions are different enough from those (but similar to each other), that either there were two distinguishable melody strains for "South Australia" (with one of them independently appearing in both the case of Laurie and Ted Howard) or that Laurie/Doerflinger's independent appearance was a "deviation" (I use the term rhetorically only) that got continued through Lloyd's adapting it.

As for the other tune strain, independent attestations of the same type of tune by LA Smith and Harlow establish it.

I can imagine other scenarios, but this one is ringing most true to me right now.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 20 May 10 - 09:02 PM

Gibb, Doerflinger gives one stanza only ("...born,...Horn"). The chorus includes both "heave" and "haul," but the tune is a bit less melodious than Barry/Lloyd.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 20 May 10 - 08:14 PM

Yes, of course Hugill varied the stanzas -- I would imagine it would be contrary to his sensibilities not to. To me, it is not the exact form so much as specific earmarks that betray influences. But, to clarify: if I had to guess, I don't think he consciously adopted a version of this or that. (So I don't think conscience, clear or otherwise, is an issue so much.) I think that the "revival" version(s) -- earmarked especially by tune features and such lyrical features as "Nancy Blair" and the combination of "heave" and "haul" -- had become the generally accepted way of rendering the song. I'd have to go back, but I do seem to remember that the earlier collected versions had melodies (with the exception of the one in Doerflinger -- I don't have my books with me) that were more like Hugill's book version.

I am not really surprised that the dominant "revival" version would influence Hugill's performance by the late 70s-90s, but it is curious there has not been more *acknowledgment* (to my knowledge), either by Hugill or others, that the "original" form was appreciably different.

I also find it worth further investigation that the tune that Lloyd ostensibly got from Ted Howard is like Laurie's in Doerlinger (along with heave+haul) yet unlike the others. This could all just be wacky coincidence, and I know that people tend to be releuctant to put borders around musical forms. I happen to think it is possible to distinguish versions. And if the versions do break down the way I claim, then it suggests that 1) Lloyd's version may have owed more to his reading of Doerflinger than to Ted Howard; and/or 2) Hugill's text version might have reflected the influence of print versions (e.g. LA Smith), rather than being a transcription of his singing.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 20 May 10 - 06:50 PM

As for the tune, my guess is that Hugill just liked it better. Since Lloyd wrote that it came from an old sailor, Hugill could sing it with a clear conscience.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 20 May 10 - 06:39 PM

The "revival" version of "South Australia" was recorded by Lloyd & MacColl on "Blow, Boys, Blow," ca1961.

Lloyd's note says he got it from "Ted Howard, of Barry."

Hugill sings Barry/Lloyd's tune but varies the stanzas somewhat. The ones about "blind drunk" and "lizards, flies, and sand" don't appear either in Shanties from the Seven Seas or in Lloyd's version. Hugill sang them at Mystic in 1988, however, to the Barry/Lloyd tune.

Harlow has,

South Australia is my native land,
Mountains rich in quartz and sand.

It's hard to know what to make of this resemblance.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 20 May 10 - 05:13 PM

Just FYI a kind Dutchman just posted up excerpts of Stan Hugill's performances at Workum in 1990. (I know that much of this was already up, on Joe Stead's YouTube, but these are a bit more complete.)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQu7YHAYEfk

The first excerpt reminds me again of the "South Australia issue" -- Hugill's performance here owes much to the "Nancy Blair" revival version (which may have been largely influenced by he version in Doerflinger). The melody is unlike what he gives in his own book -- and which I've never heard performed.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 04 May 10 - 04:05 PM

John-

Glad you were able to make the connection with Danny Spooner. He is a wealth of information with regard to what he sings.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 04 May 10 - 01:40 PM

I heard back from Danny Spooner on his "Shallow Brown" and this is what he had to say:

"someone showed me your mudcat discusions about shanties - very interesting stuff well done - I am pretty sure I would have got Shallow Brown from Bob but as I think I've said before I don't sing songs they sing me and it is quite possible that the tune version I use has recreated itself over the years. I always felt that there are hints of the Shenandoar tune here."

He also sent along this interesting bit of information on "The Jolly Wagoner" which was used as a pumping shanty at one point.

"Somewhere in you correspondences 16th Jan 10 you mention The Jolly Waggoner and English folksong the tune of which was used by the goldfields entertainer Charles Thatcher for a goldfields ditty he created called the Jolly Puddlers. Puddling was a method of gold seeking used in Oz."

Thanks, Danny.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 02 May 10 - 10:23 PM

You're right, Charlie. I should try to catch up with Danny and ask him about his version of "Shallow Brown". I'll get an email off to him soon.

As I thought about this some more I realized that I may be confusing "East Virginia" with "Man of Constant Sorrow". I've always thought there was a link between these two songs. The "Constant Sorrow" piece got quite a bit of over exposure with "O Brother", and that version is not what I have in mind, although John Hartford's instrumental version on the sound track is close. I'm hearing something closer to the folk revival (not Dylan) versions, like that of Baez.

The man singing "Shallow Brown" in the song certainly had a constant sorrow! And he may well have been from E. Virginia as well. You can go to Amazon's Mp3 page on "Constant Sorrow' and hear a clip of the Hartford piece, or you can hear it at ITunes.

According to the Wikipedia article on 'Man of Constant Sorrow", Charles Wolfe suggested that the tune may be borrowed from an Old Regular Baptist hymn called "Wandering Boy". I think that Roscoe Holcomb sings this hymn on John Cohen's movie documentary "The High Lonesome Sound". Here's some background on that:

http://www.southernspaces.org/contents/2008/matthews/1j.htm


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 02 May 10 - 11:07 AM

John-

Here's a link to Danny Spooner's website: Click here for website

There's a contact link within the website and I'm sure Danny would be happy to explain the origin of his version of "Shallow Brown." Several of his songs were learned from Bob Roberts (last sailing barge skipper) when Danny was working with him as a deckhand many years ago.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 02 May 10 - 10:56 AM

On his album "We'll Either Bend Or Break Her", Danny Spooner sings a very interesting version of "Shallow Brown". This is an old album but it may be available from Dick G. at CAMSCO. Danny's tune is somewhat unique, which I only realized when I put it in the midst of a whole bunch of other versions. I have never asked Danny about his version of this song and how it came together for him, so I don't know the history of this particular version. He will be in the DC area this week for a few concerts. If anybody sees him you might ask him. He's great.

Danny has a verse that goes:

   "Bound away to old Virginia,
       Shallow, Oh, Shallow Brown.
   Love you well, my Julianna,
       Oh, Shallow, Oh, Shallow Brown.

When I heard this verse, something clicked for me. I realized that the lead part of his tune is very close to "I Was Born In East Virginia". As I say, I don't know the history of Danny's version, but I found this intriguing. Of course, there are many ways to sing "East Virginia", from a very slow, old time mountain way in a minor key to a very fast bluegrass way in a major key, with everything in between. The Carter Family did a major re-working of it. Go to the Mp3 section of Amazon if you want to hear more than you probably want to hear of "East Virginia". All of the classics are there for this song. Unfortunately I can't find any links to Danny's song.

Danny's "Shallow Brown" is in a minor key. I don't know whether it's just Danny's version that seems related to "East Virginia" or whether the music folks can hear a relationship in other versions of "Shallow Brown". And I don't know the age of "East Virginia", but my sense is that the "mountain" version(s) have been around for a long time.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 01 May 10 - 07:33 AM

I want to call attention to Gibb's excellent listings of all of the songs that we have been able to find so far, with references, by decade and as a set list to compare with what we know today. You will find all of this over on the "Advent & Development of Chanties" thread beginning here:

thread.cfm?threadid=128220&messages=281#2897809

I want to thank him for doing this very good summary. When you look at his last "set list", it is amazing that there are 47 documented songs on there that we know today. That means songs with some lyrics that are familiar. It is also very interesting what is *not* on there. Three that stand out in my mind are "South Australia", "Shallow Brown", and "Banks of the Sacramento". The search goes on.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 29 Apr 10 - 09:03 PM

Lighter-

"Blow Boys Blow" certainly has as one of its major themes a menu of to my tastes weird things to eat.

I'm also not sure of what Sheep "spunks" might be unless they are related to "Rocky Mountain Oysters." I've also wondered about such things as a "Donkey's cropper" or "Salt fish color or sand lice liver." There are some things that it is better left to the imagination in folk songs.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 29 Apr 10 - 07:56 PM

Sharp prints an unusual shanty that he calls "What is in the Pot a-Boiling? (Pulling Chanty)" that bears some vague resemblance to "Rolling John." Sharp collected it in 1914 from H. C. Alison of Perth .

The tune is a lot like the usual "Sally Brown" tune.

What is in the pot a-boiling?
O row, heave and go.
Two sheep's spunks and an apple dumpling.
O row, heave and go.

Resemblances: "Sally" tune connection and "Sally" in the Savannah version. Sally's "Roll and go" could have become "Rolling John." Food lyrics as in "Blow, Boys, Blow," one line of which appears in RJ. A repeat chorus in this and in RJ.

Flimsy yes, but just enough connection to allow a clear conscience while you sing "Rolling John" to Sharp's tune, ad libbing as you go.

I won't guess at the meaning of sheep's "spunks." "Sheep-shanks," on the other hand, would reasonably be boiled.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 29 Apr 10 - 01:19 PM

The tune is not exactly what we're used to hearing, but recognizably close..

Sharp describes Perrey as an American, "the son of Irish immigrants. He is a typical chanty-man of the old school, having spent upwards of forty years in sailing ships. I came across him in the S.S. _St. Paul_ on my return from America in 1915."

So Perrey presumably went to sea in the 1870s.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 29 Apr 10 - 12:49 PM

Switching for a moment from "Shallow" back to "Sally Brown," I don't think I've put this reference up before. It is from THE NEW ZEALAND RAILWAYS MAGAZINE, February 1, 1930. It is about a Maori seaman who had been a Second Mate on board the "Postboy" schooner. He says, " I was at Sydney in her in the Fifties, when everyone was going mad over the gold-diggings in Victoria and America." He sings a verse of his favorite chanty, which just happens to be "Sally Brown" being a bright mulatto and drinking her rum and chewing her tobacco.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-Gov04_10Rail-t1-body-d9-d1-d6.html

I think that this probably locates "Sally Brown" in Sydney in the 1850's.

If you Google (not Google Books) "Sally Brown was a bright mulatto", you will find a whole lot of very sad history about a whole bunch of "Sally Browns" who were mulatto slaves. There seem to be numerous historical records.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 29 Apr 10 - 12:40 PM

I wondered about "Jenny's toe" as well!

Thanks, Lighter, for the Perrey version of "Shallow Brown". The steamboat reference is interesting, as well as the "No more work on plantation" verse. Does Sharp give a tune and is it the fairly standard one or wildly different?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 29 Apr 10 - 11:38 AM

John, collected by Sharp from "Mr. Harry Perrey (age 61) on board the American liner S.S. St. Paul, July 21, 1915." From Journal of the Folk-Song Society (Nov., 1916), p. 302:

SHALLOW BROWN
(I'm Going Away to Leave You)

Pulling Chanty

I'm going away to leave you,
Shallow, O Shallow Brown.   
I'm going away to leave you,
Shallow, O Shallow Brown.

[Similarly:]

Get my clothes in order.

The steam-boat sails to-morrow.

I'm bound away for Georgia.

No more work on plantation.

I'll cross the wide Atlantic.

I'll cross the Chili mountains.

To pump them silver fountains.

Sharp adds this note to the final verse: "[i.e., work the silver mines]" Perrey may have suggested this interpretation, but there seems to be no way to know. If he did, it would seem to be extraordinarily metaphorical for a shanty.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 29 Apr 10 - 11:14 AM

Just read the 1990s ref. note that what Jenny "in all probability" shook in the 1830s was not her toe but another part whose name must have been derived from an African word.

Jeez! Jenny (an imaginary character) could have shook anything she wanted, including and not limited to her toe, depending on who was doing the singing and to whom.

With a little determination, "hidden sexual meanings" are findable everywhere. Whose mind the hidden meaning originates in is another story.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 29 Apr 10 - 07:29 AM

Here's a link to the notes for Peggy Seeger's album "Heading for Home", which has "Jenny" Gone Away" (scroll down). These notes are by Joe Hickerson. This is a nice summary.

http://www.peggyseeger.com/listen-buy/heading-for-home/heading-for-home-notes

And here is a nice memorial site for the late Carlie Tart of Benson, NC:

http://tartpottery.com/


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 29 Apr 10 - 07:13 AM

Charlie, thanks for that "North Carolina Folklore" reference. I came across a snippet on that but couldn't access it and couldn't tell from the snippet anything about it. I'm adding it to my pile of stuff to haul to the UVA library one day soon.

Speaking of which, has anybody looked at the article mentioned by Hugill found in the "Journal" of the Folk Song Society that gives the "Shallow Brown" verse collected by Piggott about

    "'l'll cross the Chili mountains,
    To pump the silver fountains,..."

Isn't H.E. Piggott the one who helped collect the Perring version with Grainger? And are there additional verses in "Journal" article, or any information?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 28 Apr 10 - 08:35 AM

Here's the reference on Charley's "Rollin' John". It's part of the WPA project and someone will have to make a trip to the library on this one.

http://books.google.com/books?id=00QTAAAAYAAJ&q=%22Rollin'+John,+O+Rollin'+John&dq=%22Rollin'+John,+O+Rollin'+John&cd=1

Piecing together a couple of snippets, here is what I can get:

"...the work. It is this song whith its happy lilt that the plantation owner insisted upon rather than the plaintive melody of the religius song. And so today as the Negro works, he sings that song of by-gone days:

             "Rollin' John, O Rollin' John
             Rollin' John come roll me over
             Sally O Gal.

    The modern Negro's cultural interests are a natural continuation of his early ones; and in the more practical aspects of life he has followed the same trends. Building upon the foundation made during slavery, the Negro soon developed...."

This was collected in Savannah in the 1930's.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 28 Apr 10 - 08:18 AM

Gibb-

Hill-up, boys, hilo" you quoted? I wonder what was Southern's source...

No, in short. I have a copy of Southern's book in my library but the source is only identified in general terms. But I did find the surfacing of these "shanty terms" in plantation songs interesting to say the least.

I also first heard "Genny's Gone to Ohio" (evidently its proper title) as recorded on The New Golden Ring "Five Days of Singing Vol. 1 as recorded by Folk Legacy, © 1971. According to the album notes the connection between this song and the sea shanty "Tom's Gone to Hilo" and "southern Negro corn-shucking and dance songs appears in NORTH CAROLINA FOLKLORE, Vol. 15, no. 1, May, 1967; the song was collected by Phil Kennedy from Carli Tart in Benson, North Carolina in the early 1960's.

So all the extended discussion by Hugill and others about the meaning of "Hilo" may amount to less than a hill of beans or a pile of corn husks.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 27 Apr 10 - 11:23 PM

Here's a recent re-write of "Jenny" with a "traditional" tune:

http://books.google.com/books?id=gfh0Ki1uwMwC&pg=PA68&dq=%22Jenny's+gone+to+Ohio&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Jenny's%20gone%20to%20Ohio&

And here's a clip of Peggy Seeger singing this:

http://www.peggyseeger.com/listen-buy/heading-for-home/9-Jennys-Gone-Away.mp3/view?searchterm=None

But I've not been able to find anything earlier or a direct connection with "Jenny's Gone Away". I think this song was also recorded by New Golden Ring. Five Days Singing - Vol. I, and I believe Joe Hickerson had something to do with reviviing it. I doubt if this has anything to do with it:

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/mussm:@field(NUMBER+@band(sm1871+12651))


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Apr 10 - 10:54 PM

Charlie--

Do you have any more detail on the "Hill-up, boys, hilo" you quoted? I wonder what was Southern's source, so we can track down the original, or at least a date and place/context.

Also, any sources for "Jenny's Gone to Ohio"? Thanks.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 27 Apr 10 - 10:10 PM

John-

Hugill goes on to say, "C.F. Smith sees in it a resemblance to "Shallow Brown."

Maybe Hugill was confusing C. Fox Smith with L. A. Smith?

And there is a land version of "Johnny's Gone to Hilo" titled "Jenny's Gone to Ohio." Lord only knows which one was first but they both probably sprung to life as plantation songs.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 27 Apr 10 - 05:57 PM

I found Hugill's version of "Goodbye, My Love, Goodbye" late in the day yesterday. He doesn't say where it comes from. He does say, "Tozer and Colcord give a version, the former giving a set of very sentimental verses which I feel sure have been made up."(p.118/'61) The Colcord version comes straight out of Alden's article. I don't have the Tozer version and I'm wondering if it has anything to do with the one in THE CRUISER.

Hugill goes on to say, "C.F. Smith sees in it a resemblance to "Shallow Brown." Am I missing something here? I can't find any reference to this song in C.F. Smith's A BOOK OF SHANTIES, nor does she give "Shallow Brown." What is Hugill talking about here?   

I also wanted to refer up thread to this note:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=596#2893970

There is a reference there to:

"Another very pretty and pathethic tune began with words that seemed to promise something sentimental -

    "Fare you well, and good-by, oh, oh!
    I'm goin' away to leave you, oh, oh!"

This is from Fanny Kemble's JOURNAL OF A RESIDENCE ON A GEORGIAN PLANTATION IN 1838-1839. This sounds like it is connected to either "Shallow Brown" or "Goodbye, My Love, Goodbye," or some predecessor, since this is a much earlier date. It is in the same source that mentions "Jenny Gone Away" and the phrase from a "wailing chorus" that went "Oh! My massa told me, there's no grass in Georgia." This was a lamentation about the threat and worry about being sold away to Georgia.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 27 Apr 10 - 07:21 AM

That's certainly a spirited version of "Hilo, Boys."

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 27 Apr 10 - 07:15 AM

It looks like we can add "The Saucy Arabella" to our list of songs that *could* have been sung on board the "Julia Ann" in 1853-1855, thanks to Lighter's work on this.

Also, I would add "Hilo, Boys, Hilo." See this commentary by Gibb over at the A&D thread:

thread.cfm?threadid=128220&messages=272#2895063

Here is the original source:

http://books.google.com/books?id=WlhUsSH4QeUC&pg=PA282&dq=%22Hilo,+Boys,+Hilo%22&cd=6#v=onepage&q=%22Hilo%2C%20Boys%2C%20Hilo%22


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 07:40 PM

Nothing on Perring's career, so far as I can tell.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 07:26 PM

Not very enlightening, but since it's the Gulf of Mexico probably not a coincidence:

"Afloat with a Florida Sponger," Littell's Living Age (July 25, 1885), p. 250:

"When a sponge comes up bearing a 'bud' of good size, this is broken off and thrown back. It sinks and survives, but is said not to become affixed to a rock but to drift about on the bottom with the motion of any storm or any current that may stir it. It increases in size, but easily eludes the grasp of the clumsy hooks that try to pick it up. These outcasts...are called 'rolling Johns' by the fishermen."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 07:05 PM

Thanks for this information, Lighter. Do we have any "at sea" details on Perring?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 06:53 PM

The website lyrics are not quite as Grainger published them in the Journal of the Folk-Song Society (May, 1908), p. 241:

Shallow Brown
(Hauling Shanty)

_Slowly, plaintively, and dramatically_

(1) Shallow Brown, you're going to leave me.
Shallow, Shallow Brown.
Shallow Brown, you're going to leave me.
Shallow, Shallow Brown.

(2) Shallow Brown, don't ne'er deceive me. (twice)

(3) You're going away across the ocean. (twice)

(4) But you'll ever be my heart's devotion. (twice)

(5) For your return my heart is burning. (twice)

(6) When you return, we'll then get married. (twice)

(7) I'll not regret I ever tarried. (twice) etc.

My guess is that the "etc." merely reflects the idea - possibly suggested by informant Perring - that one might ad lib in a similar vein as long as necessary. "SB" is the only shanty in Grainger's article that ends this way.

All of Grainger's musical transcriptions are unusually detailed as to the singer's ornaments, variations, changes in volume, and so on.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 04:01 PM

"Shallow Brown" Part 9 A Not-Conclusion

Let's start with the Percy Grainger piece, which you can enjoy here:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nL5G9C59Iao

Then we have June Tabor's version:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pajekD3l3to&feature=related

Here is Gibb's version of the Ellison/Sharp/Hugill (d) version:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4xINqWqFQk

Now we come to the Short/Sharp version, or what I've come to think of as Gibb's "Etc" version":

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0BbOxdiOWY&feature=related

And here is Gibb's version of "Hilo, Boys, Hilo". Hugill suggested that the tune for the verse part of the previous version comes from this.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZuPN75c-PVk

Along with this, I want to put up Gibb's version of "Tom's Gone To Hilo":

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BPiVETIBcxA

This one might be closer to "Shallow Brown":

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZhPONLh5TyY&feature=related

And here's "Blow, Boys, Blow":

http://www.youtube.com/user/hultonclint#p/c/58B55DD66F22060C/114/Mv0H5yar2CA

Guess what. That song "Goodbye, My Love, Goodbye" is in print! Right there on pages 118-119 in Hugill ('61). It's grog time of day! Here's the one and only Gibb:

http://www.youtube.com/user/hultonclint#p/a/58B55DD66F22060C/50/HC5FEdl8zbs


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 03:12 PM

I want some of that Solomon Gundy stuff! BTW, that Walkers Wood brand is very good if you ever want to buy jerk sauce/seasoning. I've tried lots of bottled stuff labelled as jerk sauce, but this is one brand available in the States that is actually very good!

----

Back on topic.

Sorry my brain cannot go deep into the shallows of Ms. Brown right now -- forgive the surface-y comments. Along those lines,

Those are definitely 2 different songs that Alden presents. The 1876 reference is excellent because it corroborates "Goodbye My Love" as a current song. Alden's different text, with tune, suggests that (so far as we don't see it anywhere else) it is an authentic example. THE CRUISER, at first glance, looks like a derivative + contrived bit, but I have not examined that source closely.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 02:51 PM

Ah, yes, Solomon Gundy. Here you go:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solomon_Gundy
It's strong stuff! But with the rum and the Red Stripe....


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 02:51 PM

Gibb, the extra "r" in (some) English "dialect spellings" does usually have a meaning. It means that the preceding vowel is sustained or the syllable is emphatic.

Christopher Robin said, "He's Winnie-ther-Pooh. Don't you know what _ther_ means?"

An American would likely have written "Winnie-THE-Pooh" and "what THE means."

And I agree it would take some doing to sing "Rolling John" to the "Blow, Boys, Blow" tune. Stanzas from "Blow, Boys, Blow" (if indeed that's where they originated) and "Sally Brown" were among the most ubiquitous "floaters" of all, so my guess is that they got stuck into "Rolling John" arbitrarily.

If "RJ" was common enough to be reported independently three times (the "Maine" version may ultimately have come from Clark's book), I suspect the tune may be findable. Will look a little further.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 02:41 PM

Gibb, it is so important to stay loose with this stuff. The temptation to read back into the past what we think we know for sure today is unconsciously and perhaps consciously overwhelming at times.

Here is Part 8 for "Shallow Brown"

And it has to do with Henry Alden's version. In the link above, if you scroll up you will see that there are two parts to what Alden presents. The question is, do we have two different songs here, as both L. Smith and Colcord would have us believe, or do we have two parts to the same song, or perhaps two different versions of the same song? Smith completely leaves out the first part. Colcord presents it as a separate song. Both are derivative from Alden, and not independent sources.   Here is what Alden says:

"Closely resembling them, but nevertheless advancing a step in the direction of windlass songs, were those pulling songs which consisted of four lines instead of two, the words of both the choruses being the same, but the melody of each being different. Of these the two following were often heard:

    I'm bound away to leave you.
    Good-by, my love, good-by.
   I never will deceive you.
    Good-by, my love, good-by.
   Come get my clothes in order,
    Shallow, Shallow, Brown.
   The packet sails tomorrow.
    Shallow, Shallow, Brown."    [The second comma is interesting.]

You will notice that these are the first two verses of Robinson's version, but that he does not have "Good-by, my love, good-by". From his comments, it would seem that Alden is presenting two different examples, although they are printed as a continuous song. In fact, the first part did circulate independently. See this closely parallel example from a fictional piece entitled "Marcia's Fortune" from the THE CENTURY ILLUSTRATED of 1876, which is six years prior to the Alden article.

http://books.google.com/books?id=E5Wk8R742GkC&pg=PA860&dq=%22I'm+bound+away+to+leave+you&lr=&cd=4#v=onepage&q=%22I'm%20bound%20a

And, from THE CRUISER, 1908, we have this song:

http://books.google.com/books?id=bIgCAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA328&dq=%22Good-bye,+my+love,+good-bye&cd=4#v=onepage&q=%22Good-bye%2C%20my%20

I've not been able to find any more information about this song, but I have a sense that it was written and printed somewhere. My guess is that it existed independently of "Shallow Brown" and perhaps preceded it, and shaped it. I would say that it is *a* source, or an influence. I would be interested to know what you music people make out of the tune in Alden, especially in comparison with the tune that follows for his "Shallow Brown".

Given the fractured nature of our records, it seems impossible to stitch together much of a coherent line of development for "Shallow Brown". I think a lot has fed into it. One could also mention that the Harlowe version looks to have been influenced by "Highland Laddie" or "Tom's Gone to Hilo", and the version in Davis and Tozer has at least one verse from "Haul Away, Joe".

The earliest written date we have is Alden and it presents an enigma. The earliest possible dating we can posit is the Short version and it lands us right in the middle of a very fluid situation with "Blow, Boys, Blow." I'm not going to try at this point to weave all of this together, but I would welcome some other attempts. The "Shallow Brown" that we end up with and know so well is unique and distinct from all of these other sources. Did it emerge whole or did it emerge bit by bit, or does it ever make any sense to make such a distinction.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 02:30 PM

Grog break: Solomon Gundie, 1964 Jamaican ska! (it's the B-side)


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 02:23 PM

the nursery rhyme "Soloman Grundy" (was this nursery rhyme named after the Jamaican condiment or vice-versa?)

I've never heard of the condiment! :) However, I am sure the nursery rhyme was also prevalent in Jamaica. My basis for that inference is that there is a Jamaican popular song from the Ska era (circa 1963-65) that has the rhyme, "Solomon Gundy" (no R). And, based on how I know those ska songs to have been constructed, I'd say people were probably singing the rhyme in earlier Jamaican "folk" songs, too.

Excellent song for dancing, BTW. I'll look for a version online...


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 02:13 PM

John, I wouldn't expect the "post-vocalic 'r'" to be pronounced very audibly, if at all, by English or Northeast and Deep South singers in either "Shanandore" or "Shaller."

I agree. The R seems mostly to be a visual thing, in fact (I think you've said that before, too).

I've come to interpret most of these R's as a dialect writer's code. There is a paradox, in that when England-English (and maybe Deep South??) is being represented, an R is put there as if to tell you precisely the opposite -- no R is being pronounced!

To cite a contemporary example, I have an album of a Indo-British singer. He is singing in Punjabi. The liner notes transcribe his lyrics in a really horrible (phony) "phonetic" way. Every Punjabi word that ends in a vowel sound has been spelled with an R on the end. For example, the Punjabi word "de" ("give"), rather than being rendered precisely as /de/ or approximately as /day/ (as an American probably would), has been given as /there/ (the "th" is another mis-hearing and a separate issue!). Ridiculous. And "there" would only approximate the Punjabi word when read and spoken by a London-ish speaker. Likewise, many of these dialect spelling for shanties are intended to be "heard" with the eyes of an England English speaker...a slippery slope of pronunciation confusion!!

So, when I see R, I assume it is "London dialect spelling" or else it just means there is a vowel/dipthong on the end that is, nonetheless, the same as what you'd hear in r-less dialects. If there *is* any amount of R actually being heard, I'd propose that it corresponds to that other paradoxical phenomenon: where e.g. that London speakers tend to add "r" sound to words that end in a vowel.

There may be no difference between "shiloh" and "shallow" other than *how* one hears the sound.

I agree. *Generically* speaking, the Southern pronunciation of "shilo" is identical to the Northern pronunciation of "shaahlo."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 01:46 PM

Good reading, guys!   Random peanut gallery comments from me, to follow.

FWIW, for Clark's shanty,

"A Yankee sloop came down the river,
Hah, hah, rolling John,...."

I don't "hear" that as "Blow Boys." Although it has the floating lyrical theme now associated with Blow Boys Blow, it's framework strikes me as more like "Sally Brown." More accurately, it is neither. It is a form that is in the middle of all this, between today's reified ideas of either shanty. So yeah, it is like both Blow Boys Blow and Sally Brown. But maybe it is something slightly distinct that we don't happen to be familiar with: "Rolling John," or something.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 12:54 PM

That's great, Lighter! That definitely ties together -at some historical point - "Shenandoah" and "Blow, Boys, Blow" with "Sally" some sort. Hugill does have a "Sing, Sally O!" which is aka "Mudder Dinah" on pp. 388-389. This shows up in Bullen, Colcord and Sharp as well.

Here is "Shallow Brown" Part 7

Colcord gives Captain John Robinson's version of "Shallow Brown" with the following note from Robinson:

"I remember hearing it ["Shallow Brown"] sung by the black crew of an American full-rigged ship, the "Garnet," of New York, at Macabei [Macabi], a guano island in the South Pacific [off the coast of Peru]. It sounded very musical coming across the still water, while to its accompaniment the captain's gig was pulled up to its place." (p. 57).

Here is an early accounting of the guano trade from 1866, which specifically mentions Macabi:

http://books.google.com/books?id=BzLOAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA581&lpg=PA581&dq=guano+trade+Macabi&source=bl&ots=i9EzuEv_sR&sig=hjr-yGfOmYJs

And one on the history of this trade:

http://www1.american.edu/ted/guano.htm

Unfortunately, they are not helpful in dating Robinson's experience. He went to see in 1859, but could have had this experience any time in the next thirty years at least. I have searched for the "American full-rigged ship, Garnet" but there were a number of "Garnets" and I haven't been able to put one at Macabi Island. It's too bad, because otherwise this is such a precise notation!

I would note that W.B. Whall's version of "Challo Brown" is very similar to that of Robinson. Whall was at sea from 1861-1872, so there is definitely overlap for these two men. However, if I'm not mistaken, Whall was on the other side of the world. They share the verse about "being a bright mulatto from Cincinnati," as well as the verse about "getting my clothes in order and sailing across the border." Unfortunately none of this really helps us date either Whall or Robinson, two of our earlier sailors. It doesn't help that Robinson published his collection in 1917 and Whall in 1910. Terry's version, published in 1926, seems to draw from both the Robinson and Whall versions.   

However, the Robinson version shares its first two verses with that published by Henry Alden in HARPER'S NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE in 1882, here:

http://books.google.com/books?id=SsoaAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA282&dq=%22Shallow+Brown%22&lr=&cd=99#v=onepage&q=%22Shallow%20Brown%22&f=fals


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 11:41 AM

Another "plantation" connection:

Federal Writers Project guidebook "Savannah" (Savannah: Review Printing Co., 1937), p. 53:

"And so today as the Negro works, he sings that song of by-gone days:

Rollin' John, O Rollin' John
Rollin' John come roll me over
Sally O Gal"

Additionally, in his poem "Poppies and Poinsettias" (1926), the Jamaican-born Claude McKay (1889-1948) writes of

"...music mingling with the toil

"Of half-nude peasants wielding pick and hoe,
Chantying at their labor in the sun:
'Sing Sally-O-Gal-O! Sing Sally-O!'"...

West Indies, plantation labor, "Sing Sally-O!" and "chantying": who could ask for more in three lines?

If only McKay had written a hundred years earlier!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 10:47 AM

Arthur Hamilton Clark, in his description of a "typical" sailing day for the clipper ships from New York harbor during the Gold Rush, which is found in his THE CLIPPER SHIP ERA...1843-1869, gives an interesting version of "Blow, Boys, Blow" (p. 117). This was not published until 1912 and is Clark's reconstruction.

"A Yankee sloop came down the river,
Hah, hah, rolling John,
Oh what do you think that sloop had in her?
Hah, Hah, rolling John,
Monkey's hide and bullock's liver,
Hah, hah, rolling John."

http://books.google.com/books?id=HVYuAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA117&dq=%22Hah,+Hah,+rolling+John&cd=2#v=onepage&q=%22Hah%2C%20Hah%2C%20rollin

This looks like it is also in MINSTRELSY OF MAINE, by Ecstrom and Smyth, 1927.

http://books.google.com/books?id=8k5BAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Hah,+Hah,+rolling+John&dq=%22Hah,+Hah,+rolling+John&cd=1

This would seem to be related to the "hah! hah! rolling river" versions of "Shenandoah". It would be nice to actually be able to date this back to the 1850's and the Gold Rush, but I don't think it's possible on the basis of Clark's evidence.

I also wanted to mention that the version of "Shallow Brown" by William Fender, talks about a theft of a dollar and getting that dollar back, which reminded me of the "Dollar" song from Nordhoff as well as the "Spanish dollar" verse in the Short version of SB.

Detail.CFM?messages__Message_ID=2740843

http://books.google.com/books?id=MKoPAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA41&dq=%22see-man-do%22&cd=4#v=onepage&q=%22see-man-do%22&f=false


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 10:17 AM

Thanks, Lighter. I was hoping somebody would say something about this. It is much harsher in print. Here's Part 6.

"Shallow Brown" Part 6

The "What's the matter" verse also shows up in Richard Maitland's version, along with the one from the Georgia Sea Islands and William Fender.

Continuing for a moment with the gender issue, Hugill makes the comment on p. 260 that "Sometimes the wording would be that of "Sally Brown," and 'Oh, Sally Brown' would be substituted for 'Oh, Shallow Brown' in the refrains." Of course, Sally got around quite a bit, but I would think that this is an important connection, at least in moving "Shallow Brown" in the direction of the name of a woman. We know that Sally was around for a long time and that she was very popular. I think that there's a good chance that she had some major influence on "Shallow Brown".

Another interesting connection is with the version of "Sally Brown" that Gibb has just posted on the Advent & Development thread from ON BOARD THE ROCKET. Because, that version melds "Sally Brown" with "Blow Boys, Blow". Here:

http://books.google.com/books?id=7v1IAAAAIAAJ&pg=RA1-PA814&dq=BLOW,+MY+BULLY+BOYS,+BLOW.&lr=&cd=92#v=onepage&q=BLOW%2C%20MY%20BU

So we have a triangle here with both "Sally Brown" and "Shallow Brown" being directly connected to "Blow, Boys, Blow". The ROCKET version of "Sally Brown/Blow Boys" is from the late 1860's. We also have this rather strange version of "Shenandoah" from 1868, which Lighter turned up, (and which may be the earliest version in print) that combines "Sally Brown" and "Blow, Boys, Blow" and "Jim Along, Josie" with "Shenandoah":

Detail.CFM?messages__Message_ID=2867238

To say the least, things were fluid in the chanty business in the late 1860's! I want to suggest that "Blow, Boys, Blow", "Sally Brown", and "Shenandoah" all had some possible influence in the shaping if not the origins of "Shallow Brown".

While it is not exactly "Blow, Boys, Blow", this version that we have already posted has the sense of that song and it is from 1857 (and maybe earlier). I think this is as early as we've been able to date anything in relation to "Blow, Boys, Blow". If so, it would be far enough back to have been in the early mix of things with regard to "Shallow Brown".

http://books.google.com/books?id=ybXPAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA11&dq=%22O+Shenandoh+my+bully+boy%22&lr=&cd=10#v=onepage&q&f=false


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 09:59 AM

John, I wouldn't expect the "post-vocalic 'r'" to be pronounced very audibly, if at all, by English or Northeast and Deep South singers in either "Shanandore" or "Shaller."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 08:42 AM

"Shallow Brown" Part 5

I want to say some more about how *we* hear this song today, or at least how I have been hearing it. I think that the "Love you well, Juliana" verse in Short's version, and as far as I can tell this is the only place it shows up, has contributed to a sex change for Shallow Brown. I love the Juliana verse and I love that name. But I think that it made Shallow a man and that originally (ha!) Shallow Brown was the woman being left behind. If you can set Juliana aside in your head, all of the other versions tend to point in the direction of Shallow being a woman. Even the comments of John Perring to Percy Grainger suggest this:

" John Perring (of Dartmouth, England), a remarkably gifted deep-sea sailor songster from whose singing H. E. Piggott and I collected the chanty in 1908, said that the song was supposed to be sung by a woman standing on the quay to Shallow Brown as his ship was weighing anchor. John Perring did not know why Brown was called 'Shallow'--'unless it was that he was shallow in his heart', as he added."

I did find the Grainger/Perring lyrics here:

http://www.recmusic.org/lieder/get_text.html?TextId=17057

Note the dialect use of "Shaller". This is somewhat similar to "Shanandore". That "r" sure messes with the mellowness of these songs, but I think that it is precisely the mellowness that is seductive and may confuse us at times.

It is safe to say that nobody *yet* knows for sure what "S(C)hallo(w)" means. But I think we can say that it is a person's name in a good number of versions of this song. But perhaps not in all. I think we are learning with "hilo" not to jump to conclusions on this. The word "hilo" as something one does, may mean to give a yell, a holler, rather than a port in Chile or Hawaii. I think that it's important to hold open the possibility that "Shallow Brown" is not a name at all.

Perhaps this becomes a bit clearer when we de-romanticize the song and hear it more as a work song. Again the Short version sort of helps me with this. In this context, "Shallow Brown" becomes more of shout than a croon. The verses are free to go in any direction they may choose.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Apr 10 - 07:59 AM

Thanks for the note on "Rosabella", Lighter. That looks promising. And your "Hill-up, boys, hilo" is a nice addition, too, Charlie. And Gibb, a little good whiskey is always welcome.

I want to turn to Part 4 of "Shallow Brown".

Charlie's "Hilo" reminded me that there was one other connection between SB and "hilo" that I wanted to bring in here. Hugill has a note on pp. 260-261 about a song fragment from "Bill Adams" (wish he had said more about this!) that goes:

   "Oh, Johnny's gone, what shall I do?
    Ch. Shiloh, Shiloh Brown,
   Oh Johnny's gone, what shall I don?
    Ch. Johnny's gone to Rio!

Hugill says, "It is fairly ceertain that the tune of this would be "Tom's Gone to Hilo". So we have a connection between SB and this song as well. To recap for a moment, we see already that "Shallow Brown" had relationships with "Blow, Boys, Blow", "Hilo, Boys, Hilo", and "Tom's Gone to Hilo". Some of this is based on tune similarity and some on thematic similarity. I hear some tune similarity to "Tom's Gone" as well.

The Bill Adams fragment introduces another interesting theme, which is "Shiloh Brown". There are two other almost completely unrelated versions of "Shallow Brown" that also have "Shiloh" or "Shilo" instead of "Shallow". One is from the Georgia Sea Islands in Lydia Parrish's collection here:

http://books.google.com/books?id=awOzMKju54QC&pg=PA219&lpg=PA219&dq=Lydia+Parrish+-+%22Shilo+Brown%22&source=bl&ots=AM4MjsOCxm&s

And the other is from Edith Fowke's Nova Scotia collection here:

thread.cfm?threadid=7955&messages=42#2892411

As I said, the only thing these three songs have in common is the "Shiloh" part. The tune for the Parrish version is quite different from what we usually think of in relation to "Shallow Brown" (but then so was Short's tune as well). There was no tune for the Adams' fragment, and I haven't seen the tune from Fowke. There are some thematic overlaps.

The "Shilo, Ah wonduh what's tuh mattuh?" phrase from the Georgia Sea Islands shows up in a version sung by William Fender, which was collected by Carpenter. The "baby" theme from the GSI version also shows up in Richard Maitland's version, although in a different guise. The Nova Scotia version from Fowke is definitely related to the nursery rhyme "Soloman Grundy" (was this nursery rhyme named after the Jamaican condiment or vice-versa?), here:

http://books.google.com/books?id=aJOpr9g47_AC&pg=PP9&dq=solomon+grundy+nursery+rhyme&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false

I think there are a couple of interesting things about the "Shiloh" variation. First of all it shows up in at least two different places, Nova Scotia and the Sea Islands off the coast of Georgia. Secondly, there is the business of sound. There may be no difference between "shiloh" and "shallow" other than *how* one hears the sound. This refects back on "hilo"/"hollow" as well.

The Parrish version was collected from ex-slaves in 1909. This would take the memory quotient back quite a ways into the 1800's. Unfortunately, she doesn't really say how far. But it is a definitely link to slavery. The second verse establishes a definite link with stevedores:

   "Stevedore's in trouble,
      Shilo, Shilo Brown,
   Stevedore's in trouble,
      Shilo, Shilo Brown.

In fact, the singer, if I recall correctly, named R. Mac Gimsey, was a stevedore. The third verse probably also refers to dock work:

   "Take yo' time and drive 'em,
      Shilo, Shilo Brown,
   Take yo' time and drive 'em,
      Shilo, Shilo Brown.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 25 Apr 10 - 10:00 PM

I'm going to dump a post I made on another thread here with regard to "hilo" (rather than do a link):

Subject: RE: Origin: Johnny Come Down to Hilo
From: Charley Noble - PM
Date: 22 Oct 02 - 09:11 AM

Richie-

You may actually be making some progress here!

I can't find Daniel Decateur Emmett's "John come Down de Holler" but did find another reference to a "Jim Along Josey" which was another rewrite of a plantation song by the White/Black-faced minstrels of the 1840's.

BUT how about this fragment from an early 19th century field worksong (also from THE MUSIC OF BLACK AMERICANS, pp. 153):

Oh, this is the day to roll and go,
Hill-up, boys, hilo;
Oh, this is the day to roll and go,
Hill-up, boys, hilo.

Again, two birds with a single stone, "hilo" and "roll and go."

Clearly some of the common phrases we associate with sea shanties came from plantation field songs.

It's also quite possible that sailors forgot the association of "hilo" with a plantation field song and reassociated it with a port in Chile.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 25 Apr 10 - 07:33 PM

Crap, I posted that to the wrong thread. Sorry.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 25 Apr 10 - 07:31 PM

Sailors are not total abstainers as a rule, and one would suspect that a song like "Whiskey Johnny " might find frequent utterance: —

WHISKEY JOHNNY.

Whiskey is the life of man,
    Whiskey Johnny.
We'll drink our whiskey when we can,
    Whiskey for my Johnny.

I drink whiskey, and my wife drinks gin,
                      Chorus. 

And the way she drinks it is a sin.
                      Chorus.

I and my wife cannot agree,
                      Chorus.

For she drinks whiskey in her tea.
                      Chorus.

I had a girl, her name was Lize,
                      Chorus. 

And she put whiskey in her pies.
                      Chorus.
Whiskey's gone and I'll go too,
                     Chorus.
For without whiskey I can't do.
                      Chorus.

Another popular song is:--

KNOCK A MAN DOWN.

I wish I was in Mobile Bay.
    Way, hey, knock a man down.
A-rolling cotton night and day.
    This is the time to knock a man down.

The words already quoted will enable a person to sing this and neariy all the songs of this set. He can wish he was in every known port in the world, to whose name he can find a rhyme. If New Orleans was selected, he would add, "Where Jackson gave the British beans." At " Boston city," his desire would be, "a-walking with my lovely Kitty." At " New York town," he would be, "a-walking Broadway up and down," or at Liverpool he would finish his education, "a-going to a Yankee school."


I am really enjoying the total fluidity / interchangeability of lyrical themes that Adams' chanties exemplify.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 25 Apr 10 - 07:10 PM

The rarely collected "Saucy Rosabella" may well date back to 1853 or even earlier.

See my note to the Rosabella thread (July 15, 2009).


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 25 Apr 10 - 04:07 PM

The Lacadio Hearn materials are fascinating and I love "Limber Jim". I was holding off on this since his article was not published until March of 1876.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 25 Apr 10 - 01:52 PM

Maybe time to revisit "Limber Jim"!
The Lafcadio Hearns stuff also looks like it has some promising material for this study...if you get bored today, John. :)


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 25 Apr 10 - 01:18 PM

"Shallow Brown" Part 3

In the light of Gibb's posts, I want to qualify my statement about "bracketing" the Ellison version (Hugill d). What I want to bracket for now in my own head is the "West Indian" assumption about this version and "Shallow Brown" in general and the "West Indian" interpretation of the chanty in contemporary renditions of it. Whatever "West Indian" may mean here, I'm not so sure. Maybe I'm talking more about the really soulful, slow presentations like June Tabor, which I really like. Anyway, Gibb has convinced me that the Ellison version may not have anything to do with the West Indies at all.

I like working on these songs from both ends, going back from the end results in history and at the same time trying to find the originating points and coming forward. I think this back-and-forthness has served us well.

I'll begin with what *might* be the oldest version we have, which would be John Short's song collected by Cecil Sharp in 1914. I say it might be the earliest because Short went to sea in 1857. This version is interesting for a number of reasons.

The tune and the feel of this version is, on the surface, very different from the other versions. It sounds more like "Blow Boys, Blow" than "Shenandoah". I associate the slow presentations of "Shallow Brown" with similar presentations of "Shenandoah". Frankly, I'm not so sure either of them started out that way. Is it possible that "Shallow Brown" started out more like "Blow Boys, Blow", with a very strong emphasis on the pull? When I listen to most contemporary versions of SB, I wonder how any work ever got done!

Of course, Short's version picks up the verses from "Blow Boys, Blow", which gives us a connection between SB and this other chanty. One of the things I want to note are these connections. I don't know that we can make any firm conclusions about them but I think they are important to note. And I would suggest that rather than seeing Short's version as an anomaly, we hold it as a possible primary source.

I've already mentioned the Hugill comment that the solo line in Short's version uses the tune from "Hilo, Boys, Hilo". This ties SB into a whole nother set of songs, which Gibb has already introduced above. Hugill got his "Hilo" from Old Smith of Tobago, but the lyrics feel more like Gulf Port with some minstrel influence. This verse stands out:

        "Said the blackbird to the crow,
        Come down below with yer blackfaced crew."

The "blackbird/crow" phrase shows up in other places. Mobile Town and Sally Brown get in here along with some "bullgine pie". The "Hilo, Come Down Below" that Hugill presents from Harding is a nice followup with more "hilos" and blackbird stuff. Other than the fact that these two "Hilo" chanties come from West Indian sailors, there is nothing to tie them specifically to the West Indies. I am making the assumption that West Indian sailors learned songs from other places just like other sailors did.

I think that it is interesting to speculate about the possible relations among "Hilo", "hollow", "holler" (as in a place), "holler" (as in a yell), "aye oh", and perhaps "Shilo/Shallow". These variations might suggest a much stronger pull emphasis than we normally hear in this song, which again puts it more in the "Blow, Boys" category. The "B" and the "H" sounds are harder (?) than the "S" or French "C" sound. The "i" sound in "Hilo" and "Shilo" is more forceful to me than the "a" sound in "al-low" It's entirely possible that the song modulated over time.

I'm doing a lot of free associating here but perhaps that can open this up a bit. Both of these "Hilo" songs from Hugill are halyard songs. Hugill says that SB was "usually sung at halyards" in "the latter days of sail". (p. 257).

Here is a version of "Hilo, Boys, Hilo" from A CUBAN EXPEDITION, by J.H. Bloomfield, 1896. I think this can be dated to 1858. Check the Advent & Development thread for details on the dating. Here is the song:

http://books.google.com/books?id=WlhUsSH4QeUC&pg=PA282&dq=%22Hilo,+Boys,+Hilo%22&cd=6#v=onepage&q=%22Hilo%2C%20Boys%2C%20Hilo%22


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 25 Apr 10 - 09:40 AM

I just posted this on the Advent & Development thread and I want to post it here as well since it follows up on Gibb's two posts above.
---
Here is another reference to "going to Georgia", which introduces the "Jenny gone away" song as well. The line is

"Oh! my massa told me, there's no grass in Georgia."

"Upon inquiring the meaning of which, I was told it was supposed to be the lamentation of a slave from one of the more northerly states, Virginia or Carolina, where the labor of hoeing the weeds, or grass as they call it, is not nearly so severe as here, in the rice and cotton lands of Georgia. Another very pretty and pathethic tune began with words that seemed to promise something sentimental -

    "Fare you well, and good-by, oh, oh!
    I'm goin' away to leave you, oh, oh!"

http://books.google.com/books?id=WaFiAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA128&dq=Jenny+gone+away&cd=2#v=onepage&q=Jenny%20gone%20away&f=false

This is from JOURNAL OF A RESIDENCE ON A GEORGIAN PLANTATION IN 1838-1839, by Fanny Kemble.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 25 Apr 10 - 08:50 AM

Yes, Gibb! This is very helpful, and was in the back of my mind, especially the "hollow" piece. Connecting it to "Georgia" is very important. I've been having a sense for some time that this song could have emerged from the southern US plantation context. Hugill mentions that the solo tune in Sharp's version of "Shallow Brown" (from Short) is the same as that of "Hilo, Boys, Hilo" (pp. 257 & 255/'61). This is one of the directions I wanted to explore and you have just added a whole new dimension to it. This is exactly what I was getting at when I said it is important to bracket the familiar ways in which we are used to hearing these songs. I think there are connections between "hilo" and "hollow" and "shallow" and "shilo". We have three examples of "Shiloh Brown", which I will get to. I think that African American pronunciation sounds were hard for white folks to hear clearly and all kinds of permutations were possible. Your latest note on the Advent & Development thread about the "Shannydore, Sally, Blow Boys" song is also important in this mix. I realize this is a jumbled up note, but I think there is a lot to look at and talk about here and on a dreary, rainy Sunday, it looks like great fun, so I'll see what I can come up with. You've given me a good start here, Gibb.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 24 Apr 10 - 08:27 PM

Turns out "sold to Georgia" was indeed a common trope. Here is a great piece of evidence for that.

From "The London Literary Gazette," Oct. 23, 1819

I ought to have mentioned, that the nergroes of Maryland and Virginia, for some reason or other, have an invincible repugnance to being sold to the Southward. Whether this repugnauce arises from an idea that they will be treated with more severity, or is only the natural dislike every human being, except our fashionable ladies, feels to going to live in a strange land, far from all association with early scenes, and first born attachments, I cannot tell. I know not that these poor souls are worse treatedini Carolina and Georgia, nor have I any reason to believe so; certain it is, however, that they discover an unwillingness amounting almost to horror, at the idea of being sold there; and have a simple song which they sometimes, as I am told, sing with a mournful melancholy cadence, as they row along the rivers, in remembrance of home. It is merely the language of nature:—

Going away to Georgia, ho, heave, O !
Massa sell poor negro, ho, heave, O!
Leave poor wife and children, ho, heave, O !

The negroes have a great number of songs, of their own composition, and founded on various little domestic incidents; particularly the deaths of their masters and mistresses, who, if they have been kind to them, are remembered in their homely strains, some of which sound very affeclingly, but would probably make no great figure on paper. I have heard that in some instances they go to their graves, and invoice their spirits to interpose, it they are treated ill, or threatened to be sold at a distance. There is something of the true pathetic in all this, were these people not negroes. This spoils all; for we have got such an inveterate habit of divesting them of all the best attributes of humanity, in order to justify our oppressions, that the idea of connecting feeling or sentiment with a slave, actually makes us laugh.


Due to the prevalence of the trope of "sold to / bound away to Georgia," which was standard code for sadness and separation, I am sure it was used in many songs, as in the work-song of this example.   I presume Ellison was a White Englishman (?), and the resonant phrase "sold to Georgia" would probably not be within his frame of reference. The song may have had such a phrase, and he adjusted it --it it weren't already changed-- to something else in that frame of reference.

This speaks to the large issue of how Whites received (i.e. with what degree of understanding they received) Blacks' songs (and vice versa, of course).


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 24 Apr 10 - 06:54 PM

I wouldn't read to deeply into "St. George's" re: ascribing a West Indian connection. How well known would that place really have been? But I think it *is* a clue. Might it have been a variation of Georgia? I don't know if you've seen my notes on these two songs in the 'Advent' thread:

http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=128220#2892523

http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=128220#2891821

The first, "Johnny come down the hollow" has a similar theme to Shallow Brown. And one could imagine the "Oh hollow!" chorus being related to "shallow, oh shallow...!" It's description as "a singularly wild and plaintive air" evokes the style of Shallow Brown and NOT, to my mind, "Johnny come down to Hilo" (which may just be a catch phrase that happens to appear in this rendition).

The second touches on the "sold off to Georgia" theme, perhaps borrowing that line from a stock of floating verses. "Sold off to Georgy" also has a chorus (o-ho, o-ho!) that one could swap with "shallow brown." I think there is a connection -- some kind of heritage to Shallow Brown that we are seeing here.

Perhaps someone knows whether Georgia was, in the minds of slaves from places like South Carolina and Maryland, a comparatively and particularly dreaded place.

The entire set of lyrics in this version of "Shallow", IMO, need to be taken to form a cogent image. It could come from an in-land slave song about being sold off, with no mention of ships. The whaleship might come in as a floating verse from the likes of "Sally Brown," since in that one it seems common to have used rhymes about tailors, sailors, and whalers.

Then again, perhaps this particular version *was* shaped in the West Indies, where the less meaningful "Georgia" was changed to the closest thing that makes sense ("St George") and the maritime lines added in.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 24 Apr 10 - 05:42 PM

This is Part II on "Shallow Brown".

I want to look at the different versions that we have in the bibliography above. Some are quite different, either because of their tunes or because of their lyrics. Two qualifications are necessary. I do not read music and make no claims to being a musicologist, so my work with the tunes is always going to be rough. I also realize that chanty lyrics are very fluid and that you can't make very solid arguments based on particular lyrics.

I also realize that the way *we* hear these chanties today is very much influenced by the recording industry among other things. I think that "Shallow Brown" has had some major influences along the way in modern times. What I have to say about this is entirely subjective and based on my own experience and may not apply to anyone else. But, surely, the Percy Grainger arrangement has had some major impact on how we hear "Shallow Brown" today. I am thinking about speed, intensity, feeling, and artistic arrangement. The chanty is a beautiful song in its own right, and the Grainger piece is beautiful in its own right.

Speaking of which, does anyone have the John Perring words that were collected by Grainger? I can't seem to find them anywhere, either on Mudcat or on Google. That seems a bit strange to me.

Hugill says that he feels that "Shallow Brown" is "of West Indian origin" because "some singers giving the refrain of 'Challo Brown' - 'Challo' being a West Indian word of Carib extractin meaning a 'half-caste', and heard as far afield as the ports of Chile." (p. 257/'61). I certainly always "felt" like this was a West Indian chanty, too. But what is the basis for that "feeling"? It is true that Hugill has a version from the Barbadian, Harding, but he only gives one verse and as near as I can tell, there is nothing particularly distinctive about Harding's tune. It looks to be similar to that of Robinson or Whall. Harding could have learned it anywhere.

I think what makes this chanty feel like it's West Indian are a few verses from one very particular version, and then many recordings of this. Interestingly enough, it's the version that Sharp collected from Robert Ellison, which Hugill gives as his (d) version. Do we have any particulars on this Robert Ellison?

It is in the Ellison version that we have the very familiar verses about "shipping on board a whaler," about being "bound away to St. George's," the only mention I can find of "Julianna" (which I think completely re-orients this song - more about this), and then the sequence about "massa going to sell me" to "a Yankee" for "the dollar," that "great big Spanish dollar." As far as I've been able to find, these verses don't show up in any other version. I think that they are as unique as Harlowe's completely different version about Shallow Brown in New York, Baltimore, Washington, Mobile Bay, New Orleans, and "Phila-me-delf." Who ever sings that version. Here is the Ellison version from Hugill:

http://books.google.com/books?id=WOQ9AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA260&dq=Shallow+Brown+(d)&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Shallow%20Brown%20(d)&f=false

and from Sharp:

http://www.archive.org/stream/englishfolkchant00shar#page/60/mode/2up

As near as I can tell, the only verse in all of the versions that makes a specific reference to the West Indies is the one in the Ellison version about being "bound to St. George's," which is "one of the main islands of the territory of Bermuda" (Wikipedia). Any of the other verses, even in Ellison's version, could have originated anywhere in the African American context.

My point is, that it is necessary *for me*, to bracket the Ellison version and how it sounds in my ears, in order to begin to see more clearly the scope and history of this chanty.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 24 Apr 10 - 11:13 AM

Another favorite chanty of mine that I wish I could place on board the "Julia Ann" is "Shallow Brown". I've been working on this and so far I have not been able to date it back far enough. But I have had a few interesting thoughts along the way that I wanted to share. I will do this in several steps.

First of all, here is the published bibliography on "Shallow Brown" *that I have been able to look at*, done chronologically by the earliest publication date of the materials:

Alden, W.L., "Sailors' Shanties and Sea Songs," CHAMBERS JOURNAL, 1869
Smith, Laura A., THE MUSIC OF THE WATERS, 1888
Davis, J. & Tozer, Ferris, SAILOR SONGS OR "CHANTIES", 1906
Sharp, Cecil J., ENGLISH FOLK-CHANTEYS, 1914
Robinson, Capt. John, "Songs of the Chantey Man," THE BELLMAN, Vol. 23, 1917
Whall, Capt. W.B., SHIPS, SEA SONGS AND SHANTIES, 1927, fr. 1910
Colcord, Joanna C., ROLL AND GO, SONGS OF AMERICAN SAILORMEN, 1924
Terry, R.R., THE SHANTY BOOK, Part II, 1926
James M. Carpenter Collection, 1929
Parrish, Lydia, THE SLAVE SONGS OF THE GEORGIA SEA ISLANDERS, 1942
Harlow, F.P., CHANTEYING ABOARD AMERICAN SHIPS, 1948
Doerflinger, W.M., SHANTYMEN AND SHANTY BOYS, 1951
Hugill, Stan, SHANTIES FROM THE SEVEN SEAS, 1961
Fowke, Edith, SEA SONGS AND BALLADS FROM NINETEENTH CENTURY NOVA SCOTIA, 1981

{I want to thank Lighter for making available to me the following versions: Robinson, Davis& Tozer, Fowke, and Terry.}

As we know, the "publication" dates don't necessarily tell the whole story. In some cases the materials were collected much earlier than they were published. And in other cases, what is published is based on recollections of much earlier experiences. Sometimes we can date this in a very specific way and other times we can only lay down possibilities based on our knowledge of when a singer went to and was at sea. Here is the bibliography re-arranged with this additional information:

Sharp, Cecil J., ENGLISH FOLK-CHANTEYS, 1914
        John Short 1857
        Robert Ellison ?

Robinson, Capt. John, "Songs of the Chantey Man," THE BELLMAN, Vol. 23, 1917
        John Robinson, 1859

Whall, Capt. W.B., SHIPS, SEA SONGS AND SHANTIES, 1927, fr. 1910
        W.B. Whall, 1861-1872

Alden, W.L., "Sailors' Shanties and Sea Songs," CHAMBERS JOURNAL, 1869

Doerflinger, W.M., SHANTYMEN AND SHANTY BOYS, 1951
        Richard Maitland, 1869

Hugill, Stan, SHANTIES FROM THE SEVEN SEAS, 1961
        Harding, late 1860's

James M. Carpenter Collection, 1929
        William Fender, 1878-1900        
        John Middleton, 1879-1894

Harlow, F.P., CHANTEYING ABOARD AMERICAN SHIPS, 1948
        F.P. Harlow, 1879

James M. Carpenter Collection, 1929
        Alexander Henderson, 1885-1902
        Thomas Carfrae, 1886

Smith, Laura A., THE MUSIC OF THE WATERS, 1888

Davis, J. & Tozer, Ferris, SAILOR SONGS OR "CHANTIES", 1906

Fowke, Edith, SEA SONGS AND BALLADS FROM NINETEENTH CENTURY NOVA SCOTIA, 1981, fr. 1940 ms, based on recollections

Parrish, Lydia, THE SLAVE SONGS OF THE GEORGIA SEA ISLANDERS, 1942
        Collected in 1909 from ex-slaves

Terry, R.R., THE SHANTY BOOK, Part II, 1926

Hugill, Stan, SHANTIES FROM THE SEVEN SEAS, 1961
          Stan Hugill, 1920's

It is possible to narrow this down a bit because there is some overlap. I think Laura Smith's version is taken from the second half of Alden's version. Colcord gives us Robinson's version. So we can eliminate L. Smith and Colcord from our considerations. Hugill gives us John Short's version and Robert Ellison's version from Sharp, and also the version from Davis & Tozer, as well as his own version and one from Harding.

From this, we can see that the earliest published version *that I have seen* is from Alden in 1869. From the sources we have *that I have seen*, the earliest possible date from a singer being at sea is from John Short in 1857. We don't know if he learned "Shallow Brown" in 1857. There's a twelve year gap between these two dates.

In the next post, I want to look at some of the differences among the versions we do have.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 23 Apr 10 - 06:19 PM

Oh yes, that's right. Thanks. I was looking at an 1889 text, and I couldn't remember what else there had been.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 23 Apr 10 - 06:06 PM

Gibb, my earliest source is from ONCE A WEEK, "On Shanties", August 1, 1868, p. 92:

"Blow, boys, blow, for California, O,
There's plenty of gold in the land, I'm told,
    On the banks of the Sacramento."

http://books.google.com/books?id=8dRMAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA92-IA4&dq=%22So+blow,+boys,+blow,+for+Californio%22&lr=&cd=12#v=onepage&q&f=f

I've not found anything else until later.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 23 Apr 10 - 05:19 PM

What is the earliest published reference you guys are finding for "Sacramento"? Is it before 1889?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 23 Apr 10 - 04:34 PM

This makes sense to me, Gibb. I appreciate the suggestion about how "Santiana" can be "mapped right on top of "Sacramento"." Somewhere, in my looking at "Sacramento", I recall the suggestion that this is meant to be taken as a highly sarcastic song, even cynical. In fact there was *not* a "lot of gold on the banks of the Sacramento" and a lot of 49'ers crashed and burned out there. The culture not only loved to poke fun at itself, like with "Betsy from Pike", but it was could be very harsh and cynical. I'm thinking that "Banks of the Sacramento" could have arisen a bit later, after the first major onslaught, as sort of a retrospective on the situation, and a way of warning those who still thought they wanted to uproot their lives and head for San Francisco. How much "later" I don't know. But it could have been toward the middle of the 1850's at least. I'm beginning to think that a lot of the "off to California to dig gold" type songs were of this later, more cynical nature, rather than the earlier, naive and high-spirited stuff. There has to be a good explanation why none of them are showing up in print anywhere.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 23 Apr 10 - 02:47 PM

John
My 2 cents is that the originator of that "californio" strain (whoever it was, i.e. Odetta, etc) just latched onto the variation in the one chorus because they liked it and it was more referentially "American." It helps to reconcile what they would have considered to be the set, "traditional" lyric that refers to going to Frisco Bay, digging gold, etc.

How did the "Californio" line get there in the first place? Well, the singer was recorded solo, presumably, so he was not bound to the corrective force of a chorus. "Santiana" can be mapped right on top of "Sacramento," so the influence may have come from that song. (Also cf. "plenty of gold, so I've been told").

The two songs got "crossed" by Sailor Dad, then the American revival singers edited it to conform to their American frame of reference.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 23 Apr 10 - 02:14 PM

Lighter, I keep catching up with myself. I did in fact ask for Davis & Tozer's version of "Santiana" back on April 16th, here:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=555#2887890

Thanks again for putting this information up for me. The Davis & Tozer version, while perhaps not as old as I thought it was, nevertheless does not have the "bound for Californio" refrain.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 23 Apr 10 - 09:42 AM

John-

Hmmm?

There's a copy of YARNS OF AN OLD SHELLBACK about two feet in front of me as I'm typing. I didn't make the connection but I know that CFS provided an introduction. Millet was associated with both the "Tweed" and the "Cutty Sark," two of the most famous China tea clippers. Capt. Millet went to sea as an apprentice in 1880.

I'll do some more review when I'm back from NEFFA this weekend.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 23 Apr 10 - 07:58 AM

Lighter, please ignore my request for "Shallow Brown" from "Dozer" (!) I was the one who was "dozering", and not only conflated Davis and Tozer, but had failed to check my request over on the "Shallow Brown" thread, where you had already posted this information. Thanks for doing that. It is interesting that Davis/Tozer come to "Santiana" in a later edition.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 23 Apr 10 - 07:53 AM

So far, I have found only a few bits of information on Captain Millett. He was "of Cutty Sark fame and a member of the Port of London Authority," wrote something in 1927, and had a theory about the disappearance of the ship "Celeste", with the suggestion "that the Celeste had been boarded by pirates of the Rif (the coastal region of Morocco..." He died at Penzance. (From snippets on Google Book Search). He wrote a book entitled YARNS OF AN OLD SHELLBACK published in 1925. I don't have access to that book.

In her book, A BOOK OF FAMOUS SHIPS, C.F. Smith has a chapter on the "Cutty Sark", but does not mention Captain Willett. She does talk about a Captain Willis, but I don't think that they are the same person. In a very quick scan, I was not able to find any other references in this book to Captain Willett, but I may have missed them. Here is the link:

http://books.google.com/books?id=gYadeUzJnh8C&pg=PP1&dq=A+Book+of+Famous+Ships&lr=&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false

So, I haven't come up with any more on either Captain Willett or his song "Bound to California".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 22 Apr 10 - 11:06 PM

Gibb, I appreciate your thoughts on "Sacramento". This is sort of how I have pieced it together although I missed the connection with "Sailor Fireman".

In my list above, which I copied over from an offline source, I spot one formatting error. Third from the bottom, "Haul way, yeo ho, boys!" should not be connected to "Pull away now, my Nancy O!", but be on the following line.

Charlie, I am finding "titles" to be a bit tricky. Many of the contemporary titles of chanties we take for granted today simply weren't there in the sources we've been looking at, or they were different. I don't know of any standardized, authoritative, and commonly accepted list of titles at this point. I tried to list the titles given in the sources, and when there was no title then I went with an age-old practice of listing the first line. In a number of cases, the sources only mention a first line. In one or two instances I have added a contemporary title following that which is given in the source like with "Mobile Bay" / "Johnny come tell us as we haul away". I admit and have admitted to arbitrarily calling the "seeman do" song "Yankee Dollar". I don't remember that the source has a title. I don't see that my approach is all that different from what Gibb has done, but we do take different tacks on this. I apologize for not putting them in alphabetical order. I was listing them as I found them historically and in the thread discussion. If you want them done chronologically and alphabetically, please check these links:

thread.cfm?threadid=128220&messages=222#2892320

thread.cfm?threadid=128220&messages=222#2892385

Captain Millett's "Bound to California", given by C.F. Smith does refer to going to California "to reap the shining gold!" But, a number of other songs also refer to California and the Gold Rush days. Some of them are later and so far I've not been able to date any of them to the late 1840's or 1850's. Unless we can date Captain Millett at Algoa Bay, I am in the same dilemma with this song. I simply don't have a time frame of reference for it external to the song itself. And Smith is right when she says that it doesn't show up in any other collection. Do we have any additional information on Captain J.L. Vivian Millet?

Lighter, did we cross a wire somewhere? The reason I ask is that I was looking for Dozer's version of "Shallow Brown", and I was wondering if you confused that with "Santiana". In any case, can you post Dozer's "Shallow Brown" here? I'd appreciate it.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 22 Apr 10 - 08:26 PM

Here is my sketchy take on "Sacramento."

It is a sort of composite of several songs. The Hutchinson Family's "Ho! For California" of 1849 supplied the chorus.

Listen Here

The verse melody may have come from the SAILOR FIREMAN song. Either that, or it was simply "cut from the same cloth" that this came from. Listen HERE. Now, remember to compare that to what may have been the ORIGINAL verse melody of "Sacramento." I hate my rendition of it, but what the hell, listen HERE

The only missing piece is "hoo-da"/"doo-da" (or "ho day" in the Plattdeutsche version). That is the only bit that, to my mind, really needs to be reconciled with respect to Stephen Foster's 1850 song. I don't know which chicken or egg came first there.

Later on, I would imagine that Camptown Races entered the public consciousness and it all got blended together some more. Because of the "hoo-da" similarity, sailors may have started singing their verses to the same melody as that of Camptown Races.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 22 Apr 10 - 08:19 PM

John-

Please sort your lists by title! If Gibb can manage it, so can you.

And "Bound to California" might be added as well, given that it is a direct reference to the Gold Rush days.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 22 Apr 10 - 07:48 PM

From Davis & Tozer, Third Ed. (1906). The song is not in the First Edition of ca1887, and no copies of the Second (1888) seem to be available.

ON THE PLAINS OF MEXICO

Oh, Santa Anna won the day,
Away Santa Anna.
Santa Anna won the day,
On the plains of Mexico.

Oh, Santa Anna fought for fame,...
Santa Anna gained his name,....

Oh, Santa Anna's men were brave,...
Many found a soldier's grave,....

It was a fierce and bitter strife,...
Hand to hand they fought for life,....

Oh, Santa Anna's name is known,...
What a man could do was shown,....

Oh, Santa Anna won the day,...
One more chorus then belay,....

The editors note that "Santa Anna" is "pronounced 'Santiana.'"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 22 Apr 10 - 07:37 PM

Thanks for waiting patiently, John!

Yes, they do match quite nicely. I forgot to log in Whidden's chanties!

I will have to think about "Sacramento" and get back to you.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 22 Apr 10 - 06:59 PM

Thanks for your list, Gibb. I've had a post ready to go for several days, but was waiting for either this list or new info over at Advent & Development. I'll go ahead and put it up now for comparison. They are almost the same. Here's what I have.
---
It seems that we've come full circle here on this thread. I would never say that we've discovered all that there is to discover out there, but we've managed to gather up quite a bit of material. While I've only been able to specifically document a couple of chanties for San Francisco or Sydney between 1853 and 1855 (see my last post above), we have been able to document a nice handful of work songs being sung on board ships around the world prior to about 1860.

The "Julia Ann" sailed three times from San Francisco to Sydney between 1853 and 1855. I figure that if something shows up in print by 1860, there is a good chance that it was around as early as 1855. So based on our work in this thread, here is another tentative list of work songs that *could* have been used on board the "Julia Ann" on her three voyages out to Sydney.

"A Grog Time Of Day"
"Cheerily Men"
"Round The Corner, Sally"
"Nancy Fanana"
"Hieland Laddie"
"Sally Brown"
"Drunken Sailor"
"Fire Down Below"
"Stormalong"
"Across the Briny (Western) Ocean"
"A Hundred Years Ago"
"Mary Ann"
"Mobile Bay" / "Johnny, Come Tell Us As We Haul Away"
"One More Day For Johnny"
"Outward And Homeward Bound"
"Haul The Bowline"
"All On The Plains Of Mexico"
"Aha, We're Bound Away, On The Wild Missouri"
"Whiskey Johnny"
"Paddy Works On The Railway"
"Row, Bullies, Row"
"Bully in the Alley"
"Pay me the money down"
"Bottle O"

And here are some songs that have not come down to us as such, but were documented as having been sung on shipboard prior to 1860.

"Highland day and off she goes"
"Tally hi o you know"
"Heigho, heave and go"
"Ho, O, heave O"/ "Row, Billy, row"
"Roll and go for that white pitcher, roll and go"
"O, Hurrah, My Hearties, O"
"Hurrah! Hurrah! my hearty bullies"
"Time for us to go"
"Dandy ship and a dandy crew"
"Captain gone ashore"
"Heave round hearty!"
"Jack Crosstree"
"Nancy oh!"
"Heave, to the the girls!"
"Pull away now, my Nancy O!"
"Haul way, yeo ho, boys!"
"Yankee Dollar"
"Fire Maringo"

I really wanted to add both "On the Banks of the Sacramento" and "Hog-Eyed Man" to this list, but I have not been able to document them in the 1850's as being sung on board a ship. It doesn't mean that they weren't around, but that nobody I've found *so far* has mentioned it. The "Hog-Eye" song was around as a fiddle song, but no one mentioned it as being used at sea for a work song. Stephen Foster's "Camptown Races" was written in 1850. But the relationship between "On the Banks of the Sacramento" and Foster's song are not exactly clear. If the chanty was so popular, why wasn't it mentioned by someone? They did mention other "popular songs". I have not begun to cover Charlie's extensive bibliography on the California Gold Rush, but my limited Google Book Search has not turned up anything on either of these two songs in the 1850's.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 22 Apr 10 - 05:51 PM

This is a list I made up of the shanties mentioned in shipboard contexts (or on Pacific islands, learned from sailors) from 1800s through 1850s. Some of the unverified titles/phrases (in lower case) may, naturally, just be phrases from other verified chanties on the list. Or they may not really be firm chanties at all.

I wonder how this matches up with what John has discovered so far.

ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN
BOTTLE O
BOWLINE
BULLEY IN ALLEY
Captain gone ashore!"
CHEERLY
DRUNKEN SAILOR
FIRE FIRE
GROG TIME
Heave her away"
Heave him up! O he yo!"
Heave round hearty!"
Heave, to the girls!"
Highland day and off she goes"
HIGHLAND LADDIE
Ho, O, heave O"
HUNDRED YEARS
Hurrah! hurrah! my hearty bullies!"
Jack Cross-tree,"
Miranda Lee"
MONEY DOWN
MR. STORMALONG
Nancy oh!"
O ee roll & go"
O! hurrah my hearties O!"
Oh fare you well, my own Mary Anne"
Oh Sally Brown, Sally Brown, oh!"
OUTWARD AND HOMEWARD BOUND
PADDY ON THE RAILWAY
Pull away now, my Nancy, O!"
ROUND THE CORNER
SALLY BROWN
SANTIANA
SHENANDOAH
STORMALONG JOHN
STORMY
TALLY
Time for us to go!"
To the Greenland sea/ Black although she be"
When first we went a-waggoning"
WHISKEY JOHNNY
Whisky for Johnny!"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 18 Apr 10 - 09:03 AM

This looks like it might be a reference to a Gold Rush voyage to San Francisco in 1856. It is from LIFE BY LAND AND SEA, by Prentice Mulford, originally published in 1889. He is on board the "Wizard", and there is a lot of pumping going on. He says,

"For the first six weeks all the "shanty songs" known on the sea had been sung. Regularly at each pumping exercise we had "Santy Anna," "Bully in the Alley," "Miranda Lee," "Storm Along, John," and other operatic maritime gems, some of which might have a place in our modern operas of "The Pinafore" school. There's a good deal of rough melody when these airs are rolled out, by twenty or thirty strong lungs to the accompaniment of a windlass' clank and the wild, shrill sweep of the winds in the rigging above." (p. 24    Here:

http://books.google.com/books?id=ClgFQ2SwJQ0C&pg=PA24&dq=%22Bully+in+the+Alley%22&lr=&cd=12#v=onepage&q=%22Bully%20in%20the%20Al


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 17 Apr 10 - 10:32 AM

The "Californio" business bugs me. Since it appears in the chorus, the implication is that on cue everybody would suddenly remember to switch from the "Mexico" pattern. Not bloody likely, mate.

My guess is that Hunt was either inadvertently mingling two distinct choral patterns or else absent-mindedly made a slip (or an "improvement") influenced by the "Californio" in "Sacramento."

In any case, I suspect that "Californio" entered all recorded post-Lomax versions of "Santy Anna" solely through "Sailor Dad" Hunt.

As for Lloyd & MacColl's source (if there was only one and if they didn't modify the tune slightly on their own), it may well have been Hugill himself. I tentatively suggested something similar in the "Blood-Red Roses" thread.

Long ago I used to assume like many others that Lloyd, MacColl, and others of the better-informed, stylistically conservative revivalists, had access to troves of fabulous traditional texts and tunes that had never been published. Now I know better. I doubt that L & M got anything from an oral source whom they didn't credit by name. In Lloyd's case, as we now know, not even the credited songs can be taken at face value as fully "traditional".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 17 Apr 10 - 10:17 AM

John-

Maybe you'll have to settle for "Bound to California" which is explicitly a Gold Rush era shanty collected by C. Fox Smith from Capt. J. L. Vivian Millett, who remembered it being sung while he was anchored in Algoa Bay. Of course Capt. Millett only remembered the chorus:

Good-bye, my lads, good-bye,
No one can tell me why
I am bound for California
To reap the shining gold!
Good-bye, my lads, good-bye,
No one can tell me why
I am bound for California
To reap the shining gold!

From A Book of Shanties, by Cicely Fox Smith, Methuen & Co., London, © 1927, pp. 27-29.

Hugill mentions this shanty, in reference to Smith, but was unable to find any verses either.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 17 Apr 10 - 08:17 AM

Thanks, Gibb. This goes a long way in smoothing out some of my rougher edges. My remaining question about this has to do with the version, which seems to have been introduced by Odetta if we go by recording history, that introduces (?) the "Way out in Californio" refrain. This seems to me to be a re-working of the Lomax/Hunt version. Of course, it would make sense historically that with the Gold Rush of 49 following immediately on the heels of the Mexican War, the "Santiana" song would be adapted by the 49'ers. However, it is *my sense* that this adaptation didn't really happen until a 100 years later! Along about 1954 or so. There are two "gold rush" verses in the Lomax/Hunt version. But Odetta & Co. seem to shift the whole song in that direction.

This is really my primary concern with regard to my own project here. I can find no evidence for such a focus on California in the earlier printed versions. Nor is there support in any of Hugill's versions for this shift of perspective. In other words, I don't think I can count this *version* of this song - the "Bound to Californio" version - as a likely candidate for the "Julia Ann".

I think I am moving towards agreement with you about the tunes though. As I begin to more carefully sort out all of the styles and instrumental stuff and particularly the speeds, I think the shapes of the tune pretty much cohere. Your (Hugill's "b") is a very nice exception. Back when I was looking at "whaling chanties" I missed this reference from Hugill. I do remember Colcord referring to "Santiana" being what was sung on "the last whale ship's last voyage" somewhere.

Which reminds me, my sense of the early use of chanties prior to 1850 is that they *were* being used and circulated by the whalers in some form. That seems to have been the primary source for their distribution in the Pacific early on. And yet they don't show up in the whaling journals that I am know about.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 16 Apr 10 - 08:33 PM

John,

Sure, I'll throw in 2 cents. Your layout of Santianna re: recorded versions, influences, etc. makes sense to me. Forgive me if I inadvertently overlook some of the fine points in your layout.

The version by Odetta & Co. does seem to be based on some or other version of Sailor Dad that was presented by Lomax. And Lloyd & Co.'s version could easily have come from any of the popular texts -- Colcord, Terry, Doerflinger... -- though they may have learned it directly from the oral tradition, too.

From what I can see, the melodies in most of the texts are all very similar -- similar enough that I would tend to disregard variations. That is, I would view the differences as a reflection of individual, incidental variation, rather than representations of distinguishable variant "streams" of the chantey. And though the Lomax-y version IS appreciably distinct when one examines it, IMHO in the grand scheme of things it looks like just another variation of the "usual" Santiana tune. I must confess that I've forgotten where we might have seen Santianna before (earlier), e.g. in any travelogues.

Although I am aware that the Revival often gives a false sense that a given song was well-known and fairly well "standardized", the ubiquity of Santiana in shanty collections and the similarity between the different texts' versions, suggest that this song really was well established. That is why I would not be surprised if the AL Lloyd generation was able to learn it from authentic oral sources.

That is why, I imagine, Hugill also did not feel the need to cite his sources for his "A" and "C". I am sure his performance renditions were somewhat "tweaked" by the Revival version, but his print may have just come from what seemed to be so obviously "the" common version.

When I recorded Hugill's A/C, I was not being mindful of the possible fine distinctions between melodies. I was doing what a typical revival singer does; I "knew" the tune already from a combination of sources, and I was mostly using Hugill's text as a mine for lyrical ideas. Later, due to my change in methodology (i.e. the goal to represent *some* of the idiosyncrasies of his versions), I was confronted with the task of calling what I'd done either version "A" or version "C" (and then recording the whichever one I had not done!). What I had recorded was neither one precisely. But after examining the tunes of both, along with the tunes in other collections, I decided that I considered them to be only variations of each other which, for me, were not important to distinguish. Well, I *can* distinguish between them, but at the same time, versions on record elsewhere combine bits of both. I would conjecture that versions A and C roughly correspond to print versions Hugill had seen. It's not that he was "copying" them, per se -- but I think he used prior texts as models for his notations, so long as they corroborated what he knew. (Incidentally, version "A" appears to be notated wrong, and one can only get the sense of what Hugill meant by consulting other sources!)

Version "B" is a different story. It is quite appreciably different. It has a fascinating "modal" quality where it seems to begin in one tonal center and end in another. Notably, Hugill does cite his source for that one (a Norwegian whaleman). I don't believe I have heard that tune elsewhere.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 16 Apr 10 - 02:19 PM

Lighter, the Victory Sings at Sea version on Youtube is close to what I am calling the "older, traditional" version from the printed collections. It is close to that of the Clancy Brothers. (I feel a little bit awkward using the Clancy Brothers and Paul Clayton and A.L. Lloyd, all of whom were folk revival singers, as exemplars of "older" and "more traditional" versions. But it is the tune, along with the California verses that I am trying to distinguish in comparing these versions to the Odetta, KT, Highwaymen, and Weaver's versions.)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nPIcwFKrTus&feature=related

The "Round the Bay of Mexico", while it may be related, especially to the Lomax/Hunt version of "Santy Anno", I think is a different song.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06G7WlXZzIc

The "original" Bahamian version of this is beautiful. And Gibb does a pretty good job of capturing that:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OilQra0NlRg


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 16 Apr 10 - 02:00 PM

Lighter, the chanty I'm identifying as "Santy Anno/Ano" is the one with a chorus, that was recorded by Odetta, the Kingston Trio, the Weavers, The Highwaymen" and other folk revival groups. This is the one that comes from the Lomax/Hunt song that Lomax collected in 1935. What I am calling the "more traditional" one, is the tune that shows up in all of the collections up to Hugill. It does not usually have a chorus, and is a different, more modal tune. I know "modal" is a tricky word.

Basically, I think that on the one hand you have all of the published collections I can find with one tune and a number of revival folk singers and groups (not necessarily chanty-singing groups, but they pick up the revival version) singing this other, faster tune with a chorus. Then you have Hugill publishing something very close to this "new" tune, which I am suggesting he picked up from the revival singers, since he gives no other source and doesn't mention the Lomax/Hunt version.

Gibb combines Hugill's (a) and (c) versions.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dvBu8soHW78

And now that I listen to it I realize that it doesn't have any chorus. And neither does Hugill's printed version. But if you add a chorus to this version (of especially the "a" tune), you come close to the way that Odetta and the revival singers sing it. Part of it is the speed. On his Mystic CD, Hugill does add the chorus.

Hugill's (b) version, done very nicely by Gibb, is unlike either the "Santy Anno" version of the Hunt/Lomax-revival version or the "traditional" tune found in other collections.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxL9oQ7FY1Q&feature=related

Here are Youtubes of Odetta, The Kingston Trio, and The Highwaymen for comparison:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V26i_cHlpgA&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wuwBGX-FUEE&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8nW58m3reS4&feature=related

The differences here are more than the addition of instruments. When I say "traditional" I hear Burl Ives version on DOWN TO THE SEA IN SHIPS, if that helps. I couldn't find a Burl Ives Youtube on this. But here is Paul Clayton coming close to the "traditional" tune.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GbCipQUeTWQ&feature=related

And here is A.L.Lloyd's version, followed by that of the Clancy Brothers. I was wrong about the Clancy Brothers' version in my original post on this. They are closer to the older/traditional version.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BgbWJIUq-_A

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b7dRt2wHoag&feature=related

Now I've probably totally confused the situation. Compare the Clancy Brothers, Odetta, and Gibb's/Hugill's (a&c) versions. I think the Clancys are closer to the older versions from the printed collections; Odetta follows and revises the Lomax/Hunt version; and Hugill is somewhere in between. I am not talking about presentation style or lyrics. I am primarily talking about the tune. And remember, I don't read music! Which is a bit of a handicap in this comparative business.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 16 Apr 10 - 11:36 AM

A French rewrite:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Dxhm9iEfo8&feature=fvw


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 16 Apr 10 - 11:27 AM

John, I'm not sure which tunes you mean by "traditional" or the difference between what you're calling "Santianna" and "Santy Ano."

Gibb's YouTube channel might help clarify these. There a couple of others as well.

The rendition behind the anime drawings(yup) on YouTube is performed by Victory Sings at Sea, a northwest U.S. group:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nPIcwFKrTus&feature=related


IIRC, the very popular "Susianna ...Round the Bay of Mexico" version was written by Roger Sprung and Erik Darling based on a tune and text collected by the Lomaxes in the Bahamas

Harry Belafonte's version was composed by Irving Burgie:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06G7WlXZzIc

The Kingston Trio also did an ersatz version with ersatz accents on their megahit LP in 1958 - "Santy Anno" (with "Californio") is on the record too:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-16OczraVi4


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 16 Apr 10 - 08:52 AM

A followup note on the "Santy Anno" song that I discussed above. I've looked again at all of the sources that I have with printed tunes for "Santiana". I don't have access to Davis & Tozer or to Robinson (THE BELLMAN). I cannot find any version of "Santiana" with the more rousing tune and chorus of "Santy Ano" in any collection of chanties before Hugill's SEVEN SEAS (1961). All of the other printed collections have the slow, mournful, modal, minor tune that is "traditionally" associated with this song, and which I would think is more suited for the work for which it was used.

This would make the version collected by John Lomax from J.M. "Sailor Dad" Hunt in 1935 the first time this tune saw print. The song was "in the air" literally by the time Hugill published his book. Where did he get his version? *He does not say.* But apparently he like it because he sings it on his Mystic CD. Since Hugill does not mention the Hunt/Lomax version, I am going to suggest that he may have picked up this tune from the emerging folk revival. I look forward to some further discussion on this.

The "traditional" tune of "Santiana" has always reminded me of the earlier tune for "High Barbary" in the feel of it. I'm not suggesting that the tunes are otherwise related. We do know that the "High Barbary" song was put into a major key and speeded up and supposedly used as a chanty. This seems to have happened in the "American" context much later on in the 19th or early 20th century to "Barbaree". While the "Santy Ano" tune does get speeded up and becomes "juanty" it continues in a more minor key. But, and here I don't know what I am talking about, it seems to have moved from an older "modal" feel to a much, much more modern "minor" feel. The folk revival loved minor keys, and throwing in the odd minor chord to traditional songs. There is also the business of what the use of the guitar did to the old modal melodies. And what happened to a lot of "mountain" songs as they became "bluegrassed" - they were speeded up and moved into a major key. Given the fact that "Santy Ano" was collected in *Marion, VA*, I wonder about all of these possibilities. There, that ought to be a broad enough and open enough take to invite some comment.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 15 Apr 10 - 02:09 PM

I can't find my copy right now, so this is conjecture, but Odetta and others may have gotten "Santa Anna" from Lomax & Lomax's _Folksong U.S.A._ (also published under the title _Best-Loved American Folksongs_).


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 15 Apr 10 - 01:29 PM

Gibb, I'm looking forward to that! And when you're ready, I will transfer a slightly modified and cleaned up version of the 1850's collection over to your thread. I've been waiting for you to say you are ready to move on to that decade.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 15 Apr 10 - 01:26 PM

John,
Thanks for digging up all these 1850s references of late!

My question is this. If "Stormalong" gets mentioned as often as it does, why not some of these other songs? There were a lot of people sailing on those packet ships. Did these chanties not really evolve until a bit later?   In any case, I cannot with any confidence place them in San Francisco in the 1850's

I am fascinated by this. This and the "other" thread are beginning to converge at a time point. I am a little surprised by how few chanties can be ascribed to pre-Gold Rush times...though of course I still hold onto the idea that they were around despite lack of documentation!

Hopefully soon I'll get a chance to sort the references up the California Gold Rush, with an eye towards saying, "Look: here is the repertoire of chanties that we know (reasonably) to have existed then."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 15 Apr 10 - 01:23 PM

It would seem that there is an obvious choice for a chanty that might have been sung on the "Julia Ann" in the 1850's, which is "Santy Anno". It's one of the first ones that stuck in my mind, from the singing of the Kingston Trio, and then Odetta, and the Weavers, and the Clancy Brothers. Here is Odetta's version from 1954:

We're sailin' 'cross the river from Liverpool,
Heave away, Santy Anno.
Around Cap Horn to 'Frisco Bay,
'Way out in Californio.

Chorus:

So, heave her up and away we'll go.
Heave away, Santy Anno.
Heave her up and away we'll go.
'Way out in Californio.

There's plenty of gold, so I've been told.
Heave away, Santy Anno.
Plenty of gold so I've been told.
'Way out in Californio.

Chorus

Well, back in the days of forty-nine.
Heave away, Santy Anno.
Back in the days of the good old times.
'Way out in Californio.

This is a version from the "Santiana" family. As near as I can tell, Odetta was the first to record it as such. The Weavers added a few verses and registered their copyright for it on February 6, 1958. And about two months later, Dave Guard of the Kingston Trio registered his copyright for it on April 28, 1958. There is very little difference between these three versions. However, it is not clear how they are related. Odetta kept releasing and re-recording this song on her subsequent albums. The Clancy Brothers, and later Liam Clancy, seem to have taken the same tune but gotten their verses from A. L. Lloyd and Ewan MacColl. In all of its various manifestations, this was a lively and popular song during the folk revival.

I looked carefully at all of the threads that I can find on Mudcat about this song. For some reason they seem to have missed what I think is perhaps the main source for it. Stan Hugill, in his SHANTIES FROM THE SEVEN SEAS, published in 1961, gives both the tune and a long list of verses for this chanty as his "(a)" version on pp. 82-83. But interestingly enough, his verses are not the same as those recorded by Odetta, the KT, or the Weavers. Nor do you find overlaps with Hugill's other two versions.

This makes some sense when one compares the dates, since Hugill's very influential book was not published yet when Odetta, the KT and the Weavers recorded their versions. So the question is, where did they get their version and why doesn't Hugill note it? Hugill's verses do tend to begin to show up in subsequently recorded versions after the publication of his book. But these earlier revival versions left a strong imprint.

I think that these earlier revival versions - and by the way, the more "traditional" version of "Santiana" was alive and well during the revival as well, being recorded by folks like Burl Ives and Paul Clayton - were based almost entirely on a song collected by John Lomax from a J.M. Hunt ("Sailor Dad") of Marion, Virginia, in 1935. Lomax published this first (as far as I know) in his OUR SINGING COUNTRY, in 1941, on page 206-207, found here:

http://books.google.com/books?id=i_J4Ii9oArsC&pg=PA206&dq=%22Santy+Anno%22&cd=2#v=onepage&q=%22Santy%20Anno%22&f=false

The Lomax/Hunt version is almost word for word the same as that of Odetta, the KT, and the Weavers. But, with one major exception. Hunt gives the final refrain in each verse and the chorus as the more traditional "All on the plains of Mexico," except for his third verse where he gives "Way out West to Californio". By comparing Hunt and Odetta, one can see that in Odetta's version, the final refrain in all of the verses and the chorus has become "Way out in Californio".   This is picked up verbatim by the Kingston Trio in their version. The Weavers use "We're bound for Californio", that elusive refrain that has sort of haunted this thread for some time! They could have adopted this from the "Codfish Chanty". The Clancy version reverts back to "All on the plains of Mexico".

So who was responsible for this significant change? And why wasn't Hunt/Lomax ever credited with this version? Well, this was the time of "Tom Dooley". It was also the time when Fred Hellerman, of the Weavers, was doing quite a bit of creative re-writing of traditional songs. But Odetta had already recorded it at least twice before the Weavers and the KT got around to it.

The notes from Odetta's 1954 "The Tin Angel" for "Santy Ano" are totally enigmatic. She recorded it again in 1956 for "Sings Ballads and Blues" and there are no notes. Again in 1963, she released it on her "Odetta At Town Hall" album. Finally there are some notes but they are very general and refer vaguely to the more "traditional Santiana".

I don't know what the Kingston Trio had to say about this song. It does not show up in the Weavers' songbook and I don't know what they had to say about it. John and Alan Lomax republish Hunt's song in their FOLK SONG U.S.A. in 1947. They have added a few verses without any attribution of sources and their introductory notes are not helpful.

Apparently, in his ADVENTURES OF A BALLAD HUNTER, John Lomax discusses "Sailor Dad" Hunt, (see snippet here):

http://books.google.com/books?id=lu8NAAAAIAAJ&q=J.M.+Hunt+(%22Sailor+Dad%22)&dq=J.M.+Hunt+(%22Sailor+Dad%22)&lr=&cd=3

Unfortunately, I do not have access to that book at the moment. It would be interesting to know if he says anything about where Hunt got his songs, especially this one. I have been unable to find any documentation for this version of "Santiana" anywhere else prior to 1935. The Caribbean chanty "Round the Bay of Mexico" may be related, but seems to be a different song.   

For now, I don't think this song is very old at all. I'll be interested to see if anyone can find out any more information on it.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 15 Apr 10 - 12:34 PM

John-

Don't it always seem to go: "One Step forward, two steps back!"

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 15 Apr 10 - 09:32 AM

A "critical" followup (in the best sense of the word!) on the previous post from Lighter, over in the "Advent & Development" thread. So, we can't use this reference to "A Hundred Years Ago". Too bad.

thread.cfm?threadid=128220&messages=155#2887167


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 14 Apr 10 - 07:16 AM

Here is a link to the "Advent & Development" thread where I posted a reference to "A Hundred Years Ago" noted in a journal from 1848 on board the barque "Agincourt" bound to South Australia from London:

thread.cfm?threadid=128220&messages=147#2886283

This would put this song in Australia prior to the arrival of the "Julia Ann" in 1853.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 12 Apr 10 - 05:29 PM

I made it into the library today and was able to check out the reference to "Shenandoah" in the WPA ex-slave narratives. It is pretty interesting. First of all, here is the reference information: THE AMERICAN SLAVE: A COMPOSITE AUTOBIOGRAPHY, Supplement, Series 2, Volume 8, Texas Narratives, Part 7, George P. Rawick, General Editor, p3153. This was taken down by a Miss Effie Cowan, McLennan County, Texas, in 1937, from a Mr. Allen Price, R.F.D. Mart, Texas. The synopsis says:

        "This story of a slave born during the war [Civil War] tells of the history handed down by his Master, one of the decendents (sic) of General Price of the Confederate Army, dates back to the emigration of the Price family from Virginia to Missouri when the pioneers were forcing their way against almost insurmountable hardships to the new state of Missouri." (p. 3149)

Mr. Price begins:

        "I wuz born in Fannin County Texas in a covered wagon, in 1862, when my parents wuz on dey way wid their Master's, John an Jim Price from Misourri ter Texas ter make their home." (p. 3149)

Mr. Price tells the story of the immigrants going across the Mississippi River on a steamboat and being attacked by Indians. He is passing on the stories that he has been told, since he hadn't been born yet. He says some of the group stopped in St. Louis, and some went on to Kansas City, and some went up the Missouri River, and some went out across Missouri on what he thinks was the Santa Fe Trail. His parents would have been in this last group. Then he interrupts his story to make this comment:

        "In de early days dey had de river boat songs, but dey has been changed until dey are de ones dat wuz sun w'en de rebels an' de Yankees fought but dey cum down from de song's of de early days, one went like dis,

        "I'm drinkin of rum an chawin terbacco,
        Hi! Oh! the rollin' river,
        I'm drinkin of rum an chawin terbacco,
        H! Ha! I'm bound away fer de wild Miz-zou-rye.

and another dat goes like dis, jes a little different,

        "Missouri she's a mighty river,
        Away-ay, you rollin' river,
        De Indians camp along hits borders,
        Ha! Ha! I'm bound away across de wide Missouri." (p. 3153)

Mr. Price goes on from there to talk about the involvement of the "Master's" family in the Civil War, and also that of his father. There is no further mention of these songs.

Now, the next to last verse in the "Old Cavalry Song" given by Major Isaac Spalding, to John Lomax and found in Lomax's AMERICAN BALLADS AND FOLK SONGS, (1934), on pp. 543-546, is exactly the same as the first version from Mr. Price. The only difference is that "terbacco" is "tobacco", and "fer de wild" is "for the wild". (p. 546)

But what is really weird, and I mentioned this earlier in the thread when I was looking at this is that the second version that Mr. Price gives, matches exactly the first verse of Lomax's second version of "Shenandoah", which follows immediately upon his "Calvary" version. Again, the only changes are to make "de" into "the", and "hits" into "its". And, "Ha! Ha! I'm bound away across" becomes "Aha, I'm bound away, 'Cross..." (p. 546)

For me, this is still just too much of a coincidence. Lomax's book was available after 1934. The WPA account was recorded in 1937. Lomax gives two complete songs. The "Cavalry" version has nine verses! And the other version, which he says was sent to him by "Captain A.E. Dingle, Cove Cottage, West Bermuda," has seven verses. Mr. Price, by his own account, is very interested in history. His mention of these two songs is an aside in his narrative. I would have to suppose that he had seen Lomax's book.

I really don't want to come to that conclusion, because the alternative would be that we have an ex-slave born in the early 1860's who has received the stories of his family's move to the frontier and is accurately recalling the use of a version of "Shenandoah" as a river song, prior to the Civil War. I'm not suggesting that his historical recollections are faulty. But he may have added to them. It's a bit of a mystery, and we no longer have either Mr. Price or Mr. Lomax, or Major Spalding or Captain Dingle to consult on these matters.

Here is the link to my original post on this subject:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=526#2877977


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 11 Apr 10 - 12:37 PM

For the chanties from the 1850's, I need to add this one (again), from Gibb. It is in CALIFORNIA AND OREGON, OR, SIGHTS IN THE GOLD REGION, AND SCENES BY THE WAY, by Theodore Taylor Johnson & Samuel Royal Thurston (1850). It contains a verse from "A Hundred Years Ago", dated Sunday morning, 25th of March, probably 1849, departing San Blas. Here is Gibb's post, followed by the link:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=526#2866916

http://books.google.com/books?id=6G9HAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA88&dq=%22The+Oregons+a+jolly+crew,+O,+yes,+O!&lr==3#v=onepage&q&f=false


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 09 Apr 10 - 07:56 PM

Snuffy-

Good work. I certainly agree with you.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Snuffy
Date: 09 Apr 10 - 07:09 PM

Charlie,

Tally-i-o (or Tally-aye-o) is definitely not a mishearing of a Hilo song.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 09 Apr 10 - 09:29 AM

In the following post, I listed the so-called "Western Packet" or "Blackball Line" chanties mentioned in Hugill. I said:

"While there is no written documentation from that period that I have been able to find with regard to the shanties sung on board the packet ships, there does seem to be general agreement about the songs that come from that era."

and,

"I am assuming that all of these songs, in one version or another, would have been current in New York and other eastern ports in the late 1840's and would have found their way to California during the Gold Rush of 1849, and thus would have been available in San Francisco to sail on board the "Julia Ann" on her voyages to Sydney in 1853-1855. "

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=515#2838469

While the first statement continues to be the case, I can no longer maintain my second assumption. While we've been able to document songs like "Stormalong" and "Whiskey Johnny" in the 1850's, along with "Poor Paddy Works On the Railway", I have not been able to find any references to these other songs prior to the 1860's. That is strange to me, since the height of the Western Packet trade peaked perhaps in the 1850s. And just because they are not mentioned doesn't mean they weren't around. However, their popularity certainly seems to have been later, even after the packet lines met their demise or were replaced by the steamers.

My question is this. If "Stormalong" gets mentioned as often as it does, why not some of these other songs? There were a lot of people sailing on those packet ships. Did these chanties not really evolve until a bit later?   In any case, I cannot with any confidence place them in San Francisco in the 1850's.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 09 Apr 10 - 07:18 AM

I like the "Ringgold" theory, Gibb. It provides some balance for old "Santyanna"! Here are two more references from the 1850's. First of all a "Sally Brown" from Hercules Robinson's SEA DRIFT, from 1858:

http://books.google.com/books?id=-Ku40z-xkYkC&pg=PA221&dq=%22Oh+Sally+Brown,+Sally+Brown+Oh%22&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Oh%20Sally%20

And then a reference from Solomon Northup's TWELVE YEARS A SLAVE, 1855, perhaps talking about events in 1853 or earlier. He mentions some fiddle tunes and "patting juba" songs, among which are "Old Hog Eye!" and "Jim Along, Josie."

http://books.google.com/books?id=kTaJH3W2trEC&pg=PA220&dq=%22Old+Hog+Eye%22&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Old%20Hog%20Eye%22&f=false


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Apr 10 - 03:33 AM

FYI a new, funky speculation about "maringo": Ringgold


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 08 Apr 10 - 08:19 PM

I wonder if ""Tally hi o you know" is a mishearing of one of the Hilo/Ilo shanties?

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 08 Apr 10 - 05:30 PM

Thanks, Lighter. I was looking for that kind of clue but couldn't find it. Too bad. Was there an HMS Resolute and was there such an expedition?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 08 Apr 10 - 04:12 PM

Page 186 of Matthews 2007 says, "This is a work of historical fiction."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 08 Apr 10 - 12:04 PM

I have been trying to push as many of these chanties as possible back into the 1850's. The results *so far* are meagre, but here they are for the record. Not all of these references are to actual chanties. But there may be a connection.

From Arthur Hamilton Clark's THE CLIPPER SHIP ERA, we have a reconstructed day from 1849 where he gives the following chanties: "Poor Paddy works on the railway," "Paddy Doyle's boots," "Whiskey, Johnny," "Lowlands", and a version of "Blow Boys, Blow" called "Hah, hah, rolling John". This may be more later memory than historical recollection.

http://books.google.com/books?id=HVYuAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA116&dq=%22a+ringing+chanty+that+can+be+heard+up+in+Beaver+Street&cd=1#v=onepa

From SHE WAS A SISTER SAILOR: THE WHALING JOURNALS OF MARY BREWSTER, 1845-1851, there is a reference (from a snippet) to "Tally hi o you know". I can't tell what the year is from this but someone probably has this book.

http://books.google.com/books?id=_rBiAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Tally+Hi+O%22&dq=%22Tally+Hi+O%22&cd=7

From an article entitled "News From Our Digger" an account from 1852, in TAIT'S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE, VOLUME 19, we have reference to "Cheerymen" and "Storm along, my Stormy".

http://books.google.com/books?id=Qt4_AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA294&dq=%22Polly+Racket,+hi-ho,+cheerymen.%22&lr=&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Polly%20

From Elizabeth Matthews' account of the HMS RESOLUTE (2007), we have mention of "Boney was a warrior" and "Haul away, Joe" from June of 1852. It's not clear whether this is fiction or not.

http://books.google.com/books?id=14SgeA7mgv4C&pg=PA39&dq=%22Haul+Away,+Joe%22&lr==46#v=onepage&q=%22Haul%20Away%2C%20Joe%22&f

From a story called "The Boy of Chickamauga" by Edmund Kirke, in OUR YOUNG FOLKS, VOL. 1, there is a line supposedly from 1853 that may refer to "Clear the track, let the bullgine run."

http://books.google.com/books?id=rJVHAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA703&dq=%22Clear+the+track+and+let+the+bullgine+run%22&lr=&cd=39#v=onepage&q&f

We have three minstrel songs from Christy and White's ETHIOPIAN MELODIES, 1854. Various versions and editions and sections of this were published here and there at other times, and there may be some earlier publication dates out there. We have "Storm along, Stormy":

http://books.google.com/books?id=W2ZCAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA3-PA71&dq=%22Storm+Along+Stormy%22&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Storm%20Along%20Stormy

And then there is "Fire Down Below":

http://books.google.com/books?id=W2ZCAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA18&dq=%22Fire+Down+Below%22+Christy&lr=&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false

And finally, "Whoop, Jamboree":

http://books.google.com/books?id=W2ZCAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA3-PA17&dq=%22Whoop,+Jam-bo-ree%22&lr=&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Whoop%2C%20Jam-bo-r

From MELBOURNE, AND THE CHINCHA ISLANDS, by George Washington Peck, we have a reference from 1854 to "Haul the bowline" and four different melodies without words.

http://books.google.com/books?id=c_oOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA292&dq=%22Haul+the+bowline%22+Melbourne&lr=&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false

From a story by Edgar S. Farnsworth called "The Yarn of the Watch" in BALLOU'S MONTHLY MAGAZINE, VOL. 2, 1855, we have "Storm along, Stormy":

http://books.google.com/books?id=ta1MAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA114&dq=Storm+along+Stormy&lr=&cd=55#v=onepage&q=Storm%20along%20Stormy&f=fals

From Charles Dickens' HOUSEHOLD WORDS, 1855-56, we have what may be a reference to "Drunken Sailor":

http://books.google.com/books?id=7wwHAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA167&dq=what+shall+we+do+with+a+drunken+sailor&lr=&as_brr=1&cd=14#v=onepage&q=

From John Stirling Fisher's A BUILDER OF THE WEST, we have "Storm Along," "All on the Plains of Mexico", and "Aha, we're bound away, on the wild Missouri", from the memoirs of General William Jackson Palmer, in 1856:

http://books.google.com/books?id=_OXRs_WmAY4C&pg=PA49&dq=%22Mister+Storm+roll+on%22&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Mister%20Storm%20roll%20

From THE KNICKERBOCKER, VOLUME 54, we have an article entitled "The Life of a Midshipman", 1857, with "Row, bullies, row!"

http://books.google.com/books?id=ybXPAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA11&dq=%22O+Shenandoh+my+bully+boy%22&lr=&cd=10#v=onepage&q&f=false

From THE MERCANTILE MARINE, by E. Keble Chatterton, we have a quote from Sir William B. Forwood's REMINISCENCES OF A LIVERPOOL SHIPOWNER, 1857, which mentions "Paddy works upon the railway" and "Whiskey, Johnny."

http://books.google.com/books?id=3qCr7nTPvewC&pg=PA159&dq=Whiskey+Johnny&lr=&cd=95#v=onepage&q=Whiskey%20Johnny&f=false

From THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY, Vol. II, 1858, we have "Pay me the money down!", "O long storm, storm along stormy", and "Highland day and off she goes":

http://books.google.com/books?id=MbEGAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA154&dq=%22O+Long+Storm,+storm+along.%22&lr=&cd=2#v=onepage&q=%22O%20Long%20St

From an article in the OBERLIN STUDENT'S MONTHLY, VOL 1, Issue 1, from 1858, we have mention of "We're a bully ship and a bully crew", "O! haulee, heigho, cheeryman!" and "Storm along, my stormies". There is also mention of "Jim along, Josey" as a rowing song.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Ow3cAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA47&dq=Storm+along+Stormy&lr=&cd=76#v=onepage&q=Storm%20along%20Stormy&f=false

From THE REAL EXPERIENCES OF AN EMIGRANT, by Ward, Lock, & Tyler, we have a reference to "Whiskey for Johnny!" that may be from 1859:

http://books.google.com/books?id=tHkFAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA39&dq=Whiskey+Johnny&lr=&cd=160#v=onepage&q=Whiskey%20Johnny&f=false


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 07 Apr 10 - 04:37 PM

John-

Seems as if you've narrowed down the date to the 1860's.

It's amazing what one can find doing research at home nowadays.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 07 Apr 10 - 03:59 PM

Here is some information that may help date the chanties in ON BOARD THE ROCKET, by Robert C. Adams. This letter suggests that it was 1868. Here is the link:

http://books.google.com/books?id=JVosAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA9-PA7&dq=%22Capt.+Robert+C.+Adams%22&lr=&cd=20#v=onepage&q=%22Rocket%22&f=fal


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 05 Apr 10 - 08:58 AM

John-

Fore and Aft is certainly another interesting find with its stevedore shanties collected in Mexico.

I hadn't run across that version of "Coal Black Rose" which reminds me of a version of "Hog-Eye Man" that the Boarding Party recorded:

From Fore and Aft: A Story of Actual Sea Life By Robert Brewer Dixon, p. 128

Described as a "pulling song" for loading mahogany logs aboard ship near Vera Cruz, Mexico, up the Coatzacoalcos River to Minatilan:

Oh, Ro-sa in the garden, hang-ing out clothes,
Stand be-low, you coal black Rose!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 05 Apr 10 - 07:57 AM

Here is another one of those very interesting references in which the events are not dated. My sense is that this is from the 1870s. The book is FORE AND AFT: A STORY OF ACTUAL SEA LIFE, by Robert Brewer Dixon, in which he describes a voyage from New York to Vera Cruz, Mexico, on the "brig Elizabeth." The book was published in 1883. I have tried to locate information on the brig "Elizabeth", but there apparently were several of them dating back to the time of the American Revolution. I couldn't pin it down. The same was true with "Captain Bradley". There was a Robert Brewer Dixon who became a prominent physician in boston. He studied for his MD at Harvard from 1876-79. It is likely that this is the same person, in which case, these events at sea probably happened prior to his time at Harvard. He mentions in his first chapter that he has been at school at "Chauncy-hall School, Boston, and was at home on my summer vacation..." (p.2)

There is an interesting discussion of "stevedores" in this book in chapters IX and X. And in chapter X, Dixon gives us some "sailor songs," that are being used for stowing timber. They include, with music, "Haul the Bowline", "Coal Black Rose", and "Shanandore". So, here we have an example of one of the "Shenandoah" versions being used for loading by stevedores. What is also interesting is that Dixon mentions "Shanandore" at least two other times. On page 11, the crew is singing it as a windless chanty, as they are bringing up the anchor (I think). And on page 297, it is being used as a halyards chanty.

The verse given, on page 129, for the loading is

   For seven long years I courted Sally.
   Hurrah, you rollin' river!
   I courted Sally down in yon valley.
   Ah, ha! I'm bound away on the wild Missouri.

Here is the link:

http://books.google.com/books?id=atvSkDe26l8C&pg=RA1-PA127&dq=stevedore+songs&lr=&cd=29#v=onepage&q=%22Shanandore%22&f=false


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 03 Apr 10 - 11:49 AM

I found the reference in the days before Google Books and didn't realize that MacGahan had published a description of it himself! Good work.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 03 Apr 10 - 09:08 AM

John and Lighter-

That is certainly a wonderful description, by MacGahan on board the Pandora, of raising the anchor, from the points of view of the anchor buried in the mud and the capstan crew hard at work i50 feet above.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 03 Apr 10 - 06:06 AM

Lighter, I think you are right about the "1854" business in that bibliography. That solves one mystery. I still want to take a look at it and see what the relationship may be between this WPA ex-slave narrative and the Lomaxes.

That's a wonderful account the "O Shanadoa". Of course that's the one spelling I didn't try! Here's the link I found:

http://books.google.com/books?id=NC4mAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA213&dq=%22Oh,+Shanadoa,+I+longs+to+hear+you.&cd=2#v=onepage&q=%22Oh%2C%20Shan


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 02 Apr 10 - 08:53 PM

Lighter, thanks for that new reference. I had not come across that one. And, Gibb, thanks for your comment on Bullen. I remember that you said something to that effect on your YouTube of Bullen's song, which is here:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1be-0VjCtxE


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 02 Apr 10 - 11:25 AM

FWIW, the version of "Shenandoh" in Bullen is a completely different "framework" than what one usually means in referencing that title. Its only similarity is the use of that name which, as we've seen (e.g. "Sally Brown") says little more than that "Shenandoah" was a popular, general lyrical theme. What I mean to say is, the cargo loading function of Bullen's isn't necessarily significant.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 02 Apr 10 - 10:23 AM

John, as I read it "1854" is not a year reference but simply the number of the bib entry.

An early text of "Shenandoah" was noted by the American journalist Januarius A. MacGahan on board the Pandora in 1875. MacGahan heard the song as the Pandora raised anchor to depart Beechey Island, Canada, site of the graves of three of Lord Franklin's crew. Some of it clearly seems improvised. The unusual chorus sounds kind of "literary," but presumably it's what they sang:

"Oh, Shanadoa, I longs to hear you.
(Chorus) Ha ! Ha ! the rolling water.
Oh, Shanadoa, I longs to hear you.
(Chorus) Ho ! Ho ! the cold, pale water.

[Similarly:]
"Oh, Shanadoa, I've seen your daughter....

"Oh, Shanadoa, I loves your daughter.....

"When I return, I'll wed your daughter....

"For seven years, I've woo'd your daughter....

"Oh, Shanadoa, where is your daughter ?...

"Oh, Shanadoa, beneath the water....

"Oh, Shanadoa, there lies your daughter...."

(From Dale L. Walker, "Januarius MacGahan," Ohio U. Press, 1988, p. 155.)


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 02 Apr 10 - 10:21 AM

Continuing with some further thoughts on "Shenandoah". Frank Bullen, in his SONGS OF SEA LABOUR (1913) tells a story about listening to the work songs of the Black dock workers on the Demerara River off Georgetown. He says it was his first voyage, and he says that he "was before the mast in sailing ships from 1869 to 1880", so this event could perhaps be dated to sometime in 1869 (Introduction and pp. XII-XIII). One of the songs he heard was a version of "Shenandoah" and he gives this verse:

        [Chantyman] O Shenandoh my bully boy I long to hear you holler;
       [Chorus]Way ay ay ay ay
       [Chantyman] Shenando I lub ter bring er tot er rum en see ye make a swoller;
        [Chorus] Way ay ay ay Shenandoh.

Here is a link to a note in the "Shenandoah Origins" thread:

thread.cfm?threadid=4257#768205


To my knowledge, this is the only first-hand reference we have to any version of "Shenandoah" being used as a loading song. That seems a bit strange to me. However, what is even more strange is that I cannot find any references at all that would in any way document this song as a "river" song. The fact that it happens to mention "the wide/wild Missouri" *in some versions*, or that it designates "Shenandoah" as the Shenandoah River *in some* other versions does not necessarily mean that this is a river song. I have not been able to find any examples of it either on the rivers like the Mississippi or the Ohio or Missouri, or in relation to any of the Gulf ports like New Orleans or Mobile.

I know that Whall suggests that it "probably came from the American or Canadian voyageurs, who were great singers;...", (p. 1) but he gives not evidence for this. Is he the first person to make this connection? I am going to take the position that this is probably a "myth" that has come to be taken as "fact". It is not clear to me that this song had anything to do with fur traders or voyageurs or river traffic. It does seem more like a loading song, but with the exception of Bullen down in Guyana, we have no evidence for that either. Which means that for all we know it shows up primarily and perhaps even first of all as a sea-going chanty, not unlike "Shallow Brown". Surely if it was a "river" song, it would show up either on the riverboats or earlier on the keelboats and rafts, or on the river fronts. It just doesn't or at least hasn't so far.

What happens if we stop trying to make it a fur trapper (or cavalry song, which I think is particularly late and somewhat suspicious), and set aside all of the "Westerns" use of it in the popular imagination, and even bracket out the idea of it being a "river song", and look at it as a loading song/deep sea chanty. I think we might be able to see our earlier sources differently and might come to some different kinds of conclusions about this song.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 02 Apr 10 - 08:06 AM

I've spent the last several days looking at everything I can find on all of the variations of "Shenandoah", once again trying to push it back as far as possible. I have found a few interesting things and I've come up with some questions.

First of all I want recommend the excellent thread on the origins of "Shenandoah". It has almost all of the versions printed out that are currently known, with thorough background on each of them. You will find it here:

thread.cfm?threadid=4257

I also want to recommend the excellent thread by Q on "Steamboat Coonjine Songs", which are Black roustabout work songs. You will find it here:

thread.cfm?threadid=54404

I have come up with two possible sources that are not mentioned on the "Shenandoah" origins thread. I think that both are from the 1850s. Here is what I have found. First of all, while searching for "The Plains of Mexico", I came across this reference in John Stirling Fisher's A BUILDER OF THE WEST: THE LIFE OF GENERAL WILLIAM JACKSON PALMER (1939), p. 49. The author is describing a voyage by General Palmer from England to New York in May of 1856. I think the date for this event is roughly about May 22, 1856. He says,

        "Five days of head winds: maddening, when - "but a short favorable run of 20 hours would 'tie us up by the nose' in the North River, or, as the sailors say in their songs 'Run her into clover.'"
        He listens to their songs and shanties, "musical but after a certain wild mood that is very appropriate to the words and the scene:
        "Hi, yi, yi, yi, Mister Storm roll on, Storm Along, Storm Along," or "All on the Plains of Mexico," or the wildest and prettiest of all, which ends - "Aha, we're bound away, on the wild Missouri."

http://books.google.com/books?id=_OXRs_WmAY4C&pg=PA49&dq=%22Mister+Storm+roll+on%22&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Mister%20Storm%20roll%20

I also found this, which I have not been able to check out, but which is very tantalizing. In the WPA Slave Narrative Collection, which was published as THE AMERICAN SLAVE: A COMPOSITE AUTOBIOGRAHPY, ed. by George P. Rawick, in Vol. 8, TEXAS NARRATIVES, Part, 7, p. 3153, there is this reference and all I have is a snippet:

        "Ha! Ha! I'm bound away fer de wild Miz-zou-rye.
and another dat goes like dis, jes a little different,
        "Missouri she's a mighty river,"

This is listed in AFRICAN-AMERICAN TRADITIONS IN SONG, SERMON, TALE, AND DANCE, 1600s-1920, by Eileen Southern and Josephine Wright (1990) under a section called "Songs", for the date of 1854! Here are the two links:

http://books.google.com/books?id=Ev4WAQAAIAAJ&q=%22Ha!+Ha!+I'm+bound+away+fer+de+wild+Miz-zou-rye%22&dq=%22Ha!+Ha!+I'm+bound+awa

http://books.google.com/books?id=bYeoWTHTDpQC&pg=PA225&dq=fer+de+wild+Miz-zou-rye&cd=1#v=onepage&q=fer%20de%20wild%20Miz-zou-rye

Now this could be a reference to an ex-slave's memory from 1854, or from a slave born in 1854. That would be very exciting. The fact that it is in a "slave narrative" collection (from the 1930's, but still within "living memory" at that time). and the fact that the snippet is in what looks like Black dialect, makes this intriguing.

On the other hand, this first line is also the first line of the so-called "cavalry version" that is found in AMERICAN BALLADS AND FOLK SONGS, by John and Alan Lomax, (pp. 543-546), which was contributed by Major Isaac Spalding, who was a real person. The Lomax book was published in 1934. The WPA materials were gathered during the period 1936-1938. What makes this even more suspicious is that the second version quoted in the snippet above is from the second version found in the Lomax book entitled simply "Shenandoah", on page 546, "Sent by Captain A.E. Dingle, Cove Cottage, West Bermuda." Here is a link to the "cavalry version":

thread.cfm?threadid=4257#768513

This is more than a little coincidental. But the mystery will remain until we get a chance to check out those slave narratives. It is interesting that with the possible exception of the version in Carl Sandburg's THE AMERICAN SONGBAG (1927), entitled "The Wide Mizzoura" (p. 408), which has some similarities to the "cavalry version", and about which Sandburg says, "Regular army men were singng this in 1897," we have no other evidence in print that I have been able to find about the use of this song by the military. With both the Lomaxes and with Sandburg, we are talking about a fairly late period and one would think that there would be more references. The WPA reference may be a quote from Lomax. It may be a reference to Lomax. It may be a source for Lomax/Spalding. Or it may be an independent corroboration for these songs. I'm not getting my hopes up very high for an actual "1854 sighting".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 01 Apr 10 - 07:57 AM

John-

Hmmmmm?

After exploring your link to The Rush For California - A Sailing Day, I was surprised to find the bunting shanty "We'll Pay Paddy Doyle for His Boots" being described as a halyard shanty. No way, unless the ship was manned by a whole crew of recently graduated shantymen from the Rise Up Singing University.

But interesting reading.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 01 Apr 10 - 06:27 AM

In his book THE CLIPPER SHIP ERA, Arthur Hamilton Clark says, "In the year 1849, 91,405 passengers landed at San Francisco from various ports of the world, of almost every nationality under the sun...." (p.101). That is simply astounding! And what is even more astounding is that so far nobody has turned up anything at all with regard to what just one or two or a dozen of these "Argonauts" might have written down about the work songs that they heard during their voyage to California. And we know they did write things down, in letters and journals and diaries and newspapers. They wrote about all kinds of things. But so far, not about sea chanties.

Clark does have a very detailed chapter, Chapter VII, "The Rush For California - A Sailing Day", in which he lays out what a sailing day from New York harbor would have been like. The problem is that is is not an actual historical account of an actual day, but an idealized account of a re-imagined day. However, Clark was around in those days and his accounts otherwise seem to be accurate and taken as an authority on things.

In this account, he mentions that "Almost every seaport along the Atlantic coast, sent one or more vessels (to California in 1849), and they all carried passengers." (pp. 100-101). In this chapter he says quite a bit about chanties. He says,

        "The people who gathered at Battery Park to see a clipper ship get under way, came partly to hear the sailors sing their sea songs, or chanties, which were an important part of sea life in those days, giving a zest and cheeriness on shipboard, which nothing else could supply." (pp. 109-110).

In his description of the process of a clipper ship putting to sea, he specifically mentions a number of chanties and gives lyrics and tells how and when and what they were used for: "Poor Paddy Works On The Railway", "Paddy Doyle's Boots", "Whiskey Johnny", "Lowlands", and "Hah, Hah, rolling John" ("Blow Boys Blow"). Not only is this probably an accurate list, but the lyrics he gives are probably what were actually sung on board those clipper ships headed to California. His book is specifically about the years from 1843-1869. But it was not published until 1912, and the Preface is dated 1910, about 60 years after the days of the Gold Rush.

This is not quite an eye-witness account, but may be as close to an "authoritative account" as we'll get for now. Here is the link:

http://books.google.com/books?id=HVYuAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA116&dq=%22a+ringing+chanty+that+can+be+heard+up+in+Beaver+Street&cd=1#v=onepa


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 31 Mar 10 - 02:08 PM

"In 1847 Paddy Murphy went to Heaven"

Poor Paddy Works on the Railway


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 31 Mar 10 - 12:59 PM

John-

What's being described as "halyard work" seems more like "stamp 'n' go" in which the crew members pull on the line as they themselves more astern; they would subsequently peel off from the line and move back up to the front. For lighter halyard work the crew members could pull on the line in place.

"What do You do with the Drunken Sailor" is the classic "stamp 'n' go" shanty.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 31 Mar 10 - 11:33 AM

Here is a reference to ""Whiskey, Johnny" from 1857. In his book, THE MERCANTILE MARINE, E. Keble Chatterton prints a long quote from a "recently published" book by Sir Wiliam B. Forwood entitled REMINISCENCES OF A LIVERPOOL SHIPOWNER. Forwood is recollecting a voyage on the "Red Jacket" in 1857. Forwood says, "On the morning of 20th November, 1857...I embarked by a tender from the Liverpool pierhead." The anchor is heaved "to a merry chantie" which is "In 1847 Paddy Murphy went to Heaven".

The next morning, they were off Holy head and the order came "loose the headsails." (pp. 158-159):

"Now then, my men, lead your topsail halyards fore and aft, and up with them'. And the crew walk along with the halyards, and then with a long pull and a pull all together the topsail yards are mastheaded to the chantie:

        "Then up the yard must go,
                Whiskey for my Johnny,
        Oh, whiskey for the life of man,
                Whiskey, Johnny.'"

http://books.google.com/books?id=3qCr7nTPvewC&pg=PA159&dq=Whiskey+Johnny&lr=&cd=95#v=onepage&q=Whiskey%20Johnny&f=false

This was the beginning of a record sixty-four day voyage to Sydney, Australia, just two years after the final voyage of the "Julia Ann" to Sydney from San Francisco in 1855.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 31 Mar 10 - 08:28 AM

John-

The intriguing thing about "Whiskey Johnny" et al to me is the reference to "whiskey" rather than "rum." Although the Scots manufactured whiskey, I believe it's the North Americans that made the beverage a national drink and a popular term. And I suspect the Gold Rush crowd were particularly inspired to extoll its virtues in verse.

Oh, and congratulations for initiating a scholarly thread that now has chalked up 500 posts (if someone hasn't just beat me to it!).

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 31 Mar 10 - 07:45 AM

Here is a reference to the hauling/halyard chanty "Whiskey for Johnny!" being used to "pull round the yards" on board of the packet ship "Mary Bradford" on a cruise from London to New York, from the book THE REAL EXPERIENCES OF AN EMIGRANT:

        "The passengers assisted the sailors to pull round the yards - a work of great difficulty. It was done by a series of pulls - thus: one man took hold of the rope and stood on the spar of the bulwark, singing a few words of a song - I could not make them out - the others called out, "Whisky for Johnny!" and gave a simultaneous haul, when the yard came round an inch or two, and so they continued until the sail was sheeted home." (p. 39)

http://books.google.com/books?id=tHkFAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA39&dq=Whiskey+Johnny&lr=&cd=160#v=onepage&q=Whiskey%20Johnny&f=false

The frustrating thing about this reference is that there is no publication date that I can find for the book other than "187?". And like a lot of these accounts, the writer chooses to *not* give a date for his experience! I have yet to understand this, unless it is a way of covering up a fiction. It makes me suspicious right off. He says, "On Saturday, the --day of June, 18--, I embarked on board the "Mary Bradford," then lying in the basin of the London Docks, and bound for New York." (p. 5)

There certainly was a "Mary Bradford", and she was one of the "Swallow-Tail Line of Packet Ship", sailing every alternate Thursday from New York and London. Here is an advertisement from 1859:

http://books.google.com/books?id=5ubQAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA25&dq=ship+%22Mary+Bradford%22&lr=&cd=20#v=onepage&q=ship%20%22Mary%20Bra

She was launched in October of 1854 at Warren, Rhode Island, and immediately sailed for Mobile. (bottom, p. 5)

http://books.google.com/books?id=750AAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA209&dq=ship+%22Mary+Bradford%22&lr=&cd=15#v=onepage&q=ship%20%22Mary%20Br

And on July 5, 1855, she was struck by lightning at Battery Wharf in Boston!

http://books.google.com/books?id=qJEEAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA582&dq=ship+%22Mary+Bradford%22&cd=1#v=onepage&q=ship%20%22Mary%20Bradford%22

While it is a somewhat shaky guess, I would say that this reference to "Whiskey for Johnny!" *could* be located in the later 1850s. It seems to place it in the packet trade. However, this chanty has quite a reputation for being used on board the packet ships. It is strange that this is the only reference I have been able to find that really confirms that, so far. All of the other solid references to "Whiskey Johnny" are later.

There are a couple of general references to "Whiskey Johnny" being sung on board the clipper ships in the Gold Rush of 1849, leaving the eastern ports, but they are too general and could easily be reconstructed memories.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 30 Mar 10 - 09:48 PM

John-

Interesting, and maybe it was the seed that germinated in someone's brain to become the forebitter. But other than "row, bullies, row" there's nothing in common.

It also has an apparent connection to "The Sailor Loves his bottle oh!"

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 30 Mar 10 - 02:25 PM

That's how it sounded to me, too, Gibb. It's an interesting juxtaposition with a rowing song. And I see I messed up the transcription when I re-typed it. It alternates "Row, bullies row!" with "Row, my bullies, row!" So, just for form, let me re-issue this:

"Oh! I do love that good, old bottle!
   Row, bullies, row!
Oh! I do love that good, old bottle!
   Row, my bullies, row!
Why do you love that good, old bottle?
    Row, bullies, row!
Why do you love that good, old bottle?
   Row, my bullies, row!
I love it 'cause it suits my throttle!
   Row, bullies, row!
I love it 'cause it suits my throttle!
    Row, my bullies, row!

   After singing five more verses in the same elegant strain, we happened to pass a bum-boat, in which were seated a fat, old white woman and a negro boy, whereupon the singers roared out with great glee, and in a higher key than before:

'Yonder sits a dear old lady!
   Row, bullies, row!
Yonder sits a dear old lady!
   Row, my bullies, row!
How do you know she is a lady?
   Row, bullies, row!
How do you know she is a lady?
    Row, my bullies, row!
I know her by her nigger baby!
    Row, bullies, row!
I know her by her nigger baby!   
    Row, my bullies, row!"

That's better. Sometimes I get cross-eyed with my cutting and pasting!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 30 Mar 10 - 01:58 PM

Interesting text in that last link, John. I would assume the framework of the chantey is that of what we usually now call "Blow, Boys, Blow" -- not to be confused with the forebitter-ish "Row/Roll, Bullies, Row/Roll."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 30 Mar 10 - 12:31 PM

"Here is a version of "Row, Bullies Row" from 1857. It is in THE KNICKERBOCKER, VOL L., 1857, in an article entitled "The Life of a Midshipmen", by "John Jenkins" (?). He is at the Brooklyn Naval Yard and is being rowed out to his first assignment on board the US Frigate "Shenandoah". It is presented as a rowing song:

'Oh! I do love that good, old bottle!
   Row, bullies, row!
Oh! I do love that good, old bottle!
   Row, my bullies, row!
Why do yo love that good, old bottle?
   Row, my bullies, row!
I love it 'cause it suits my throttle!
    Row, my bullies, row!
I love it 'cause it suits my throttle!
    Row, my bullies, row!

   After singing five more verses in the same elegant strain, we happened to pass a bum-boat, in which were seated a fat, old white woman and a negro boy, whereupon the singers roared out with great glee, and in a higher key than before:

'Yonder sits a dear old lady!
    Row, my bullies, row!
Yonder sits a dear old lady!
   Row, my bullies, row!
How do you know she is a lady?
    Row, my bullies, row!
How do you know she is a lady?
    Row, my bullies, row!
I know her by her nigger baby!
    Row, my bullies, row!
I know her by her nigger baby!"   
    Row, my bullies, row!                      (p.11)

Here is the link:

http://books.google.com/books?id=ybXPAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA11&dq=%22O+Shenandoh+my+bully+boy%22&lr=&cd=10#v=onepage&q=&f=false


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 30 Mar 10 - 10:31 AM

Thanks, Charlie. An interesting list.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 30 Mar 10 - 08:47 AM

John-

The "list" by which I assume you mean:

"With him they compared notes about Liverpool, Havre, Tybee Light, Boodle Alley, Collier's Reach, 'Round the corner Sally, and so forth"

appear to me to be "sailortown" references:

"Liverpool" and "Harve" being major port cities,

"Tybee Light" being the landmark light house off Savanna, Georgia, but also possibly a well known local tavern,

"Boodle Alley" and the like a typical sailortown streets lined with taverns, dance halls, houses of prostitution, and establishments that provided accessory needs.

It also makes sense that some of these "places" would also be celebrated in sea songs.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 30 Mar 10 - 06:18 AM

Lighter, thanks for the continued work on Dana (revised). So this turns out to not be a reference to "Round the Corner, Sally", the chanty, but perhaps a 'round the corner, Sally', "Sally". If so, it does finally document that use of the phrase. Hugill refers to "round the corner" Sallies, but this is the first actual use I've seen. I think that there is some significance to the fact that Dana was acquainted with both this use and *a* version of the song. What sense do you make out of the rest of the list?

And thanks for the soup pot of mixed metaphor chanties! Wow, if we ever doubted the fluidity of this process, this example should be somewhat convincing. It is hardly surprising to find Sally Brown around the corner. But Victoria with Jim Crow!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 29 Mar 10 - 07:49 PM

A fairly late allusion to shanties that has both Sallies in one song:

Henry John Webber, "The Voyagers' Companion and Adviser" (London: The Author, 1885) p. 20:

"About every four hours the sailors had to pump the ship; they always did so about half-past seven in the evening, when they would lighten their labours with a song. All their songs were celebrated for strong choruses, but for what else, I will leave you to judge by the following specimens. The burden of one of them was an illustrious lady rejoicing in the name of Brown, the chorus of which was:--

                Sally! Sally! round the corner, Sally Brown!
                Hi! hi! hi! hi! round the corner, Sally!

        No less sublime and beautiful is the following effusion:--

                Huzza! huzza! huzza! my boys, huzza!
                Then fare you well, my bonnie brown gal,
                        Britannia rules the main!

        This is highly patriotic:--

                Victoria! Victoria ! very well done, Jim Crow-o-o!
                Victoria ! Victoria! very well done, Jim Crow!

        The beauty and romance of the following must be apparent to every intelligent observer :—
                Yankee John, storm along;
                        Hurrah for Liza Lee!
                Yankee John, storm along;
                        Hurrah for Liza Lee!"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 29 Mar 10 - 07:28 PM

John, the Dana passage appears at the very end of Ch. XV of the book, and was revised and shortened before the 1840 publication. Dana and some shipmates are visiting the forecastle of the "Lagoda" at San Diego. The full passage is as follows (p. 115):


"One of their first inquiries was for Father Taylor, the seamen's preacher in Boston. Then followed questions about people of a different character and less hon[ora]bl[e] walk than Father Taylor, whom my shipmate, who was an old sailor, could tell them more about than I could. With him they compared notes about Liverpool, Havre, Tybee Light, Boodle Alley, Collier's Reach, 'Round the corner Sally, and so forth, conversation which one must always hear in a ship's forecastle and which, bad as it is, is no worse, nor, indeed, more gross, than that of many well-dressed young gentlemen at their clubs."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 29 Mar 10 - 05:50 PM

Lighter has given us the earliest version of "Santa Anna" with lyrics here:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=488#2861446

It comes from:

{1862} From Rev. Thomas H. Stacy, "Rev. Otis Robinson Bacheler, M.D., D.D., FIFTY-THREE YEARS A MISSIONARY TO INDIA, printed on shipboard during a voyage from Boston to Calcutta.

Here is a mention of singing "On Plains of Mexico" from the Battle of Ft. Sumter, S.C. in 1861:

http://books.google.com/books?id=UdACAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA616&dq=%22On+the+plains+of+Mexico%22&lr=&cd=102#v=onepage&q=%22On%20the%20pla

And here is a reference to listening to "All on the Plains of Mexico" being sung on board the "Pam Flush" on her way to New York, in *May of 1856*, from A BUILDER OF THE WEST: THE LIFE OF GENERAL WILLIAM JACKSON PALMER, by John Stirling Fisher, Chase Mellen (1981).

http://books.google.com/books?id=_OXRs_WmAY4C&pg=PA49&dq=%22Mister+Storm+roll+on%22&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Mister%20Storm%20roll%20

I'm sure I've seen this reference before, but I don't think it registered on me how early it is. Here is the full quote:

        "He listens to their songs and shanties, "musical but after a certain wild mood that is very appropriate to the words and the scene:

        "Hi yi, yi, yi, Mister Storm roll on, Storm Along, Storm Along," or "All on the Plains of Mexico," or the wildest and prettiest of all, which ends - "Aha, we're bound away, on the wild Missouri." (p. 49)

        Not only do we have an early reference to "All on the Plains of Mexico", but as far as I know, this is the earliest reference to a version of "Shenandoah" as well. And we have another reference to "Storm Along".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 29 Mar 10 - 10:53 AM

Here's the version from Nordhoff with his notes for "Old Stormy":

From Charles Nordhoff, The Merchant Vessel: a sailor boy's voyages to see the world, published by Moore, Wilstach, Keys & Co., Cincinnati, US, © 1856, p. 41

"The chants, as may be supposed, have more of rhyme than reason in them. The tunes are generally plaintive and monotonous, as are most of the capstan tunes of sailors, but resounding over the still waters of the Bay, they had a fine effect. There was one, in which figured that mythical personage "Old Stormy," the rising and falling cadences of which, as they swept over the Bay on the breeze, I was never tired of listening to. It may amuse some of my readers to give here a few stanzas of this and some other of these chants. "Stormy" is supposed to have died, and the first song begins:

Old Stormy

Old Stormy, he is dead and gone,
Carry him along, boys, carry him along,
Oh! carry him to his long home,
Carry him to the burying-ground.

Oh! ye who dig Old Stormy's grave,
Carry him along, boys, carry him along,
Dig it deep and bury him safe,
Carry him to the burying-ground.

Lower him down with a golden chain,
Carry him along, boys, carry him along,
Then he'll never rise again,
Carry him to the burying-ground.

Grand Chorus:

Way-oh-way-oh-way—storm along,
Way—you rolling crew, storm along stormy.

And so on ad infinitum, or more properly speaking, till the screw is run out."

So, which came first, the stevedore chant or the minstrel song?

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 29 Mar 10 - 07:54 AM

John-

I have you to thank for plunging me again (for hours!) into the world of on-line minstrel songs with your reference to "Storm Along, Stormy." Again, we don't know which came first but there are certainly more elements in this old minstrel song that resonate stevedore work at the cotton docks. Here's the whole song copied and pasted (and re-edited):

As sung by J. Smith of White's Serenaders at the Melodeon, New York City, from White's New Ethiopian Song Book, published by T.B. Peterson & Bros., Philadelphia, US, © 1854, p. 71,

Storm Along Stormy

O I wish I was in Mobile bay,
Storm along, Stormy!
Screwing cotton all de day,
Storm along, Stormy!
O you rollers storm along,
Storm along, Stormy!
Hoist away an' sing dis song --
Storm along, Stormy!

I wish I was in New Orleans,
Storm along, Stormy!
Eating up dem pork an' beans,
Storm along, Stormy!
Roll away in spite ob wedder,
Storm along, Stormy!
Come, lads, push all togedder,
Storm along, Stormy!

I wish I was in Baltimore,
Storm along, Stormy!
Dancing on dat Yankee shore,
Storm along, Stormy!
One bale more, den we'be done,
Storm along, Stormy!
De sun's gwan down, an' we'll go home.
Storm along, Stormy!

The eight-line format was in the minstrel song as printed, and does make it potentially more interesting to sing than a standard four-line format. I'll have to see if I can find some sheet music on-line.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 29 Mar 10 - 07:12 AM

I was driven off line last night by the first Spring thunderstorm of the season. Given these early references to "Round the corner, Sally", which include two possible mentions by Dana, and the ones by Reynolds and Lucett, I am going to suggest that this chanty is one that *could* have been used on board the "Julia Ann" on her voyages in 1853-1855. I think that it is particularly significant that all three of these sources are from the Pacific/South Pacific area. And there is a sense that "Round the corner, Sally" is well-known and well-established as a ship-board working song. It is not so clear what the function of the song was at that point. It's also not clear what the relationship was to the later (?) blackface minstrel song by Dan Emmett called "My Ole Aunt Sally". And the same is true with regard to the corn-shucking song about "Round the corn, Sally".

It does seem that this phrase, "round the corner, Sally", from one or all three of these sources (chanty, blackface, corn-shucking) became a popular saying. Here are two examples. The first is from 1873, from REMINISCENCES OF THE LEWS; TWENTY YEARS' WILD SPORT IN THE HEBRIDES, by "Sixty-One":

http://books.google.com/books?id=K_cPAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA183&dq=%22Round+the+corner,+Sally%22&lr=&cd=33#v=onepage&q=%22Round%20the%20c

And the second one, from a much later book (which seems to be incorporating earlier material ?), by Ralph Moody about the Overland Stage travel called STAGECOACH WEST (1967):

http://books.google.com/books?id=OX4lEodmmMkC&pg=PA122&dq=%22Round+the+corner,+Sally%22&lr=&cd=24#v=onepage&q=%22Round%20the%20c

With regard to the last reference I am keeping in mind Lighter's principles of critical research and not basing any conclusions on this reference about earlier historical evidence. Finally, here is one other reference to "Round the corn, Sally" in relation to corn-shucking in 1848 (from the South):

http://books.google.com/books?id=PCpKAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA287&dq=%22Round+the+corn,+sally%22&lr=&cd=23#v=onepage&q=%22Round%20the%20cor


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 28 Mar 10 - 08:16 PM

In THE PRIVATE JOURNAL OF WILLIAM REYNOLDS: UNITED STATES EXPLORING EXPEDITION, 1838-1842, by William Reynolds, Nathaniel Philbrick, and Thomas Philbrick, there is mentioned, on page 97 (Penguin Edition), that

        "Many of the girls at Point Venus [Tahiti] have learned the chorus songs common with sailors in heaving up the Anchor & other work...Their voices were good, and the ditties of "So early in the morning the Sailor loves his bottle oh," "Round the corner, Sally," "Tally Ho, you know" & a dozen others were often heard along the beach for half the night." (sometime between September 18th & 24th, 1839)

Here is the link:

http://books.google.com/books?id=4fUTBBP6xRwC&pg=PA97&dq=%22Round+the+corner,+Sally%22&lr=&cd=18#v=onepage&q=%22Round%20the%20co

Two of these songs are also mentioned by Dana: "Round the corner, Sally," and "Tally Ho, you know".

And here is a somewhat similar account from 1844, from Edward Lucett's book ROVINGS IN THE PACIFIC, FROM 1837 TO 1849. The event is recorded for August 19, 1844 at Huaheine, in the South Pacific. Lucett says,

        "I was desirous of procuring the original [words], and took a person well skilled in the language to write them down for me; when, to my great surprise, I discovered that both the words and the air were a beautiful modulation of our sailors' song of "Round the corner, Sally!" (p. 82)

Here is the link:

http://books.google.com/books?id=XyQ9oaSfaMwC&pg=PA82&dq=%22Round+the+corner,+Sally%22&lr=&cd=20#v=onepage&q=%22Round%20the%20co

In 1843, Dan Emmitt wrote and published a blackface minstrel song called "My Ole Aunt Sally". It has a concluding phrase in the chorus that goes "Ra, ree, ri, ro, round the corner, Sally." Here is the publication information:

http://books.google.com/books?id=MUQUAQAAIAAJ&q=%22My+Old+Aunt+Sally%22&dq=%22My+Old+Aunt+Sally%22&lr=&cd=15

And here is "My Old Aunt Sally":

http://books.google.com/books?id=zlMJAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA383&dq=%22My+Old+Aunt+Sally%22&cd=6#v=onepage&q=%22My%20Old%20Aunt%20Sally%22

Once again, it is hard to know whether the chanty borrowed from the minstrel song or vice-versa. But since we have documentation that notes the existence of "Round the corner, Sally" as a chanty that predates Emmett's song, it may well be that he borrowed the phrase from the chanty. Or it may be that both the chanty and Dan Emmett borrowed the phrase from an earlier Black corn-shucking song, here:

http://books.google.com/books?id=6frfZd0-1xkC&pg=PA68&dq=Round+the+corn,+sally&cd=4#v=onepage&q=Round%20the%20corn%2C%20sally&f=

I'm not sure of the dating on this, but it is another account of "Round the corn, Sally" as a corn-shucking song:

http://books.google.com/books?id=2ncAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA260&dq=Round+the+corn,+sally&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Round%20the%20corn%2C%20sally&f


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 28 Mar 10 - 03:46 PM

Lighter, here's another mystery revision in Dana that I've just come across. It is a second reference to "Round the Corner, *Sally*".   Here is the Google Book Search link:

http://books.google.com/books?id=BtgNAAAAIAAJ&q=%22Round+the+corner,+Sally%22&dq=%22Round+the+corner,+Sally%22&lr=&cd=26

I can't figure out where this passage is in the "normal" edition of Dana, but it's on p. 115 of the Kemble (1964) edition. Would you be able to check it out for us?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 27 Mar 10 - 08:58 AM

In October of 1852, just after Pond had purchased the "Julia Ann", she was sailed to Valparaiso on a shakedown cruise (October 13, 1852). Here is my original note about this:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=482#2809064

At the time i did not know what her return date to San Francisco was, but now I have found that it was February 12, 1853. Here is the shipping notice:

http://cdnc.ucr.edu/newsucr/cgi-bin/newsucr?a=d&cl=search&d=SDU18530214.2.15.2&srpos=6&e=-------en-logical-20--1-byDA---bark%2c+


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Mar 10 - 05:45 PM

Reading through these old newspapers from San Francisco is interesting and exhausting. They talk about everything under the sun, except work songs on the docks or aboard the ships. And there were plenty of ships, and there was plenty of loading and unloading! But no songs. Here is one little reference to singing at the capstan from 1865 (under "Lover's Promenade"):

http://cdnc.ucr.edu/newsucr/cgi-bin/newsucr?a=d&cl=search&d=DAC18650605.2.2&srpos=2&e=-------en-logical-20--1-byDA---capstan+son

And here is an interesting little article from 1895 by an old fellow remembering "how it was" twenty-five years earlier (about 1870):

http://cdnc.ucr.edu/newsucr/cgi-bin/newsucr?a=d&cl=search&d=SFC18950420.2.146&srpos=1&e=-------en-logical-20--1----sea+shanty-al


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 26 Mar 10 - 04:10 PM

I've found the last missing date for the voyages of the "Julia Ann". On her third return voyage from Sydney to San Francisco, she arrived in San Francisco on April 12, 1855. Her voyage took 78 days. Here is the shipping notice:

http://cdnc.ucr.edu/newsucr/cgi-bin/newsucr?a=d&cl=search&d=DAC18550413.2.22&srpos=191&e=-------en-logical-20--181-byDA---Barque

And here is an advertisement for her first voyage in April of 1853:

http://cdnc.ucr.edu/newsucr/cgi-bin/newsucr?a=d&cl=search&d=SDU18530314.2.2.2&srpos=167&e=-------en-logical-20--161-byDA---JULIA

And here is the complete schedule of her voyages:

Voyage #1   
        Departed San Francisco April 12, 1853.
        Arrived in SydneyJune 22, 1853.
        Departed Sydney on or about August 25, 1853.
        Arrived in San Francisco on October 12, 1853.

Voyage #2
        Departed San Francisco on December 2, 1853.
        Arrived in Sydney on January 24, 1854.
        Departed Sydney on March 22, 1854.
        Arrived in San Pedro CA on June 13, 1854. (83 days)
       Arrived in San Francisco shortly thereafter.

Voyage #3
        Departed San Francisco July 26, 1854 for Puget Sound
       Departed Puget Sound October 8, 1854.
        Arrived in Sydney on December 5 1854.
        Cleared for San Francisco, via Newcastle on December 21, 1854
        Departed Newcastle for San Francisco on January 17, 1855
        Arrived in San Francisco on April 12, 1855 (78 days from         Sydney)

Final Voyage #4
        Departed San Francisco May 19th, 1855.
        Arrived in Sydney on July 24, 1855.
        Departed from Sydney on Friday, September 7th, 1855.
        Ran aground and sank off the Scilly Islands on October 3-4, 1855.  

I've just found this site for searching California newspapers. I've spent most of the day trying to find something on "chanties", "sea songs", "work songs", "sailor songs". But so far I have not turned up a thing! It is a bit frustrating because I haven't exactly figured out the best way to phrase my searches.           


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 10:20 PM

Although I've never been a fan of Old Hickory, I'm glad to have the song about him here, even if he may have inadvertently strayed from the other thread. And I'm glad to know that I'm not the only only who loses posts and hits the wrong keys later in the evening.

Lighter, I wondered about Mr. Jones. As always I appreciate your critical sense of these things.

I have been trying once again to drag both "South Australia" and "Rio Grande" back into the 1850s. I've gone back over the literature on both of them and found really nothing more. With regard to "Rio" the 1868 article is still the one to beat. But Gibb's suggestions above are very evocative. I realized that I had fallen somewhere in between "Roll the Cotton Down" and "I'm Alabama Bound" (a riverboat song) and "Oh Susannah". I think both "SA" and "Rio" are hiding just beneath the surface here. The fluidity of these worksongs is beginning to do something to me. The tunes are beginning to move around along with the lyrics. But, I'm going to make sure this gets posted on *this* thread! I'll be interested to see what is where come morning.

I did just go back and check on the list of chanties from Captain John Robinson in THE BELLMAN, which Lighter put up, and "Rio Grande" is there! Any chance of posting those lyrics, Lighter? You say:

"Robinson, an Englishman, went to sea in 1859 at the age of 14. He was over 80 when his five-part article appeared in "The Bellman." Robinson writes that he learned a number of shanties on his first voyage, aboard the brigantine "Emily" to Catania in Sicily. His prime source was an old seaman named Will Halpin, "who had sailed the seas for sixty years, to all parts of the known globe." Halpin had sailed "on the Australian sailing ships during the gold rush, and again during the California rush....[H]e never missed an opportunity to sing his chanties."

Unfortunately Robinson doesn't say precisely which shanties he learned from Halpin. But he does give texts and tunes of the following, which he learned mostly on his first voyages."

This is at least suggestive of the possibility that "Rio" comes from the 60's if not earlier.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 10:16 PM

Another good early text from the Riverside Magazine for Young People (April, 1868). Lloyd sang his personal version in "Moby Dick":

        As I walked out one mornin',
                Down by the Clarence Dock,--
        Chorus. Heave away, my Johnny, heave away!
        'Twas there I met an Irish girl,
                Conversin' with Tapscott.
        Full chorus. An' away, my Johnny boy, we're all bound to go!

        "Good mornin' to yer, Taspcott;
                Good mornin', sir," she said….
        An' Tapscott he was that perlite
                He smiled an' bowed his head….

        "Oh, have yer got a ship," she said,--
                "A sailin' ship," said she,--
        "To carry me, and Dadda here,
                Across the ragin' sea?"

        "Oh yes, I got a packet ship,
                Her name's the Henry Clay,"--
        "She's layin' down to the Waterloo Dock,
                Bound to Amerikay."

        Then I took out my han'kerchief
                An' wiped away a tear,--
        And the lass was that she said to me, [sic]
                So, fare ye well, my dear!

        Some times I'm bound to Africay
                Some times I'm bound to France,--
        But now I'm bound to Liverpool
                To give them girls a chance."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 09:40 PM

oh GOD!! I did it again!!!



I need sleep.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 09:40 PM

Mention of the singing of cotton-stowers/screwers occured in Savannah the 20s, above. Now in the 30s, we get an actual lyric.

John M.'s intro:

*snip*

And here is another early reference, that can be dated as December
31,1838. Phillip Henry Gosse, in his LETTERS FROM ALABAMA (1859), also
mentions the cotton-screwing shanty, "Fire the ringo" (page 305-306,
at the very end of his book):

*snip*

On the Alabama River, here is the passage:

I have been amused by observing the crew stowing the cargo. After what I said of the way in which the cotton is screwed into the bales, you would suppose that these were incapable of further compression. But it is not so. When the stowed bales in the hold are in contact with the upper deck, another layer has to be forced in. This is effected, bale by bale, by powerful jack-screws, worked by four men. When you see the end of the bale set against a crevice, into which you could scarcely push a thin board, you think it impossible that it can ever get in; and, indeed, the operation is very slow, but the screw is continually turned, and the bale does gradually insinuate itself.

The men keep the most perfect time by means of their songs. These ditties, though nearly meaningless, have much music in them, and as all join in the perpetually recurring chorus, a rough harmony is produced, by no means unpleasing. I think the leader improvises the words, of which the following is a specimen; he singing one line alone, and the whole then giving the chorus, which is repeated without change at every line, till the general chorus concludes the stanza:—

"I think I hear the black cock say,
    Fire the ringo, fire away !
They shot so hard, I could not stay;
    Fire the ringo ! fire away !
So I spread my wings, and flew away;
    Fire the ringo ! &c.
I took my flight and ran away ;
    Fire, &c.
All the way to Canaday;
    Fire, &c.
To Canaday, to Canaday,
    Fire, &c.
All the way to Canaday.
    Ringo ! ringo ! blaze away!
   Fire the ringo ! fire away!"

Sometimes the poet varied the subject by substituting political for zoological allusions. The victory over the British at New Orleans — that favourite theme with all Americans—was chosen. Thus:—

" Gin'ral Jackson gain'd the day ;
   Fire the ringo, &c.
At New Orleans he won the day;
    Fire the ringo, fire away!"


I wonder about the possible relationship between the cotton-screwing chants and the steamboat stoker's "chaunt" -- the chorus of "FIRE", on the proper beat, being the connecting feature.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 09:07 PM

The General Jackson song is great because it shows "Fire Maringo!" was sued for both rowing and stowing, which means that it (or its "frame") was reasonably well known and not a one-off imprtovisation. Also, it eventually turned into "Santa Anna," a classic shanty. (With the evident substitution of "Monterrey" or "Floriday.") I believe Jackson's Tennessee militia was in West Florida in 1813 in the Red Stick War. Or so ISTR from Disney's Davy Crockett show.

So there's proof that the move from rowing and/or stowing to heaving happened at least once. Until Gibb's discovery, it was only a reasonable conjecture.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 08:52 PM

My last post meant to go to the "other" thread!!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 08:50 PM

It's hard to know if there even was a "Tansy Lee," and if there was, what Jones may have learned from him. The recent bio by Anthony Dalton shows that Jones mostly wrote fiction, not fact.

Most (not all) of the shanty texts and fragments in his books seem to have been taken verbatim from Hugill.   The bawdy, non-shanty fragments presumably come from Jones's RN days in the '40s and '50s.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 08:50 PM

Those are my rowing songs for 1830s. Now, some firemen's songs from that decade. I am not sure of the exact nature of work of the (mainly Black) "firemen" on river steamboats. Were they shoveling in coal, as on a locomotive? Was it logs they threw into a furnace, down below? More info, please! Whatever the case, the environment evokes the phrase, "Fire down below."

THE RAMBLER IN NORTH AMERICA, 1832-1833, Vol 2., by CJ Latrobe, 1835.

Of a steamboat on the Ohio River, mentions "the wild song of the negro fire-men." (pg 281).

Next, a dramatic scene in BENTLEY'S MISCELLANY, vol 4, New York, Sept. 1839,
taking place in a steamboat. Here's the song.

"THE STOKER'S CHAUNT.
The ebben tide ib floating past,
Fire down below!
The arrival time ib coming fast.
Fire down below!
Racoon cry in de maple tree,
Fire down below!
The wood ib on fire, and the fire a sea,
Fire down below!
Oo a oo oh ! fire down below!"

A chaunty? It appears to be related to a "fire down below" chantey that will continue to appear in the 19th century. Here is a rendition of the chantey as culled by Hugill, if one would like to fit the above lyrics to the framework:

The Sailor Fireman

Incidentally, Hugill cited it as a possible source for the melody to the chantey "Sacramento."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 07:17 PM

"Fire Maringo" (!) as a rowing song, and a "Good Morning Ladies All" for corn-shucking. Note, however, that the author disassociates the two kinds of work/song.

PUTNAM'S MONTHLY, VOL V. January 1855. "Negro Minstrelsy - Ancient and Modern."

A few minutes pass, and the breeze once more wafts to me the swelling notes of the chorus half buried in the measured cadence of the oars. The wind dies away, and my straining ears again hear nothing but the measured beat of the rowers, and the plashing of the restless sea. But now, anew, I hear the sound of those manly negro voices swelling up upon the evening gale. Nearer and nearer conies the boat, higher and higher rises the melody, till it overpowers and subdues the noise of the oars, which in their turn become subservient to the song, and mark its time with harmonious beating. And now the boat is so near, that every word and every tone comes to my ear, over the water, with perfect distinctness, and I recognize the grand old triumphal chorus of the stirring patriotic melody of "Gen'el Jackson":

Gen'el Jackson, mighty man—
Whaw, my kingdom, fire away;
He fight on sea, and he fight on land,
Whaw, my kingdom, fire away.

Gen'el Jackson gain de day—
Whaw, my kingdom, fire away,
He gain de day in Floraday,
Whaw, my kingdom, flre away.

Gen'el Jackson fine de trail,
Whaw, my kingdom, flre away,
He full um fote wid cotton bale,
Whaw, my kingdom, fire away."

But the boat touches the beach; the negroes with a wild cry quit their singing, tumble out into the shallow water, drag their dug-out up high and dry upon the sand, and I am left once more with the evening breeze and the quieter harmony of nature.

The song, a part of which I have just quoted, is fresh from the sable mint in which it was coined. Its originality and genuineness every one familiar with plantation life will at once perceive; while some Georgians may even be able to point to the very river on which the dusky troubadours still chant it. I am well aware that in depriving the words of their appropriate music, I rob it of much of its attractiveness, and still it is no bad sample of what may be called the Historic Plantation Ballad. The particular naval battle in which Old Hickory was engaged, I have not been able to discover; but the allusion to the bales of cotton in the third stanza may not be widout its effect in settling one of the vexed questions relating to the defence of New Orleans; and it adds another to the many examples of the superiority of oral tradition over contemporaneous written history.

It is not alone, however, on the water that these quaint songs are produced. The annual corn-shucking season has its own peculiar class of songs, never heard but on that festival; their rhythmical structure or ceasural pauses not being adapted to the measured cadence of the oars. Standing at a little distance from the corn heap, on some dark and quiet night, watching the sable forms of the gang, illuminated at intervals by the flashes of the lightwood knot, and listening to the wild high notes of their harvest songs, it is easy to imagine ourselves unseen spectators of some secret aboriginal rite or savage festival. Snatches of one or two songs which on such occasions I have heard, recur to me. Could I in the following specimen give you any idea of the wild grandeur and stirring music of the refrain, I should need no apology for presenting it to my readers.

"De ladies in de parlor.
Hey, come a rollln' down—
A drinking tea and coffee ;
Good morning ladies all.

"De gemmen in de kitchen,
Hey come a rollln' down—
A drinking brandy toddy ;
Good morning, ladies all."


http://books.google.com/books?id=0YIIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA77&dq=%22whaw,+my+kingdom%22&


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 06:54 PM

Hey, Gibb, thanks for the "Salambo". I hadn't noticed that. Would you believe that I have had something like this rolling around in my head for several days now!

"In Alabama I was born
CH: Heave away, heave away
Among the cotton and the corn
CH: We're goin' to Alabama!"

I think that's amazing. It was more like

Way down south where I was born,
Heave away, heave away
Among the cotton and the corn
We're goin to Lousy-Anna!

Here is a very interesting (non-chanty) song about going to "Lousy-Anna":

http://books.google.com/books?id=QCkmWbudCCsC&pg=PA104&dq=He+boun+for+Lousy-Anna&cd=1#v=onepage&q=He%20boun%20for%20Lousy-Anna&f


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 06:16 PM

And what is "this "Salambo" thing in the Caribbean?"

Abrahams, DEEP THE WATER, pg. 74. The Nevisian whalers sing "Oh My Rolling River" (Shenandoah family), with a distinctly "Sally Brown" lyrical theme to it. One of the verses is:

Salambó, I love your daughter,
Oh, my rolling river.
Salambó, this white mulatta,
We are bound away from this world of misery

Later in the song, the name "Sally" appears, too. It's unclear how Abrahams processed "Salambó" -- i.e., we don't know (?) whether he asked the guys, "Hey, is this just your funky pronunciation of 'Sally Brown'? How would you spell that? etc etc?"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 05:57 PM

Just by way of brainstorming, here is how "South Australia" sits in my mind. This is all just
speculation, of course.

It has the "feel" of an American song to me, consistent with the
music-culture to which pieces like "the fireman's "Fire Down Below" or
the minstrel-y "Camptown Races" belong. 1840s-50s era, perhaps.

This mix of "heave and haul" that people invariably sing nowadays
smell suspiciously "off." Pick one or the other. I realize that some
source mixed them (in Doerflinger? I forget at the moment) and there
may have been good reason for that, but from my experience it is
usually one of the other. At this point, the explanations just sound to me like rationalizing the from-one-book-and-then-perpetuated revival version. I'll choose "heave," though the song could work equally well for hauling.

I suspect the reference to South Australia was added to a pre-existing chantey framework.   For me personally, then, the geographic reference is a red herring if one wants to discover related songs. And I wouldn't be surprised if something on the same structure, without mentioning that place, turns up. I imagine something like this:

In Alabama I was born
CH: Heave away, heave away
Among the cotton and the corn
CH: We're goin' to Alabama!

Chorus:
Heave away you rolling king
Heave away, Heave away
Heave away you rolling king
We're goin' to Alabama!

I quite like it. I think I'll try singing that some time!

My speculation for "rolling king" is that this work song applied to a rolling operation-- either to rolling cotton bales (e,g, down to port) or to the "log rolling" of which we've heard.

Well, it can't be worse than Hugill's guess that "Ruler King" was a corruption of "Zulu King" in South Africa!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 02:58 PM

From Tristan Jones' ADRIFT, here is Tansy Lee's (1866-1958) version of "Sally Brown":

http://books.google.com/books?id=HQfybxyQceoC&pg=PA153&dq=Sally+Brown+had+a+daughter,+Nellie&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Sally%20Brown%20ha

If he was born in 1866, it is conceivable that he was at sea by the early '80's.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 01:15 PM

Here's an interesting followup note on "South Australia" from Tristan Jones' SAGA OF A WAYWARD SAILOR (scroll up just a tad for the verse):

http://books.google.com/books?id=WDD2e_gOpiQC&pg=PA214&dq=a+%22rolling+king%22&lr=&cd=5#v=onepage&q=a%20%22rolling%20king%22&f=f

And here's a note on the Mudcat thread about "Rolling King" from Russell the Miller:

thread.cfm?threadid=48959#794113

I haven't been able to find Tansy Lee's (1866-1958) whole song. It looks interesting.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 07:02 AM

And here are the chanties from the above mentioned list of call/response worksongs that have more than four attested publications:

"Leave Her, Johnny, Leave Her" (mock chorus) 2+: Bullen, Sharp,
"Tom's Gone To Hilo" Hugill (2+)

"Goodbye, Fare Ye Well" (mock chorus) 4+ Hugill (4),
"Hanging Johnny" 4+: Terry, Masefield, Doerflinger, Hugill

"So Handy, Me Boys" 5: L. Smith, Davis/Tozer, Sharp, Hugill (2)
"Fire Down Below" (a-b-c) 5+ Hugill (2), Sharp (2), Terry
"Hoorah For The Blackball Line" 5+: Sharp, Colcord, Hugill (3)
"Roll The Cotton Down" Hugill (5+), Adventure Magazine

"A Long Time Ago" 6+: Taylor Harris, Hugill (7 versions), Doerflinger/Tayluer, F.W. Wallace, Harding, Sharp,
"Clear the Track, Let the Bullgine Run" (mock chorus) 6+: Terry, Whall, Davis/Tozer, Sampson, Sharp, Hugill
"Run, Let The Bullgine Run" 6+: L.Smith, Terry, Bullen, Sharp, Colcord, Hugill

"Huckleberry Picking" / "We'll Ranzo Ray" 7+:Davis/Tozer, Bullen, Whall, Sharp, Doerflinger, Colcord, Hugill
["Mr. Stormalong"] cotton-stowing/capstan 7+: CF Smith, Terry, Sharp, Colcord, Doerflinger, Perry, Hugill
" Only One More Day" (mock chorus) 7+:Terry, Sharp, Bullen, Whall, Davis/Tozer, Colcord, Hugill
"South Australia" (mock chorus) 7: L. Smith, Colcord, Doerflinger,Georgia Sea Islanders, West Indies, Harlow, Hugill

["My Dollar And A Half A Day"/"Lowlands"] cotton-stowing/capstan 8+: Bullen, Whall, Sampson, Colcord, Doerflinger, Terry, Siegmeister, Hugill
"Heave Away My Johnnies" (cf. relation to "slave song" about Henry Clay) 8+: L. Smith, Terry, Doerflinger, Harlow, Colcord, Sharp, Davis/Tozer, Hugill

"Blow Boys, Blow" 10+: Doerflinger/Tayluer & Hathaway, Terry, Briggs, Sharp, Whall, L. Smith, Masefield, Hugill, Colcord

Chanties with numerous attestations:

"Hieland Laddie" (mock chorus)
"Knock A Man Down" 2: Sharp & Briggs, + "Blow the Man Down"
"Poor Old Man" / "Dead Horse"
"Rio Grande" (mock chorus)
"Sally Brown"
"Santiana" (mock chorus)
["Shallow Brown"] cotton-stowing/capstan
["Shenandoah" (and variations)] cotton-stowing/capstan
"Whisky Johnny"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 25 Mar 10 - 06:55 AM

A while back we put up a pretty good list of "hauling chanties", mainly from Hugill, but with a few additions, which Gibb had categorized according to his analysis of call/response worksongs. Later we made several additions from earlier sources, like "Grog Time of Day". But here is the link to that list:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=464#2852874

I went on to develop a category of "multiple attestations", which simply has to do with how often, when and where something shows up. Here is my original link on that (keep scrolling down for additional parts):

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=464#2855290

I have applied the concept of multiple attestations with regard to publication in collections to the original list mentioned here. Here is the first part of those results:

Single Source Attestation:

"Across the Rockies"
"Do Let Me Lone, Susan"
"Essequibo River"
"Heave Away Boys, Heave Away" (a)
"Heave Away Boys, Heave Away" (b)
"Hilo Boys Hilo"
"Haul Away, Boys, Haul Away"
"Haul 'er Away" (a)
"John Kanaka"
"Leave Her, Johnny"
"Lower The Boat Down" (Colcord)
"Miss Lucy Loo"
"Ranzo Ray" (c)
"Roll, Boys, Roll"
{"Serafina"}
[Southern Ladies (fr. Sharp)]
("Stormy Along, John") cotton-screwing/capstan
"Walkalong You Sally Brown"
"'Way Stormalong John"
"Where Am I to Go, M'Johnnies"
"Yankee John, Stormalong"

Two Source Attestation:

"Bully In The Alley" 2: Sharp & Henry Lauder
"Can't Ye Hilo?" 2: Captain Robinson & Harding
"Coal Black Rosie" 2: Bullen & Harding
"Dixie Land" / "Sing A Song, Blow-Along O!" 2: Patterson & Tobago Smith
("Good Morning Ladies All" (a)) cotton-screwing/capstan 2: Sharp & Tobago Smith
"Good Morning Ladies All" (b)   2: Terry & West Indies seaman
"Heave Away, Cheerily O!" [sort of] (mock chorus) 2: Davis & Tozer, and Harlow
"High O, Come Roll Me Over" 2: Masefield & Harding
"Hilo Come Down Below" (Bullen) 2: Bullen & Harding
"John Cherokee" (Colcord) 2: Captain Robinson & Harding
"John, Come Tell Us As We Haul Away"/ "Mobile Bay" 2 (?): Hugill & Stanley Slade
"Knock A Man Down" 2: Sharp & Briggs, + "Blow the Man Down"
"Poor Lucy Anna" 2: Bullen & Sharp
"Roll The Woodpile Down" 2: Taylor Harris, Hugill
"Round the Bay of Mexico" 2: Hugill & Bahamas
"Sister Susan"/"Shinbone Al" 2: Bullen & Henry Lauder
"Stormalong, Lads, Stormy" 2: Sharp & Harding
"The Codfish Shanty" mock chorus 2: from Hugill
"Tiddy High O" 2: Sharp & Tobago Smith
"Tommy's Gone Away" (Sharp) 2: Terry & Hugill
"Tommy's on the Tops'l yard" 2: Masefield & Hugill
"The Gal With the Blue Dress On" 2: Davis/Tozer & Harding (L. Smith's "Slapandergosheka" ?)
"Walkalong, Miss Susiana Brown" 2: Colcord & Hugill
"Walk Along My Rosie" 2: Harding & Bullen
"Way, Me Susiana" 2: Doerflinger & Harding

Three Source Attestation:

"Across The Western Ocean" 3: CF Smith, Whall, C. Russell
"A Hundred Years Ago" (a) (b)/ "'Tis Time For Us To Go"
        3: Terry, R.C. Leslie(L.Smith), Hugill
"Billy Riley" 3: CF Smith, Colcord, Hugill
"Bunch O Roses" 3: Doerflinger/Silsbee, Harding, Bahamas
"Doodle, Let Me Go" 3: Terry, Sharp & Harding
"Fire Maringo" 3: Gosse, Erskine, Nordhoff
"Gimme My Banjo" 3: Doerflinger/ William Laurie & Silsbee, & Harding
"Goodbye, My Love, Goodbye" 3:CF Smith, Tozer, Colcord
"Hello, Somebody" 3: Captain Barker, Doerflinger, & Harding
"Hilo, Johnny Brown" 3: Hugill, Terry & Whall
"Hurrah, Sing Fare Ye Well" 3: Whall, Sampson, Hugill
"Sing Sally O" (b) 3: Sharp, Colcord, & Harding
"The Bully Boat"/"Ranzo Ray" (a) 3: Sharp, Terry, & Hugill
"Won't Ye Go My Way?" (one pull) 3: Sharp, Terry, & Hugill

Four Source Attestation:

"Hilonday" L. Smith (one pull) 4: Alden, L. Smith, Terry & Harding
"Pay Me the Money Down" 4: L. Smith, Henry Lauder, Harding, Georgia Sea Islanders
"Round The Corner Sally" 4: Dana, Terry, Sharp, & Harding
"So Early In The Morning" (a) 4+: / "Bottle O" CF Smith, Terry, Sharp, Hugill
"Walk Me Along, Johnny" / "General Taylor" (mock chorus) 4: Nordhoff, Sharp, Terry & Hugill

This is not an exhaustive analysis, but a beginning. It gives some sense of the frequency with which these chanties show up in the second half of the 19th century in publication.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 24 Mar 10 - 12:39 PM

"South Australia"

According to Gibb's analysis and categories, "South Australia" is a "call-response-call-response form (with the 2 "pull points" per response), & mock chorus." He says, "The "mock chorus" is structured and timed just like the call-response section, and the only reasons it appears as a chorus are 1) Everyone sings together 2)The lyrics repeat each time round."

Here is a summary of the references to "South Australia" and its variant "The Codfish Shanty" in this thread *so far*, with all of the other bibliographic references that I have been able to find. Please note that I did find a source for the "We're bound for Californiay!" variant. It was in Shay's book, but he gives no information or dating on it. Also note the snippets from Google Book Search from SPIN MAGAZINE. It's unfortunate that this is not online. I think it would give us a lot of information about some of the ongoing "Hugill Mysteries".

{late 1860's} Harding's "The Codfish Shanty" S. Hugill, SHANTIES FROM THE SEVEN SEAS, (1961)

{1863-1903} "Heave Away", J.S. Scott, from London, THE JAMES M. CARPENTER COLLECTION, (1929), "Don't you hear what the Captain say..."

{sometime between 1872 and 1874} William Laurie of Sailor's Snug Harbor, William Doerflinger, SONGS OF THE SAILOR AND LUMBERMAN (first published in 1951 as SHANTYMEN AND SHANTYBOYS) 1990, p.70-71, "originated, probably, in the British emigrant ships that ran out to Melbourne and Sydney, Australia, carrying their hundreds of homesick colonists halfway round the globe to less crowded lands beneath the Southern Cross."(Doerflinger)

{1874} Frederik Pease Harlow, THE MAKING OF A SAILOR, OR SEA LIFE ABOARD A YANKEE SQUARE-RIGGER, (1928), Harlow mentions a shipmate named Dave who claims to have sung "South Australia" on board the clipper ship "Thermopylae" in 1874 (p. 220)

{1875} Frederik Pease Harlow, CHANTEYING ABOARD AMERICAN SHIPS, (1962), "chanteying" aboard the "Akbar" (pp. 33-35)

{1879-1908} Reece Baldwin, of South Wales, England, THE JAMES M. CARPENTER COLLECTION, (1928) "Have you seen my bowery queen..."

{1888} Laura Smith, MUSIC OF THE WATERS, from a "coloured seaman at the "Home"

{1889-1901} Joanna Colcord, ROLL AND GO - SONGS OF THE AMERICAN SAILORMEN (1924), "probably belongs to the days of the British wool-clippers, which ran between London and Melbourne or Sydney." (p. 86 of the 1964 edition,)

{1902} "South Australia", a poem by Charles Keeler A WANDERER'S SONGS OF THE SEA, with "Heave away, haul away" chorus line.

{1912-1942} "Haul Away, I'm a Rolling King", Lydia Parrish, SLAVE SONGS OF THE GEORGIA SEA ISLANDS (1942)

{1915-1948} "Cape Cod Girls", Frank Shay, AMERICAN SEA SONGS AND CHANTEYS (1948) has chorus: "We're bound for Californiay!" (p. 84)

{1927} William Saunders, "Folk Songs of the Sea", MUSICAL OPINION AND MUSIC TRADE REVIEW, London, July, 1927, p. 985, "Cape Cod Girls"

{1930's} Stan Hugill, SHANTIES FROM THE SEVEN SEAS, (1961), (p. 193-196}

SPIN, Volumes 1-4; - Page 15, Volumes 1-4; - Page 15, 1962
AUSTRALIA (CAPSTAN SHANTY) South End gals don't wear any frills, They're skinny and tight as a finny addie's gills. Our Old Man don't set no sail, He's a Liverpool man wid a salt-fish's tail... ... an ' we're bound for California.

{1966-1967} "We Are Bound Down South Alibama", Roger Abrahams DEEP THE WATER, SHALLOW THE SHORE, (1974), sung by the whalers of Barouallie, (p. 110)

SPIN, Volumes 7-9; - Page 32, 1969
Hooray, you're a lanky I I'm bound for South Australia '. What makes you call me
a ruler and king ? Heave away ! haul away 'Cause I'm married to an Indian ...

{1969} Stan Hugill SHANTIES AND SAILORS SONGS, p. 59,

        "Gold was found in Australia in 1851-53, [just prior to the sailing of the "Julia Ann"] but until an agricultural peace fell on that up-to-then wild country of convicts and bush-rangers, no regular shipping companies supplied the needs of the people of the "Colonies" as sailors called Australia. The ships of Green and Dunbar, however, made occasional passages out to Sydney in between Oriental voyages. With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the new-fangled "tin-kettles" taking over the China tea trade, many of the clippers and the newly found Baines' Blackball line began to carve regular trade routes between the Mother Country and the Colonies. Apart from the capstan shanty "South Australia", no new work-songs were produced in these ships either, and many authorities feel that even this song, more than likely, started life in the days of the California gold rush, since versions are to be found giving:
   
   Heave away, haul away!
   And we're bound for California!"   
---
And here is a note from one of Gibb's posts above:

"To my mind, Colcord's 1924 version *must* be copied out of LA Smith. (And I always like to remind how much of Smith's work was plagiarized from the 1882 article, suggesting that even more of it was "culled" from other sources.) And I would not be surprised if Saunders culled his Codfish version "recently received from America" from Colcord -- either that, or the song was very well standardized around that time. Hugill's text version of South Australia/Rolling King looks to be a mash of all the sources he'd *read*, if not also what he used to sing/hear."   [Gibb: 30 Jan 10 - 01:46 PM]

There is certainly some basis for claiming that this chanty has African-American sources, both in its framework of call/response, and in some of its lyrical themes, as well as in its lack of a coherent story line. Also, it shows up in two later African-Amerian collections from the Georgia Sea Islands (Parrish) and the West Indies (Abrahams). On this basis, one could argue that the "shape" of it probably goes back to the 1850's period. However, the earliest documented date is *maybe* sometime in the late '60's, depending on when Harding learned his version of "Cape Cod Girls", and perhaps the early '70's according to Harlow.   

We have no data that places this song in San Francisco at the time of the Gold Rush, nor do we have any data that places it on the traders between San Francisco and Australia. And it is interesting that it does not show up in the Clive Carey Collection from Australia (Warren Fahey). [I am choosing to ignore the A.L. Lloyd reference because it has been impossible to pin it down.]


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 23 Mar 10 - 06:33 AM

"I'm just a little bit slow today, and already half a day behind on the new thread "The Advent and Development of Chanties" launched by Gibb at 12:33."

Yep. I shouldn't try to navigate late at night. I am more than half a day behind! Three days would be more accurate. I've been so wrapped up in stuff here I haven't been paying attention to what else is going on with Mudcat. There is a story that Captain Pond tells about his first voyage out to Sydney from San Francisco. He had just slipped out of Tahiti after leaving most of his very rambunctious crew behind in jail there. A day or so out, he noticed these boats *rowing* after him! The wind must not have been very good. They actually caught up with him and it turned out to be the French Navy, looking for stowaways from all of the other ships in the harbor. So, while I don't have the French on board, I am rowing away and will catch up.

Gibb, I like the direction you've taken, and I think this is going to be a most excellent trip.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 22 Mar 10 - 10:28 PM

Sounds like a plan, John! With all the stuff we've turned up here, and with your meticulous editing of that, it will be easy to...erm...steal links for the chronological treatment that I propose. I've already lots of new references from the 1820s, and I've not even begun to break out the 1820s quotes from this thread yet. (*I'm looking for things that were allegedly *observed* (or first written about) in the given decade; the publication dates can be later.)

And I am especially interested on how the authors are describing what they've seen, so far as that gives an idea of how familiar or prevalent it might have been.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 22 Mar 10 - 10:15 PM

I'm just a little bit slow today, and already half a day behind on the new thread "The Advent and Development of Chanties" launched by Gibb at 12:33. I've only just discovered it! I wondered what Gibb meant by "the Advent thread"! Okay, now I'm on board, or at least I know when the ship left the dock.

I am excited about this new thread and want to support it and encourage it in every way I can. We've laid some good foundations for it here. This thread has been an occasion to open up some of these questions, but now they need more focusing and a different kind of approach and I think that Gibb is off and running with that. I will be participating in that discussion as much as I am able. And when we turn up something there that is pertinent to this thread's main concern, which is chanties that *could* have been sung on board the "Julia Ann" on her voyages from San Francisco to Sydney in 1853-1855, I will bring it over here and perhaps develop it some more here.

I think that it is all right to let this thread drift for awhile. It has become quite long and I had been thinking about how to break it out into some other kinds of threads and I appreciate Gibb taking the initiative on this. I have been going back over it and trying to pull together some bits and pieces that might be of value for future work. That is about done for now. Until someone can actually place some specific chanties in San Francisco around 1850-1860, or on route between SF and Sydney in that same time period, we are actually no closer to pinning down chanties for the "Julia Ann" than when we began this work. But, we have learned a lot in the meantime.   

I will be very interested in seeing what can be turned up on the new "Advent" thread. And I hope that something shows up in San Francisco. I'm not closing this thread down, but I want to thank all of those folks who have been working here over the last several months to make this what it has become. I appreciate your efforts. Here is the link to the new thread:

thread.cfm?threadid=128220&messages=20


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 22 Mar 10 - 05:29 PM

Lighter-

Nice to see "Shawnee town" run back to 1828.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 22 Mar 10 - 04:58 PM

Gibb (Guest), just because I recognize his name (CP) doesn't mean I ever understood anything he said! But I certainly am no idealist. With James I will only take seriously what is within the realm of experience, and more specifically, the plurality of particulars. But I think I see what you mean. I didn't know they were doing wax impressions back then. It's too bad they all went down with the "Julia Ann"! They could have saved me a lot of trouble! Talk about "lost wax".

Lighter, thanks for that "Shawneetown" verse. In THE SINGIN' GATHRIN', by Jean Thomas and Joseph Leeder, there is a song called "Push Boat", sung by Blanche Preston Jones, Lawrence County, Kentucky in 1911. Thomas and Leeder say,

"This ballad is classed as a "work" song, inasmuch as the men propelling the push boat with their long poles sang as they rowed down the Big Sandy River to its junction with the Ohio River at Catlettsburg, Kentucky.

This ballad was composed and set to tune by her great grandfather, Robert Preston, whose family was among the first settlers in the Big Sandy region of the Kentucky mountains, and for whom the town of Prestonsburg in Floyd County takes its name. Her kinsman, Thomas Jefferson Preston, owned and operated a push boat in the Big Sandy section before the coming of the steamboat. "Old Man Jeffry" refers to him, and Ike is the name of his son." (pp. 18-19). Here are the words (and there is also a tune printed):

"Going up the river,
From Catlettsburg to Pike,
Working on a push boat
For old man Jeffry's Ike.

Working on a push boat
For fifty cents a day;
Buy me girl a brand new dress
And throw the rest away.

Working on a push boat,
Water's mighty slack;
Taking sorghum 'lasses down,
And bringing sugar back.

I wish I had a nickel,
I wish I had a dime;
I'd spend it all on Cynthie Jane
And dress her mighty fine.

The weather's mighty hot, boys,
Blisters on my feet,
Working on a push boat
To buy my bread and meat.

Working on a push boat,
Working in the rain;
When I get to Catlettsburg,
Goodby Cynthie Jane."

And from Jean Thomas' BALLAD MAKIN' IN THE MOUNTAINS OF KENTUCKY (1939), there is this:

"Whereupon, plucking a lively accompaniment on the gourd banjo, Little Robin sang with all the bravado of his sefarin' ancestors: [same song with these additional verses]

Pushing mighty hard, boy,
Sand bar's in the way;
Working like a son-of-a-gun
For mighty scanty pay.

Going down the Big Sandy,
With Pete and Lazy Sam;
When I get to Catlettsburg,
I'll buy myself a dram.

Going down the river,
I live on buffalo,
Lordy, lordy, Cynthie Jane,
Don't I hate to go.

With a lively "Yo ho! Yo ho!" of his own making, Little Robin ended Old Robin's ditty...."(pp. 48-49, with music).

In a letter from Dillon Bustin, who wrote the well-known contemporary version of "Shawneetown", he says, "In terms of sourcs, "Shawneetown" was prompted by a few fragments of lyrics printed in primary documents from the early nineteenth century." And he mentions a book by Leland Baldwin called THE KEELBOAT AGE ON WESTERN WATERS. (early 1940s).


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: GUEST
Date: 22 Mar 10 - 12:34 PM

And it may be that some lyrical themes were so strong that they actually "inspired new frameworks". I would like to hear a bit more on this.

I was thinking along the lines of how new songs get created. Even when "from scratch," there is usually some kind of prior basis. Let's say that one way some new chanties came about was simply by a guy chanting something that came to mind, to an improvised melody -- similar to what Lighter was imagining recently on the "Advent" thread. What I am suggesting is that, in order to supply some kind of lyrics to this improvisation, one might draw upon a pre-set lyrical theme (eg Stormalong). In other words, in addition to lyrical themes being re-used and "grafted" upon pre-existing frameworks, they, being so "strong" and ever-present in the "language" of the genre, would probably also be used at that moment when a new framework was being created.

The framework (legisign, a la Peirce, ha ha!) cannot exist without a specific realization (sinsign!). So if it is a matter of chicken and egg...lyrics must come first, I think. They are the "wax" in the "lost wax" process! :)


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 22 Mar 10 - 11:19 AM

I'd better post this here before it gets lost again (I lost it once before for several years).

From James Hall, "Letters from the West: Letter III," The Port Folio, XII (Sept., 1821), p. 446. Judge Hall made a trip down the Ohio from Pittsburgh to Shawneetown, Ill. This comes from a letter about Parkersburg, Virginia:

"To the admirers of the simplicity of Wordsworth, to those who prefer the naked effusions of the heart, to the meretricious ornaments of fancy, I present the following beautiful specimen verbatim, as it flowed from the lips of an Ohio boatman:

"It's oh! as I was a wal-king out,
One morning in July,
I met a maid, who ax'd my trade,—
Says I, 'I'll tell you presently,'
'Miss, I'll tell you presently!'"

Obviously the first stanza of a predecessor of the capstan shanty "New York Girls/ Can't You Dance the Polka?"

When Hall revised his article for book publication in 1828, he added a second stanza:

And it's oh! she was so neat a maid,
That her stockings and her shoes,
She toted in her lilly [sic] white hands
For to keep them from the dews, &c., &c.

So it isn't quite "New York Girls." And that unfortunately is that.

Except that Hall also quotes "the words which the rowers are even now sounding in my ears as they tug at the oar,

Some rows up, but we row down,
All the way to Shawnee town
Pull away - pull away!"

I believe Hall makes the earliest reference to the "Shawneetown" rowing song. Its form and the "pull away" chorus brings it very close to the apparently soon-to-evolve halliard shanties.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 22 Mar 10 - 10:07 AM

And here are our references *so far* for "FIRE DOWN BELOW".

{1839} BENTLEY'S MISCELLANY vol 4, New York, Sept. 1839

"The Stoker's Chant" / "Fire Down Below" [riverboat fireman]
-----
{1839} BURTON'S GENTLEMEN'S MAGAZINE

"Fire! Down Below"
-----
{1850s} OCEAN LIFE IN THE OLD SAILING SHIP DAYS, John D. Whidden. Whidden's source is his "old friend, Captain George Meacom, of Beverly [Mass.]." Meacom refers to his own recollection of the 1850s, and his testimony seems to be reliable.

"Fire Down Below"
-----
{1853} A JOURNEY IN THE SEABOARD SLAVE STATES Frederick Law Olmsted, 1861

"Oahoiohieu" / "The Sailor Fireman" ("Lindy Lowe") [riverboat]
-----
{1854} ETHIOPIAN MELODIES, Christy and White, 1854

"Fire Down Below"
-----
{1879} WE FOUR, by Laura L Rees

"Fire down below!"
-----


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 22 Mar 10 - 09:55 AM

Rounding up some of our loose ends, here are the references on this thread *so far* that I have found for "Cheerily, Men" in chronological order. I am also including "Nancy Fanana" as a variant.

"CHEERILY, MEN"

{1834-36}, Richard Henry Dana, TWO YEARS BEFORE THE MAST, (1840). Dana does mention "Cheerily Men" in actual use in at least four places (in the 1911 edition from Google), on p. 118 to cat the anchor, on page 197 to bring the anchor to the head, on page 301 to bring the topsails to the masthead, and on page 316 at the halyards.

{1852} "News from Our Digger," Mr. Moon, TAIT'S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE, XX 293, (1853) [Ship "Chalmers," Gravesend to Melbourne, 1852]

{December 1858} article by I. Allen (who looks to have been a student?) in OBERLIN STUDENTS' MONTHLY

{1859} "Songs of the Chantey-Man", Captain John Robinson, THE BELLMAN,

{August 1, 1868}, "On Shanties", ONCE A WEEK, July to December, Eneas Sweetland Dallas, editor (London)

{Feb 8/1886} MEMORIES OF HALBERT DICKSON, Aust Jnl [from Warren Fahey - this may not be the same song]

{1888}, Laura Smith, THE MUSIC OF THE WATERS, p. 22-23

{1927}, Cicely Fox Smith, A BOOK OF SHANTIES, p. 40

{1911} Eleanor Mordaunt, A SHIP OF SOLACE

{1915} Cecil Sharp , ENGLISH FOLK-CHANTEYS


"NANCY FANANA" / "Haul 'er Away"

{October 11, 1839 - 1841}, Francis Allyn Olmstead, INCIDENTS OF A WHALING VOYAGE

{February, 1849}, Ezekiel I. Barra, A TALE OF TWO OCEANS in Boston harbor

A very cursory and quick Google Book Search reveals that there are many more references out there for "Cheerily, Men", although not many very early and mostly mentioned by title only. Also, the phrase itself seems to have been a popular one, and it was also apparently used on board ships as a form of order or encouragement, meaning something like "lively, now!" There are also many literary references that pick up this phrase.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 22 Mar 10 - 09:39 AM

Continuing to parse out Gibb's last post, I find his analysis of the relationship between the dimension of "framework" and "lyrical theme" to be helpful. I've been wondering how "Sally Brown" can show up in so many different variations, as well as different chanties, and this explains it quite well. And the same goes for "Stormalong" but perhaps even more so. With Stormy we are talking about a whole family of chanties.

Gibb says that strong lyrical themes " float around independently of frameworks." And he makes the case for strong, independent frameworks as well with the example of "fire down below", "long time ago," and "blow the man down," and shows how these frames could pick up such diverse themes.

And it may be that some lyrical themes were so strong that they actually "inspired new frameworks". I would like to hear a bit more on this.

I've had "Sally Brown" running around with "Shallow Brown" up and down the "Shenandoah" for weeks. I'm glad to see that there is a possible reason for this. And what is "this "Salambo" thing in the Caribbean?" I've missed that one. I have nothing to base it on at all but somehow, I think that "Faithless Sally Brown" was inspired by the actual sea-going "Sally Brown" rather than vice-versa, and I think that Gibb's suggestion that there may be an earlier, underlying theme reinforces my prejudice on this.

We know that "Shenandoah" may have originated as a river song, on actual rivers, perhaps the "wide Missouri" rather than the "Shenandoah River" itself. And we know it was used as a loading song from Bullen down in Demerara. We have a tiny bit of evidence that what might be an early form of "Sally Brown" might have originated as a rowing song (Moses Curtis account of "Sally was a fine girl" on the Cape Fear River in NC, in 1830). And we have "Shallow Brown" showing up as "Shiloh Brown" in the Georgia Sea Islands, but without any suggestion about its use, but with a strong "stevedore" lyrical theme.

All of this is to say once again that putting these chanties in a comparative frame of reference is important. They must have been ever so much more fluid in the "earlier days" than they seem to be now when one listens to the recorded versions, and one "cover" after another of the same thing that happened to get frozen at some point in print, or of somebody's imaginative re-creation of what might have been. This seems qualitatively different from the spontaneous fluidity of the early work songs. I appreciate these tools for helping us map the fluidity.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 21 Mar 10 - 03:55 PM

I always welcome a clarifying process, and I think that Gibb has given us another set of tools for our work here. He says that what, "we have been documenting are several different chanties on the somewhat mixed basis of frameworks and similar lyrical themes." I want to focus on "frameworks" and "similar lyrical themes". I also want to stress the importance of working with more than one chanty at a time, or what Gibb has called a "complex" of chanties and trying to see the interrelationships among them.

The definitions that he offers in the preceding post for a "framework" and for a "lyrical theme" are clear and precise, and workable. We've already been focusing a lot on the "framework" of the work song genre and I think that it has been very helpful. I certainly understand not only the hauling chanties but their African American sources a whole lot better, as well as the interplay between source and chanty. This has also helped me stay focused on the *function* of these "chanties, proper". They were used on the job to do a particular kind of job. While I still don't have all of those ropes (and I don't think that's the proper term) sorted out, I am beginning to have some sense of the nature of the work.

What Gibb is offering that is new in his last post is a concept of a "lyrical theme" as a way of looking at a complex of chanties. His examples of Old Stormy's death and Sally's character immediately put this in focus for me, along with the example of what I would call "going all around the world".   

The further suggestion of a possible difference between an "African American" sense and a "Euro/Euro-American" sense in the chanties is also helpful.   While identifying the "E/EA" sense with what we normally think of as "ballads" is helpful, I would remind us that there are also some excellent African American ballads, like "John Henry", "Frankie and Albert", "Staggerlee", etc. And yet these so-called ballads of Black origin are a bit different from the more Anglo oriented ones and the difference lies with the nature of the story line.    In the Black traditions, the story line is a lot more fluid. And this matches up with what Gibb has described as a general difference between the African American sense and the E/EA sense in the chanties.

An aside that I have always found interesting is the mention by Charles J. Finger in his little book called SAILOR CHANTIES AND COWBOY SONGS (1923), that when he and several of his mates were castaway on Vellarino Island in the South Atlantic, the time was often passed with the singing of chanties. One of his mates even claimed to have sailed with John Masefield. Finger remembered some of these chanties and wrote them down not too long after he made his way back to civilization. And he says that "it was on a Gulf coasting ship that I first heard "Stackerlee." (p. 15) A little while later he says, "another favorite with sailors of all nations is the ballad setting forth the deeds of derring-do of Jesse James..." (p, 17) Here we have examples of both Black and White ballads at sea (though not being used as chanties, unless they were sung at the capstan of pumps, and Finger does not say).

I think that it is important to note that both story and non-story themes would be blended in the chanties, but, according to Gibb, "early chanteys were more of the non-ballad type."   But even without a coherent story line, both Stormy and Sally have lyrical themes that provide what Gibb calls "unifying coherence."

All weekend, I've been imagining a story about "When Stormy Meets Sally". It could go in any number of directions, given the established themes connected with each chanty.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 20 Mar 10 - 10:59 AM

Thinking about the recent round-outs of references to "Sally Brown" and "Stormalong"...

These 2 are actually broad themes, I'd say. What we have been documenting are several different chanties on the somewhat mixed basis of frameworks and similar lyrical themes. Which is fine -- and pretty much unavoidable. And it is actually quite useful to take these chanties all together; they are undoubtably related and might be said to form a cluster or "complex" (or something fancy and jargon-y like that). Yet it is also relevant to remember the distinction between these two dimensions.

The two dimensions, clarified:

1) A formal "framework" consisting of refrains and a basic melody. It is often linked to regulation verses, too, but let's treat it independently of those to make the definition clear.

2) A lyrical theme (not always present). It may consist of a cluster of related lines. Verses about Old Stormy's death, or the character of Sally Brown, cohere as a theme, though they don't depend upon any one verse or ordering of verses. Another lyrical theme of a sort is more like a device, e.g. naming lots of places and rhyming things with them.

Chanties lyrics are not limited to such themes. At one extreme, they may be full blown "stories" (read, ballads) that vary comparatively little and which depend on the inclusion of certain verses in certain order. Ballads like that are their own sort of thing that, I believe, have inspired a particular methodology of "tracing" them. (Possibly, the "typical" approach of ballad tracing has so far led to some failure when it comes to understanding chanties.) My impression is that the ballad structure was not common in the early chanties, but that it was easily added later. At the other extreme is a structure where one verse after another has no relationship to the others. I'd tend to call the this an African-American aesthetic and the former (ballad type) a Euro/Euro-American one (but those are just generalities). Both would come to be mixed in chanty singing, but it looks to me like early chanteys were more of the non-ballad type.

I don't have the sense that the Stormy and Sally Brown themes are of a ballad nature (though they may have been inspired by earlier ballad). Nonetheless, they slide further along the scale towards unifying coherence. Note again though: such unifying coherence was not necessarily a goal at all. The reason for saying it is to explain how they cohere as as "strong" themes (i.e. vs. incidental verses).

The relationship between dimensions:

A framework may contain *reference to* a lyrical theme in the refrain (i.e. "way hey roll n go" does not, but "spend my money on Sally Brown" does). That often inspires the use of that lyrical theme with it. However, as examples have shown (e.g. verses associated with "Blow Boys Blow" w/ refrain of "Sally Brown" or vice versa), the framework can exist completely independently of lyrical theme.

The "way hey roll and go" item with a "Sally Brown" chantey is a different "framework" from the "hi-lo Johnny Brown" one. However, the singer of these may have very well use the Sally Brown lyrical theme with both. Or not.

"Sally Brown" and "Stormalong" are "strong" lyrical themes. They float around independently of frameworks. I think there are also "strong" frameworks, that required no reference to lyrical themes, not even regulation verses, and which were particularly suited to incidental/topical lyricizing for that reason. For example, the "sailor fireman" framework, though the phrase was "fire down below," was not dependent on any "fire" theme. (Distinguish this framework from another "fire down below," which IS all about talking about fire here, fire there.) No, this "fire down below" phrase was likely born of the context of loading up furnaces on steamboats, and became merely customary. The verse lyrics could go anywhere. Some of the most enduring chanties have these frameworks, like "Long Time Ago" and "Blow the Man Down."

I have said before that I consider the framework to be the core identity of the chantey. Yet some lyrical themes are just so strong that they create their own little world of cluster of songs. They probably inspired new frameworks.

To begin to sketch some of the lyrical themes:

-- "Sally Brown." It seems to connect up with "Shenandoah" and "Shallow Brown" and this "Salambo" thing in the Caribbean. While I would not be surprised if the popular Sally Brown theme was inspired by the ballad the 1820s ballad that has been discussed, I also would not be surprised to find that the idea of Sally Brown was born of an even older trope that also gave birth to Shenandoah and the others.

-- "Stormalong". It seems to connect up with "Santianna." Sometimes it is Stormalong who is eulogized. Then it was General Jackson (i.e. Battle of New Orleans, 1812). Then, after 1846/47, it was Gen. Taylor and Santa Anna who were. "Stormalong" may also have been an old "folk hero" (the male counterpart to Sally!). In any case, many different frameworks utilized this common theme.

-- "Places" theme. I.e., "Were you ever in [PLACE]?" or "Tom's/John's gone to [PLACE]"

-- Blow Boys Blow theme, which is about naming the officers/crew members or naming the different meals. It may connect up to the "Places" theme with the line "Were you ever on the Congo River?"

--etc...


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Snuffy
Date: 19 Mar 10 - 12:35 PM

Not much info on the sailors - but currently only the index is available. There may be much more in the actual detail, some of which may be published shortly.

George Simpson, Dundee. First ship Castleroy, 1888; last County of Linlithgow, 1899. This one?

Edward Robinson, Sunderland - Went to sea 1878; left sail 1890; left sea 1928. [Storm Along] heard in the Glen Bervie, 40 years ago. This Glenbervie? (far right on top row)

William Fender, Barry - Went to sea 1878; left sail 1900. Sailed in ship Ingomar, 1880, Valparaiso, Chile.

Harry Perry, S.S. Leviathan - Born 1850 Shipped 1866. Last ship Daylight, 1914


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: GUEST,Gibb Sahib
Date: 19 Mar 10 - 12:01 PM

Yes, most of Luce's genuine shanties came from Adams -- but Luce fixed up the notation!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 19 Mar 10 - 11:51 AM

Lots on Luce (1827-1917): http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-l/sb-luce.htm

Evidently he never served on a merchant ship. Many of the shanties he published came from R. C. Adams.

Factoid: Luce is the only songbook editor to have had three naval vessels named for him.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 19 Mar 10 - 10:56 AM

Thanks, Snuffy. The WHITE'S ETHIOPIAN MELODIES (1851) is what Gibb originally put up here:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=447#2864123

When I was rechecking I must have picked up the later edition. I appreciate your continuing help with the Carpenter Collection. I found a lot of stuff there on "Sally Brown". Please keep us updated as we go along.

The article in HARPER'S MAGAZINE (June to November, 1882) is the one by William Henry Alden on "Sailor's Songs" with the music. He has two versions of "Stormy".

And thanks for the Luce reference. Did anybody ever pin down his time at sea? And does Carpenter give any indication where the "ex-seamen" might have sailed?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Snuffy
Date: 19 Mar 10 - 10:36 AM

The Carpenter indexcontains the following mentions of publications of Stormalong:

White Ethiopian Melodies ( 1851 ) Is this an earlier version of Christy and White, 1854?
Storm Along, Stormy - O I wish I was in Mobile Bay

Harper's Magazine ( 1882 ) two versions
Storm Along, Stormy - Old Stormy he was a bully old man
Storm Along, Stormy - Old Stormy he is dead and gone

Stephen B. Luce Naval Songs ( 1883 )
Old Storm Along - Old Storm Along is dead and gone

Plus a version collected from Stanton King in 1929
Storm Along - Stormy's gone, that good old man

And four versions from ex-seamen, the earliest of whom first shipped in 1866


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 19 Mar 10 - 09:18 AM

"STORMALONG"

We've been accumulating a good deal of information on various versions of "Stormalong" and I thought I would pull it together in chronological form. As far as I can tell, this is what we have *so far*. I realize that this chanty shows up in a number of other collections that we've looked at here, but we haven't mentioned it specifically in relation to those particular collections.

{sometime between 1845 and 1853} THE MERCHANT VESSEL  Charles Nordhoff, (1856)

"Old Stormy"
-----
{1848} NA MOTU, OR REEF-ROAMING IN THE SOUTH SEAS Edward T. Perkins, (1854)

"Storm along, Stormy!"
-----
{1852( perhaps recalling somewhat earlier events)} "News from Our Digger," Mr. Moon, TAIT'S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE, XX 293 (1853)

"Storm along, my Stormy"
-----
{1854} ETHIOPIAN MELODIES, Christy and White, 1854

"Storm along. Stormy."
-----
{May, 1856} William Jackson Palmer, "Diary," A BUILDER OF THE WEST: THE LIFE OF GEN. WILLIAM JACKSON PALMER, John Stirling Fisher (1939)

"Storm Along, Storm Along"
-----
{1858} OBERLIN STUDENTS' MONTHLY, article by I. Allen

"Storm along my stormies" [windlass]
-----
{1859} "Songs of the Chantey-Man", THE BELLMAN, Captain John Robinson

"Old Stormy"
-----
{early to mid 1860's?} SEVEN YEARS OF A SAILOR'S LIFE, George Edward Clark, (1867)

"Storm Along, My Rosa"
-----
{1867} SLAVE SONGS OF THE UNITED STATES, William James Allen

"Shock Along, John"
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{1869} THE ARK OF ELM ISLAND, Rev. Elijah Kellogg, (1871)

Isaiah's Song "Stow me long, stow me!" [warping to dock]
-----
{1870s} George Pattison, THE CAREY COLLECTION, (1924), from Warren Fahey

"Mr. Stormalong"
-----
{1870s} Malcolm Forbes, Adelaide, THE CAREY COLLECTION, (1925), from Warren Fahey

"Mister Stormalong"
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{1882} "Sailor Songs", Henry Mills Alden, HARPER'S NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE, VOLUME 65

"Old Stormy, he was a bully man"
----


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 19 Mar 10 - 08:23 AM

Lighter-

Probably the earliest full text of "Shenandoah," from The Riverside Magazine for Young People (Apr., 1868), p. 185

That certainly is a composite version, and it may well be what one shantyman cobbled together or the transcriptions of one observer merged. If the observer were a passenger, as evidently she was, all shanties might have seemed "alike" to her and who would care how they were re-assembled in her journal. Or maybe she did have a keen interest in figuring out what it was she was hearing. I'll look forward to seeing what else she came up with. One wonders who she was.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 19 Mar 10 - 07:01 AM

Gibb, your thoughts, especially in the final paragraph are intriguing. I've been trying to think about the differences between San Francisco and say, New Orleans, in the 1850's. Both were jumping places, but, I'm guessing, not the same at all when it came to chanty making. If our hypotheses about the "chanty, proper" call/response work song coming off of the plantations and down the rivers to the shipping ports with African American labor is credible, then one of the basic contextual components for this was slavery. There were probably some slaves in the San Francisco area, but I wouldn't think very many. In fact, I'm still wondering about the overall African American population on the West Coast in the 1850's.

Wouldn't it have been Chinese, and then perhaps Irish labor in San Francisco? Here I'm thinking of the building of the railroads. But what about on the docks? Gibb, your earlier quote about non-African American immigrants replacing both slave and free Blacks as a work force in the eastern ports and even in agriculture was very interesting. In very broad strokes, if that might have marked the beginning of the end of chanty-making in the eastern ports, then it roughly coincided with the rise of what might be seen as West Coast culture, where African American slave labor never was dominant.

In the latter third of the 19th century, Cape Horn and Frisco Bay certainly enter the lyrics of chanties, but they seem to be represented mainly by new "verses" and not new chanties or forms per se.

And then you have some major changes taking place. There is the gradual rise of steam power and iron clad ships. And there is the Civil War, which abolishes slavery. Very roughly speaking, it would seem that the combination of the freeing of the slaves and the Industrial Revolution not only caused the major population shifts to begin taking place in the Southern States, but it also must have directly affected the whole business of chanty making, which significantly, as far as we can tell, tapers off at just this point - say about 1870?

In one sense, the West Coast was never much a part of what one might call "the slave economy" of the Eastern Seaboard and the Gulf Ports (which is more accurate, I think, than to say "the Southern States"), and was perhaps ahead of the curve following the War in the east.

Of course, the end of slavery did not mean the end of African American call/response work songs. But with the shifting of populations, from South to North, for instance, the kinds of work shifted. In the second half of the 19th century we get a long of railroad building songs, or "hammer songs". And even here, John Henry has to do deal with the steam drill! In fact, John Henry might well be the symbol for the industrial demise of the African American work song. It seems to have survived, as a genre, primarily in the Southern penal context, into the middle of the 20th century.

Here, I'm thinking about both the concerns that Gibb raises and my primary issues in this thread about the West Coast/South Pacific chanty culture in the middle of the 19th century. I think they are definitely intertwined.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 09:40 PM

Lighter,

re: the "historical moment," a few posts back.

I concur with your thoughts; I was thinking along the same lines. I had chosen to use the word "moment" only to make a clear distinction between the a new phenomenon "hitting the scene" (even if it did take several years to be well incorporated) and the opposing idea that shanties developed gradually over a much longer period and could be traced to long-standing maritime practices and where merely further "evolved" at that point. Basically, I wanted to stress the idea of a critical time period, with a reasonable beginning and end.

I have become quite busy and scattered of late, and unable to follow up all the leads in this thread -- which are multiplying like crazy! (If he'd have had Internet in his day, I don't think Stan Hugill would have ever finished SfSS; he'd be discovering "Sally Brown" till doomsday.) However, I hope people don't mind if I contribute you some things now and then that don't strictly fit the flow.

Thanks to John M. for the chronological summary of the chanties discussed. I think we all know that that list can easily grow ten-fold, if for example we're to add information from (for example) other threads where songs have been discussed individually. Be prepared!

While its a tangent from the 1853/5/Julia Ann goal, I'd be interested in using such a list as John has started to map the existing chanties as per a slightly different time frame -- perhaps "up until (or up through?) the Civil War." It would likely give a good sense of if the"chantey creation era." For instance, one might wonder if many new halyard chanties appeared after the Civil War (my impression is: no). Even during the Civil War, I'd guess that most of the new chanties were adopted songs (e.g. "Marching through Georgia") for the capstan. "Roll Alabama Roll" is one Civil War era halyard chantey that comes to mind, but I'd be willing to wager that it was a new theme on an older chantey like "Roll the Cotton Down."

After that, one could begin to ask why fewer new chanties were being made up after a certain point. Had the core repertoire been established, and then it was perpetuated as custom or tradition? Did demographics have anything to do with it? Or was it technology?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 07:34 PM

Probably the earliest full text of "Shenandoah," from The Riverside Magazine for Young People (Apr., 1868), p. 185:

"Man the capstan bars! Old Dave is our 'chanty-man.' Tune up, David!
                               
O, Shannydore**, I long to hear you!                
Chorus.-- Away, you rollin' river!                                                               O, Shannydore, I long to hear you!
Full Chorus.--Ah ha! I'm bound awAY
On the wild Atlantic!
                                                   
Oh, a Yankee ship came down the river:…
And who do you think was skipper of her?…

Oh, Jim-along-Joe was skipper of her:…
Oh, Jim-along-Joe was skipper of her!…

An' what do you think she had for cargo?…
She had rum and sugar, an' monkeys' liver!…

Then seven year I courted Sally:
An' seven more I could not get her….

Because I was a tarry sailor,--
For I loved rum, an' chewed terbaccy:…

Especially good because it shows the "early" existence of some now familiar verses, the combination of "Shenandoah" with "Sally Brown," and the previously unreported combination with "Blow, Boys, Blow"!

The anonymous author says he (or she) learned this and a couple of other shanties on a recent Atlantic voyage. Will post the others. The author also asserts that "chanty" comes from French "Chantez!"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 06:11 PM

Interestingly enough, this old minstrel song, "My Mary Ann" is one I can document as being in California in 1854, which is where it was published, and in Port Phillips Head, Australia in 1851, being used as a rowing/pumping song. Here is the account from William Craig in his book MY ADVENTURES ON THE AUSTRALIAN GOLD FIELDS (1903), referring to events in 1851:

http://books.google.com/books?id=sIoDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA8&dq=%22Oh,+fare+you+well,+my+own+Mary+Ann,&lr=&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22Oh%2C%20f

And here is the sheet music information on "My Mary Ann":

https://sherlock.ischool.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/CSMPSearch2.tcl?CSMP@docid+1279

I'm not sure how Mr. Craig could have been singing this song in 1851 if it hadn't been published until 1854. Perhaps there were earlier versions of it out there. I haven't been able to find any earlier publication dates. Mr. Craig is looking back at least 50 years in his memory here.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 05:03 PM

So we know that "A hundred years ago" was in San Francisco around 1850, and in Hawaii in 1848. And we also have "Storm along, Stormy" in Hawaii in 1848.

And sometime prior to 1852, we have "Storm along, my stormy" and "Cheerymen" [Is Mr. Moon hearing these songs on the way to Melbourne, or is he remembering them from his voyage "up the Mediterranean"?] We also have   "Hi, yi, yi, yi, Mister Storm roll on, Storm Along, Storm Along," … "All on the plains of Mexico,"… "Aha, we're bound away, on the wild Missouri" in 1856 from Liverpool to New York.

And we have "Goodbye, My Riley", "Carry Me Along" at Brooklyn (p. 165); and "Whiskey for my Johnny," "Storm Along, my Rosa" (p. 22); "Rolling River," "Cheerily She Goes" (p. 142); "Paddy on the Railway," "We're Homeward Bound" (p. 312) from George Edward Clark in the early '60's.

Thanks, Lighter.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 04:07 PM

What an incredible wealth of information is being harvested!

Lighter-

I really like the detailed observations made of sailors singing at work as in "News from Our Digger." They really transport one to the deck of a ship in 1853.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 03:47 PM

From FLORIDA FOLKLIFE FROM THE WPA COLLECTIONS, 1937-1942, here are two "rowing songs", sung by Mrs. Isabel Barnwell, who was six years old when the Civil War began. She was 85 when she recorded these two songs for John Lomax on August 14, 1939. Apparently she was the daughter of a wealthy plantation owner in Florida. The introductory notes are very interesting:

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?lomaxbib:73:./temp/~ammem_ua2p::

Here is "Jump, Isabel, Slide Water":

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?flwpabib:2:./temp/~ammem_jWtM::

And here is "Marse Tommy's Son":

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/flwpabib:@field(NUMBER+@band(afcflwpa+3521b2))


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 01:45 PM

Concerning "Goodbye, My Riley": it may have been the shanty George Edward Clark heard in the early 1860s (Seven Years of Sailor's Life, p. 165):

"The anchor came to the bow with the 'chanty' of 'Oh, Riley, Oh' and 'Carry me Long,' and the tug walked us toward the wharf at Brooklyn."

As several writers have mentioned, Edwards also names these shanties:

"Whiskey for my Johnny," "Storm Along, my Rosa" (p. 22); "Rolling River," "Cheerily She Goes" (p. 142); "Paddy on the Railway," "We're Homeward Bound" (p. 312).

I guess "Storm Along, My Rosa" (which he describes as "loud") was a version of "Storm Along, Boys, Stormy." I can't place "Cheerily She Goes."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 01:23 PM

Some very early mentions:

1856 William Jackson Palmer, "Diary," in John Stirling Fisher, A Builder of the West: The Life of Gen. William Jackson Palmer (Caldwell, Ida.: Caxton, 1939), p. 49: "[May, 1856]…A short favorable run of 20 hours would 'tie us up by the nose' in the North River, or, as the sailors say in their songs, 'Run her into clover.'…[The sailors' songs are] musical but after a certain wild mood that is very appropriate to the words and the scene:
        "Hi, yi, yi, yi, Mister Storm roll on, Storm Along, Storm Along," … "All on the plains of Mexico,"… "Aha, we're bound away, on the wild Missouri."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 01:21 PM

"Stormalong" and "Cheer'ly Man" were evidently early faves:

1853 "News from Our Digger," Tait's Edinburgh Magazine XX 293 [Ship "Chalmers," Gravesend to Melbourne, 1852]: "Songs Afloat.—There is one thing in particular which is sure to attract the attention of a landsman when he first sets his foot on board ship, and this is the songs sung by the seamen whilst performing their various duties. These songs, which often, as regards words, are made impromptu, are most enlivening and spirited; and a good singing crew, with a clever leader, may, in my opinion, be looked upon in the light of a blessing on board any ship. In a little schooner in which I made a voyage up the Mediterranean, we had some excellent singers; and scarcely was a rope touched, sail set, or other heavy work done, without a song; and this may, in some measure, be accounted for by the encouragement given them by our captain, who would often promise all hands a tot of rum, if they did their work in a seamanlike manner, and sang well. The good effect of this was very visible on the men, who evidently pulled the ropes more cheerfully and with double vigour. The following are specimens:—

                On Hoisting up Topsail Yards, after Reefing.

        Polly Racket, hi-ho, cheerymen—(pull),
        Pawned my jacket, hi-ho, cheerymen—(pull),
        And sold the ticket, hi-ho, cheerymen—(pull);
        Ho, hawly, hi-ho, cheerymen—(pull).

        Rouse him up, hi-ho, cheerymen—(pull),
        Pull up the devil, hi-ho, cheerymen—(pull);
        And make him civil, hi-ho, cheerymen—(pull),
        Oh, hawly, hi-ho, cheerymen—(pull).

                        -------------------------

        I wish I was old Stormy's son,
        Hurra, and storm along;
        I'd give the sailors lots of rum,
        Storm along, my Stormy.

Chorus—Hurra!—hurra!—hurra!—storm along,
        Storm along, my roving blades,
        Storm along, my Stormy.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 01:17 PM

The Preface to Johnson's book is dated "April, 1850" and the first edition (with exactly the same pagination as the fourth) was copyrighted in 1851.

Try this too:

1854 Edward T. Perkins, "Na Motu, or Reef-Rovings in the South Seas" p. 97 [ref. to 1848; Perkins had served on an American whaling ship]:

         I dug his grave with a silver spade;
                O! bullies, O!
        And I lowered him down with a golden chain,
                A hundred years ago!


P. 99: "I jumped onto a rock, swung my tarpaulin, and sung that good old song—

                'O ! storm along !
                O! my roving blades, storm along, stormy!'"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 01:09 PM

And here are two "cotton loading songs" from the John Lomax Collection at American Memory. The "Wake Up, Sleepy" seems to be more of an actual work song. I don't think either of them are being sung in an actual work situation with a work gang.

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?lomaxbib:84:./temp/~ammem_ua2p::

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?lomaxbib:73:./temp/~ammem_ua2p::


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 12:57 PM

Here is Captain Leighton Robinson's "Sally Brown" from Sydney Robertson Cowell's collection CALIFORNIA GOLD, from the American Memory website at the Library of Congress. It was recorded November 12, 1939.

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?cowellbib:12:./temp/~ammem_QAu9::

And here are her notes (scroll down):

http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?cowell:1:./temp/~ammem_Gs7G::

She says that Captain Robinson "went to sea in 1888, sailing out of Cornwall to San Francisco."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 12:51 PM

Great find, Gibb! As near as I could tell this came out in at least 1850. And here is an actual fragment from your chanty!:

http://books.google.com/books?id=6G9HAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA88&dq=%22The+Oregons+a+jolly+crew,+O,+yes,+O!&lr=&cd=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: GUEST,Gibb Sahib
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 12:32 PM

Guys, I am at work and no time to scope out all the details, but someone might like to look at this reference. It contains a reference to "A Hundred Years Ago," perhaps around SF/West Coast around our time period (?)

HERE


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Subject: Lyr Add: FAITHLESS SALLY BROWN
From: Charley Noble
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 09:54 AM

John-

Thanks for refocusing me on "Faithless Sally Brown" by Thomas Hood. I think it is indeed the precursor to the shanty once it escaped the comic stage to the Thames watermen, and then was carried out to sea. When Hood reprinted "Faithless Sally Brown," under his own name, in the first series of WHIMS AND ODDITIES, he prefaced them with these following words:

"I have never been vainer of any verses than of my part in the following Ballad ("Faithless Sally Brown")...Sally Brown has been favored perhaps with as wide a patronage as the Moral Songs, though its circle may not have been of so select a class as the friends of 'Hohenlinden.' ... The lamented Emery, dressed as Tom Tug, sang it at his last mortal benefit at Covent Garden; and ever since it has been a great favorite with the watermen of Thames, who time their oars to it, as the wherrymen of Venice time theirs to the lines of Tasso. With the watermen it went naturally to Vauxhall, and over land to Sadler's Wells. The Guards--not the mail coach, but the Lifeguards--picked it out from a fluttering hundred of others, all going to one air, against the dead wall at Knightsbridge. Cheap printers of Shoe Lane and Cow Cross (all pirates!) disputed about the copyrights, and published their own editions; and in the meantime the authors, to have made bread of their song (it was poor old Homer's hard ancient case!), must have sung it about the streets. Such is the lot of Literature! the profits of 'Sally Brown' were divided by the Ballad Mongers;--it has cost, but has never brought me, a halfpenny."

The original poem has at least 20 outrageous puns:

Poem by Thomas Hood (1799-1845)
Published in London Magazine, circa 1820's

Faithless Sally Brown

Young Ben he was a nice young man,
A carpenter by trade;
And he fell in love with Sally Brown,
That was a lady's maid.

But as they fetch'd a walk one day,
They met a press-gang crew;
And Sally she did faint away,
Whilst Ben he was brought to.

The Boatswain swore with wicked words,
Enough to shock a saint,
That though she did seem in a fit,
'Twas nothing but a feint.

"Come, girl," said he, "hold up your head,
He'll be as good as me;
For when your swain is in our boat,
A boatswain he will be."

So when they'd made their game of her,
And taken off her elf,
She roused, and found she only was
A coming to herself.

"And is he gone, and is he gone?"
She cried, and wept outright:
"Then I will to the water side,
And see him out of sight."

A waterman came up to her,
"Now, young woman," said he,
"If you weep on so, you will make
Eye-water in the sea."

"Alas! they've taken my beau Ben
To sail with old Benbow;"
And her woe began to run afresh,
As if she'd said "Gee woe!"

Says he, "They've only taken him
To the Tender-ship, you see";
"The Tender-ship," cried Sally Brown
"What a hard-ship that must be!"

"O! would I were a mermaid now,
For then I'd follow him;
But Oh!--I'm not a fish-woman,
And so I cannot swim.

"Alas! I was not born beneath
The virgin and the scales,
So I must curse my cruel stars,
And walk about in Wales."

Now Ben had sail'd to many a place
That's underneath the world;
But in two years the ship came home,
And all her sails were furl'd.

But when he call'd on Sally Brown,
To see how she went on,
He found she'd got another Ben,
Whose Christian name was John.

"O Sally Brown, O Sally Brown,
How could you serve me so?
I've met with many a breeze before,
But never such a blow."

Then reading on his 'bacco box
He heaved a bitter sigh,
And then began to eye his pipe,
And then to pipe his eye.

And then he tried to sing "All's Well,"
But could not though he tried;
His head was turn'd, and so he chew'd
His pigtail till he died.

His death, which happen'd in his berth,
At forty-odd befell:
They went and told the sexton, and
The sexton toll'd the bell.

Hardly no more than the name "Sally Brown" survives in the shanties but they surely (but who is Shirley?) are a lasting tribute to her!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 18 Mar 10 - 08:05 AM

"More and more old newspapers are becoming available on-line which does make this type of newspaper research potentially more fruitful."

You're right about that, Charlie. In this age, one can never say that the research is over! Out of curiosity more than a really serious attempt, I did a quick Google Book search yesterday afternoon on "Whiskey Johnny" thinking this would be a good candidate, like "Sally Brown", for some early stuff, but was really disappointed in the results. I turned up quite a bit of later stuff and a lot of literary stuff with Harte and O'Neill, but no early stuff.

Lighter, I was wondering about the Hood poem and how much it might have muddied the water on "Sally Brown" throughout the 19th century. But from the description give on Mr. Wallack's performance, it sure sounds like a bona fide chanty {not a new category!}. I did find newspaper references to the Hood poem being performed in Australia after the turn of the 20th century.

So what is the thinking about which way the influence may have gone with regard to "Sally Brown" the bona fide chanty, and Hood's "Faithless Sally Brown"? Or was it possibly back and forth? Could Hood have been inspired by an early form of the chanty and then once his poem became popular, it reacted back on the chanty? But I don't see any real evidence of the poem in the chanty versions we have today. I couldn't find an "earliest" publication date for Hood's poem.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 17 Mar 10 - 10:54 PM

John-

The best I've come up with from vintage newspapers was from a letter period in the early 1900's in Victoria, BC, and it was an article on sea chanties by Frank Bullen. There were also a poem or two by C. Fox Smith while she was resident there, which was why I was straining my eyes on the microfilm viewer for hours.

More and more old newspapers are becoming available on-line which does make this type of newspaper research potentially more fruitful.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 17 Mar 10 - 12:59 PM

No explanation seems likely for Wallack's early "Sally Brown," but it is possible that he was simply "chanting" Hood's poem. The Monthly Magazine and British Register for Dec., 1826) says that the poem was known to "everybody" by that that time.

Interestingly enough, the Sally of the poem is just as faithless as the Sally of the shanty. In both the sailor-protagonist sails away and returns to find Sally with somebody else. The similarity could well be a coincidence, but with so little data it's hard to resist grasping at straws. Maybe the shanty arose as a "recomposition," a la Dick Maitland, of the situation in the poem. It's impossible to know, but it would be perfectly consistent with a birth of shantying in the 1820s and '30s.

I agree that there must have been a "historical moment," but that "moment" could have been some years in duration. It isn't enough to have one crew of oddballs singing call-and-response at a job : that might have happened at any time after ships got big enough. The "moment" had to begin when a small repertoire of shanties - even just one or two - had become so familiar that an influential number of crews (maybe inspired by a single crew of innovators whose habit of shantying gained some "folk notoriety" in one or more ports) were using them. The "moment" would have ended (probably by 1850) when shantying was a well established practice.

A number of factors must have come together to create that innovative "moment": the adoption of stowers' chants, the desirability of adopting them, advances in ship design, more demanding schedules, more sailors, maybe even more citizens coming down to the wharves to watch vessels heaving anchor. That by itself might have done wonders for the capstan shanty especially. (In fact, maybe singing at the capstan - any old song - may have been the model for singing more specialized songs while hauling.

The more primitive-form bunt shanty like "Paddy Doyle" might also have been early: "Paddy" is hardly more than a creative elaboration of a spontaneous chant like "To me one! two! three! four! Get ready you sailors to PULL!" As I've said before, few writers would have found something so simple to be worth writing down. The level of atmospheric, documentary detail expected in popular fiction and nonfiction today is vastly greater than it was even a hundred years ago.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 17 Mar 10 - 11:34 AM

Gibb, I appreciate your coments on Scarborough and Talley. That saves me ploughing through them again. The last time I looked at them, I was not looking for chanties.

I think that this is an important hypothesis for us:

"I'd also like to (re)impress the idea that the work -- let's say halyard hauling -- and the singing were inseparable. By analogy, think of the way some African cultural groups don't use a distinct word for "music" alone. "Performance" includes singing, dancing, and drumming, all together by requirement. It may be inappropriate in those contexts to expect to only sing without dancing, say. The physical aspect is as much a part of it as the sound. This rings with the statements about "no hand was put on a rope without raising a song."

I reason that if the things were inseparable, that they also CAME *together*. That is, although earlier in history there were calls to help pull, there was also pulling *without* sound. I hypothesize that there was a historical moment, not when sailors just started singing a lot more, but when the inseparable paradigm of a certain kind of song with a certain method of action was introduced to the scene."

And, unless this had pretty much already happened by the 1850's, it wasn't likely to be generated on wharves at San Francisco! Wrong place, wrong culture. So these songs had to be imported to California by the sailors themselves, most likely. And, I'm wondering if the Black population of San Francisco was at all significant in this period, other than on board ship.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 17 Mar 10 - 11:22 AM

Lighter, thanks for the info on Robinson. I will try to pursue that and get a copy of his articles. It is strange that this has not been gathered up and published.

And I appreciate the note on your newspaper research with regard to the Gold Rush. The silence so far is truly deafening. At least this saves me the time of looking there. Thanks.

I don't have Davis & Tozer and have not seen it, and as far as I can tell, the UVA library does not have it. Maybe it is time for some library loan stuff.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 17 Mar 10 - 11:02 AM

Part II 1855-1870

{1858} SEA DRIFT, Hercules Robinson

"Oh Sally Brown, Sally Brown, oh!"
-----
{1858} OBERLIN STUDENTS' MONTHLY, article by I. Allen

"Jim along Josey"
"Outward and Homeward Bound" [windlass]
"Storm along my stormies" [windlass]
"Oh haulee, heigho, cheeryman!" [topsail halyards]
"Heigho, heave and go" [windlass]
-----
{1859} "Songs of the Chantey-Man", THE BELLMAN, Captain John Robinson

Maid of Amsterdam
Oh My Santi (i.e., "New York Girls")
Ranso Ray / Huckleberry Picking (two versions of the same song)
Blow, Boys, Blow!
Derby Ram
Dance the Boatman Dance
Old Stormy
We're All Bound Away (i.e., "Heave Away, My Johnnies")
Sacramento
Shenandoah!
The Black Ball Line
Sally Brown (two melodies)
Rio Grande
Sailors Like the Bottle O!
Catting the Anchor (i.e., "Cheer'ly Men!")
Haul Away, Joe!
Reuben Ranso
Poor Old Man
Hanging Johnny
Highland Laddie
Paddy on the Railway
Shallo Brown!
One More Day!
John Cherokee
Bangidero
Galloping Randy Dandy O!
Blow the Man Down
Whisky for My Johnny
Haul the Bowline
Young Girls, Can't You Hilo?
Santa Anna
My Tom's Gone to Hilo!
To the Spanish Main - Slav Ho!
'Tis Time for Us to Leave Her!
Paddy Doyle
Boney Was a Warrior
We're Homeward Bound (i.e., "Goodbye, Fare Ye Well!")
The Ox-eyed Man
Farewell and Adieu (i.e., "Spanish Ladies")
-----
{1861-1872}SEA SONGS AND SHANTIES, W.B.Whall, (1910), East Indiamen

"Sally Brown"
-----
{1863} J.S. Scott, London, England,
{1864} James Wright, Leith, England

"Sally Brown"
-----
{1862} From Rev. Thomas H. Stacy, "Rev. Otis Robinson Bacheler, M.D., D.D., FIFTY-THREE YEARS A MISSIONARY TO INDIA, printed on shipboard during a voyage from Boston to Calcutta.

"Santa Anna"
-----
{late 1865 (Lighter, 2/26)} ON BOARD THE ROCKET, Adams Robert Chamblet, [as "Blow, My Bully Boys, Blow"]. Specifically hears "Walk along, my Sally Brown" in Genoa, Italy as Virginia tobacco is being unloaded

"Sally Brown"
-----
{1867-1885} Jack Murray, Aberdeen, Scotland

"Sally Brown"
-----
{1867} SLAVE SONGS OF THE UNITED STATES, William James Allen

"Shock Along, John"
"Round the Corn, Sally"
-----
{late 1860's (Lighter 2/1)} Harding, West Indies, British, American and Blue Nose (Nova Scotia) ships
        & perhaps Tobago Smith, West Indies
{1868} Captain Edward B. Trumbull, Salem, MA
{1869} Robert Yeoman, Dundee, Scotland
{1869} Richard Maitland, Atlantic, San Francisco, Blackball Line to Liverpool, Hong Kong, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Scotland

"Sally Brown"
-----
{1869-1880} SONGS OF SEA LABOUR, Frank Bullen, (1914)[ weighing anchor & flywheel pumps] Bournemouth, England; West Indies, Gulf of Mexico ports

"Sally Brown"
-----
{1869} THE ARK OF ELM ISLAND, Rev. Elijah Kellogg, (1871)

"Hoojun, John, a hoojun" (hoojun/hoosier/hooker ?)
Isaiah's Song "Stow me long, stow me!" [warping to dock]
Flour's Song "Hilo, boys, a hilo!" [warping to dock]
"Hand Ober Hand" [warping to dock]
Walking Song "Fire down below" [warping to dock]
John John Crow "John, John Crow is a dandy , O!" [halyard]
"Highland laddie"
-----


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 17 Mar 10 - 10:42 AM

I have tried to round up and organize in a chronological order the songs and sources we have been collecting so far on this thread. I will put this up in two parts: Part I 1800-1855, and Part II 1855-1870. I haven't gone beyond 1870 at this point, even though I know some of our materials reflect this later period. I am still primarily interested in the early 1850's. These {dates} are roughly the historical dates of the event being recorded and are the organizing dates for this list.

[I long ago learned the importance of "reading the footnotes". Please don't hesitate to do your own double-checking on any or all of this information. I take full responsibility for any mistakes in this post and welcome corrections - jm]

Part I 1800-1855

{1811} LANDSMAN HAY. The memoirs of Robert Hay, 1789-1847 By Robert Hay (of Paisley.), Jamaica, stevedore apparently working at capstan

"Grog Time Of Day"
-----
{possibly as early as 1822 or earlier} WEST INDIA SKETCH BOOK, Volume 1, Trelawney Wentworth (Published 1834 or earlier? and referring to events possibly as early as 1822 or earlier)

"Fine Time of Day"
-----
{1826} HORACE IN NEW YORK, Isaac Starr Clason,

"Sally Brown, oh, ho" (Mr. Wallack) [performance]
-----
{circa 1826} WALDIE'S SELECT CIRCULATING LIBRARY, Volume 1 (12 March 1833), Italian visitor to London, in a pub

"Haul way, yeo ho, boys!"
-----
{circa 1829} Sold wholesale by L. Deming, No. 62, Hanover Street 2d door from Friend Street, Boston, minstrel version

" Coal Black Rose"
-----
{1830} THE WATERMAN'S SONG, David S. Cecelski, 2001, collected by Moses Curtis, on the Cape Fear River, NC

" Sally was a fine girl, ho!" / "Sally Brown" [rowing]
-----
{1832} THE QUID, on a voyage to the Orient on an East India Company ship

"Pull Away now, my Nancy, O!"
-----
{1833} SERVICE AFLOAT, appears to describe observations from during Napoleanic Wars, so 1815 or earlier), Antigua,

"Hurra, my jolly boys, grog time a day" [rowing]
-----
{Dec. 24,1833} WALDIE'S SELECT CIRCULATING LIBRARY II

"'Tis grog time o' day!"   [WI canoe rowing song]
-----
{1836} "Tar Brush Sketches", Benjamin Fiferail, in CORRECTED PROOFS, H Hastings Weld

" Grog time o' day"
-----
{1834-36} TWO YEARS BEFORE THE MAST, Richard Henry Dana, 1840 edition, and John Kemble's 1964 edition

"Grog Time a Day"
"Heave, to the girls!"
"Nancy oh!"
"Jack Crosstree"
"Cheerly, men"
"Heave round hearty!"
"Captain gone ashore!"
"Dandy ship and a dandy crew"
"Time for us to go!"
"Round the corner, Sally"
"Tally high ho! you know"
"Hurrah! hurrah! my hearty bullies!"
-----
{26 Dec. 1834} TELEMACHUS, OR, THE ISLAND OF CALYPSO, 1850, James Robinson Planché, Charles Dance

" Grog time of day, boys"
-----
{Tuesday, the 22nd of September, 1835} VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD, W.S.W. Ruschenberger, M.D.,"When she moved more easily, those at the capstan sang, to the tune of "The Highland Laddie,"

"The Highland Laddie"
-----
{April, 1837} A DIARY IN AMERICA, VOL. 1, 1839, Capt. C.B. Marryat, , Portsmouth, England, on Western Ocean packet to New York

"Sally Brown" [capstan]
-----
{1838} LETTERS FROM ALABAMA, Phillip Gosse (1859)

"Fire the ringo, fire away"
-----
{1839} BENTLEY'S MISCELLANY vol 4, New York, Sept. 1839

"The Stoker's Chant" / "Fire Down Below" [riverboat fireman]
-----
{1839} BURTON'S GENTLEMEN'S MAGAZINE

"Fire! Down Below"
-----
{February 11,1840} INCIDENTS OF A WHALING VOYAGE(1841) Frederick Law Olmsted

"Drunken Sailor"
"Nancy Farana"/ "Haul 'er Away!" / "Hill 'n Gully Rider"/ "Sally                 Rackett"
"O, Hurrah, My Hearties, O"
-----
{1841} THE ART OF BALLET (1915) An anecdote about two sister Austrian ballet dancers touring America in 1841.

"Grog time o' day"
-----
{Sept. 11, 1842} Isaac Baker's diary aboard whaleship "Taskar" RITES AND PASSAGES, Margaret S. Creighton, (1995)

"The Taskar is the thing to roll" / "Sally Brown"
-----
{circa 1844} Lowe, on the London docks

"Roll and go for that white pitcher, roll and go"
-----
{1845, maybe} TWENTY YEARS BEFORE THE MAST, Charles Erskine, New Orleans

"Highland Laddie" [screwing cotton]
"Fire Maringo"
-----
{sometime between 1845 and 1853} THE MERCHANT VESSEL  Charles Nordhoff, (1856)

"Old Stormy"
"Yankee Dollar"
"Fire Maringo"
"Highland Laddie"
"Across the briny ocean"
-----
{1845} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MUSIC AND MUSICAL VISITOR, Feb. 25, 1845

"Ho, O, heave O" / "Row, Billy, row" [heaving anchor]
-----
{February of 1849} A TALE OF TWO OCEANS Ezekiel I. Barra, in Boston harbor, preparing to sail out to California,

"Nancy Banana" [halyards]
-----
{1850s} W Craig , ADVENTURES IN THE AUSTRALIAN GOLD FIELDS, 1903 "Two shanty fragments as sung on the sailing ships bringing gold seekers to Sydney

"Oh fare you well, my own Mary Anne" [pumping]
" When first we went a-waggoning" [anchor hauling]
-----
{1850s} OCEAN LIFE IN THE OLD SAILING SHIP DAYS, John D. Whidden. Whidden's source is his "old friend, Captain George Meacom, of Beverly [Mass.]." Meacom refers to his own recollection of the 1850s, and his testimony seems to be reliable.

"Mobile Bay" /"Johnnie Come Tell Us As We Haul Away"
"Fire Down Below"
"One More Day For Johnnie"
-----
{1853} A JOURNEY IN THE SEABOARD SLAVE STATES Frederick Law Olmsted, 1861

"Oahoiohieu" / "The Sailor Fireman" ("Lindy Lowe") [riverboat]
"Oh, John, come down in de holler" [riverboat]
-----
{1854} ETHIOPIAN MELODIES, Christy and White, 1854

"Storm along. Stormy."
"Fire Down Below"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 17 Mar 10 - 09:37 AM

Davis & Tozer, inspired perhaps by L.A. Smith, deserve credit for creating public interest in shanties. Though Smith was the first to publish shanties in a book, they take up only a small portion of it, which is mainly devoted to other kinds of sea songs, many of them from non-anglophone cultures. Her tune transcriptions are often careless and her lyrics are generally brief.

D & T's book, however, is shanties only, of singable length, published with words that would be attractive to a general audience, and (very importantly) arranged as serious music by a trained composer.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 17 Mar 10 - 09:29 AM

Some time ago I searched 19th C. databases containing numerous S.F. and California newspapers and found nothing on "chanty," "chantie," "chanties," "sailors + chants," "shanties," "sea shanty." "Sailor + chant" yields too many hits to investigate fully, but I haven't found any that are relevant.

U.S. newspapers in general barely mention shanties at all until the 1880s and '90s, and even then there's little of interest.

"Sailor(s) song(s)" finds very little, and "sea songs" nothing of interest (mostly parlor sea songs are meant).


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 17 Mar 10 - 09:09 AM

John, Robinson's articles have never been reprinted. You should be able to get a scan or photocopy through the interlibrary loan department of your local library. It may take ten days or so.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 17 Mar 10 - 07:46 AM

Gibb says: "Incidentally, when this thread was started, I was thinking that a better question would be (**assuming "historical imagination" is at work**) "What shanties were NOT around in 1853?"! " I'm in the process of gathering up what we've found so far and arranging it in chronological sequence. And as I do this realize that we've just begun the process. I don't know why we can't use your statement, Gibb, as a working hypothesis and then go looking for the rest of these chanties.

The prize, however, will go to the person who can actually place some of them in San Francisco in the early '50's. I spent a whole day reading Gold Rush materials and I didn't find a single mention of chanties, work songs on board ship, etc. The closest I could come was the "rounding Cape Horn" verses, but they tend to be floaters so it's hard to pin much on them. There were so many people going to California and so many ships sailing and so many letters home and journals, etc. and this all happens when these chanties have supposedly been already well-used on the Western Ocean packets, and were emerging from the Gulf Ports, that it is amazing that the literature of the time is not loaded with references. The crews on board these ships were surely cosmopolitan by that point. And many of the passengers were literate and some were well-educated and liked
to keep records. Why no mention of these songs?

What was the African American population like in San Francisco in the Gold Rush period? Who unloaded all of those ships which were bringing all of those supplies to the gold fields? And then, in 1851, gold was discovered in Australia and it happened all over again. I have remembered these two songs from Warren Fahey's webpage:

{1850s} W Craig , ADVENTURES ON THE AUSTRALIAN GOLD FIELDS, 1903 "Two shanty fragments as sung on the sailing ships bringing gold seekers to Sydney

"Oh fare you well, my own Mary Anne" [pumping]
" When first we went a-waggoning" [anchor hauling]

http://warrenfahey.com/maritime-3.htm

Probably the best way to try to track down Gold Rush era chanties is to do what we've been doing and pursue references on individual songs. And perhaps to focus on "going round the Horn".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 16 Mar 10 - 11:08 PM

Sorry about all the typ-os in my recent posts! My eyes were fried from looking at the computer all day.

The description of corn shucking is interesting because it seems to fit the rough paradigm of chantying as in cotton-screwing and some other labour of African-American gangs. There's the pile of corn, and the lead singer sat/stood atop it, not "working" per se, but leading the song. (They say he also threw down ears to the shuckers.) Surely it is significant that, in cotton screwing, there was one "chantyman" who just did the singing and no "work"! Similarly, the chanteyman on board ships just sat on the capstan or took his place at the front of a halyard block ("coasting" a bit, I'd imagine.) (And did he also sometimes just stand by halyards without pulling?) One of the recent sources I'd mentioned, too, talked about a stevedore getting paid just to sing. What I'm trying to impress is that this concept of one who sings as an absolutely essential part of a group of workers is surely something distinctive. We can say that many peoples/cultural regions have their work-songs; we can also say that call-and-response is a phenomenon that developed simultaneously in several cultural regions. However, if we add this concept of the (paid!) professional singer-worker, we can get a sense of the cultural background from which "chanties, proper" emerged.

I'd also like to (re)impress the idea that the work -- let's say halyard hauling -- and the singing were inseparable. By analogy, think of the way some African cultural groups don't use a distinct word for "music" alone. "Performance" includes singing, dancing, and drumming, all together by requirement. It may be inappropriate in those contexts to expect to only sing without dancing, say. The physical aspect is as much a part of it as the sound. This rings with the statements about "no hand was put on a rope without raising a song."

I reason that if the things were inseparable, that they also CAME *together*. That is, although earlier in history there were calls to help pull, there was also pulling *without* sound. I hypothesize that there was a historical moment, not when sailors just started singing a lot more, but when the inseparable paradigm of a certain kind of song with a certain method of action was introduced to the scene.

On a slightly different note, I scanned through Scarborough's book, and I've looked at Talley's before. Besides some of the usual suspects ("Charleston Gals" as "Poor Old Horse"), I don't see a lot in common with our chanties. Certainly, very many of the chanties borrowed from minstrel songs (which borrowed from and tended to get mixed up with authentic Black songs in these books). People have discussed that a lot and elsewhere on Mudcat. And although the borrowing from minstrel songs does not necessarily mean the derivative chanties (lacking any other attestation, that is) were originated during 1830s-40s-50s (typical minstrelsy years), it is generally enough for *me*, not as proof but as strong-suggestion, that those chanties *did* probably emerge in that time frame. Incidentally, when this thread was started, I was thinking that a better question would be (**assuming "historical imagination" is at work**) "What shanties were NOT around in 1853?"!

However, what I/we have also noted is that while many chanties do have phrases that were most likely picked up from minstrel songs, there are not many that actually take over the song wholesale. In other words, only phrases have been borrowed. I want to suggest that this is because, although these "hooks" were wildly popular in the musical culture of the time, the forms of the minstrel songs did not usually fit the chanty-act. Phrases had to be grafted onto the chantey form. Moreover, in cases when the minstrel song forms *were* used (e.g. "Camptown Races," "Oh Susanna,"), they were generally as heaving (capstan) shanties - those with a different, more flexible form than the "classic halyard work-song" structure.

So...in Scarborough and Talley (the latter which I've not read carefully lately), there is not a whole lot that is like chanties. This has been my possible explanation *why*.

I was also looking in what might be considered a Jamaican equivalent to those books, Jekyll's JAMAICAN SONG AND STORY (1907). In my opinion --although this is a vague sense-- the melodies there have more in common with chanties. Still, there are few that are just like chanties. I once identified a variation of the revival era chantey "Bring 'Em Down" in Jekyll, but that one, like most of the work-songs there, is more of the "Hunhh!" (grunt), one-pull at regular intervals (like "Eki Dumah") type. Then again, none of these collections have much maritime-related material.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 15 Mar 10 - 09:08 AM

Lighter, thanks very much for the information on Robinson. I 'm going to have to try to find a copy of that material. Was it ever published as a collection or is it stil only available as a series of articles? And thanks for the continuing stream of bibliography on "Sally Brown". Surely this tread is living proof that it takes more than one of us to round up the material! I appreciate being able to work with the rest of you. I think it's a rare opportunity and a rare occasion.

Gibb, I am particularly interested in what you are finding out from WHITE, and the dating on that - 1854. The fact that this work on minstrel music, which takes a maritime work song into its collection certainly demonstrates that "Storm along Stormy" had been around for awhile by 1854! And it looks like you are turning up some of the roots for that in a corn shucking song, of all places. I am partial to corn-shucking/shelling songs. Do you know "Sheep shell corn by the rattle of his horn"? [Not a chanty as far as I know.]

I also like the way you are bringing in the riverboat songs. Don't forget that very interesting man named Lafcadio Hearn. A number of years ago, I did a study on "Limber Jim" here on Mudcat, and he wrote a fascinating article for a Cincinnati paper on the songs of the waterfront there. Here's the thread, and a specific post on Lafcadio Hearn's version of "Limber Jim":

thread.cfm?threadid=48893

thread.cfm?threadid=48893#736536

I think the quote from Allen (and the one from the MARYLAND...JOURNAL]) is amazing and confirms a lot of what we and you in particular have been suggesting. As I mentioned earlier, the sense of the fluidity of this process is beginning to really take hold with me. The quote sums that up very nicely.

Two other places to look are Thomas Talley and Dorothy Scarborough. A version of Talley's NEGRO FOLK RHYMES is here [but the currently available one in print is updated and expanded if I remember correctly]:

http://www.traditionalmusic.co.uk/negro-folk-rhymes/

And Dorothy Scarborough's ON THE TRAIL OF NEGRO FOLK-SONGS is here:

http://www.archive.org/stream/onthetrailofnegr027463mbp#page/n5/mode/2up

Well, today I get to choose whether to look at Gold Rush literature, riverboat literature, or minstrel literature. What a life!

Charley, thanks for the info on Mr. Kellogg. And let us know what you turn up from the moulder bin!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 15 Mar 10 - 08:25 AM

Gibb-

I agree with Lighter that "John Rowley" is most likely a version of "John Riley's Gone Away" aka "Good-bye My Riley-O."

Here's some basic bio info with regard to Rev. Kellogg above:

KELLOGG, Elijah, clergyman, born in Portland, Maine, 20 May, 1813. He was graduated at Bowdoin in 1840, and at Andover theological seminary in 1843. The next year he was ordained pastor of the Congregational church in Harpswell, Maine, and in 1855-'65 he was chaplain of the Boston Seaman's Friend Society. Since the latter date he had for the most part been engaged in writing juvenile books. He had also delivered various lectures, and is the author of the popular "Address of Sparticus to the Gladiators." His books include "The Elm Island Series" (Boston, 1868-'70); "Pleasant Cove Series" (1870-'4); "Whispering Pine Series" (1871-'3); "Good Old Times Series" (1877-'82); and "The Forest Glen Series" (1878). He died in 1901.

ELIJAH KELLOGG: The Man and His Work, by Wilmot Brookings Mitchell, published by Lee and Shepherd, Boston, Massachusetts, US, © 1903:

Born in Portland, Maine, May 20, 1813.

At the age of about fifteen he went to sea (1828)

Returned from sea to Portland, Maine, in his early 20's

Enrolled at the age of 24 at Bowdoin College (1836)

Graduated from Andover Theological Seminary (1843)

Became pastor of Harpswell Congregational Church, Maine (1844)

Became pastor for the Mariner's Church in Boston (1854)

Resigned as pastor of the Mariner's Church in Boston (1866) and devoted himself primarily to literary pursuits in Boston:

Good Old Times (1867, 1878)
Norman Cline (1869)
Elm Island Series (1869-1870)
Pleasant Cove Series (1870-1874)
Whispering Pines Series (1871-1873)
Forest Glen Series (1874-1878)
Good Times Series (1881-1883)

Returned to Harpswell, Maine in 1882.

Died in 1901.

Kellogg did have seven or eight years of merchant sailing experience to draw on when writing his books for adolescent boys (i.e. Elm Island); he also had the stories of sailors from his work with the Sailor's Home in Boston to draw on as well. Some of his journals are in residence at our State Library twenty miles away and I might just drop by and see if there's a folder of sea songs mouldering away in some long neglected cabinet.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 11:30 PM

More on "Sally Brown":

James Taft Hatfield, "Some Nineteenth Century Shanties," Journal of American Folklore (Apr.-June, 1946), p. 111. Heard in 1886 on a voyage from Pensacola to Nice.

J. E. Thomas, "Sea Shanties," Journal of the English Folk-Song Society (Dec., 1928), p. 97. Coll. from John Farr (b. 1850) at Gwithian, Cornwall, 1926.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 11:03 PM

You may be right about "John Cherokee." But of the Robinson-Colcord shanties, it's still the only one to be "revived."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 10:42 PM

That's an informative article for its day, Gibb.

As for "Rowley," I wonder if that's the source of the "Riley" shanty Lomax collected in Georgia with "Stormy"-type verses like, "I wish I was Cap'n Riley's son!" The tune is "Tom's Gone to Hilo."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 10:35 PM

"John Cherokee" has often been "revived," mostly in Hugill's version

Actually, it is based in Robinson/Colcord's version :) The only people I ever heard sing Hugill's (i.e. Harding's) proper version are Hugill, a Polish group, and me! If I recall, however, Hugill caught the revival wave and switched over to "their" version midstream.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 10:28 PM

There is a December 1858 article by I. Allen (who looks to have been a student?) in OBERLIN STUDENTS' MONTHLY here, that describes "Songs of the Sailor." Please forgive me if we have covered it, but it is not jogging my memory.

A windlass song:

"We've a bully slop and a bully crew,
      Heigho, heave and go;
We've a bully mate and a captain too;
    Heigho, heave and go.''

Evidently, for topsail halyards:

"Oh haulee, heigho, cheeryman!
O! pull like brothers, heigho, cbeeryman,
And not like lubbers, heigho, cbceryman;
O ! baulee, beigho, cheeryman!"

Windlass, performed by "swarthy forms" "amid the barbarous jargon of tongues,"

" I wish I were a stormy's son;
Hurrah, storm along!
I'd storm 'em up and storm 'em down;
Storm along my stormies.
Hurrah! John Rowley,
John, storm along—
We'll storm 'em up and storm 'em down,
Storm along, my stormies.
We'll make them hear our thundering guns,
Storm along my stormies."

And then it proceeds patheticallv to inform us that "Old Rowley is dead and gone," and that "they lowered him down with a golden chain," and that they'll proceed to storm somebody or other.

So..."John Rowley" = "Stormy, John"?

Again at the windlass, it's the song Hugill called "Outward and Homeward Bound":

"And now our prize we'll take nu tow,
And for old England we will go ;
Our pockets all well lined with brass,
We'll drink a health to our favorite lass!
Hurrah! we're homoward bou-ou-ound!
Hurrah ! we're homeward bound."

But strange as it may seem, however varied the appearance and nationality of the ship and its crew, be they from Archangel's icebound coast, or India's coral strand, Saxon or Celt, Frenchman or Turk, Russian or African, we invariably find that the strain of the sailor's worksong has the same plaintive minor key, strongly reminding one of their similarity in this respect to the sad-toned melodies of the negro race.

I don't know about this "plaintive minor key" -- relatively few chanties are actually in a minor mode. It is possible that there is a sound to "typical" African-American songs --perhaps "blue notes" -- that, back in the day, people categorised under "a plaintive minor key." Still, the comments are interesting.

And one more passage. It is fascinating, at this early date, that someone would write an essay opining about the Black influence on sailors' work-songs.

Along the African coast you will hear that dirge-like strain in all their songs, as at work or paddling their canoes to and from shore, they keep time to the music. On the southern plantations you will hear it also, and in the negro melodies every where, plaintive and melodious, sad and earnest. It seems like the dirge of national degradation, the wail of a race, stricken and crushed, familiar with tyranny, submission and unrequited labor.

And here I cannot help noticing tho similarity existing between the working chorus of the sailors and the dirge-like negro melody, to which my attention was specially directed by an incident I witnessed or rather heard.

One day we had anchored off a small town, and soon the canoe fleet of the natives was seen coming off to trade. Suddenly a well known strain of music comes floating to us on the land breeze. "Where's that singing?" cries one, " can't be that yon ship is weighing anchor ?" " Why, it's the darkies I" shouts another of the listeners; and, sure enough, there were five or six hundred of them coming off singing in two parts and keeping time with their paddles to

"Heigh Jim along, Jim along Josey, Heigh Jim along, Jim along Jo!"

They had made an advance in the scale of civilization and taken their place in the world of harmony. Then the conclusions of my speculation on the probable cause of this evident similarity between the chorus melodies of the sailor and the negro were something like these—First, the similarity of the object; that is, the unifying of effort in labor, and thus to secure simultaneous action, as in rowing, pulling, hoeing, &c., &c., by the measured and rythmical occurrence of vowel sounds.


Quaintness aside, theory-wise it sounds like it could have been written in 2010!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 10:19 PM

Most (not all) of Robinson's shanties are covered in other pre-Colcord collections. Colcord seems to have taken less than half a dozen rarities from him: Derby Ram, Bangidero, Slav Ho!, John Cherokee, maybe one more. I haven't checked, though. Of these, only "John Cherokee" has often been "revived," mostly in Hugill's version.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 09:03 PM

More fireman stuff.

THE RAMBLER IN NORTH AMERICA, 1832-1833, Vol 2., by CJ Latrobe, 1835.

Of a steamboat, "the wild song of the negro firemen." (pg 214).

THE BALTIMORE PHOENIX AND BUDGET, 1.11, Feb 1842.

Carried a story with this line in reference to a steamboat on the Ohio:

"The half-naked negro firemen busily casting huge sticks of wood into the mouths of the row of yawning furnaces beneath the serried boilers, accompanying their labor by a loud and not unmusical song;"

And a passage from MARYLAND STATE COLONIZATION JOURNAL, 1851. It mentions the firemen singing, but also the sort of "death of chantying" hypothesis that links it to the disappearance of Black laborers in related trades. I don't remember if it was Hugill (or who?) that has said this; maybe I imagined it myself! In no way did chantying "die" by the 1850s. But there is the idea --which Hugill has said -- that after the American Civil War, few new chanties were devised. Obviously, that is not strictly true, either. However, one can make a case that 1) Most of the "core" chanties were in existence by then -- cf. Lighter's list of chanties from Robinson; and 2) the later creations can be qualified in some way. For instance, "John Brown's Body" was simply taking up the march for the capstan. This was not the adding of new "frameworks" to the "chanties, proper" repertoire. The author of BLACK JACKS describes how, by the Civil War, African-Americans were largely pushed out of the maritime trades. What I am suggesting (and I really can't remember who may have also argued along these lines) is that the "formative period" of chanties had some correlation with the presence of African-Americans in the maritime trades. Anyways, here is the passage:

During the year 1850, the total immigration to the United States from all foreign countries, can hardly have been less than four hundred thousand persons; persons of a class that, at once, enter into competition with the black man in all the avenues of labor—and in most of them drive him to the wall. In Baltimore, my home, ten years since, the shipping at Fell's Point was loaded by free colored stevedores. The labor at the coal yards was free colored labor. In the rural districts around Baltimore, the principal city of a slave State, free colored laborers, ten years since, got in the harvest, worked the mine banks, made the fences, and, indeed, supplied, to a great extent, all agricultural wants in this respect. Now all this is changed. The white man stands in the black man's shoes; or else is fast getting into them. And where, fifteen years ago, nearly all the signs above shop doors on Fell's Point showed English names, now two-thirds of them are German—a fact of notoriety and almost daily comment.
In Cincinnati, the labor that used to be performed by free blacks in the great pork establishments, is now performed by white men—Irishmen and Germans ; and, as Mr. Coleman can bear witness, coming as he does from that city, the firemen on the steamboats on the western waters are now whites, where they used to be free colored men. The negro's song, as he filled his furnaces, has ceased on the Ohio and Mississippi. Instances of this sort, where the white man has driven the black man to the wall, might be multiplied indefinitely.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 08:18 PM

What's striking is how familiar most of the titles are.

Colcord threaded many of Robinson's into her work, it seems, perhaps accounting for much of the familiarity.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 08:07 PM

Yes. And no.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 08:00 PM

Lighter-

Can one assume that "The Ox-eyed Man" was related to the "Hog-eyed Man"?

Maybe the shanties/chanteys/chanties orginated in Noah's Ark?

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 07:42 PM

In an article, "The Sailor's 'Chanties,'" the African-American sailor and writer James H. Williams mentions "Sally Brown" as having "sentimental or romantic" words. Unfortunately he doesn't give them.

The article appears in the magazine The Independent (N.Y.C), July 8, 1909, pp. 76-92. Williams went to sea in 1876 or '77.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 07:23 PM

Robinson's texts are all brief and "Sally Brown" is among the briefest. He gives two melodies. Melody two is unique.

To melody 1:

Sally Brown's a bright-ey'd beauty,
Way, roll and go.
Oh, Sally Brown is sweet and pretty;
I'll spend my money in Sally Brown.

To melody 2:

Sally Brown's a bright Mulatto,
Way, yah!
Oh, Sally Brown's a bright Mulatto,
Oh, walk along, you Sally Brown.

Robinson, an Englishman, went to sea in 1859 at the age of 14. He was over 80 when his five-part article appeared in "The Bellman." Robinson writes that he learned a number of shanties on his first voyage, aboard the brigantine "Emily" to Catania in Sicily. His prime source was an old seaman named Will Halpin, "who had sailed the seas for sixty years, to all parts of the known globe." Halpin had sailed "on the Australian sailing ships during the gold rush, and again during the California rush....[H]e never missed an opportunity to sing his chanties."

Unfortunately Robinson doesn't say precisely which shanties he learned from Halpin. But he does give texts and tunes of the following, which he learned mostly on his first voyages. He says frankly that the solos were "mere disjointed doggerel, merely something to which to hang the chorus....I have endeavored to carry the spirit and sense of the original into the words which I have written down." It's a sizable collection:

Maid of Amsterdam
Oh My Santi (i.e., "New York Girls")
Ranso Ray / Huckleberry Picking (two versions of the same song)
Blow, Boys, Blow!
Derby Ram
Dance the Boatman Dance
Old Stormy
We're All Bound Away (i.e., "Heave Away, My Johnnies")
Sacramento
Shenandoah!
The Black Ball Line
Sally Brown (two melodies)
Rio Grande
Sailors Like the Bottle O!
Catting the Anchor (i.e., "Cheer'ly Men!")
Haul Away, Joe!
Reuben Ranso
Poor Old Man
Hanging Johnny
Highland Laddie
Paddy on the Railway
Shallo Brown!
One More Day!
John Cherokee
Bangidero
Galloping Randy Dandy O!
Blow the Man Down
Whisky for My Johnny
Haul the Bowline
Young Girls, Can't You Hilo?
Santa Anna
My Tom's Gone to Hilo!
To the Spanish Main - Slav Ho!
'Tis Time for Us to Leave Her!
Paddy Doyle
Boney Was a Warrior
We're Homeward Bound (i.e., "Goodbye, Fare Ye Well!")
The Ox-eyed Man
Farewell and Adieu (i.e., "Spanish Ladies")

What's striking is how familiar most of the titles are. It could mean that the "standard" repertoire was pretty well established by the 1860s - or that Robinson had forgotten some shanties that had fallen from use early in his career. Or it could mean both!

Two more mentions of "Sally Brown":

"Cappy Ricks" [pseud.], "Shanties," The Cornhill Magazine (London) (Sept., 1936), p. 355. (Heard in Hong Kong, perh. ca1900, sung by an all black crew hoisting a new mainmast aboard the "Yankee clipper" "El Capitan.")

Hjalmar Rutzebeck, probably the last American shantyman, has a   version called "Shanghai Brown," with idiosyncratic lyrics, on Folkways 2 LP set "Leave Her Johnny, Leave Her," rec. in 1981.

The Norwegian Rutzebeck went to sea for several years about 1910.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 06:42 PM

Now here's something cool.

Song # 86 in Allen's collection is "Shock Along, John." It is also attributed to "Northern slave states." His note just says "A corn-song, of which only the burden is remembered." By "burden" he means "refrain." He gives a full melody, which is in call-response-call-response form. However, he only has words to the refrain:

"Shock along John, shock along" (both times)

This must be "Stormalong"! "shock" suggests "shuck," as in shucking corn. It best fits the form of the chantey Hugill called "Stormalong, Lads, Stormy" (as does the song in THE ARK, IMO).

So...the possibility (this has been discussed before, in light of "come along," "get along" etc) that "Stormalong" is a mondegreen of some command, i.e. "stow" and/or "shuck."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 06:29 PM

In Allen's SLAVE SONGS OF THE UNITED STATES (1867), a version of "Round the Corn, Sally" is included, pg. 68. Note that this is a different source than the one usually cited...which escapes me at the moment...but on which for instance the chantey group The Johnson Girls have based their rendition. The melody in SLAVE SONGS is different. There is also an interesting note in the introduction.

On the other hand there are very few which are of an intrinsically barbaric character, and where this character does appear, it is chiefly in short passages, intermingled
with others of a different character. Such passages may be found perhaps in Nos. 10, 12, and 18 ; and "Becky Lawton," for instance (No. 29), "Shall I die?" (No. 52) " Round the corn, Sally" (No. 87), and " O'er the crossing" (No. 93) may very well be purely African in origin. Indeed, it is very likely that if we had found it possible to get at more of their secular music, we should have come to another conclusion as to the proportion ot the barbaric element.


Just after is this interesting comment about work-songs:

A gentleman in Delaware writes: " We must look among their non-religious songs for the purest specimens of negro minstrelsy. ....Some of the best pure negro songs I have ever heard were those that used to be sung by the black stevedores, or perhaps the crews themselves, of the West India vessels, loading and unloading at the wharves in Philadelphia and Baltimore. I have stood for more than an hour, often, listening to them, as they hoisted and lowered the hogsheads and boxes of their cargoes ; one man taking the burden of the song (and the slack of the rope) and the others striking in with the chorus. They would sing in this way more than a dozen different songs in an hour ; most of which might indeed be warranted to contain ' nothing religious'—a few of them, ' on the contrary, quite the reverse'—but generally rather innocent and proper in their language, and strangely attractive in their music; and with a volume of voice that reached a square or two away. That plan of labor has now passed away, in Philadelphia at least, and the songs, I suppose, with it. So that these performances are to be heard only among black sailors on their vessels, or 'long-shore men in out-of-the-way places, where opportunities for respectable persons to hear them are rather few."

These are the songs that are still heard upon the Mississippi steamboats—wild and strangely fascinating— one of which we have been so fortunate as to secure for this collection. This, too, is no doubt the music of the colored firemen of Savannah, graphically described by Mr. Kane O'Donnel, in a letter to the Philadelphia Press, and one of which he was able to contribute for our use. Mr. E. S. Philbrick was struck with the resemblance of some of the rowing tunes at Port-Royal to the boatmen's songs he had heard upon the Nile.


The "Round the corn, Sally" is attributed to the "Northern slave states."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 05:55 PM

I don't know if this has been noted yet, but "Stormalong" also appears in WHITE'S ETHIOPIAN MELODIES!

"Storm along. Stormy."

"As sung by J. Smith, of White's Serenaders, at the Melodeon."

"O I wish I was in Mobile bay,
    Storm along Stormy.
Screwing cotton all de day,
    Storm along Stormy.
O you rollers storm along,
    Storm along Stormy.
Hoist away an' sing dis song,
    Storm along Stormy.

1 wish I was in New Orleans,
          Storm along Stormy.
Eating up dem pork and beans,
          Storm along Stormy.
Roll away in spite ob wedder,
          Storm along Stormy.
Come, lads, push all togedder,
    Storm along Stormy.

I wish I was in Baltimore,
          Storm along Stormy.
Dancing on dat Yankee shore,
          Storm along Stormy.
One bale more, den we'be done,
          Storm along Stormy.
De sun's gwan down, an' we'll go home.
    Storm along Stormy."

It seems like it may be describing rolling bales of cotton, then hoisting them aboard a ship (but not stowing them, probably the job of a different crew).

In any case, I am surprised to find this amongst minstrel songs. It would appear that it was taken from the work song repertoire into popular song; usually (I'd guess) it is the other way around. Compare also the 1839 citation of "Fire Down Below" in my last post, which suggests that it may also have been used as a work song before it appeared on the minstrel stage.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 05:36 PM

I've been getting interested in these "firemen" songs as sources for chanties, and poking around a bit. I'll make a couple-few posts.

More references to the "Sailor Fireman" song )for lack of a better title) from above:

[It is necessary to dis-ambiguate this from other "Fire Down Below" songs. For instance, it seems the one on the following pattern was existing shipboard quite early :

Fire! in the main-top,
Fire! in the bow.
Fire! on the gun-deck,
Fire! down below.

in "Burton's Gentleman's magazine and monthly American review, Volume 5", Oct. 1839]

A dramatic scene in BENTLEY'S MISCELLANY, vol 4, New York, Sept. 1839, taking place in a steamboat. Here's the song.

"THE STOKER'S CHANT.
The ebben tide ib floating past, 
   
Fire down below ! 

The arrival time ib coming fast.
Fire down below! 

Racoon cry in de maple tree,
Fire down below ! 

The wood ib on fire, and the fire a sea,
Fire down below ! 


Oo a oo oh ! fire down below !"

Next,

WE FOUR, by Laura L Rees, 1879. School-girls from Boston were heard singing it at work! Here's the passage:

We had also a party of school-girls on board from an institute near Boston, under the charge of Professor B. and wife, and they brought with them the pent-up fun of the last six months, and it evaporated during their voyage. Their girlish voices were often heard in the beautiful melodies of Sankey, and the captain invariably styled them the " Sweet Bye and Byes." One day, under the superintendence of Captain H., a retired sea-captain, these young ladies hoisted a sail, while the crew stood back and watched the performance. The song, to which their manual movement was an accompaniment, was something after this fashion:

Were you ever down in Baltimore?
Fire down below!
Dancing on the sandy shore?
Fire down below!

chorus.—I'll pull this time,
But I'll pull no more ;
Fire down below !
Pay me my money And I'll go ashore,
Fire down below!

Were you ever in Mobile Bay ?
      Fire down below! 

Picking cotton by the day ? 
      
Fire down below !"

There were several more stanzas appertaining to other seaports of the United States, but as Captain H. was an improvisatore, and varied his solos to suit himself, the two I have given are a fair sample of the rest.


Last, on pg 18 of WHITE'S ETHIOPIAN MELODIES (1854) we have the minstrel version text of the song (i.e. as harvested by Hugill).

Fire Down Below (minstrel)
[My link's not working properly -- it is directing to yet another "fire down below" in the collection. Please go to pg 18.]

Incidentally, Hugill's text is defective in a couple spots, and this one provides the fix.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 05:17 PM

I have to say that it is particularly frustrating to write up a post and have Mudcat go down just as you send it off! This has happened several times in the last few days to me. Let me try again, only this time I will do it off line an then copy it.

Lighter, thanks so much for all of these additional references to "Sally Brown" I would really like to know how you came up with them. Now I get to go looking some more. And thanks for the information on Masefield. I knew there must be more information out there on him and his time at sea. I don't think that what you have found changes any of my conclusions but I will think about it. And I had meant to note the "Shenandoah" version as a variant of "Sally Brown", but I may have forgotten to do so.

Charley, thanks so much for going to all the trouble to type out those wonderful chanties from the Ark. I think they are worth a very serious look. Can we track down any additional information about the Rev. Elijah Kellogg to see if we can find out where he discovered these songs? And when I get a chance I will enjoy looking at your Brady thread.

Gibb, thanks for the Olmstead reference. I remember coming across that some time ago, but I didn't look at it very thoroughly. I am particularly interested in the "Shallow Brown" parallels since I've been doing some work on that song lately. I wonder if this raises any questions about the West Indies theory of origin for this chanty. The more I read of these early sources, the more fluid the situation begins to feel. Down the rivers here and across the gulf to the West Indies and then up to Maine and back all the way around. And yes, we will add "Sailor Fireman" to the list of multipli-attested possible pre-1853 era chanties.

I am still working on your "ethnosympathetic" post. This has directly to do with my rather clumsy effort to raise the question about the "invisibility" of Black music to white ears. I am now finding it rather astounding that so much was written down by the white guys. I was particular intrigued by your last paragraph and what it poses for some followup. And thanks for calling attention again to the piece from ART OF BALLET. I slipped right on over that one.

Speaking of sources, does anybody have access to the elusive Captain Robinson's version of "Sally Brown" in the BELLMAN? I have tried to find this on line but apparently it is not out there.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 04:45 PM

Almost forgot:

1887 A. McKechnie, "Proosh," Star (Christchurch, N.Z.) (Aug. 24), p. 1.

1892 Hugh St. Leger, "Chanties," Black and White (London), p. 13.

1897 "Dead and Buried," Westminster Budget (London), (Aug. 20), p. 19.

1900 "Chanties," Boston Daily Globe (Sept. 16), p. 43.

1909 "'Sally Brown' Inspiriting Angel," Chicago Daily Tribune (July 4) E3. (Construction workers haul on block and tackle while the leader sets the pace by shouting the words "Sally Brown! Sally Brown!")

1909 "South Polar Exploration," Star (Christchurch, N.Z.) (Nov. 9), p. 1. (Sung by Scott's crew while raising masts.)

1913 "'Sea Songs' Not Sung by Sailors," Kansas City Star (Sept. 26), p. 12B.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 03:38 PM

Here are more references to "Sally Brown." I hope I'm not repeating anything John and Gibb have already discovered.

1897 W. Carlton Dawe, "Kakemonos: Tales of the Far East" (London: John Lane) p.87.

1900 J. E. Patterson, "Sailors' Work Songs," New York Daily Tribune (September 9), p. 10.

1905 Henry C. Lahee, "Sailors' Chanties," The Sea Breeze (Boston), Jan., pp. 13-14.

1909-1910 Basil Lubbock, "Deep Sea Warriors" (N.Y.: Dodd, Mead), pp. 179-181.

1917 W. S. Birge, "The Chantey Man's Songs," The National Magazine, XLVI, p. 284.

1922 Joseph C. Lincoln, "Fair Harbor" (N.Y.: D. Appleton), p. 68. (Refers to 1880s.)

1935 A. E. Dingle, "Pipe All Hands!" (London: Harrap), p. 104.

1939 Capt. Leighton Robinson, rec. for L. of C. by S. R. Cowell (I posted this on another thread a few years ago.)


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 03:04 PM

Here's one last "chantey" that I missed harvesting from Rev. Kellogg which is quite a catch:

THE ARK OF ELM ISLAND, by Rev. Elijah Kellogg, published by Lee & Shepherd, Boston, Massachusetts, US, © 1869, p. 152

John John Crow
(halyard chanty)

De cap'n's a driver, de mate is a driver,
John, John Crow is a dandy, O!
Drive her through de water, O, why don't you drive her?
JJohn, John Crow is a dandy, O!

De foam at our fore-foot, rolling white as de snow,
John, John Crow is a dandy, O!
We sail o'er de ocean, and we sing Johnny Crow,
John, John Crow is a dandy, O!

We're saucy to fight, we're nimble to fly,
John, John Crow is a dandy, O!
Like de fish in de sea, like de bird in de sky,
John, John Crow is a dandy, O!

For de Stars and de Stripes we hab fought wid de foe,
John, John Crow is a dandy, O!
Now de fighting is ober, we will sing Johnny Crow,
John, John Crow is a dandy, O!

De fair wind he blowing, nebber cloud in de sky,
John, John Crow is a dandy, O!
We sheet home de royal, and we bid you good by,
John, John Crow is a dandy, O!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 03:00 PM

Very comprehensive and valuable, John.

Bear in mind too that verses of "Sally Brown" were frequently sung also to the tune and pattern of "Shenandoah."

The connection may have been helped by the vague sound similarity between the two names and the presence of a "daughter" in both songs.

John Masefield, author of the beloved "Sea Fever"and much more, trained as a cadet on the school-ship Conway in the early '90s. Chances are he learned "Sally Brown" at that time. AFAIK, he made only two voyages as a sailor: Liverpool to Iquique in 1894 and London to New York the following year. (He came back to England from Chile as a passenger.)


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 02:16 PM

An INDEX, of sorts, for the Study of "Sally Brown"

Here are the links for the study of "Sally Brown" on this thread.

An introduction to "Multiple Categories of Multiple Attestation":

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2855290

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2855294

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2855299

Part 1 Published Collections

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2860956

Part 2 Published Mention

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2860968

Part 3 Historical Informants

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2860977

Part 4   Use & Function

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2860990

Part 5   Versions & Variants

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2861214

Part 6   Geographical Usage

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2862168

Part 7   Genre Usage

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2862571

Part 8   Historical Usage

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2862580

Part 9a & b Sources

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2862660

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=390#2863390

Part 10 Summary & Conclusion

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=392#2863993

And finally, Charley Noble's bibliography on the California Gold Rush

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=392#2838945


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 01:45 PM

Thanks for the effort, Charley! Pfft, why would I take offense?; rather, I am just very lazy when it comes to re-typing lyrics!

Although I cannot say whether the walkaway shanty was indeed used for that task in real life, however, I see no good reason why it couldn't be. If it is, as I suspect, a variation of what Hugill called the "Sailor Fireman," then it went along much like "Sacramento," and as such I think it would work just fine. Hugill had taken it from a 1850 collection of African-American songs, so we do know a water-related work-song of this strain was existing by then. I am also excited that the song in the 1853-observed SLAVE STATES text also bears similarity to the fireman song. I hope John M. might consider adding this song to the batch of possible 1853-era shanties.

What excites me more is the completely incidental/topical/ad-libbed nature of verses of the songs in the last two references I posted. Also, please compare them to the ART OF BALLET song earlier in the thread. While as Lighter stated, and in which I am in agreement with, the shanties were often identified by one or more "regulation verses," I think these were good examples of the kind of chantying that was pure "framework."

The narrators in these accounts are quite sympathetic to the singing of Blacks. The second one even has an abolitionist's agenda of reaffirming the value of Black expression. It makes me think of the idea of "ethnosympathy" -- which is a term (I believe) coined by Prof. Jon Cruz of UCSB in reference to the phenomenon whereby non-Blacks in the U.S. began to listen to Black singing sympathetically. Whereas in earlier times, Black expression may have been regarded as mere "noise" or "rude" singing, in their effort to humanize Blacks, abolitionists cited Black musical expression and talent as one way of demonstrating that they were indeed human beings and not chattels. The first author takes the interesting tack of showing the superiority of the United States to Britain due to her rich and varied population, including African-Americans. It is not their physical strength but their adaptability -- their willingness to utilize singing as a tool (as opposed to the British's supposed stuffy unwillingness). And the ART OF BALLET praises the Black singers for their ability to be topical.

However, both authors still appear to critique the Black songs as being of low standard in their texts (lack of rhyme, irregular number of metrical feet, and all that). I think it's likely that the aesthetic of creating incidental/improvised verses in this manner was something more valued in African-American (and indeed African) musical culture. For this reason, the emphasis on that went under-appreciated by the observers.

Incidentally, another approach to take to the material that John as laid out (e.g. for "Sally Brown") would be to compare the references in light of the ethnic backgrounds of who was said to be singing them (where texts are available, that is). Is there any difference between the sort of texts sung by Euro-/American and African-American sailors? Did a common aesthetic emerge for chantey-singing? Or did there remain a distinct stylistic difference between sailors of different ethnicities?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 01:30 PM

Summary and Conclusions for "Sally Brown" Part 10

It's amazing to me but I feel like we've really only just begun to do our study of "Sally Brown". My aim with the discussion of this song as been four-fold. First of all I wanted to actually apply my "categories of multiple attestation" to a particular chanty to see what kind of information we might gain from this approach. Second, I wanted to take this opportunity to organize the known sources chronologically so that they are easier to access for a historical study. I deliberately chose a chanty that I already knew would have lots of references in order to do this. Third, I wanted to learn as much as I could about a particular chanty and "Sally Brown" happens to be one of my favorites. And fourth, I really wanted to see if we could construct an historical context that would allow us to make a reasonable claim for placing "Sally Brown" on board of the "Julia Ann" on her voyages of 1853-1854. For me, and I hope for others, this study has been helpful in all four of these ways.

Obviously, to apply this scheme of "categories of multiple attestation" to a particular chanty is a lot of work if it is to be thorough, and for historical purposes it has to be as thorough as possible. I think it is a successful approach in generating a lot of interesting and useful information. And it did serve the purpose of gathering up and arranging the sources in a chronological order, on a number of different levels. Now that that basic piece of work is done, it should be easier to apply them to the next chanty, if one were to choose to pursue this. I have certainly learned a great deal of specific and interesting information about "Sally Brown". I have a much better sense of the historical and geographical spread of this chanty. And of course all of this information raises as many questions as it resolves. And finally, I think that maybe we did move "Sally Brown" a bit closer to the "Julia Ann".

First of all, we know that "Sally" was in both San Francisco and in Sydney, Melbourne, and Newcastle. We have successfully located her on both ends of the trip. However, we can't pinpoint a date for San Francisco until 1884 {Mason}. The dates for Australia might be as early as the 1870's {Pattison & Forbes}, but at least by 1875 {Harlow}. And we might be able to put her back in San Francisco as early as 1869 if we could pin down Maitland's voyages. So we have a potential spread of 1869 to 1875, and a certain spread of 1875 to 1884.

However, the problem with this information is that we don't have any accounts of "Sally" actually making the voyage from San Francisco to Sydney. We just have her showing up in both places independently of each other. We don't exactly know - or do we? - how she got there with Harlow (I've only read his chanty book. Perhaps his other book gives more detail.) But Harlow's return voyage is by way of the Cape of Good Hope and not Cape Horn. We have no information on the voyages of Pattison & Forbes. And with Mason, San Francisco was a destination point, from the east.

We did turn up three whalers who knew the song, but at this point I don't have any information on where they sailed {Baker '58, Cuffee '70's, and Henderson, sometime before 1872). If any of them were in the Pacific whaling areas, this would be important information, especially with regard to Baker.

We also know that "Sally" was probably in India with the East Indiamen sometime between 1861 and 1872 {Whall}, and that she may have made it on out to the Far East as early as 1869 {Maitland}, and certainly by 1875 {Harlow}, and throughout the remainder of the 19th century {Colcord} and on into the 20th century {King & Hugill}. But we still don't know how she arrived in Australia. There is no mention of her on the immigrant ships or the Australian Traders, per se, unless Harlow counts for this. Once again, all of these dates are later than the 1850's.

We can put "Sally" on the Liverpool packets in the 1830's with Marryat and generally up and down the Eastern Seaboard of North America from Nova Scotia to the West Indies and also in the ports of the Gulf of Mexico. These dates range from 1830 {Curtis}, to 1865 {Adams}, to the later 1860's {Harding & Tobago Smith}, to 1869 {Maitland & Bullen}, to 1885 {Tayluer}, to 1889 {Colcord}, to 1902 {King}, and so forth. And we know that ships sailed from all of these areas, as well as England and Australia and Europe and other places to California in the decade of the Gold Rush, from 1849-59. But we can't actually put "Sally" on a single ship going around Cape Horn that I know of at this point! Unless by inference we put her on board of Mason's ship. I have to go back and read his account more carefully. If I recall correctly, she comes on board his ship in San Francisco with another crew.

On the other hand, she seems to have been somewhat well-known and popular in England as early as 1825 and maybe earlier {Wallack}, and she seems to have been well known enough to be referred to as an example by Lincoln in Springfield, Illinois, in 1852 in a political speech! And thanks to Marryat, she enjoyed literary popularity throughout the 19th century.

In conclusion, it would seem reasonable to think that "Sally Brown" was probably known and sung on board the ships heading for California during the Gold Rush, and that she was hanging around San Francisco when the "Julia Ann" sailed in 1853. And it seems reasonable to believe that she perhaps made some of the voyages on the "Julia Ann", as a capstan chanty or at the halyards, or perhaps to load and unload coal or grain, but probably not Mormons.

Future research on "Sally Brown" needs to focus on the literature of the Gold Rush. Somewhere above, Charley Noble has provided us with an extensive bibliography on this era. So, Charley, where is that research assistant that I asked you about?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 14 Mar 10 - 11:59 AM

Gibb-

I am fascinated with the "chanties" printed in THE ARK OF ELM ISLAND. They all seem traditionally based, although what's called "The Walking Song" is modified to work with the story. Obviously the Rev. Kellogg was very familiar with this type of music. I hope you take no offense, given your discovery of these songs, but I've decided to post the lot of them here:

THE ARK OF ELM ISLAND, by Rev. Elijah Kellogg, published by Lee & Shepherd, Boston, Massachusetts, US, © 1869, p. 128

ISAIAH'S SONG
(warping up to the dock).

Wind blow from de mountain cool,
O, stow me long!
Mudder send me to de school;
Stow me long, stow me!

Den I stow myself away,
O, stow me long!
Way, way to de Isle ob May;
Stow me long, stow me!

Go ashore to see de town,
O, stow me long!
Hear de music, walk aroun';
Stow me long, stow me!

Dere I hear Miss Dinah sing,
O, stow me long!
Washin' linen at de spring;
Ha-a, stow me long,
Stow me long, stow me!
Ha-a, stow me long,
Stow me long, stow me!

Straight I lub Miss Dinah Gray,
O, stow me long!
Dinah lub me, so she say;
Stow me long, stow me!
Get her necklace, get her ring,
O, stow me long!

Happy nigger, shout and sing;
Stow me long, stow me!
Wind a blowin' fresh and free,
O, stow me long!

Vessel ready for de sea;
Stow me long, stow me!
See de tear in Dinah's eye,
O, stow me long!

Berry sorry see her cry.
Ha-a, stow me long,
Stow me long, stow me!
Ha-a, stow me long,
Stow me long, stow me!

Tink ob Dinah ebery day,
O, stow me long!
Wishin' ob de time away;
Stow me long, stow me!

Buy her gown, buy her fan,
O, stow me long!
Dinah lub anudder man;
Stow me long, stow me!

Wish I hadn't been a fool,
O, stow me long!
Neber run away from school.
Ha-a, stow me long,
Stow me long, stow me!
Ha-a, stow me long,
Stow me long, stow me!

Note:

This one's chorus lines are irregular in the original text.

THE ARK OF ELM ISLAND, by Rev. Elijah Kellogg, published by Lee & Shepherd, Boston, Massachusetts, US, © 1869, p. 131

Flour's Song
(warping up to the dock).

De blue-bird robbed de cherry-bird's nest,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!
He robbed her nest, and brake her rest,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!

Cherry-bird chirp, and cherry-bird cry,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!
Cherry-bird mourn, cherry-bird die,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!

De black cat eat de blue-bird now,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!
He catch him sittin' on de bough,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!

He nip his head, he tear his breast,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!
Pay him for de cherry-bird's nest,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!

De gard'ner shoot de ole black cat,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!
Den rat make it tit for tat,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!

De gard'ner pull him down de tree,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!
Den dat square de yards, you see,
Hilo, boys, a hilo!

THE ARK OF ELM ISLAND, by Rev. Elijah Kellogg, published by Lee & Shepherd, Boston, Massachusetts, US, © 1869, p. 133

Hand Ober Hand
(warping up to the dock).

Cuffee stole my bacca,
Hand ober hand, O!
Scratch him,
Hand ober hand, O!

Put it in his pocket,
Hand ober hand, O!
Kick him,
Hand ober hand, O!

Now he's gwine to smoke it,
Hand ober hand, O!
Bite him,
Hand ober hand, O!

THE ARK OF ELM ISLAND, by Rev. Elijah Kellogg, published by Lee & Shepherd, Boston, Massachusetts, US, © 1869, p. 133

Walking Song
(warping up to the dock).

Take de line, an' walk away,
Ho-o; ho, ho, ho!
Gwine to leabe you; cannot stay,
Fire down below!

Gwine to leabe you, Johnny Bull,
Ho-o; ho, ho, ho!
'Cause yer dunno how ter pull,
Fire down below!

Like as do dis Yankee crew,
Ho-o; ho, ho, ho!
Warpin' ob de ballahoo,
Fire down below!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Mar 10 - 10:29 PM

Here's another nice source that mentions riverboat songs that may be connected wih our chanties. These were observed in 1853 by Frederick Law Olmsted, in his A JOURNEY IN THE SEABOARD SLAVE STATES.

While going up the Red River to Shreveport, LA, he jotted down these. The Black boat-hands sang, (p608 ff.)

"Ye see dem boat way dah ahead.
CH: Oahoiohieu
De San Charles is arter 'em, dey mus go behine
CH: Oahoiohieu"
[etc -- several more incidental verses]

This song ALSO looks to me like "The Sailor Fireman." It has the right rhythm, and the chorus is close enough. The chorus also reminds me of another river song, "Lindy Lowe", and playing with the vowels in the word "Ohio."

Another song quoted seems to have a phrase similar to "Jonny Come Down to Hilo":

"Ime gwine away to-morrow.
   Oh, John, come down in de holler
Ime gwine away to marry
    Oh, John, come down in de holler"
[etc]

Several verse lyrics are reminiscent of "Shallow Brown".

Elsewhere in the book (pg 26) the author describes a funeral service in which, as people were filling in the grave, an "old negro" "raised a hymn which soon became a confused chant" in call and response fashion "in the manner of sailors heaving at the windlass."
   
On pg 394 there's some yodeling and "rolling the cotton down" of a sort!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 13 Mar 10 - 09:30 PM

Thanks, Charley, for the link. I enjoyed that. And, Gibb, I didn't mean to "fine" you, but to thank you for that great "find".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 13 Mar 10 - 08:10 PM

John-

Sure! I've been posting a new set of nautical poems to the Edwin J. Brady thread here at Mudcat and here's a link to "Sally Brown": click here for poem

It's really a shame that we can't talk with Brady but he really was a good observer of sailors and stevedores in and around the docks at Sydney and Melbourne in the late 1890's and early 1900's.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 13 Mar 10 - 07:59 PM

Well, this is my third try for this post. Gibb, that truly is a great fine. I really like "Oh Stow Me Along, Stow Me". All of those songs had to come from somewhere. I don't think they could be a product of pure fiction. Especially since they show up later in the chanty tradition.

Charley, do you have a link for the Brady poem? I think I remember you mentioning him earlier. I'd like to see that. I find it fascinating that "Sally" has a literary tradition of her own!

And Gibb, I'm glad you were able to get some satisfaction on the "hoosier" issue.   I tried to track that one down and got completely swamped by those folks from Indiana. I still don't quite understand how they got to be "hoosiers". I know that it doesn't have anything to do with football! But then, "Roll Tide!" is not a sea chanty either. I hope you guys are having a fine Saturday night.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 13 Mar 10 - 04:43 PM

Gibb-

Great find! And it's interesting for those of us familiar with the Black sailors who were long time residents of Portland, Maine, to see them documented at least in some literary fashion.

I've learned to associate the term "hooker" as used by sailors as generally referring to ships: i.e., "I'll not sail in that old hooker again!" The "hook" itself is a reference to the ship's anchor.

Edwin J. Brady also composed a nautical poem titled "Sally Brown."

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Mar 10 - 03:43 PM

addendum:
Apparently it is thought by some that "hoosier" (well, the Indiana/Kentucky reference) comes from "hoojin." So maybe my guess at "hoosier john" (i.e instead of hooker john) wasn't so far off!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Mar 10 - 03:13 PM

I've found another great source to consider re: the "genesis of chanteys" topic. I don't seem to remember it being discussed before.

It is fiction, and the date is 1869, so there is that possibility it was drawn from elsewhere. But whatever the case, the material is great.

THE ARK OF ELM ISLAND by Elijah Kellogg

The narrator keeps remarking on Black people's tendency to sing as they work. "...a nigger can no more work without a song, than a Frenchman can talk if you tie his hands."

The Ark has a crew of "Portland [Maine] darkies," and amongst them is a "chanty-man" named Isaiah Phillips.

The work songs, "habe no merit of composition, being the merest trash."

"The songs of the negro seamen generally refer to their labor-- hoisting or stowing molasses, or screwing cotton, which is severe labor, where unity of effort is of the first importance; and here the negro's accurate ear renders them most effective, and they will accomplish more, with less fatigue to themselves, than white men....they will put in the queerest quirks and quavers, but all in time."

An anecdote is told, during which a work song is quoted -- a variant of what Hugill called "Hooker John":

"Eberybody he lub someting
    Hoojun, John, a hoojun
Song he set de heart a beating
    Hoojun, John, a hoojun"

That's the first reference I recall seeing to that chantey. Usually people take Hugill's text and start speculating what "hooker" is. (I myself have speculated it was "hoosier.")

The narrator mentions ad-libbing.

The crew was manning the windlass, and "Isaiah" sings, intriguingly, what is obviously a variation of "Stormalong":

"Wind blow from de mountain cool
    O, stow me long
Mudder send me to de school
    Stow me long, stow me"
[etc -- more, completely incidental verses]

Later, the cook songs a song, just for joy. It is none other than one of my favourite chanties, "Hilo, boys, a hilo."

Then the workers "struck up a still quicker tune, intermingling with the words most singular yells and quavers."

They thn haul out with a hand over hand chantey that I don't recognize, with a chorus of "Hand ober hand, O"

THEN they walk away with the rope. The song quoted os another "Fire down below," yet one that looks like it could have been "The Sailor Fireman" cited by Hugill.

Much later in the story, while not at work, someone sings "Highland laddie" (pg 255).

Interesting that nowhere are the songs referred to as "shanties/chanties," although, as in Nordhoff, "chanty-man" is referred to (twice). It is after Clarke mentioned "chanty-man" in 1867, and before Alden finally says "shanties" in 1869.

The passage starts around pg 117


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 13 Mar 10 - 01:11 PM

Well, I haven't come across any clear reference to "Sally Brown" the song in Dickens, but I'll keep looking into that. However, I did come across two other rather interesting items. First of all, I am wondering if there could be any connection between our "Sally Brown" the sea chanty lady, and this poem by Thomas Hood called "Faithless Sally Brown", published in THE UNIVERSAL SONGSTER in 1825, as "Young Ben, the Carpenter, and Sally Brown":

http://books.google.com/books?id=VWQLAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA11&dq=Universal+Songster+%22Ben+the+Carpenter%22&lr=&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=fals

It shows up in a number of publications throughout the 19th century and was apparently very popular. It has one line in it which goes: "Oh Sally Brown, Oh Sally Brown". Of course the influence could have gone the other way and Mr. Hood may have been aware of the sea song "Sally Brown". And, once his poem was written, it may have reacted back on the chanty. Anyone have thoughts on this? I can't exactly tell what "minstrel" means in this context. Was his poem picked up and used by the blackface minstrels? Or was there a broader meaning to the word back then in England.

The second interesting item is from one of the speeches of Abraham Lincoln, given to "the Springfield Scott Club" on August 14, 26, 1852, in which he quotes a verse from Captain Marryat's "Sally Brown" referring to her as a "bright mulatter". Lincoln says,

"Now, should Pierce ever be President, he will, politically speaking, not only be a mulatto, but he will be a good deal darker one than Sally Brown." !

http://books.google.com/books?id=_ZxLW2uomIgC&pg=PA157&dq=%22Oh+Sally+Brown%22++Collected+Works+of+Abraham+Lincoln&lr=&cd=1#v=on

This doesn't indicate that Lincoln knew "Sally Brown" as a chanty, per se, but that he was familiar with Marryat's work, which apparently was also popular. However, the fact that Lincoln quotes this verse in a speech would indicate that his audience would know what he was talking about - maybe - with regard to the song itself. Here is another discussion about Marryat from TAIT'S EDINBURGH MAGAZINE of 1839:

http://books.google.com/books?id=reERAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA554&dq=%22Oh,+Sally+Brown%22&cd=6#v=onepage&q=%22Oh%2C%20Sally%20Brown%22&f=f

The interesting thing here is the reference to "the Yankee salt-water lyric of Sally Brown". Does this indicate a sense that this was a song of American origin? There are many quotes of Marryat's whole passage on "Sally Brown" in the literature of the time according to Google.

The existence of Hood's popular poem, the popularity of Marryat's book and account of "Sally Ann" and the example of Lincoln's use of the latter in a political speech, raises the interesting question of the influence of published works on the oral tradition of "Sally Brown". Using the examples of both "broadside ballads" and published versions of the "Child ballads" and their influence on the "folk process" of the singing of these songs in the 19th century, and later, we might get some sense of how this worked in the realm of chantydom as well. However, I'd be the first to say that I cannot document any direct links here. There does seem to be the potential for some muddying up of the waters though.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 13 Mar 10 - 10:50 AM

"Sally Brown" Part 9 (b)

Thanks, Gibb. I appreciate your fine response. It goes to the heart of some of the questions I was trying to raise in my last post. I realize that I moved into some deep water full of all kinds of things and that I am not at all competent to navigate them. So I appreciate having a pilot.

With regard to the "music" issue in all of this, I keep thinking about what Bronson did with the Child ballad collection tunes. It was usually way beyond me how he grouped different tunes into different "families", but it seemed important, and when I actually focused down on a particular version it was fascinating to discover the relatives. And in some cases, it did establish a link between a Virginia tune, say, and one from England. But of course, one of the great lacunas in Child's work, along with Sharp's work in the Southern Appalachians, and thus also in Bronson, although I think he tried to pay attention to it, was the absence of "Black" music. There is one verse of "Barbara Allen" collected by Sharp right here in Nellysford from an old, ex-slave woman. If only he had taken down the whole song and it had survived!

My comment about the "celtic" sound of "Sally Brown" has more to do with some revivalist interpretations, and especially their instrumental breaks with banjos and fiddles and accordions and penny whistles and bohdrans, etc., than with my own sense of the song. The tune gets twisted in these breaks and seems to move away from itself.

On the other hand, as much as I might wish that I did know more about Jamaican and West Indian music forms, styles and history, I just don't and will have to leave that to someone else. My own personal sense is that this song is West Indian in origin, and certainly - for me - not from Liverpool, but I can't prove it.

Going to the question of origins and predecessors, if we accept for the moment that Mr. Curtis' account of hearing "Sally was a fine girl" as a rowing song on the Cape Fear River in North Carolina, in 1830, as an early version of what became "Sally Brown", it raises some intriguing questions. And I'm thinking about the songs in Parrish's book about the Georgia Sea Islanders. While she doesn't have a version of "Sally Brown", she has other songs that were used for rowing. I've never known quite where to place these Georgia Sea Islander songs in my chronological picture. Do they pre-date the use of of these worksongs as chanties at sea later, or have the chanties come back ashore and been adapted for rowing? Or, is it likely that the situation back and forth was always a lot more fluid as it surely must have been with the dock-side loading songs.

Mr. Curtis has (in his own hand with music notation!}:

        "Sally was a fine girl,
        Ho, Sally, ho!"

Seven years later, Marryat has:

        "Sally Brown, of Buble Ally,
        Oh! Sally Brown.
        Sally Brown - oh! my dear Sally.
        Oh! Sally Brown."

To me there seems to be a definite relation. And if you - not me - put in the pulls, maybe that tells us even more. But it doesn't tell me which way the current was flowing. In fact I would probably conclude that some version or versions of the song was being used both at sea and on the river at the same time. Again, the parallels with the dock-loading songs are obvious. We have "Sally Brown" raising the anchor in Portsmouth in 1837 and roughly 30 years later we have her unloading tobacco in Genoa, Italy!

And then we have Mr. Isaac Baker the whaler singing in 1842:

"The Taskar is the thing to roll
O ee roll & go
Her bottom's round as any bowl!
O ho roll & go!"

While he was overtly singing about his good ship the "Tasker", it is not hard to see how this imagery was transferred over to (or from) "Sally Brown". In fact this passage shows up in a contemporary study that was discussing the sexual fantasy life of whalers and how they tended to conflate their thoughts about their beloved ships and women. It is hard to know whether this verse reflects an earlier stream of song that fed into "Sally Brown" or ongoing parallel traditions or is simply independent of it entirely. I think it is definitely connected myself.

And thanks to Lighter we have that delightful note about Mr. Wallack's performance of "Sally Brown" complete with "yelps", from possibly as early as 1808, but at least by about 1825. While it is impossible to know where Wallack learned this song, this note would indicate that "Sally Brown" was fairly well known as a recognizable song that early.

So we have two definite sightings before 1850 and two probables/maybes. And perhaps we have some hints about sources or at least parallel uses. And it's interesting that these two fragments from Curtis and Baker show up from other contexts, rowing and whaling. I think we can almost catch a glimpse of some of the different pieces that came together to form "Sally Brown". I realize that this may be overly optimistic and that my "pieces" post-date what is clearly an already formed chanty but it is a fact that oral traditions continue right along side of written ones, and just because we have written notice in 1808/1825 and in 1837, doesn't mean that these other two fragments weren't passed down from earlier periods.

And, Gibb thanks for the addition from Hercules Robinson! I had a power outage while I was working on this post and lost half of it and had to reconstruct and didn't recheck Mudcat in between. That's a great find. It seems like I've seen that "Dickens commemoration" somewhere. I'll have to go back through my unorganized pile of stuff.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Mar 10 - 09:43 AM

I don't think we have this "Sally Brown" reference (?)

SEA DRIFT, 1858.
The author, Hercules Robinson, served in British warships against Napoleon. He states that when he first shipped, as a young boy, the officers just shouted commands through speaking trumpets.

'They were not allowed to do their work with such a song as Dickens commemorates--

"Oh Sally Brown, Sally Brown, oh!
She won't have a Yankee sailor, oh!
Cos she loves the nigger tailor, oh!" '

Sea Drift


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 Mar 10 - 10:28 PM

Great stuff here!! Very exciting.

John, with your Part 9a you're moving into dangerous waters...there be pyrates and sea monsters...but it is my favorite place, and one where, in my opinion, discussions too infrequently venture.

Musical form is the main part. Hugill, for example, does a poor job addressing this. It is reflected by his wacky organizational scheme which goes, "oh, and hey, another song that mentions the name 'Johnny' is this one here..." He is very text-centric / lyric-centric despite his comments about the floating nature of chantey texts. To my knowledge, chanties have yet to be "sorted" on the basis of musical analysis -- by which I suppose I mean melodic and rhythmic content. (We have been sorting them by musical form, in a way, by talking about call and response, choruses, etc, though that is also partly textual.)

There are several difficulties. One is the relative high ambiguity of musical material in "pointing" towards this or that cultural sphere, region, etc. It's a bit like asking what languages a certain letter combination, say /bla/, belongs to. That could suggest English to some ("black"), but Arabic to another ("tabla"), etc etc. In other words, while these features would seem to exclude some origins, they also *include* far too many. By way of example, to me, "Sally Brown" doesn't evoke anything "celtic" in its tune. But even if I manage to put my finger on and explain what makes it sound like it belongs to "African-America" to me, that is very far from proving it is not "celtic." Consequently, I've no reasonable cause to doubt that it sounds Celtic to John. Musical language -- or at least the parts that are easily notated -- is so limited that it must necessarily be shared among cultural groups and it cannot tell us so much without more clues 'n' context.

As we well know, those clues don't come through in simple music notation. What's more, the music notation in the older texts was even less able to cope with representing features that might give clues. I suspect, for example, that some of the weird chromatic passages in some collector's notations, reflects the fact that people had yet to deal with the issue of "blue notes." To hear the singing of such "blue notes" might influence us to strongly suspect an African-American source. But set down on paper as a bland, equal-tempered (think piano) pitch, the "spelling" of the notes might make the phrase look equally Italian (or whatever).

It is not hopeless, however. One need not try to pin a certain music form to a certain culture group. Again, I like "African-American"....which in my mind shades off dangerously close to just "American," for its inherent ambiguity and mixed nature. The early stars of the minstrel stage and its composers were mainly of Irish descent. It seems that they were trying to evoke songs of Blacks on one hand, but were very much speaking through their own, familiar musical language, on the other. And I've really no idea if one could say whether these tunes could be said to have this or that degree of this or that ethnic music to them...only that they were something in themselves that one might study. I am sure that if one were to analyze all the chanties musically, some kind of groupings would emerge. These may not be very clear with regards to ethnicity or geography, but they may say something about source genres or time periods.

Incidentally, I had delivered a paper about Hugill's chanties at a conference in Liverpool. Much of it happened to be about issues of representation that John is touching upon... and , even more incidentally, if was frustrating because I felt much of my audience did not want to engage the issues because they were quite biased towards the very idea of me trying to tell them anything about chanties. After all, the English are the only proper shanty-singers, right?! It was funny that out of a room of scholars who are ostensibly trained to study music and culture objectively, regularly discovering that musical phenomena are not what they seem in popular knowledge, that this birth-right sort of confidence ("We know all about shanties") would block a dialogue. So I was actually refreshed to get a question from a non-British person (some one from continental Europe) who was of a more musicologist sort of bent, and who was mostly just curious if, after learning Hugill's shanties, I had observed any specific, quantifiable musical characteristics. At least that was something relatively objective to talk about. (And if you'll permit me one tiny moment of negativity: I am so glad we have a topic like "shanties" to talk about here, as opposed to the dire "What is folk?" discussions on Mudcat that seem hopelessly confounded by people's notions of their cultural heritage.)

I want to mention two other anecdotes/examples, just to think about (not directed towards any really specific point). First is that I've a subscriber to my YouTube channel, from North America, who I've noted consistently responds (i.e. comments) more favourably to chanties that I feel have an "American" bent to their melodies. And behind this particular notion of American goes the musical language that emerged from African-American culture. I'd guess that this person is not consciously aware of these musical traits, but that rather they are responding, as an American, to something familiarly American.

Second anecdote is the case of Dick Maitland, who sang for Doerflinger. The way he allegedly sang "Leaving of Liverpool" is quite distinct for a certain melodic pattern. He uses a pattern of "DO ti sol" that, I feel, is rare in these songs. So rare, perhaps, that it was counter-intuitive to the revival singers who picked up the song. I'm not sure who was the first, but whoever rendered it from the printed page accidently -- although I'm sure musical inclination was the influence -- changed the pattern. And what we have today im the revived form is much more "agreeable" to the common "ear." I was thinking about this again recently because I was trying to learn a variation on "Banks of Newfoundland" sung by Maitland. It contained the same queer melodic pattern. I'd venture to guess that this was something particular about Maitland's musical language -- it is that distinct. (Analogous to a certain pattern that I hear in some Jamaican singers of the 60s, which sounds like they'd been copying the personal "language" of Curtis Mayfield!)

Something *can* be done with musical analysis. However, we are crippled by the poor notations. A good number of chanties in Hugill's modern text are just flat our wrong in their notation. It has nothing to do with singers' variation; it is pure incompetence. But the usual, basic issue is the simplicity of notation that wipes away what may have been distinctive, clue-giving traits. As for recordings: Of the recordings of living chantey singers that exist, I am skeptical of their range. Not only the fact that they are invariably far past their prime, and even farther from actually context (Who yelps out a blood-curdling halyard chantey whilst sitting in an easy chair across from a genteel folk-song collector?), but the historical time period, their ethnicity, etc make them limited.

Briefly: The issues of political correctness, mimetic awkwardness, white-washing (or blacking-up, as the case may be!), and other ethnicity confusion and how they have affected the course of chantey-singing is one of my great interests... and I think best for another thread :) Still, it helps some to be aware of the issues, when analyzing data. But ultimately, the value of this kind of consideration is that it helps us not to make assumptions...but doesn't tell us anything positively. Whall might have preferred blue-eyed damsels because he was a bit racist and wanted to change the essence of the text, but equally likely was that Sailor John (of any stripe) just felt like loving a blue-eyed gal at that moment.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 12 Mar 10 - 11:20 AM

Thanks, Charley, for the suggestion about Hugill. I found it strange that there doesn't seem to be what I would call a "coherent" account of his time at sea, *that I have come across*. I don't have his SAILORTOWN, and I suspected that this might be the best source. But you would think someone might have summed it up. I will leave that job to somebody else.

Here's the beginning of my last category, on "Sources".

"Sally Brown" Part 9 (a)

This final category of multiple attestation has to do with the issue of "sources" for a particular chanty that come from places other than the world of sea chanties. Here I am thinking about the following:

The shape/form of the song
The tune or tunes used by the song
The lyrics that become attached to the song
Actual songs that may have served either as models or as actual sources for the chanty

With regard to the first, Gibb has called "Sally Brown" one of those African American work songs that take the shape of "Call-response-call-response form (with the 2 "pull points" per response)". Hugill says that it has the shape of a "hauling" song, and we know that it was used as a halyards song, and for pulling. It was also used at the capstan, the windlass, and pumps, and unloading cargo. And if the song noted by Moses Curtis in 1830 on the Cape Fear River in North Carolina is a version or perhaps even an antecedent of "Sally Brown", then it was also used for rowing. So the form of "Sally Brown" was adaptable, and this may be one of the reasons for its popularity and its widespread survival over the last two hundred years or so.

The basic tune of "Sally Brown" apart from it's variants, seems to have remained fairly stable throughout its history. I am no musicologist and can't even read music notation so I will have to leave this area to someone more qualified. The differences that I can see in the various notations seem to fall within what one might normally expect with the actual usage of such a song. I would say that the song is characterized musically by its first chorus "Way, hey, roll and go!", and it often took this as its title.

In listening to contemporary renditions of this song, it seems to lend itself rather easily to "celtic" interpretations. This might suggest that the tune originally came from Irish or British sources. However, for me this mainly shows up in the second refrain, and I think that it gets elaborated somewhat in a "celtic" direction sometimes and that it's not really possible to go backwards with this reasoning. But this song may be a candidate for one of those Afro-American/Irish combinations. One could speculate that the elements of the tune arrived one day in Jamaica and was rounded out there with the unforgettable images of "Sally Brown" herself.

We have an abundance of different lyrics for this song. And here we enter into a murky and difficult area of discussion. I would like to refer you first of all to Gibb's comments on his Youtube version of "Sally Brown" for an introduction to this issue:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FVUn_v3jIZA

It seems that at some point in the history of the use of "Sally Brown", the issue of "political correctness" entered the picture. What is interesting to me is to try to figure out when that might have happened, or perhaps more accurately, how often! When I was going through my collection of chanty CDs, I was surprised to find that I had very few recordings of "Sally Brown". I wondered why this might be the case. She just doesn't show up on a lot of the more standard or popular collections. I suspect that even though there are politically correct historical versions of this song available in the literature, that chanty singers may have felt some discomfort about singing this song. In today's terms, it is racist, sexist, and exploits women as prostitutes. And it does this by combining all of these things into the inimitable image of "Sally Brown". And then some versions throw in her daughter for good measure! The language is definitely 19th century and blunt. One might argue that it is hard to sing this song in any kind of "authentic" fashion without falling into a nest of minefields.

But, is this just a contemporary problem? In some versions, "Sally" is a white girl with blue eyes from New York City. Was there a tendency in the latter part of the 19th century to move this song away from its roots, and white-wash it? Or is this merely a contemporary concern. I think that this part of the discussion may be for another time or even another thread. I suppose if one could actually document a "white-washing shift" over the course of the 19th century, one might, using Marrayt's version as a benchmark, be able to put different sets of lyrics into different time categories. However, I think this won't work, because the "Sally Brown was a bright mullato" version remained popular alongside of other versions to the very end of the days of sail, and continues to be popular today. As has been argued by others previously, it is very hard to determine very much about the history of a chanty from its lyrics.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 12 Mar 10 - 09:56 AM

John-

You were asking about Hugill's voyages as a sailor. One might be able to piece together what ports he had visited from his book SAILORTOWN, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, UK, © 1967. He did in short travel the world, including the Orient, the west coast of South America and the Pacific Northwest.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 12 Mar 10 - 09:23 AM

"Sally Brown" Part 8

I think my next category for multiple attestation, which I have called "Historical Usage" has already been covered above by the the "Genre" discussion. It was my intention to focus "Historical Usage" on the various commercial enterprises that were current at sea in the 19th century and later, and to see where "Sally" put in an appearance. Here is a summary of that information.

We know she was being used on board the Western Ocean packet liners in the 1830's. She might have been used in the whaling industry. She was used by the East India Traders. And she was used by the Tobacco Traders from Virginia to Italy. She was probably used in the Gulf Port, probably by the Cotton Traders. And she was known in the West Indies (and may well have originated there), which would have possibly put her in the sugar, rum and molasses trade, (as well as maybe on board the Slave Traders and with some Pirates as well). She was used in the lumber business in the West Indies and Honduras.

She sailed to the Far East at least to Java, and probably to China and Japan with the tea ships. She went around Cape Horn in the San Francisco trade, at least in the 1880's. And she went to Australia with that trade. Since she was known in Canada (Newfoundland), she could have been involved with the timber traders there and the coastal traders down to the West Indies. One might say that "Sally Brown" was a vital asset to the maritime commerce of the 19th century.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 12 Mar 10 - 09:01 AM

"Sally Brown" Part 7

I want to turn my attention this morning to what I have loosely called:

"Genre Usage"

Way back on the first of February, I put up a tentative list of different "genres". This is not a very good word for this, but maybe it will work for now. Here is the post:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=374#2827215

I was trying to see how a chanty might have traveled from one area of life at sea to another, or at least to see how widespread it might have been. What we managed to demonstrate was that the documentation for the use of these chanties by Slave Traders, Pirates, Whalers, etc. is pretty slim to non-existent. But it did lead us on to a good look at the African American influence on chanties and to what I think is a very fruitful hypothesis by Gibb about the origin of "chanties, proper". [ If you are just coming to this thread, you will have to take the time to back up and catch up.]

My category of "Genre Usage" is a revisiting of this earlier attempt. When we look at "Sally Brown" in this light, we do turn up some interesting information. Looking at the "Historical Informants" list, here is what I have.

{1830} Curtis, Moses A., "Sally Was A Fine Girl", Cape Fear River, North Carolina as a rowing song

note: I wonder if "Sally Brown" might have begun as a "rowing song".*

{April, 1837} Marryat, Capt. C.B., Portsmouth, England, on Western Ocean packet to New York
{Sept. 11, 1842} Baker, Isaac, "The Tasker is the thing to roll", a whaler
{1861-1872} Whall, 1909-1910 East Indiamen
{late 1865 (Lighter, 2/26)} Adams, Robert Chamblet, "Walk along, my Sally Brown" in Genoa, Italy as Virginia tobacco is being unloaded.
{late 1860's (Lighter 2/1)} Harding, West Indies -Jamaica in the 1930's as a "log-rolling" song
{1869} Richard Maitland, Atlantic, San Francisco, Blackball Line to Liverpool, Hong Kong, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Scotland
{1869-1880} Bullen, [ weighing anchor & flywheel pumps] Bournemouth, England; West Indies, Gulf of Mexico ports
{1870s} "Old Man Cuffee" who died at age 82 in 1938, a whaler, from Sag Harbor, NY        
{1870s} George Pattison/capstan & Malcolm Forbes - "old men" in 1924-25, Kangaroo Island, South Australia
{1872} James Henderson, whaler - Dundee, Scotland
{March 19, 1875} Harlow, [capstan], from Boston to Melbourne and Sydney, Java, and back to NY
{1884} John Mason, [anchor capstan] San Francisco, CA
{1885} Capt. Patrick Tayluer, from Boston, throughout the British Empire, Africa
{1889-1901} Colcord, [windless and capstan] Portland (ME)-Buenos Aires-Rosario-Boston, New York-Penang- Singapore-Shanghai-Hong Kong-New York; Portland (ME)-Buenos Aires-Rosario-Boston, New York-Port Elizabeth-Durban-Newcastle(NSW)-Mollendo-Astoria-Portland(OR)-Santa Rosalia-Victoria(BC)-Tacoma, New York-Hong Kong-New York
{1902} King, Stanton Henry, [windlass] Philadelphia, on the Delaware River, outward bound to Japan
{October, 1914} Hurley, Frank, Shackleford Expedition to Antartica        
{1915} Shay, [capstan], off the coast of Yucatan (?)
{1922-1945} Hugill [hauling, capstan], Liverpool, England; Cape Horn, West Indies, Cape Verde Island
{1929} Capt. John Gullage of Newfoundland
{1960's} Abrahams, 1974 ["Feeny Brown"] Tobago/St. Kitts

We have "Sally" as a rowing song in the Tidewater region of North Carolina. We have her at least known by three whalers: Baker, Cuffee, and Henderson. She sailed on the Western Ocean packets: Marryat and Maitland. She was used by the East Indiamen (Whall). She was used for loading and unloading according to Adams in Genoa, Italy. She was used in Gulf Ports trade (Harding, Bullen, Shay), and in the West Indies (Harding, Bullen, Hugill, Abrahams). She probably made it out to the Far East (Adams, Maitland, Harlow, Colcord, King). And she did go around the Horn to San Francisco according to Mason. And she was used in the Australian trade according to Harlow, Pattison, Forbes, Colcord, and perhaps Hugill (did he sail to Australia?). She was known in Canada by Gullage and probably traveled there with others (Maitland), and could have been used in the timber business there. And finally she was perhaps used on a trip of exploration to Antartica (she shows up in a footnote to the Shackleford Expedition. [ I haven't seen this book and don't know what the footnote is referring to.]

Once again, it is probably safe to say that she got around, and was popular with all kinds of folks, for most of the 19th century and on into the 20th century.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 11 Mar 10 - 08:25 PM

John-

Unfortunately we don't have a clue whom C. Fox Smith collected her traditional shanties from, including "Sally Brown" which she had this to say in A BOOK OF SHANTIES, © 1927, p. 20:

"It was usually sung when getting up the anchor; in Mr. Cecil Sharp's collection it is given as a hauling shanty, but I have never come across a sailor who had heard it so used."

The shanty lyrics she provides would certainly make a fine halyard shanty, however:

Sally Brown she's a bright mulatto --
Way-AY, roll and GO!
She drinks rum and chews tobacco --
Spend my MONEY on Sally BROWN!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 11 Mar 10 - 06:33 PM

Here is the link for the "Rocket" account (actually on board the "Dublin" - I think), of hearing "Walk along, My Sally Brown" in Genoa, Italy, while tobacco from Virginia is being unloaded:

http://books.google.com/books?id=7v1IAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA102&dq=Walk+along,+my+Sally+Brown&cd=2#v=onepage&q=Walk%20along%2C%20my%20Sal

Unfortunately no words are given so we can't know for sure is this is the same "Walkalong, You Sally Brown" that Hugill got from Harding much, much later. But it does count as another variant.

There are two geographical references to San Francisco:

{1869} Richard Maitland, San Francisco (it is impossible to know whether Maitland heard/sang "Sally Brown" in San Francisco or not on that trip.
{1884} John Mason, [anchor capstan] San Francisco, CA (This is a clear identification):

http://books.google.com/books?id=JirozwWDDaMC&pg=PA66&dq=Sally+Brown+was+a+bright+mulatto&lr=&cd=8#v=onepage&q=Sally%20Brown%20w

Later Mason again mentions "Sally Brown" sung while heaving anchor on the Mersey:

http://books.google.com/books?id=JirozwWDDaMC&pg=PA118&dq=She+drinks+rum+and+chews+tobacco&lr=&cd=7#v=onepage&q=She%20drinks%20r

At least we know she was in San Francisco, even it the date is 1884.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 11 Mar 10 - 06:11 PM

"Sally Brown"   Part 6

And now, I want to look back over this information with an eye to geographical spread. Some of these references are very specific and some are more than a bit vague. In most cases it is impossible to know where a particular person heard "Sally Brown". All we know is that the person was in various places and at some point or points sang or heard the song.

Geographical Usage

{1808-?} Mr. Wallack , off the French coast
{1830} Curtis, Moses A., "Sally Was A Fine Girl", Cape Fear River, North Carolina
{April, 1837} Marryat, Capt. C.B., Portsmouth, England, on Western Ocean packet to New York
{Sept. 11, 1842} Baker, Isaac, "The Tasker is the thing to roll", a whaler
{1859-60} Robinson, Capt. John
{1861-1872} Whall, 1909-1910 East Indiamen
{1863} J.S. Scott, London, England,
{1864} James Wright, Leith, England
{late 1865 (Lighter, 2/26)} Adams, Robert Chamblet, [as "Blow, My Bully Boys, Blow"] from Boston to the E. Indies by way of    Richmond, VA, also Maryland to Denmark - voyages on two different ships. Specifically hears "Walk along, my Sally Brown" in Genoa, Italy as Virginia tobacco is being unloaded (p. 102)

{1867-1885} Jack Murray, Aberdeen, Scotland
{late 1860's (Lighter 2/1)} Harding, West Indies, British, American and Blue Nose (Nova Scotia) ships
        & perhaps Tobago Smith, West Indies
{1868} Captain Edward B. Trumbull, Salem, MA
{1869} Robert Yeoman, Dundee, Scotland
{1869} Richard Maitland, Atlantic, San Francisco, Blackball Line to Liverpool, Hong Kong, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Scotland

{1869-1880} Bullen, [ weighing anchor & flywheel pumps] Bournemouth, England; West Indies, Gulf of Mexico ports
{1870s} "Old Man Cuffee" who died at age 82 in 1938, a whaler, from Sag Harbor, NY        
{1870s} George Pattison/capstan & Malcolm Forbes - "old men" in 1924-25, Kangaroo Island, South Australia
{1872} James Henderson, whaler - Dundee, Scotland
{March 19, 1875} Harlow, [capstan], from Boston to Melbourne and Sydney, Java, and back to NY
Luce, 1883/89(1902) [topsail halyards]
{1883} Thomas Ginovan, Bristol, England
{1884} John Mason, [anchor capstan] San Francisco, CA
{1885} Capt. Patrick Tayluer, from Boston, throughout the British Empire, Africa
{1885-1902} Alex Henderson, Dundee, Scotland
{1888-1889} George Simpson, Dundee, Scotland
{1889-1901} Colcord, [windless and capstan] Portland (ME)-Buenos Aires-Rosario- Boston, New York-Penang-Singapore-Shanghai-Hong Kong-New York; Portland (ME)-Buenos Aires-Rosario-Boston, New York-Port Elizabeth-Durban-Newcastle(NSW)-Mollendo-Astoria-Portland(OR)-Santa Rosalia-Victoria(BC)-Tacoma, New York-Hong Kong-New York

{1891-95} Masefield, [halliards]
{1902} King, Stanton Henry, [windlass] Philadelphia, on the Delaware River, outward bound to Japan
{1908} Benjamin Bright
{October, 1914} Hurley, Frank & Shane Murphy, Shackleford Expedition to Antartica        
Sharp, 1914 Charles Robbins, London, [pulling-chantey]
        Mr. Allison of Perth
        Short of Watchet
{1915} Shay, [capstan], off the coast of Yucatan (?)
Terry, 1921 [windless and capstan]
{1922-1945} Hugill [hauling, capstan], Liverpool, England; Cape Horn, West Indies, Cape Verde Island
A.E. Foster, Sailors Snug Harbor, Staten Island, N.Y., 1927
Francis Herreschoff, Marblehead, MA, 1927
Stanton King, Boston, MA, 1928 (from Carpenter)
David Burrell, Scotland [capstan]
{1929} Capt. John Gullage of Newfoundland
{1960's} Abrahams, 1974 ["Feeny Brown"] Tobago/St. Kitts

Does anyone have geographical information on the following:

Captain Robinson
Admiral Luce
John Masefield

And is there a coherent account anywhere of Hugill's travels? Please feel very free to make corrections on any of this and to add to it as you've been doing.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 11 Mar 10 - 10:55 AM

Here are three possible additional variants for "Sally Brown":

{late 1860's (Lighter 2/1)} Harding, "Roll Boys, Roll" [halyards]
{March 19, 1875} Harlow, "Way Sing Sally" [hand over hand]
{1922-1945} Hugill, "Shenandoah(d)" [capstan & windlass]

Lighter, thanks for the further information on Mr. Wallack. I have him down as another independent witness, along with Mr. Baker, and Mr. Curtis. Any idea where Mr. Baker was doing his whaling?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 11 Mar 10 - 08:28 AM

Lighter-

Wouldn't it be great if his "journal" surfaced in the archives of the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich; you never know unless you enquire.

It's also got the making of a great story, not to mention another screen play featuring Johnny Depp.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 11 Mar 10 - 12:10 AM

Glad you asked, Charley.

Acc. to the Gentleman's Magazine of 1839, it was Wallack's brother Henry who was in training as a midshipman around 1808. The teenaged James ran off to join him and wound up sailing briefly and unofficially on the French coast with his cousin George Allen Field, who happened to be commander of the gun brig "Desperate" (great story, eh wot?). Wallack's parents induced him to return to the stage by promising him the role of Hamlet.

Wallack had a long and distinguished acting and managing career after that.

So it looks as though he may have picked up his "chant" of "Sally Brown" at sea, or at least in port, without ever "serving" in any official capacity. While it could have been as early as 1808, there's really no telling. He could have learned it at second hand much later.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 10:31 PM

Lighter-

"Wallack" seems a very interesting character, ex-Royal Navy and theatre. Somewhere in his life he also must have served in the merchant marine. Are there any more details?

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 09:19 PM

I forgot to look before I posted. Thanks for another reference Lighter.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 09:14 PM

Lighter, thanks for the "Santa Anna" and the two (possible) references to "Sally Brown". Both of them seem to fit. I will add them to my list. That gives us two more early independent informants and two more possible variants and versions, as well as two very interesting geographical references, which I will be looking at next.

And Gibb, I immediately went and listened to the Laurel Aitken song. I like it.   So what's a "kuku maka stick"?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 08:25 PM

If you were a little older, you'd heave heard this one. The year: 1826.

Isaac Starr Clason, "Horace in New-York," 1826, p. 46: "The present Manager of the Chatham Garden Theatre, was formerly a Lieutenant in the British Navy. He was afterwards on the boards of the Norwich Company in England. He was principally applauded for singing a common sailors' chant in character, having a sort of 'Sally Brown, oh, ho,' chorus; and requiring the action of pulling a rope, spitting upon the hand, and the accompaniment of a horrid yell. In private life, both Mr. and Mrs. Wallack were much respected."

Clason's use of the word "chant" is almost as significant as "Sally Brown," "pulling a rope," and "a horrid yell." This could be the earliest clear reference to a "sea shanty as we know it," complete with Hugill-style "hitch"!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 08:01 PM

And let's not forget "Sally Brown" by the Cuba-born Jamaican ska singer, Laurel Aitken:

//
Let me tell ya bout Sally Brown
   Sally Brown!
Let me tell ya bought Sally Brown.
    Sally Brown!
Sally Brown is a gal in town
She don't mess aroun'

Sally Brown is a slick chick
If you mess around with Sally...she'll hit you...with a kuku maka stick!

kuku kuku kuku kuku maka stick,
hit ya with a kuku maka stick!
//

That's the first "Sally Brown" song I ever heard :)


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 07:53 PM

Not quite "Sally Brown," but sung by slave boatmen while rowing on the Cape Fear River in North Carolina and written down (with a very simple tune) in 1830. From David S. Cecelski, "The Waterman's Song" (2001):

Sally was a fine girl, ho! Sally, ho!
Sally was a fine girl, ho! Sally, ho!

The "collector," Moses A. Curtis, noted: "repeated ad infinitum and accompanied by a trumpet obligato by the helmsman."

Another case of a shanty-like rowing song.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 07:35 PM

A very early ex. of the chorus, "Roll and go," though not associated with "Sally Brown."

From Isaac Baker's diary aboard whaleship "Taskar"(Sept. 11, 1842), in Margaret S. Creighton, "Rites and Passages" (1995), p. 178:

        The Taskar is the thing to roll
        O ee [sic] roll & go
        Her bottom's round as any bowl!
        O ho roll & go

If you substitute "Sally Brown" for "Taskar," you get a mild enough stanza that even so would not likely have been "printable" in the 19th C. - or in any of the best known 20th C. shanty books, for that matter!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 07:18 PM

The following "Capstan Song," printed on shipboard during a voyage from Boston to Calcutta in 1862, is the earliest known version of "Santa Anna." (From Rev. Thomas H. Stacy, "Rev. Otis Robinson Bacheler, M.D., D.D., Fifty-Three Years Missionary to India," 1904.) Note the "General Jackson" verses:

General Taylor gained the day,
Hurrah Santa Anna!
General Taylor gained the day
All on the plains of Mexico.

He gained the day at Monterey,
Hurrah Santa Anna!
He gained the day at Monterey,
All on the plains of Mexico.

Santa Anna ran away,
Hurrah Santa Anna!
He ran away from Monterey,
All on the plains of Mexico.

General Jackson's at New Orleans,
Hurrah Santa Anna!
General Jackson's at New Orleans,
All on the plains of Mexico.

'Twas there he gave the British beans,
Hurrah Santa Anna!
'Twas there he gave the British beans,
All on the plains of Mexico.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 02:28 PM

"Sally Brown" Part 5

Versions & Variants

Each of the sources listed in the "Published Collections" category gives an independent "version" of "Sally Brown". This is somewhat the case with regard to the sources listed in the "Published Mention" category as well, but perhaps not in every case. In a number of these latter publications, we only get a title or a single verse and that verse is usually one or another of the key opening verses. I count roughly 50 different versions.

In addition to these different versions, there are also several "variants" of "Sally Brown" that have been collected, as well as the use of the "Sally Brown" lyrics with other chanties. I list them in chronological order.

{after 1865} Adams, Robert Chamblet, 1879 "Blow, My Bully Boys, Blow"
{1891-95} Masefield, 1906 "Tommy's on the Tops'l Yard" [halyards]
{1861-1872} Whall, 1909-1910 "Hilo, Johnny Brown" [halyards]
Lubbock, Basil, 1910 DEEP SEA WARRIORS "Hilo, Johnny Brown" [halyards]
Sharp, 1914 "O Row, Heave and Go" [Mr. Allison of Perth] [halyards]           
        "Roll and Go" [Short of Watchet][capstan]        
Terry, 1921(1926?) "Hilo, Johnny Brown"
Dingle, Aylward Edward, 1935, PIPE ALL HANDS, "Hilo, Johnny Brown" [halyards]
{1922-1945} Hugill,1961 "Walkalong, You Sally Brown" [Tobago Smith] [halyards]
        "Tommy's on the Tops'l Yard" [halyards]
        "Hilo, Johnny Brown" [halyards]
        possible combinations with "Shallow Brown"
{1960's} Abrahams, 1974 "Feeny Brown"

This category gives some sense of the diversity of "Sally Brown". There are at least seven different variants here and there are probably others that I have overlooked. Each source mentioned for a variant represents a particular version. This gives us about 12 more versions.   We thus have at least 62 different versions of a chanty having to do with "Sally Brown". I think that they are all independent of each other.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 09:55 AM

"Sally Brown" Part 4

I would count each of these "historical informants" as an independent attestation. I count about 37 people. The dates, at sea, range from 1837 to 1945. There is still only one confirmed date prior to about 1870. However, it could be said that most if not all of these men sailed with others who were much older and whose experience at sea could well have included the early 1850's. I think that it is important to consider the scope of memory in the oral tradition here.

My next category of multiple attestation has to do with the actual use of a particular chanty at sea and on shore. In some cases these categories are a little vague. For instance, Doerflinger simply puts his examples from Maitland and Tayluer in the category of "Capstan, Windless, and Pump Shanties" without being specific. I am presenting this information twice. First simply by chronological publication date, and secondly by usage, again chronologically.

Use & Function

By Chronological Publication

Marryat, Capt. C.B., 1839 [windlass, halyards, {April, 1837}]
Sauzade, John S., 1863 [windlass]
Luce, 1883/89(1902) [topsail halyards]
L.A. Smith, 1888 [capstan]
Masefield, 1906 [halliards, {1891-95}]
Whall, 1909-1910 East Indiamen, {1861-1872, with shipmates who sailed before 1815}, [capstan-anchor; "not a hauling song"]
Sharp, 1914 [Charles Robbins,London, pulling-chantey]
    "O Row, Heave and Go" [Mr. Allison of Perth]
    "Roll and Go" [Short of Watchet]        
Bullen, 1914 [{1869-1880}, weighing anchor & flywheel pumps]
Melony, William Brown,1915 [topsails to the masthead]
King, 1918 [capstan]
Terry, 1921 [windless and capstan]
Colcord, 1924 [windless and capstan
Shay, 1924 [capstan, {1915}]
Carey, 1924/25 [George Pattison/capstan & Malcolm Forbes]
C.F. Smith, 1927 [getting up the anchor/(capstan)]
Carpenter, 1929-1955 (David Burrell, Scotland [capstan])
Doerflinger, 1951[capstan, windless, & pump] [Richard Maitland {1869}, Capt. Patrick Tayluer {1885}] - with additional bibliography      
Hugill,1961 {1922-1945} [hauling, capstan] [Harding - log-rolling] has 5 variants of refrain
   Tobago Smith's "Walkalong, You Sally Brown" [halyards]
   also from West Indies "Tommy's on the Tops'l Yard" [halyards]                     
Harlow, 1962(1928) [ capstan, {March 19, 1875}]
Walton, Ivan, Joe Grimm, & Loudon Guthrie Wilson, 2002, [1932, from Harry and George Parmalee, [capstan hauls] (Capt. William E., "Billy" Clark of Buffalo) and [halyards] (Capt. Thomas Hylant)]
---
Use by category and historical chronology of time at sea

Windless, halyards, pulling, hauling:

{April, 1837} Marryat, Capt. C.B.[windlass, halyards]
Luce, 1883/89(1902) [topsail halyards]
{1891-95} Masefield, [halliards]
Sharp, 1914 Charles Robbins, London, [pulling-chantey]
        Mr. Allison of Perth
        Short of Watchet
{1889-1901} Colcord, [windless]
{1922-1945} Hugill [hauling]

Capstan, pumps:

{1861-1872} Whall, 1909-1910 [East Indiamen, with shipmates who sailed before 1815, capstan-anchor; "not a hauling song"]
{1869-1880} Bullen, [ weighing anchor & flywheel pumps]
{1870s} George Pattison [capstan]
{March 19, 1875} Harlow, [capstan]
{1889-1901} Colcord, [capstan]
{1915} Shay, [capstan]
{1922-1945} Hugill [capstan]
David Burrell, Scotland [capstan]

Not only was "Sally Brown" popular at sea and widely remembered for a long time, but it was widely used for a number of different functions. I am not able to see any particular historical pattern with regard to early/later usage. This chanty seems to have been used for multiple purposes almost from the beginning of it's recorded history.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 09:34 AM

"Sally Brown" Part 3

My third category is what I am calling "Historical Informants". I don't care for the word "informant", and would like an alternative. In a number of the published collections and "mentions" above, the names of actual informants are given, and sometimes the dates for when they actually went to sea or were at sea. Some of these are precise and some are approximate and some are outright guesses. I welcome corrections and better information wherever it can be found.

In this listing, the historical {dates} are given first when they are available. In a few cases I only have the earliest date of publication. These are obviously chronological.

Historical Informants

{April, 1837} Marryat, Capt. C.B. [windlass, halyards]
{1859-60} Robinson, Capt. John
{1861-1872} Whall, 1909-1910 [East Indiamen, with shipmates who sailed before 1815, capstan-anchor; "not a hauling song"]
{1863} J.S. Scott, London, England, August
{1864} James Wright, Leith, England
{late 1865 (Lighter, 2/26)} Adams, Robert Chamblet, [as "Blow, My Bully Boys, Blow"]
{1867-1885} Jack Murray, Aberdeen, Scotland
{late 1860's (Lighter 2/1)} Harding & perhaps Tobago Smith
{1868} Captain Edward B. Trumbull, Salem, MA
{1869} Robert Yeoman, Dundee, Scotland
{1869} Richard Maitland
{1869-1880} Bullen, [ weighing anchor & flywheel pumps]
{1870s} "Old Man Cuffee" who died at age 82 in 1938        
{1870s} George Pattison/capstan & Malcolm Forbes - "old men" in 1924-25
{1872} James Henderson, whaler - Dundee, Scotland
{March 19, 1875} Harlow, [capstan]
Luce, 1883/89(1902) [topsail halyards]
{1883} Thomas Ginovan, Bristol, England
{1885} Capt. Patrick Tayluer         
{1885-1902} Alex Henderson, Dundee, Scotland
{1888-1889} George Simpson, Dundee, Scotland
{1889-1901} Colcord, [windless and capstan]
{1891-95} Masefield, [halliards]
{October, 1914} Hurley, Frank & Shane Murphy, SHACKLETON'S PHOTOGRAPHER, 2001, footnote 38]
{1908} Benjamin Bright
Sharp, 1914 Charles Robbins, London, [pulling-chantey]
        Mr. Allison of Perth
        Short of Watchet
{1915} Shay, [capstan]
{1922-1945} Hugill [hauling, capstan]
A.E. Foster, Sailors Snug Harbor, Staten Island, N.Y., 1927
Francis Herreschoff, Marblehead, MA, 1927
Stanton King, Boston, MA, 1928
David Burrell, Scotland [capstan]
{1929} Greenleaf & Mansfield, [Capt. John Gullage]


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 09:23 AM

"Sally Brown" Part 2

Please note that the "Published Collections" on "Sally Brown" are listed chronologically by date of publication. This is often later than the actual collection or recording of the song and certainly later than the song was actually sung at sea. The dates within "{1800}" are the approximate dates having to do with actually "being at sea". More on this in a bit.

Here is the second category of multiple attestation, what I am calling "Published Mention". By this I mean mention made of a chanty in publications other than "Chanty Collections", such as travel narratives, historical documents, fiction, magazine articles, etc. I have tried to determine if and when someone has copied from a previous source to avoid duplications. This is not always easy. As far as I can tell, these are "independent" attestations, of somewhat uneven quality. Once again, these are in chronological order of publication.

Published Mention

Marryat, Capt. C.B., A DIARY IN AMERICA,1839 [windlass,halyards, {April, 1837}]
Sauzade, John S., GARRET VAN HORN; OR THE BEGGAR ON HORSEBACK, 1863, [windlass]
Adams, Robert Chamblet, ON BOARD THE "ROCKET", 1879 [as "Blow, My Bully Boys, Blow"]
Mason, John, BEFORE THE MAST IN SAILING SHIPS, 1884
Runciman, James, SKIPPERS AND SHELLBACKS, 1885
Gaunt, Mary, "The Loss of the 'Vanity'", THE ENGLISH ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE, 1892
King, Stanton Henry, DOG-WATCHES AT SEA, 1902
Whitmarsh, H. Phelps, "The Chantey-man", HARPERS MAGAZINE, Vol. 106, Dec 1902 - May, 1903
Wragge, Clement Lindley, THE ROMANCE OF THE SOUTH SEAS, 1906
Melony, William Brown, "The Chanty-Man Sings", EVERYBODY'S MAGAZINE, July- Dec, 1915 [topsails to the masthead]
Robinson, Capt. John, "Songs of the Chantey-Man," THE BELLMAN, July 14 -August 4,1917 {1859-60}
Weld, Frederick, ed. SONGS OF THE SEA, 1919 [YMCA]
Adams, B.M. "Port Some Day", THE OUTLOOK, Vol. 127, January to April, 1921
Minnigerode, Meade, "The Laughing Elephant", NEW OUTLOOK, Vol. 128, May 4-August 31, 1921
Fletcher, R.A., IN THE DAYS OF THE TALL SHIPS, 1930
Thompson, Harold W., BODY, BOOTS, AND BRITCHES, 1939 [from "Old Man Cuffee" who died at age 82 in 1938]
Hurley, Frank & Shane Murphy, SHACKLETON'S PHOTOGRAPHER, 2001 {October, 1914}, footnote 38]
Walton, Ivan, Joe Grimm, & Loudon Guthrie Wilson, WINDJAMMERS, SONGS OF THE GREAT   LAKES SAILORS, 2002, [1932, from Harry and George Parmalee,
    capstan hauls (Capt. William E., "Billy" Clark of Buffalo) and halyards (Capt. Thomas   Hylant)]
Davis, A.K., Jr., FOLK-SONGS OF VIRGINIA, 1965, [from George Basil Hall of Middleburg, VA, August 5, 1930's?]


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 09:02 AM

I want to give an example of how my "multiple categories of multiple attestation" might work when applied to an actual chanty. From the list above of "multiple attested early chanties with documentation and lyrics", I have chosen to look at "Sally Brown".

While we know that she was sung on board the "Quebec" in April of 1937, we can't prove that she was sung on board the "Julia Ann" between San Francisco and Sydney in 1853-1855. However, by applying these categories of multiple attestation, we can get a sense of the historical and geographical spread of this chanty throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. This gives some substance to establishing an historical context for imagining how "Sally Brown" might have been sung on board the "Julia Ann".

This is going to be a long posting so I will break it up into several parts. I have tried to be as thorough as I can within the limitations of my own library, my abilities on the internet, and my access to the library at UVA. I make no claims at being "complete" in my listings. They are meant to be thorough and suggestive. I will begin with what I call the "Category of Published Collections". This has a good deal of other information in it, which I will highlight later. For now take a look at how often and when "Sally Brown" shows up in collections of chanties.

"Sally Brown" (Part 1)

Published Collections   (24)

Davis & Tozer, 1886
Luce, 1883/89 (1902) [topsail halyards]
L.A. Smith, 1888 [capstan]
Bradford & Fagge, 1904
Masefield, 1906 [halliards, {1891-95}]
Whall, 1909-1910 [East Indiamen, {1861-1872, with shipmates who sailed before 1815},capstan-anchor; "not a hauling song"]
Patterson, 1913
Sharp, 1914 [Charles Robbins,London, pulling-chantey]
    "O Row, Heave and Go" [Mr. Allison of Perth]
    "Roll and Go" [Short of Watchet]        
Bullen, 1914 [{1869-1880}, weighing anchor & flywheel pumps]
King, 1918 [capstan]
Terry, 1921 [windless and capstan]
Colcord, 1924 [windless and capstan
Shay, 1924 [capstan, {1915}]
Frothingham, 1924
Carey, 1924/25 [George Pattison/capstan & Malcolm Forbes]
C.F. Smith, 1927 [getting up the anchor/(capstan)]
Mackenzie, 1928 [Daniel & George Hughton, Pictou, NS]
Carpenter, 1929-1955
        {1863} J.S. Scott, London, England, August, 1929
        {1864} James Wright, Leith, England
        {1867-1885} Jack Murray, Aberdeen, Scotland
        {1868} Captain Edward B. Trumbull, Salem, MA, 1927
        {1869} Robert Yeoman, Dundee, Scotland
        {1872 -whaler} James Henderson, Dundee, Scotland
        {1883} Thomas Ginovan, Bristol, England, 1928
        {1885-1902} Alex Henderson, Dundee, Scotland
        {1888-1889} George Simpson, Dundee, Scotland
        {1908} Benjamin Bright, 1929
        A.E. Foster, Sailors Snug Harbor, Staten Island, N.Y., 1927
        Francis Herreschoff, Marblehead, MA, 1927
        Stanton King, Boston, MA, 1928
        David Burrell, Scotland [capstan]
Bone, 1932
Greenleaf & Mansfield, 1933 [Capt. John Gullage, {1929}]
Doerflinger, 1951[capstan, windless, & pump] [Richard Maitland {1869}, Capt. Patrick Tayluer {1885}] - with additional bibliography
Hugill,1961 {1922-1945} [hauling, capstan] [Harding: log-rolling]
         has 5 variants of refrain
   Tobago Smith's "Walkalong, You Sally Brown" [halyards]
   also from West Indies "Tommy's on the Tops'l Yard" [halyards]                     
Harlow, 1962(1928) [ capstan, {March 19, 1875}]
Abrahams, 1974 ["Feeny Brown"]


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 08:54 AM

And another interesting one without title with this verse:

"Oh! if I had her,
Eh then if I had her,
Oh! how I would love her
Black although she be."

Hugill goes on to speculate whether the fragment above is related to the Scottish song "Were You Ever in Bumbarton."

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 08:35 AM

John-

I've been assuming both bits were parts of a single song, verse with mini-chorus followed by grand chorus.

I wouldn't be surprised if this same song showed up in the lumberjack camps. However, there's no mention of such a song in Doerflinger.

Of course, while I was reviewing Doerflinger I reread his account of "the rise of shantying" and he makes reference to a small volume titled THE QUID, London, 1832, which describes shantying on a voyage to the Orient on an East India Company ship:

"Pull Away now, my Nancy, O!"
and two forebitters:

"Jemmy Taylor"

And another interesting one without title with this verse:

"Oh! if I had her,
Eh then if I had her,
Oh! how I would love her
Black although she be."

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 10 Mar 10 - 08:03 AM

I like what you've done with "Grog Time of Day", Gibb, and thanks for the summary sheet on this. I would definitely say that this song is well attested early on and it's interesting that it survived down to at least 1916. It might be worth checking out fiddle tunes to see if Mr. Chisholm's verse shows up anywhere else.   I was trying to find out something more on Landsman Hay, but it doesn't seem that there is anything available on the net. I was just at the library yesterday and didn't think to check on that one.

I'm wondering if it's possible that what is quoted is really one song rather than two. Could the "Two sisters courted one man," part be the verse and the "Grog tme of day, boys" be the chorus? The quote itself does not really make clear whether we are dealing with two songs or two parts of one song. It just says "And the second:" Hugill does not clarify this.

Two sisters courted one man,
   Oh, huro, my boys,
And they live in the mountains,
   Oh, huro boys, O.

    Grog time of day, boys,
    Grog time of day,
       Huro, my jolly boys,
       Grog time of day.

I've not been able to find anything else resembling the two mountain dwelling sisters, although the two of them courting one man obviously has overtones of the Child ballad "The Two Sisters", which could have been sung in Jamaica, although I know of no record of that. It was a popular ballad and took many different forms such as the widely known Virginia version "The Wind and Rain".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 05:05 PM

OK, for fun, here's my marriage of "Grog" and "Doodle."

GToD

I am also showing where I think the rowing might happen. The only other possibility I'd envision is constant rowing. Given the two options, I went for this style, with rests in between and which corresponds to the pace of a halyard chantey. Your thoughts, rowing-masters?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 03:57 PM

Gibb-

"Haul away, yeo ho boys"

Might have been a rowing shanty. Nice to have one documented so early in the 19th century.

Oh, I ran across this on-line Nordhoff book titled NINE YEARS A SAILOR, 1866, which includes all three of his previous books: U. S. Naval Service, American and British Merchant Marine, and Whaling Service: Click here for website

There's a great description of sailors on leave in 1848 Valparaiso.

I was hoping to find my "missing" illustration of the screw-jack team but no such luck.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 01:15 PM

Here's another possible early chantey reference, which I stumbled on while poking around looking for the journal that Lighter had mentioned.

"Waldie's select circulating library", Volume 1 (12 March 1833)

It's an account of an Italian visitor to London, observing sailors singing in a pub, circa 1826, I believe. Apparently they were singing this idly or for fun. The impression is made that it was a work song. However, it does seem a bit highly developed for that. And the lyrics say "haul," whereas such a long form suggests to me a task like capstan work. It may have been that this was a hauling song, just not a timed-pull one -- i.e. it was a stamp 'n' go. Quite probably these were navy men, as the sentiments suggest.

Here's the first verse.

British sailors have a knack
      Haul way, yeo ho, boys!
Of pulling down a Frenchman's jack,
    'Gainst any odds, you know, boys
Come three to one, right sure am I
If we can't beat 'em, still we try
To make old England's colours fly,
    Haul away, yeo ho boys

The rest can be found here, pg. 133

Haul way, yeo ho


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 12:22 PM

Here's a round-up of "Grog time" (which, by the way, has just struck here in EST). Hopefully I haven't made any significant mistakes.

LANDSMAN HAY (event from 1811)

Jamaica, stevedore apparently working at capstan

Grog time of day, boys
Grog time of day,
CH: Huro, my jolly boys,
        Grog time of day

[I don't know if the chorus marking is in the original. I've taken this from Hugill. In other references, this whole bit is the chorus]


SERVICE AFLOAT (published 1833, but appears to describe observations from during Napoleanic Wars, so 1815 or earlier)

Antigua, for rowing

Massa lock de door, and take away de key
Hurra, my jolly boys, grog time a day
CH: Grog time a day, my boys, grog time a day,
        Hurra, my jolly boys, grog time a day


WEST INDIA SKETCH BOOK, vol 1 (Published 1834 or earlier? and referring to events possibly as early as 1822 or earlier)

Hurra, my jolly boys
CH: Fine time o' day
We pull for San Thamas boys
CH: Fine time o' day
Nancy Gibbs and Betsy Braid
CH: Fine time o' day
Massa come fra London town
CH: Fine time o' day ETC

Here is Finn & Haddie's revival of "Fine Time o' Day":

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3DwR-ADStXQ


"Waldie's Select Circulating Library," II (Dec. 24,1833)

Rowing, "well known West Indian canoe song"

The captain's gone ashore;
The mate has got the key;
Hurrah! my jolly boys,-
'Tis grog time o' day!


TAR BRUSH SKETCHES (story, published 1836)

"In Callao Harbor," solo

When de cap'un go ashore,
An' de mate he hab de key,
You want a nigger steward
When it's grog time o' day
[CH:] Grog time o' day [ETC?]


TWO YEARS BEFORE THE MAST (original 1840 manuscript, in reference to 1834-36)

Boston-California. The task is unclear.

"Grog Time a Day" (title only)


TELEMACHUS, OR, THE ISLAND OF CALYPSO (a play, republished in 1879. First performance was given 26 Dec. 1834.)

Gives stage direction for "Music – Grog time of day, boys" Set off the coast of "a West India island." Newly composed lyrics follow.


THE ART OF BALLET (1915)

An anecdote about two sister Austrian ballet dancers touring America in 1841.

"Fanny [one of the dancers] was an especial favourite, and when the sisters left New Orleans, some niggers, who were hoisting freight from the hold of an adjacent steamboat—and niggers are notoriously apt at catching up topical subjects—thus chanted, as the vessel bearing the dancers left the wharf:

Fanny, is you going up de ribber?
        Grog time o' day
When all dese here's got Elssler feber?
        Oh, hoist away!
De Lor' knows what we'll do widout you,
        Grog time o' day
De toe an' heel won't dance widout you.
        Oh, hoist away!
Day say you dances like a fedder
        Grog time o' day
Wid t'ree t'ousand dollars all togedder.
        Oh, hoist away!


C# / Mr. NB Chisholm (1916)

Appalachians, as mnemonic aid to remember fife tune to "Napolean's Retreat"

It's grog time of day, my love
Grog time of day
When Boney crossed the Alps
It's grog time of day.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 10:48 AM

Re: "ch" to "sh."

I've floated my "Gulf creole" hypothesis past a number of phonologists without success. As far as I've discovered, there is no basis to assume that "chant" was pronounced as "shant" in the proper cargo-stowing, cotton-screwing, shanty-singing locations.

However. A colleague informs me that the right switch, from "ch" to "sh" does occur in the far northeast of Scotland: Orkney, Shetland, and esp. Caithness. The Scots also have a propensity for making diminutives with "-ie," so a "chantie/ shanty" would be easily recognized as meaning "a little chant or song."

Sounds great, but it's difficult to imagine why the word "chantie/ shanty"(which we have no early evidence for up there except theoretically) would have spread from the Far North of Scotland to the Caribbean. I'm not saying it couldn't have, just that it was both quite unlikely and there's no evidence of it.

OTOH, perhaps the first people to talk about "shantying" were influenced by Caribbean rather than Parisian French, some Anglo-Afro-French patois in Martinique, for example.

Though why English-speakers might have adopted "ch" to "sh" for "chantie" just on that basis is also mysterious.

Final hypothesis: "chanty/ chantie" really *was* pronounced like "chant" until people started thinking it *must be* from French. If so, the change must have happened way back when, because the testimony of the (few) old sailors who wrote books (and commented on it) is unanimous that the pronunciation was always "shanty." Maybe that view is simplistic.

Linguists hate those exceptional cases where sounds change almost arbitrarily, but maybe that's what happened: "shanty" from "chantie" from "chant" for no good (i.e., systematic) reason. It might even be the simplest hypothesis.

So we're back to Square One as usual.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: shipcmo
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 10:39 AM

Re: grog-time
One advantage of being a ship's Captain, on the high seas, is the ability to declare Noon. And if the yardarm id adjustable (as it was on my schooner), it is possible to declare "the Sun to be below the yardarm", and anyhow, after some "trying work", It is always "Time to Splice the Mainbrace". (I actually had one on the Godspeed.)
Hi-Ho!
Geo


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 10:32 AM

Grog Time / Captains Gone Ashore = pretty damn cool.

To clarify re: Grog Time, I don't know exactly how I've expressed it earlier, but it does not quite fit the "classic" "two-pull halyard" form. The timing is there, just not the "stanza." And we only have it in reference to rowing. (And the similarly formed "Doodle" was ascribed to capstan work.) However, I think it could easily be used for the 2-pull halyard maneuver. It has similarities, but it is not THE typical form.

Just speculating, too, I imagine the rowing would have been well timed to the same points where one might pull on a halyard. If that's the case (we need rowing experts now!), the pacing of rowing songs would vie with the pacing of cotton-screwing (in my estimation) as the possible structural origin of chanties. I know rowing had been discussed earlier. Now I'm wondering if there was a common work-song form that found equal applicability to rowing, jackscrew turning, and halyard hauling.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 10:16 AM

FWIW, you can sing the song pretty much to the tune of "Doodle Let Me Go."

I hope it's worth something, because I have been saying that for a while now! ;)

Incidentally, I was planning to have some fun a record myself singing Grog Time o' Day later on today...after grog-time.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 09:27 AM

If anybody's posted this, I can't find it. From the magazine, "Waldie's Select Circulating Library," II (Dec. 24,1833), p. 581:

"The pirates pulled merrily for their schooner, singing in chorus the well known West Indian canoe song:

"The captain's gone ashore;
The mate has got the key;
Hurrah! my jolly boys,-
'Tis grog time o' day!"

The author of the story is said to be Capt. Richard Longeville Vowell. He spent over a dozen years in South America.

In light of Dana's evidence, "well known" appears to have been accurate. FWIW, you can sing the song pretty much to the tune of "Doodle Let Me Go."


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 08:53 AM

John, your ex. from 1836 may explain why Dana deleted "Grog Time a Day" from his list of titles. It may have been the same as the song he called "Captain gone ashore"!

Given the date, one can probably assume that "Fiferail's" is the song Dana heard. If so, it doesn't seem to have been a one-line, one-pull shanty. I suppose it would have belonged to capstan work.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 09 Mar 10 - 08:12 AM

Well, I don't know why you guys couldn't get the "chaunt" and "cotton screwing" issues all resolved yesterday! Along side of dealing with "stamp 'n go" , "sing outs', "short haul" and "not short haul" work songs. I suggest that we all meet at the French Market in NO for chicory coffee and beignets and if we can't get these things resolved in a morning then we can move on to the Sazeracs and take a cruise down the River.

Some seriously good work going on here yesterday. I appreciate the recap on "Hieland Laddie" / "Donkey Riding". We'll never wear that one out! And I don't think any of this has to be all that "neat". Gibb, I can be satisfied with: "I just don't think these stamp'n'go-s cohere into any formal category....So I am not willing to create any major category out of the scanty stamp'n'go material." And into this group we'll put:

"Rise me Up
"Drunken Sailor"
"John Dameray"
"Roll the old Chariot"

I like what you say about "Drunken Sailor", in that it "appears to hail from the earlier navy days, when stamp'n' go was the thing, and when it was actually more often carried out to drumming and fifing (?)." I'm assuming that all of these are candidates for a possible "earlier" rating.

And it's good to get this reaffirmation on the cotton screwing, even if you and Charlie can't agree on which way to heave and haul:

"I am in total agreement that the cotton screwing songs were modeled on two coordinated exertions, and that is what I think may have transfered over to halyards work. Formally speaking, it would not matter whether those exertions were pushes or pulls."

The "stevedore" song came at just the right time in my afternoon's work!

And I think that this little maxim is worth putting up on the wall somewhere:

"I think that distinction (more or less primitive) is a difficult one to maintain; one is better off just describing the thing as it is."

That's one I have to keep reminding myself about all the way through. I'm glad that you brought the "sing-outs" into the discussion. That was going to be my next question. And I can appreciate this qualification:

"it is dicey business to try to distinguish these [sing-outs] from some other songs that have been given the honor (i.e. in collectors' books) as fully-fledged shanties."

And for "sweating up", we have

"Johnny Bowker"
"Paddy Doyle"
    & perhaps
"Cheerily Men"

And for tacks/sheets, with your qualifications - I especially like "curvier":

"Boney"
"Haul Away, Joe"
"Haul The Bowline"

Separating these, by form, from the following HALYARD chanties:

"High O Come Roll Me Over"
"Hurrah, Sing Fare Ye Well"
"Tommy's on the Tops'l Yard"

And introducing yet another form, which "has a fast paced, continuous set of single-pulls...they were not for short jobs, i.e. they could be for longer jobs like halyards (really, I'll bet they originated as some other kind of shore-side work-song)."

"Dan Dan"
"Ek Dumah"

I got all excited about "A Grog Time of Day" and "Doodle" and wasn't paying attention to form. They are 2-pulls. Here's another reference to "Grog time of day" that also mentions "Captain gone ashore":

http://books.google.com/books?id=WjsfAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA92&dq=Tar+Brush+Sketches&cd=1#v=onepage&q=grog%20time%20of%20day&f=false

This is from something called "Tar Brush Sketches" by a Benjamin Fiferail, published in CORRECTED PROOFS, by H. Hastings Weld, 1836. I am hesitant to say anything about the genre on this, but it does seem to be another independent attestation for "Grog Time Of Day".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 06:59 PM

The emphasis on the intended vowel sound, using "au", makes sense to me. I was intuitively reading it that way, so I can see why they would have done that. But of course, the vowel is not the issue!

Arggh, you're unshakable, Lighter. Every bit of my intuition is telling me that what I am seeing makes the more sense, but I do have to admit that from a purely logical standpoint, you've got me. It is scientifically useless, perhaps, but when I see "chaun" I really do hear "sh" right from the start...there are just certain conventions in English spelling that one develops and instinct for, and I think I can understand why Trelawny would have chosen "ch" spelling...but no way to prove it!!! I guess I will just have to hunt for more evidence.

And it just seems so weird that Jamaicans would be pronouncing "ch" in place of "sh".   A weird direction for a sound shift, no? But anyways, the burden is on me to prove it.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 05:44 PM

Re: "chant" vs. "chaunt."

The OED is sketchier on this than I'd like, but it appears that "chaunt" was simply a variant spelling of "chant" that arose in the 18th Century for no particular reason and faded away in the 19th.

Possibly the spelling was to emphasize the "ah" or even slightly "aw" quality of the vowel in cultured English; the alternative "aa" vowel (if you see what I'm saying), which is and was the usual thing in some parts of England and all of America, may have been thought low class by some.

As for the Gibb's creole "chaun" meaning "shan't," it suggests to me that in that part of the world "sh" was often pronounced "ch" rather than the other way round. The "other way round" is what we're looking for.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 03:42 PM

The single-pull work-songs are a bit harder to sort.

There are the short pieces that have customarily been considered as formally too primitive to be chanties -- that is, so far as chanties as we have become accustomed to them are more developed and song-like. But I think that distinction (more or less primitive) is a difficult one to maintain; one is better off just describing the thing as it is.

Hugill appears to lump together under "sing outs" at least two different sorts of action. One is constant, such as when hauling in the slack of a rope, hand over hand, quickly and without any particular need of coordination. Let's disregard that.

The other is a song to coordinate a concerted effort. The bulk of that category consists of chants for "sweating up" / "swigging down" (same thing), which is that practice of throwing the weight of ones body down to get the last few inches of tightness on a line. Such a chant was also used for stiff jerks on tacks/sheets. I have a general understanding of these things, but I'm no pro, nor have I done them myself.

I've created a thread that has attempted samples of just about every documented chant of this type -- so far as Hugill compiled most of them in his SfSS.

sing-outs thread

As the discussion goes there, too, it is dicey business to try to distinguish these from some other songs that have been given the honor (i.e. in collectors' books) as fully-fledged shanties.

Description: The sweating-up chants have short phrases, at the end of which is a refrain. Sometimes --notably-- the chorus joins in only on the last word or two. Most importantly, the moment of action usually occurs at the very end.

I want to use that as a baseline, then, and see how short-hauls that have been called "shanties" are similar or different.

I think "Johnny Bowker" absolutely belongs to the sweating-up category (also used for sheets). One could speculate reasons why it has been handed down as a "major" chantey rather than as a "minor" work chant, but I won't.

"Paddy Doyle" is just like any sweating-up form, it just so happens that it got linked, somehow, to the bunting task. Custom, I suppose.

For tacks/sheets are the following.
"Boney" - could also be for halyards if the pulls are timed differently. Indeed, because of its two often rhyming phrases, it can morph into the classic form.
"Haul Away, Joe" - The only thing that distinguishes this and the following from other sweating up forms, I think, is that the end refrain is a bit longer and the melodies a bit curvier.
"Haul The Bowline"

I don't think "Grog Time of Day" or "Do(odle) Let Me Go" belong to these categories. "Grog" was for rowing, "Doodle" was cited as capstan, and FWIW I think, based on form, that both could work for 2-pulls. In any case, I don't think they belong here.

The next few are HALYARD chanties that have one pull. They have the form of the "classic" halyard chanties, it's just that they are described as having only one pull.   The pull did NOT come at the end, as it would in a sweating up chant or sheet chanty. These are not short haul shanties! However, note the commentary:
"High O Come Roll Me Over." Thought to be originally for log-rolling. Hugill thought it should also be used for tacks/sheets. In that case, the pull would come on a different spot. If you ask me, I'd say that spot should be on "over."
"Hurrah, Sing Fare Ye Well." Just like any halyard chantey IMO, 'cept it has only one pull.
"Tommy's on the Tops'l Yard." "mainly for quick light pulls on the royal halyard" -- hence the one pull, and the probable quick tempo. In Hugill's rendering, the place of the pull varies between the first and second refrain. I am skeptical. Noted that this was also for tacks/sheets.

Although "Cheerly Man" has been put in the halyards category (Dana used it for catting anchor, though), it does not share the form of the preceding three. It really is much more like a sweating-up form, that, for whatever reason, came to be used at halyards. Hugill calls it "just faintly removed from singin' out". Perhaps because it's structure is more complex (stanzaic), it wants to go under the "full chantey" category. However, if you break down each phrase of the stanza, it's just a series of sweatin up chants.

A different form altogether is found in "Dan Dan" and "Ek Dumah." This form has a fast paced, continuous set of single-pulls. I'm not sure if I really need to say more. Just listen to it. There are a lot of pulls, meaning they were not for short jobs, i.e. they could be for longer jobs like halyards (really, I'll bet they originated as some other kind of shore-side work-song).

Sorry, but these don't really fit into a nice list!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 02:53 PM

Hmmm. I seem to have run across something described as "The Revelers-Dusky Stevedore": click here for video!

Good for a break from this arduous work!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 02:37 PM

Gibb-

I really don't have a clue of where I saw the illustration of four stevedores working with the screw-press. No doubt one of those enumerable web searches which is now "history."

I'm surprised that there are not more images available.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 02:15 PM

Yeah, there's no walking involved in the cotton-screwing. Just arm action. Once a worker's bar/handle (I still can't make it out) goes beyond a certain degree of rotation, he must either 1) perform the opposite action of what he was just doing, or 2) grab the next bar that comes around. Mind you, I'm still just guessing here.

Any chance we could access the other pictures you've seen, Charley? I fully understand is they are private or in an incompatible medium; just asking.

Wouldn't it be cool, though to get one of these jackscrews set up, say, at Mystic, to give it a try? I am surprised these things aren't sitting around somewhere; perhaps they are, but with the Internet nowadays, one sometimes feels that if he can't find it there, he won't find it anywhere! Since Mobile's maritime museum was a wash when I went there, maybe a trip to Galveston is in order!

A more relevant issue to the present thread, however, is the irksome line in Nordhoff about how the pull on the screw came at the END of the refrain; I was just reminded of that whilst reading the "Maringo" thread. I don't like it, because it messes with the theory that I currently agree with (2 pulls, one on each "fire", as Charley parsed it). I must admit that, I am so content with this theory now (it seems to explain a lot), that I want to disregard Nordhoff's wording as something too imprecise. Yet still, it is there, just as much as Dana's comment.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 01:43 PM

The more I look at the photo of cotton screwers in Galveston, Texas, the more clear it seems that the four stevedores do not shift their relative positions as they work, and that they heave and haul in turn as the bars rotate. The space is much too cramped for much other movement. So maybe the chant works like this:

Lift him up and carry him along (repositioning),
FIRE (heave), Maringo, FIRE (haul) him away!
Lay him in the hold where he belong (repositioning),
FIRE (heave), Maringo, FIRE (haul) him away!

Every other stevedore would be heaving or hauling at any one time, then shifting operations.

We'll have to try this some time!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 12:56 PM

Charley, the "Hurrah, Bee-man do!" song is what I've been calling Nordhoff's "Yankee Dollar". Thanks for this morning's discussion. And Gibb, I'm processing your posts. Thanks.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 12:16 PM

Gibb-

If some were pushing and some were pulling on four bars of a screw jack, wouldn't they be getting in each other's way?

We used to have an apple cider press that worked on a similar principle but only required two people exerting effort on a bar that went through the axle; in that case one person pulled while the other pushed, hopefully in coordination, and they wouldn't get in each other's way. But they would switch off grips as the bar worked its way around.

I suppose the cotton screwing gangs would also have to switch grips and reposition themselves as the bars came round. Otherwise they would end up tripping or stepping over the arm that was pressing in the bale, which seems more awkward.

In the Bosun's Locker, edited by Stan Hugill, p. 202, there's a drawing he made of what he thought cotton-screwing looked like. There're only two people working this screw-press but they are definitely "heaving" rather than "hauling."

Hugill, p. 203, also quotes Nordhoff as mentioning several screwing "chants" such as "Old Stormy," "Bonnie Laddie Hieland Laddie," and one other which I'm not sure we've mentioned:

Hurrah, Bee-man do!
Oh, we work for a Yankee dollar,
Hurrah, see-man do!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 10:38 AM

Here is the exchange between me and Charley trying to sort out the screwing business. Charley's photo link is the last post.

LINK

It looks like the "wheel" is positioned as the wheel of a ship (am I seeing correctly), and that there are bars/spokes/handles protruding just the same. And it looks like they'd be turning towards the right side of the photo, i.e. the right-most man would be pulling towards himself, while the left-most man would have to sort of push. But honestly, I really can't tell; there is imagination involved. And what on earth is the guy at fore (back towards the photo) doing?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 10:22 AM

Thanks, Charley. Good Morning!

To clarify, I am in total agreement that the cotton screwing songs were modeled on two coordinated exertions, and that is what I think may have transfered over to halyards work. Formally speaking, it would not matter whether those exertions were pushes or pulls.

However, I am intrigued by your statement that the screwing action used pushes. I know we have discussed this before (you and I specifically). And somewhere I remember seeing references to both pushes and pulls. Then there was one great photo you found, linked, and I believe another that you were unable to share. In the one that I saw, although I hoped it would clear up the action, I still did not get an exact sense. From it, I had tentatively concluded that the work might involve pushing AND pulling (more like twisting), depending on where a man was standing. If you imagine turning a doorknob with your right hand, it is as if your 4 fingers are pulling while the thumb is pushing (?) I may be totally wrong, but I got stuck there!

I don't mean to make you drag up all the old references and posts, but if you've got a way to show that it was probably a pushing action, I'd be grateful to see it.

Gibb


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 09:52 AM

Excellent analysis!

I've also been wondering about the stevedore "screw-press" work songs, which I believe are also modeled on two coordinated exertions, but pushes rather than pulls. The screw-press gang was generally a four-person team, plus a song-leader/coordinator, and each member would be pushing on one of the arms of the press as follows:

Lift him up and carry him along (repositioning),
FIRE, Maringo, FIRE him away!
Lay him in the hold where he belong (repositioning),
FIRE, Maringo, FIRE him away!

I imagine that the "chaunt" was only raised when the pushing began to get more arduous and there was a need for repositioning, probably similar to work with the capstan where the shanty was changed (or at least modified in tempo) as the ship drew close to where the anchor was embedded and more effort was needed to break it out and haul it aboard.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 09:30 AM

Thanks, John.

The stamp'n'go-s form a funny group. First, "Johnny Come Along" seems unlikely as a stamp 'n' go. Apparently it was ascribed that task in German ships. One could argue that any song with a steady beat and a bright tempo could work, still I think this one is really ill-matched, and more trouble than it's worth. Here's a thread attempting to get at the origins (and my rendition of the chantey form, at the end).

Recall that my categories will by form, which relates to job function but which doesn't correspond exactly. "Hieland Laddie" I've already put into the category of call/response/call/response (Lighter's "stanzaic," or if you will, "classic" chantey form as our discourse is beginning to refer to it). Without the "mock chorus" (my term), it has the form of a typical halyard chantey (and has been ascribed as such), and with that chorus it is suitable for capstan and stamp 'n' go. The related "Donkey Riding" was another possible stamp'n'go. Just WHY these may have been specifically ascribed as such is unclear. Their form, I argue, does not really suit them better to the task than, say, "Marching to Pretoria." I think it was probably more a matter of happenstance that certain songs got linked to that task. Also consider that that task may very well have been circumscribed by constraints like time period and crew size. As I've been discussing, my understanding is that the practice of stamp'n' go preceded (chronologically) the 2-pull halyard maneuver. It did not die out (as evidenced by the German "Johnny Come Along"), but it was more suitable for large vessels with lots of space and for large crews. (Incidentally, I got to do a stamp'n'go a few times last summer at Mystic, but it was on a small schooner, and it felt kind of silly, tripping and running about. ) And, it seems to have been used in later times at braces rather than halyards.

If there were anything about the form of "Donkey Riding" to specifically connect it to stamp'n'go, I'd guess the pattern of three phrases, followed by the long chorus. This is just reaching; I only say it because "Drunken Sailor" also has three phrases. It may just be that the actual lyrics "Way hay, and away we go," inspired the action. But again, I tend to think it was probably just an association that formed. So "Hieland Laddie" is in the "classic" form (Donkey Riding is an adaptation of that).

I just don't think these stamp'n'go-s cohere into any formal category. "Rise me Up" evokes "Drunken Sailor" with its "rise him/her/me up." It's repetition also bears similarity, and that may be a stamp'n'g feature. The same could be said for the repetition in "John Dameray." But the forms are consistent.

Two consistent forms are those of "Drunken Sailor" and "Roll the old Chariot" (to be added to the list). Their form is that of a phrase sung solo, then 2 repetitions of that in chorus, followed by a full chorus. There is no rhyme, no "stanza." It is quite a different beast, I think, from the "classic" chanties. "Drunken Sailor" appears to hail from the earlier navy days, when stamp'n' go was the thing, and when it was actually more often carried out to drumming and fifing (?). [I am trying to bring a lot of things together here, so forgive me for not fact-checking every statement!]

FWIW, other chanties have the form of three phrases repeated at the start. However, I wouldn't say that is specific to chantey repertoire. (My personal, pet name for these is "boring chanties"!) An example is "The Arabella." They generate lots of time-pass, with minimal textual variation or creativity. And I think these could be filed into a category that might reveal a common "origin" (e.g. European, or military songs, or something).

So I am not willing to create any major category out of the scanty stamp'n'go material. Dana may have used them. Howevr, his comment of "a chorus at the end of each line" does not appear to describe the forms of stamp'n'go chanties that are available.

On to short drags a bit later.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 07:07 AM

Chaun fine my deary hunney, here are the rest of the chanties on my original list, which include "stamp 'n go", "hand over hand", and "short haul", along with Mr. Doyle's boots.

"Drunken Sailor" [stamp 'n go/hand over hand]
"Hieland Laddie" c [stamp 'n go]
"John Dameray" / "Johnny Come Down The Backstay" [stamp 'n go]
"Johnny, Come Along" [stamp 'n go]
"Rise Me Up from Down Below" [stamp 'n go]

"Boney" / "John Francois" [short haul & halyards]
"Haul Away, Joe" [short haul]
"Haul The Bowline" [short haul]
"Johnny Boker" [short haul]

"Paddy Doyle"

And a growing list of possible "one pull" chanties, which are like "short haul" chanties, but used for a "long haul" job, and very labor intensive:

"Cheerily Men"
       "Little Sally Racket" / "Haul 'er Away" / "Nancy FaNana"
['Hill and Gully Rider"]
"Grog Time of Day"
"Do(oldle) Let Me Go"
"Johnny Bowker" (same as above)


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 06:44 AM

adding to my last post...

I don't know about the "usual" pronunciation of "chaunt." I have seen reference in a music book to its pronunciation "/shän/"-- French inspired, I take it. That was a book in reference to Western art music. I don't know how it was pronounced as general slang.

What I mean is, I don't know if this Jamaican pronunciation ("chaun fine") represented something distinct, or if that was the general way of pronouncing it in other Englishes.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 08 Mar 10 - 06:35 AM

I wonder also how the word "chant" might have been pronounced in various Afro-Caribbean (or "Afro New Orleans") dialects. If it customarily came out as "shant," that would be one mystery solved. Far-fetched perhaps, but worth looking into.

Abrahams (DEEP THE WATER) cites a useful reference. It comes from the WEST INDIA SKETCHBOOK by Trelawny. Abrahams (probably acccidentally) cites vol. 1, but I find the reference in vol. 2, which has a publication date of 1834. Trelawny is describing a plantation scene of slaves at harvest time. He gives a song, with music notation. It is not 100% clear, but it seems like the song is accompanying light work. That is, although he casts the scene as one of joy and celebration, I'm sure work was also going on...though that does that mean this was necessarily a work-song.

In any case, the point of the citation is to show the use of the phrase "Chaun fine." Abrahams believes this was the author's way of spelling "shant fine," which he appears to claim (pg. 14) was still a phrase in use by his informants.

Indeed, I'd have read "chaun" to suggest the same pronunciation (i.e. like the name "Sean"). Cf. also my wondering, above, about the term "chaunt" for African American genres, though it appears "chaunt" had much wider usage for "song" (though perhaps with certain connotations) in the early 19th century.

Here is the passage from Trelawny:

Chaun fine

Elsewhere in the book, I see that Trelawny uses the phonetic spelling of "chaun" for dialect pronunciation of "shan't". "...aw chaun wary no mo" (pg. 16), i.e. "I shan't worry no more." It seems pretty clear to me what he was trying to convey, then, in his "chaun fine" -- a word that sounds like "shan't," but which obviously had a different meaning (i.e. it is a verb, in the imperative form).

In volume 1 of the book, "chaun" is also used to render "shan't" (pg. 307).


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 07 Mar 10 - 10:03 PM

Gibb, our messages crossed. "Johnny Booker" indeed shows that formal simplicity is independent of chronology.

Pointless to speculate, but the "framework," without the name "Johnny Booker," might still be older than the minstrel song.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 07 Mar 10 - 09:59 PM

A one-line, one-line chorus, one-pull shanty is *formally* more primitive than a "stanzaic" shanty with two solos and two choruses. But that doesn't mean that the "more primitive" shanties really arose before the others. Though one "feels" that the one-pull form came first, simple and elaborate forms may both have arisen simultaneously. There's no way to be sure.

However, Gibb may be on to something very important in the idea that two-pull shanties are more effective and require more discipline. If the packet ships of, say, the 1820s really did require more work from smaller crews, that would be a possible cause for not just more shantying but for the use of more formally complex shanties.

A new way of doing things would help explain why there are no clear shanty references in the period before Dana. A decade earlier, let's say, any shanties that were "sung" might have been so improvisational, lyrically inconsequential, and relatively tuneless that few writers would have cared about them.

Isn't there supposed to have been a boom in transatlantic or Caribbean shipping around 1825, that might have encouraged shanty development further? If so, it might finally be possible to answer the question, "Where are the 18th Century shanties?" with more than just guess work.

Except for something as primitive as "Paddy Doyle's Boots," there may not have been any. (Or have I said this already?)

I wonder also how the word "chant" might have been pronounced in various Afro-Caribbean (or "Afro New Orleans") dialects. If it customarily came out as "shant," that would be one mystery solved. Far-fetched perhaps, but worth looking into.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 07 Mar 10 - 09:25 PM

"Johnny Bowker" is a good example of a short drag that must have come later, it being from a minstrel song.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 07 Mar 10 - 08:58 PM

I'm down with the regulation solo line thing, too.

To elaborate on Lighter's "My Son of David" example (hopefully not distorting it):

Yes, looking back we might think we had a different/distinct shanty if we were to keep a rigid textual analysis. However, with the "framework" definition, it would just be a possible variation. From the text evidence, we only get a snapshot of a specific variant that occurred at one place/time. If the "shanty" as a concept/framework were some big blob, then the recorded instance is like taking a cross-section of that, a thin slice to be laid down upon a slide.

John,

Are you saying that a one-pull response is perhaps more basic/earlier in form than a two-pull response, and that a one line call with one line response is perhaps an earlier form than call/response/call/response?

Yes, earlier. I have been arguing that it predates the term "chant(y)," while suggesting that most of the songs associated with the term are the 2-pull form. And I am also suggesting (or at least subscribing to some ideas of others) that the 2-pull form, chant/y, spelled a very specific mode of *working* that might not have existed before that time period. It was a more disciplined and well-paced (arguably) style of work. It may have originated out of the absolute necessity of small crews handling heavy yards. Earlier, large crews could walk away with the halyard, or, pull hand-over-hand or maybe even pull willy-nilly! I hoisted the boom on a schooner (much lighter than yards on a square-sail) once out on the ocean and even with a small group, since they raised no chantey or even a 1-2-3-pull!, we just pulled willy-nilly. Heavy yards, by contrast, would require some sort of discipline if the crew was small. That discipline, in earlier times, may have been provided by the one-pull songs (re: Dana). However, my feeling from some experience having done that (mind you, not much) is that those one-pulls are not nearly as effective as the 2-pull form.

Backtracking... it may have been the work, in the new packet ships, that necessitated the 2-pulls. Yet it may also have been that the 2-pull style was in use in cotton-screwing, and it was adopted simply by custom, after which it was seen to work better. The 2-pull style does seem to have replaced the 1-pull at halyards (if the latter ever was very common to begin with).

What is the difference between a one line call/one line response, with a single pull, and what is usually called a "short haul chanty"? I know this is elemental, but I barely know one end of a rope from the other.

They are the same, so to speak. That is, the short haul chanties have 1 pull, whereas it is possible (in a few cases) for a long haul maneuver to also use a chantey with only one pull (examples of such chanties are in one of my subcategories, above). In the latter case, the chanty would go quicker. For the short haul chanty, think of fewer total pulls needed for the job, and stronger bursts of force. In general (though not necessarilly), each pull on the short haul doesn't take as much rope, so it is jerkier. Whereas the long haul pull gains more distance and is smoother.

short haul = power, for short job
long haul = stamina and pacing, for long job (cf. turning cotton jackscrews)

The short haul songs shade off into the very elemental cries of "sing-outs" "sweatin' up chants," etc.

And, if a chanty conforms to single call/single response, with single pull form, then it may be a candidate for an earlier time frame, even if we can't find a proof text to document it. Again, if I am understanding this correctly, it makes sense to me. I'm looking forward to some more examples.

Perhaps. Though it is not to say that many single-pulls could not have been made up later, too. For instance, I am fond of the idea that "Haul Away Joe" might have been cut from the same Big Blob as the minstrel song "Jim Along Josie." Perhaps not, but as there never ceased to be a need for short drags -- probably the most common task -- then we can't close the door on them.

As for examples, when I was earlier sorting your list into categories, I never got to a short drag category. Perhaps if you'd like to throw some potential titles up, we could mess with them. ;)


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 07 Mar 10 - 07:12 PM

I concur with Gibb that a shanty is well defined as a "framework," i.e. a melody and a solo/chorus pattern. I'm strongly tempted to add to that at least one "regulation" solo line to confirm the song's identity, but I won't insist that it's necessary - yet.

To take an imaginary counterexample: if a shantyman began singing the words of the ballad "My Son David" in the framework of "Highland Laddie," with no overlapping filler verses, I think we'd still say it was a different shanty on the basis of the lyrics.

I thought of "My Son David" because the tune Jeannie Robertson used in the renditions that made her famous really does resemble "Highland Laddie"!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 07 Mar 10 - 06:00 PM

Gibb, my "careful methodology" is based on a wide-open imagination. Feel free to add away. I think that it is just fine to have several things going on at once here. I am using your "notion of a "chanty" as a "framework" rather than a "piece," as my baseline. I think juxtaposition generates creativity.

I want to be clear about what you and Lighter are suggesting. Are you saying that a one-pull response is perhaps more basic/earlier in form than a two-pull response, and that a one line call with one line response is perhaps an earlier form than call/response/call/response? What is the difference between a one line call/one line response, with a single pull, and what is usually called a "short haul chanty"? I know this is elemental, but I barely know one end of a rope from the other.

And, if a chanty conforms to single call/single response, with single pull form, then it may be a candidate for an earlier time frame, even if we can't find a proof text to document it. Again, if I am understanding this correctly, it makes sense to me. I'm looking forward to some more examples.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 07 Mar 10 - 05:37 PM

This is jumping the gun -- and maybe destroys John's careful methodology -- but in this exercise of "historical imagination," I'd like to eventually add other possible chanties that are very similar to the ones determined. My rationale would be that, as per my notion of a "chanty" as a "framework" rather than a "piece," other chanties of very similar framework (and within historical reason, textually) could be re-considered. An example would be "Grog Time of Day" suggesting that "Do(odle) Let Me Go" may have also existed. They have the exact same form, I think, and if the language of the latter does not bar it from the time period, then OK. There will be no proof that "Do Let Me Go" was existing, however, for imagination's sake, one might include it.

Gibb


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 07 Mar 10 - 03:23 PM

Lighter,

Also, I don't recall if anyone has commented on Dana's remark that his "songs for capstan and falls" have "a chorus at the end of each line." It would be unrealistic to assume that he meant that was true in all cases, but I think we can assume that he meant it was most usually the case. That suggests to me a rather primitive shanty style, with one improvised line and a short repeating chorus (like "Haul Away, Joe!" or "Haul on the Bowline!"), rather than the more elaborate four-line rhyming stanza that we think of as the "classic" shanty form. "Round the Corner, Sally!" fits the earlier form. If that's what Dana meant, and the more elaborate form was still rare, it's a further suggestion that shantying was still in a formative stage in 1835.

That is was I was also expressing in my 01 Mar 10 - 06:07 PM post. Glad to see it's not just me who gets that sense from the description.

However, I am not sure about "Round the Corner." As it is known now, it is in fact in the "classic" shanty form as I see it. I am open to the idea, however, that it may have been performed differently in those times (e.g. with just one pull, on "SALly"). One could see it fit into either style. Too bad we don't have any lyrics to give more clues.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 09:13 PM

Q, there was some back and forth between this thread and the "Lost Shanties" thread earlier on. I had raised the question about these three chanties on Hugill's list of Dana's chanties because I could not find them. Apparently no one else could either. And now we know they weren't in either the original manuscript or the 1840 first edition - according to Kemble's edition.   Here are two earlier posts:

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=316#2815482

thread.cfm?threadid=126347&messages=316#2816121

Unless somebody "finds" them somewhere in Dana I will continue to set them, or at least "Cheer Up, Sam" and "Roll the Old Chariot" aside until later.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 08:40 PM

"Neptune's Raging Fury" aka "The Gallant Seaman's Suffering" is certainly not a shanty but was reprinted in SEA SONGS AND BALLADS, edited by Christopher Stone, published by Oxford at the Clarendon Press, © 1906, pp. 22-25.

The most interesting sea song in this book has to be one titled "Earliest Sea Song" which does have some pulley/hauley lines such as "Hale in the wartack!", "Hale the bowelyne!" and "Y how! Taylia! The remenaunt cryen, And pull with all theyr myght." This level of archaic nautical talk is even a little much for me to fathom.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Q (Frank Staplin)
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 07:57 PM

I would guess that Dana knew the poem, Neptune's Raging Fury, since it has gone through many printings between the 1600s and c. 1840, was known to Pepys and appeared in collections of the Roxburghe Ballads (online, google books).
It apparently started life as "Countriemen of England" and is known by 1635.
None of that, of course, gives any indication of it evolving into a chantey.
The other two also would have been known to Dana as songs but perhaps not as chanteys.

This is probably repetition of previous posts, but there is now a lot to read through.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 05:24 PM

The three additional shanties are not mentioned, so far as I can tell.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 04:13 PM

Good work, Lighter! Are we to take Kemble's edition as the "authoritative edition"? If so, it gives us "Round the Corner, Sally" as an early chanty with multiple attestations. And it gives another significant early attestation for "Grog Time of Day". It would seem to remove "Cheerily Men" from Dana's "list". However, Dana does mention "Cheerily Men" in actual use in at least four other places (in the 1911 edition from Google), on p. 118 to cat the anchor, on page 197 to bring the anchor to the head, on page 301 to bring the topsails to the masthead, and on page 316 at the halyards.

http://books.google.com/books?id=NM4PAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA118&dq=%22Cheerily+Men%22&lr=&cd=13#v=onepage&q=%22Cheerily%20Men%22&f=false

So some version of "Cheerily Men" was being used whether or not Dana included it in the famous "list". I don't know what to do about the other two chanties that have all of a sudden disappeared. As I recall the earlier discussions, there were suggestions for what "Dandy ship and a dandy crew" and "Tally high ho!" might be in the later literature, but nothing really conclusive on either one of them.

The more troubling question though is why would Dana make these changes in this paragraph. It seems like he lost control of his first edition in 1840 to the publishers and later regained his copyright and "revised" the book for the 1869 edition thirty years later. Which is the "correct" version? Presumably the "original manuscript". It seems a strange place for the publishers to edit something. Were they prohibitionists?

Still no sign of Hugill's mysterious additions though. I wonder if they might be referred to somewhere else in the Kemble edition? It was published in 1964, after Hugill's book in 1961, so it would seem doubtful that he had seen it. Perhaps he had an original 1840 first edition, or his sources did. Lighter, can you do a quick run-through to see if "Roll the Old Chariot", "Cheer Up, Sam", and "Neptune's Raging Fury" are mentioned?


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 03:24 PM

Just got it back from the shop.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 02:47 PM

Lighter-

I see that your time machine is in full operation again!

John-

"Napoleon Bonaparte Chisholm" of Woodridge,

Check!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 02:05 PM

I have good but somewhat peculiar news. First of all, Gale's quotation is quite accurate. Second, Dana wrote at least three different versions of the same paragraph, each one different, for no obvious reason.

The version that includes "Cheerly men," "Dandy ship and a dandy crew" and "Tally high ho!" comes from Dana's 1869 revision of his 1840 publication. That's a nearly thirty-year difference. Those three titles do not appear in the earlier versions of the paragraph.
The 1869 edition is the one usually reprinted.

Gale cites instead the edition published by John H. Kemble in 1969, which combines the wording of the 1840 first edition with that of Dana's original manuscript. Kemble restores material that had been edited out, presumably by Dana's publisher. According to Kemble, Dana's manuscript paragraph includes the title "Grog Time a Day," just as Gale quotes it. Also significant is that Dana originally wrote "Round the corner, Sally!" rather than just "Round the corner." That makes it more certain that the shanty with the fuller, familiar title is the one he heard.

Also, I don't recall if anyone has commented on Dana's remark that his "songs for capstan and falls" have "a chorus at the end of each line." It would be unrealistic to assume that he meant that was true in all cases, but I think we can assume that he meant it was most usually the case. That suggests to me a rather primitive shanty style, with one improvised line and a short repeating chorus (like "Haul Away, Joe!" or "Haul on the Bowline!"), rather than the more elaborate four-line rhyming stanza that we think of as the "classic" shanty form. "Round the Corner, Sally!" fits the earlier form. If that's what Dana meant, and the more elaborate form was still rare, it's a further suggestion that shantying was still in a formative stage in 1835.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 01:43 PM

I should have added that this is in the opposite direction from Charlottesville from Brown's Cove, which is where Paul Clayton lived for a while. Woodridge is in the direction of the James River and Brown's Cove is at the base of the Blue Ridge.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 01:41 PM

Well, I think I've tracked down Mr. NB Chisholm of Woodridge [rather than "Wardbridge"], Virginia. Woodridge is in Albemarle County, south of Charlottesville, here:

http://maps.google.com/maps/place?client=safari&rls=en-us&oe=UTF-8&um=1&ie=UTF-8&q=Woodridge+VA&fb=1&gl=us&ftid=0x89b39036bd34dd

Here is the family information on Mr. Chisholm. Would you believe that his name was "Napoleon Bonaparte Chisholm"!

http://www.kalelrojin.com/ancestry/pace/desc12.htm#5

and here, which mentions Sharp's visit, but forgets his name!

http://www.kalelrojin.com/ancestry/pace/not12.htm#5

and here is a picture of his wife

http://www.kalelrojin.com/ancestry/pace/images/sbd.htm

He was a brother of James Chisholm, who was married to Emma Truslow of Nellysford, VA. Sharp also collected some songs from them in Nellysford. Nellysford is also the home of John Minear.

Cecil Sharp says in his introduction to ENGLISH FOLK SONGS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS, p. xxviii, that he collected 24 songs from NB Chisholm. I have managed to find nine ballads and four songs in Sharp's collection that he attributes to NB Chisholm.

Here are the ballads. They are given with : "Title" Child-number, Sharp's number and variant, page in Sharp's ENGLISH FOLK SONGS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS, and Volume number, page number, and variant number in Bronson's THE TRADITIONAL TUNES OF THE CHILD BALLADS.

"Sir Lionel" C-18, Sharp No 9 B, p. 54 in EFSSA; and Vol I, on page 273, "15" in Bronson.
"The Cruel Mother" C-20, Sharp No 10 D, pp. 56-57; and Vol I, on p. 292, "44" in Bronson.
"Fair Margaret & Sweet William" C-74, Sharp No 20 G, pp. 139-140; and in Vol II, on p.181, "59" in Bronson.
"Barbara Allen" C-84, Sharp No 24 H, p. 191; and Vol II, p. 387, "184" in Bronson.
"The Maid Freed From the Gallows" C-95, Sharp No 28 D, pp. 2110-211; and Vol II, p. 465, "42" in Bronson.
"The Gypsy Laddie" C-200, Sharp No 33 G, p. 237; and Vol III, p. 215, "33" in Bronson.
"Wife Wrapt In Wether's Skin" C-227, Sharp No 39 A, p. 271; and Vol. IV, p. 161, "38" in Bronson.
"The Farmer's Curst Wife" C-278, Sharp No 40 B, pp.276-277; and Vol IV, p. 202, "54" in Bronson.
"The Brown Girl" C-259, Sharp No 44 E, p. 297; and Vol IV, p. 419, "42" in Bronson.

And here are the four songs that I could find. This leaves eleven songs unaccounted for, but they are probably in Sharp's unpublished manuscripts.

"The Keys of Heaven" Sharp No 92 C, pp. 47-48.
"The False Young Man" Sharp No 94 E, p. 55.
"My Mother Bid Me" Sharp No 108 A, pp. 93-94.
"The Frog In the Well" Sharp No 221 A, p. 320.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 09:47 AM

It's my weird dialect (and too many references) that gets my "r's" mixed up with my "n's". Fanana it is.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 09:24 AM

Nancy FaNana ;)


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 09:08 AM

Nice to see "Old Stormy" in the list; it reeks of age.

I was quite excited the other evening when I ran across a verse from this shanty, in a novel set in 1815, raised by shipwrecked sailors making their way on the final leg to New Orleans. But the novel LONG PENNANT is by Oliver La Farge and published in 1933; the sailors also discuss the "chanty" singing aboard their ship. But I guess this is not a literary reference that would survive much scrutiny.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 06 Mar 10 - 07:09 AM

We have at least three independent attestations for "Grog Time of Day", which are LANDSMAN HAY, SERVICE AFLOAT, and Cecil Sharp. I am adding it to my short list of very early chanties (with lyrics) for further consideration:

"Across the briny ocean"
"Drunken Sailor"
"Fire Down Below"
"Fire Maringo"
"Grog Time Of Day"
"Highland Laddie"
"Mobile Bay"
"Nancy Farana" ("Haul 'er Away")
"Old Stormy"
"One More Day For Johnnie"
"Sally Brown"

And, the three very likely candidates from Dana (without lyrics), which are:

"Captain gone ashore!"
"Cheerily Men"
"Round The Corner"

As Snuffy pointed out, we may be able to expand this list of earliest chanties when we look at the category of Historical Informants.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 05 Mar 10 - 10:33 PM

Here is a bit more of the "snippet" on the Gale book copied from Google Books:

Richard Henry Dana, Jr‎ - Page 47
Robert L. Gale - Biography & Autobiography - 1969 - 191 pages
'Grog time a day,' 'Hurrah! hurrah! my hearty bullies!' or 'Round the corner,
Sally!"' (257). April 15 brought the Pilgrim, commanded by Faucon, ...
Snippet view

Not only does this add "Grog time a day", but also it adds "Sally" to "Round the corner". I looked at a number of the online versions of different editions and this doesn't show up in any of them.

Here's all I could find on the different editions:

"There are three editions of Two Years before the Mast.

1.The original 1840 edition.

2. The 1869 edition - this is a revision by Dana himself, after the original copyright has expired. Among many changes, Dana removes the "sharply unromantic opening paragraphs" and the final chapter. He adds a new chapter "Twenty Fours Years After"

3. The 1911 edition - prepared by his son Richard Henry Dana based upon the 1869 edition. The son adds research about the Crew, and a Dictionary of Nautical Terms based on Dana's "The Seaman's Friend", an Introduction and a new chapter "Seventy Five Years After"

I'll be very interested to see what you find Lighter.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 05 Mar 10 - 10:17 PM

I should have the Gale book in my hands tomorrow. Will report what I find.

Gibb, nice finds for "Fine Time of Day" and especially "Bottle-O."

I was thinking about "Highland Laddie" as used so relatively early as ashanty. I wonder if part of its appeal came from the question in the original Jacobite version, "Where have you been all the day?" Conceivably this song was the inspiration for the pattern, "Were you ever in X ?"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 05 Mar 10 - 12:18 PM

Snuffy, thanks for the information on the Carpenter collection. It is important and not so accessible. This is precisely the kind of information I will be looking at under my category of "Historical Informants". And thanks for the heads up on "Bully in the Alley".

Charley, that tantalizing little snippet on Dana is from a book about him by a certain Robert L. Gale, entitled RICHARD HENRY DANA, JR. But he definitely seems to be quoting some version of TWO YEARS BEFORE THE MAST! I haven't had a chance to do any further looking and I don't have any immediate access to this book. But his quote sure doesn't come from my copy of Dana! There is still that mystery about where Hugill found his extra three chanties from Dana. Maybe there is another edition out there.

And thanks for that information on "Bully in the Alley" out in Australia. I think it is important to document that end of things every chance we get.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 05 Mar 10 - 09:44 AM

Snuffy-

Evidently "Bully in the Alley" was also used by stevedores screwing bales of wool on the Sydney docks in the late 19th century, as the song is referenced in poems by the Australian poet Edwin J. Brady who worked as a tally clerk on Circular Quay.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 05 Mar 10 - 09:27 AM

John-

"Bonaparte's Retreat" is still a standard contradance tune.

That is indeed a puzzling revision of Dana. In my volume the "quoted" paragraph is on pages 259-260. And I have you both to thank for what just happened to the pile of books on my desktop when I pulled TWO YEARS BEFORE THE MAST out from the bottom. ;~(

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Snuffy
Date: 05 Mar 10 - 09:23 AM

Evidence from Carpenter's singers indicates a fair antiquity for "Bully in the Alley":

James Forman was born 1844 and went to sea in 1856, and Carpenter's notes say 'Learned as a boy before going to sea.'

Edward Robinson, was older (b 1834, to sea 1846), and Carpenter's handwritten notes to his version say 'cotton screwing' and (puzzlingly) 'Captain Page heard the chantey about 1853.'

Captain Page (b 1835, to sea 1849) was another old salt, apparently at the same sailors' rest home as Capt Robinson.

These are just snippets available from the online index: when Carpenter's full text and notes are available, we may well be able to push the dates of several shanties back from the '80s to the '50s or even '40s.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 09:16 PM

It would seem that "Napolean's Retreat" is the same as "Bonaparte's Retreat". Here is a not very good recording from Kentucky:

http://aca-dla.org/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/Berea&CISOPTR=1476

It comes from here:

http://aca-dla.org/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/Berea&CISOPTR=1476&REC=17


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 08:26 PM

Abrahams is citing 2 references to show maritime work songs in the West Indies in the 1830s.

The first is from TRANSATLANTOC SKETCHES (1833), in which a river trip in Guiana in 1831 is described. There is a rowing song which is a variation of what is now known as "The Sailor Likes His Bottle O".

http://books.google.com/books?id=NsERAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=alexander+t

The passage seems to also refer to "Bear Away Yankee," which Abrahams himself collected in the Caribbean and which gives the title of his book. Pg. 54.

The other reference is also to a rowing song, "Fine Time o' Day." It appears with musical transcription in WEST INDIA SKETCH BOOK (1835). Pg. 241.

sketch book


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 08:11 PM

That revised Dana text is hilarious. It's like someone planted it just to trip us up. Otherwise, I can't explain it!

DEEP THE WATER quotes the SERVICE AFLOAT text that you found, John. That version of "Grog Time a Day" exactly matches the prosody (if I'm using the right term?) of "Doodle Let Me Go".

I'd forgotten that DEEP THE WATER also has "Fine Time o' Day", which has been performed by Finn & Haddie, incidentally. Give me a moment, and I'll try to summarize what is there.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 07:59 PM

Gibb and John-

Mr. Chisholm may well have been an ex-sailor or soldier, or good buddy or relative to one. Everyone loves a good tune, and evidently the words helped folks remember that tune; works for me, I know.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 07:40 PM

Here is the site for the information on C. Sharp in the Appalachians. Check the end of the year 1916 for the information about Brown's Cove:

http://mustrad.org.uk/articles/sharp.htm


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 07:00 PM

Charlie, this is very interesting. I am wondering if "Mr. N B Chisholm of Wardbridge, VA, in 1916" could be a reference to this:

"Professor Smith [of UVA in Charlottesville] passed Sharp onto a Mr Mannaway, a schools' inspector in Albermarle County, who suggested that Sharp should meet Mr N D Chisholm, 'a first rate folksinger', 51  and a Mrs Campbell, both of Brown's Cove, a small settlement in the Shenandoah Valley".   

I can't find a "Wardbridge, VA". But Brown's Cove is where Paul Clayton lived and collected songs and there are Chisholms there. Check out this wonderful site:

http://www.klein-shiflett.com/shifletfamily/HHI/GeorgeFoss/whall.html?

Also, if you have a copy of DEEP THE WATER, check on page 11 to see if there is something about this song. My copy just got recalled by the library. And, I found this:

http://books.google.com/books?id=i1dDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA259&dq=grog+time+of+day&cd=3#v=onepage&q=grog%20time%20of%20day&f=false

And what in the world do you make of this?! Is there a later edition of Dana that has been revised?

http://books.google.com/books?id=eIBaAAAAMAAJ&q=grog+time+of+day&dq=grog+time+of+day&lr=&cd=108


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 05:17 PM

Ha! That's an interesting find, Charley.

But why would they be singing that in the Appalachians, unless the fife-player was an ex-sailor? The phrase "grog time of day," IMHO sounds distinctly West Indian (or something creole, at least). It's hard to believe that these verses were "random" (to me implied by "mnemonic verses"). Perhaps "Grog time of day" was a more widely known song?

On the Google search, there is also a link to a circa 1879 play set in the West Indies (I haven't checked it out in depth) in which one of the stage directions says "Music - 'Grog Time of Day'".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 04:04 PM

Hmmm?

Evidently Sharp also collected "Grog Time of Day" in the Appalachians:

"It has long been said that Cecil Sharp had a disliking for instrumental music in the Appalachians. Yet this is not the case. He noted fiddle tunes, was amused by a fiddler's convention and heard a number of banjo players. Why, I wonder, did he say that Mrs Crawford's nephews played their instruments 'characteristically', unless he was aware of the elements which characterised Appalachian instrumental music? Sharp had also previously noted 'fife tunes' from a Mr N B Chisholm of Wardbridge, VA, in 1916. Mr Chisholm had sung the tunes to Sharp using mnemonic verses such as the following, which he used to remember the tune Napoleon's Retreat:

It's grog time of day, my love
Grog time of day
When Boney crossed the Alps
It's grog time of day. #83

Maybe since this was a popular fiddle tune, it also surfaced in the West Indies where Robert Hay heard the stevedores working with it in 1811.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Amos
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 02:59 PM

I am awed and full of admiration at the incredible work done in this research string by John Minear, Q, Charlie, Gibb and many others. This is the kind of work that makes the Mudcat a priceless resource. Applause and thanks to all of you.


A


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 02:48 PM

"Nancy Fanana" is again similar to "Cheerly, Men" in lyrics. That may not mean they are related songs, just that the "Nancy Fanana slept with a banana" device, like the "Was you ever down Mobile Bay?" device, was a common one. Still, I'd argue that that puts them in the same boat.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 02:09 PM

Gibb, I didn't see your post before mine went up. Mudcat is moving very slowly for me today in terms of bringing up anything. Thanks for the reminder and information on "Grog time of day". My filing system is becoming ponderous these days and I had forgotten the LANDSMAN HAY reference. For now, I will add it to my group of singly attested songs with lyrics. I'm not dumping these songs, but only putting them in brackets for reconsideration later.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 01:54 PM

I forgot to mention Phillip Gosse's "Fire the ringo, fire away" from 1838.

Any of these work songs *could* have been sung on board the "Julia Ann" since we know from the written sources they were around before 1855 (the Meacom and Nordhoff ones are a bit vague). But how many are only mentioned here in the literature on chanties?   The following have a single attestation:

"Oh her love is a sailor"
"Oh! if I had her"
"Heave, to the girls!"
"Nancy oh!"
"Jack Crosstree"
"Heave round hearty!"
"Dandy ship and a dandy crew"
"Time for us to go!"
"Tally high ho! you know"
"Hurrah! hurrah! my hearty bullies!"
"O, Hurrah, My Hearties, O"
"Roll and go for that white pitcher, roll and go,"
"Ho, O, heave O" / "Row, Billy, row"
"Yankee Dollar"

We have lyrics given for only five of these and a couple of them are partial:

"Oh her love is a sailor" (East India Company)
"Oh! if I had her"        (East India Company)
"Roll and go for that white pitcher, roll and go," (London docks)
"Ho, O, heave O" / "Row, Billy, row" (Mediterranean)
"Yankee Dollar" (Mobile)

In each of these cases, we do have some location indicators.

The others are simply titles, and for all practical purposes "lost" at the present time. I realize that attempts have been made to identify some of these but my sense of the discussion is that these remain questionable. I'm open to correction on this.

That leaves the following for further consideration:

"Across the briny ocean"
"Captain gone ashore!"
"Cheerly, men"
"Drunken Sailor"
"Fire Down Below"
"Fire Maringo"
"Highland Laddie"
"Mobile Bay"
"Nancy Farana"
"Old Stormy"
"One More Day For Johnnie"
"Round the corner"
"Sally Brown"

With all but three of these, we have lyrics for comparison with later versions. Dana does not give us words for "Captain Gone Ashore", "Cheerily Men" or "Around the Corner". Because Dana does not actually give us anything but titles, about all we can say with regard to him is that he documents the fact that chanties were being sung as work songs aboard sailing vessels that had gone around the horn to California, as early as 1840 and that there were in fact quite a few of them, relatively speaking. A number of his chanties may be related to ones collected later and the three mentioned above probably are.

Dana in fact gives us some important information about the historical and geographical spread of chanties prior to 1850. But beyond that, we have to turn to other sources. Therefore I would reduce the list, for now, to these chanties:

"Across the briny ocean"
"Drunken Sailor"
"Fire Down Below"
"Fire Maringo"
"Highland Laddie"
"Mobile Bay"
"Nancy Farana"
"Old Stormy"
"One More Day For Johnnie"
"Sally Brown"

All of these are on Gibb's list of call/response work songs above, except "Drunken Sailor".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 01:40 PM

Charley,

Given the details supplied by Lighter, above, I doubt any correspondence between the two "Row" songs. (Incidentally, I really think "roll" must be the proper word in "Liverpool Judies")

I was about to join you on some topical verses of "Leave Her Johnny," but then I realized how little computer jargon I know, and less to rhyme with! Must be because I use a Mac ;)

And guys, I do have a YouTube chantey collaboration in the works, FYI, which will feature two other Mudcatters :)

John,

Great start. Though it may not fit your methodology (perhaps you've already discarded it), I'll remind you anyway of the book LANDSMAN HAY, in which the very chanty-like stevedore song "Grog time of day" was supposedly heard from stevedores in Jamaica in 1811. This is the text that Hugill "discovered. It looks like it was not published until 1953, being the memoirs of Robert Hay, 1789-1847. I've never had my hands on the book. But assuming these pre-1847 memoirs exist somewhere, they are notable. Well, what is notable is that the song really fits into the "classic" chanty form and that such a form was existing as early as 1811. Also notable is the possibility that such a form was at that time distinct (or fairly distinct) to either a specific region or specific ethnic group. Because the way in which it is described is as if "others" were engaged in the practice. The exact nature of the working of cargo is not stated. A capstan is mentioned, but I am not sure if this means that the cargo was hoisted by a line attached to the capstan. In Parrish's Georgia Sea Island study, the stevedores hoisted the cargo in a halyards-like way.

"Grog time of day" reminds me very much of the chanty "One More Day," in its phrasing and form.

A slight tangent:
"Sally Rackett"/"Haul er Away" is notably similar (in tune) to the well-known Jamaican song "Hill and Gully Rider." That is not to say that is necesariily came from a Jamaican song; I don't know its history, and it may have been the other way around. However, I do know that "Hill and Gully" was a work song, and that it was timed in the fashion of what are called "digging songs." The rhythm works in these songs such that (if we are consider the meter to be of four beats) the [fourth beat] cues the raising of pick axes (or whatever they did with?) so that they can come down and strike on beat ONE.

Hill and gully ri-[der]
ch. HILL and gully

It would work well as a rowing song, too, which is how they use it in the film version of Moby Dick.

This of course was a "single pull" type form. The fact that "Sally Racket" has very similar verses to "Cheerly, Men," another single-pull, makes me wonder.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 12:22 PM

[1845] "American Journal of Music"
"Ho, O, heave O" / "Row, Billy, row"

I'm wondering if "Row, Billy, row" is a mishearing or typo of the capstan shanty "Row, Bullies, Row" aka "Liverpool Judies" or "The Tow-Rope Girls." Hugill says it probably dates to the 1840's "since it was popular in the Western Ocean Packets." Hugill also suggests this might have been a rowing shanty used by Whalers, given its frequent reference to rowing rather than heaving or rolling. At any rate it seems likely that the American Journal is referring to the same song.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 11:37 AM

Hey, Charlie, maybe you guys could do a joint YouTube thing. That would be great. I'm not crashed, just ruminating. And enjoying no snow, sunshine and clear skies.

Here's a list of the earliest documented work songs that have been mentioned so far on this thread. There may be others that I don't know about. We've already discussed these to some extent, but I will begin again with them and see how my categories work.

[1832] "The Quid"
"Oh her love is a sailor"
"Oh! if I had her"

[April 3, 1837] Captain Marryat
"Sally Brown"

[1840] Dana
"Heave, to the girls!"
"Nancy oh!"
"Jack Crosstree"
"Cheerly, men"
"Heave round hearty!"
"Captain gone ashore!"
"Dandy ship and a dandy crew"
"Time for us to go!"
"Round the corner"
"Tally high ho! you know"
"Hurrah! hurrah! my hearty bullies!"

[February 11,1840] Olmstead
"Drunken Sailor"
"Nancy Farana"
"O, Hurrah, My Hearties, O"

[circa 1844] Lowe
"Roll and go for that white pitcher, roll and go,"

[1845] "American Journal of Music"
"Ho, O, heave O" / "Row, Billy, row"

[1850s] Meacom/Whidden
"Mobile Bay"
"Fire Down Below"
"One More Day For Johnnie"

[c.1855] Nordhoff
"Old Stormy"
"Yankee Dollar"
"Fire Maringo"
"Highland Laddie"
"Across the briny ocean"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 08:18 AM

Gibb-

I think John's computer may have crashed.

Shall we sing a couple of verses of "Leave Her Johnny," aka "Time for Us to Leave Her,"Leave her, Bullies, Leave Her" while we're waiting for him to "boot 'er up ag'in"?

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Mar 10 - 12:25 AM

Well....OK! I Can't wait to hear more!


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 03 Mar 10 - 04:36 PM

Categories of Multiple Attestation, Part II

Versions & Variants - with attention to different geographical and "trade" usage. In some cases we have a "family" of chanties, such as "Stormalong" and "Ranzo". In other cases we have multiple texts be applied to a chanty like "Knock A Man Down". And in each of these cases the different versions reflect different constituencies, such as the Blackball packets, or the cotton traders, or the rum and sugar traders, etc. This category begins to look not only at the number of different versions but the content of them.

Geographical Usage - with attention to historical timelines and locations. Here I am thinking of geographical spheres such as "the Western Ocean", the East India trade, the Gulf Port cotton trade, the Gold Rush, the Cape Horn traffic, the immigrant traffic to Australia, the Timber trade to Canada, all of the various whaling regions, etc. If a song shows up in a lot of different areas over time, then that is a clue to how wide its spread. The chanty "Hieland Laddie" is a good example of multiple use and broad geographical spread.

Genre Usage - focusing on our previous discussions of what chanties were used by different groups at sea during the 19th century. While we didn't turn up very much in this exploration, I still think it is a valid category of multiple attestation. If a chanty was a favorite with the whalers and with the East India men, and later shows up on the Western Packets, and then goes around Cape Horn with the Gold Rush, it has both geographical and historical spread and popularity.

Historical Usage - overlapping some of the previous categories. Here I would highlight the different commercial areas of interest like the tea trades, the cotton trades, the timber trades, the sugar trades, the passenger and mail ships, etc.

Pre-Chanty Song Sources - with some attention to both lyrics and tunes. Here I am thinking especially of African American slave songs and blackface minstrel songs, as well as Irish influences, etc. In some cases a chantey may have evolved from a number of different sources. This gives us a sense of cultural spread.

I realize that there is considerable overlap among these various categories, but each one has a particular focus. And once again, the point of looking at "multiple" attestations is that each attestation have some degree of independence from the others.    I realize that we have some cases where a writer may have "borrowed" from an earlier source. I would try to draw attention to that.

If one were to actually apply these categories to each and every chanty on "the list", as well as to other work songs, it would be a huge task. I think by using the first category of "Published Collections" I can narrow the selection down considerably to a workable number of chanties to look at.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 03 Mar 10 - 04:32 PM

Categories of Multiple Attestation, Part I

Published Collections - by date of publication. Examples would be Sharp, Terry, Whall, etc. I don't have access to all of these collections, but to many of them and to the contents of others. I don't promise to be a hundred percent thorough, but I will be as comprehensive as possible. How many and which collections contain a given chanty? Are they earlier or later or is the chanty spread over all of them?

By itself, this category can only tell us how often a chanty was collected after about 1880. But was it collected only once or over ten times? The more often it shows up, the more information we can gain about it.

Published Mention - by date of publication. This category is a little different from that of the collections. Here I would include the various magazine articles as well as mention made in travel accounts, fiction, letters, newspaper stories, etc. Examples would be Nordhoff, Olmstead, Gosse, Alden, etc. Hopefully this category will push us further back into the 19th century for some of these chanties. This category should begin to give us more of a geographical and chronological spread. It will also give us whatever firm historical dating that we may find.

Historical Informants - by estimated dates of when they were at sea or when they could have heard or sung these chanties. Examples would be Dick Maitland, Harding, Joanna Colcord, Hugill, Mr. Short, etc. While the dating of these informants is not always exact and the accounts are usually based on memory rather than written documents, this category does push the information gained in the "Collections" category a bit further back into the 19th century. It also gives us some geographical and chronological spread.

Use & Function - with some effort to trace historical development. How many different uses did a particular chanty serve throughout its history? Did it begin as a cotton-stowing song, and become a halyard chanty and then a capstan chanty or a pumping chanty? This category can give us a sense of how a work song evolved functionally throughout its lifetime. And perhaps use can point to some hints about location and time frames.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 03 Mar 10 - 04:27 PM

Now that we have what I would call a working list of chanties to choose from I would like to propose some criteria for suggesting which ones might have been used on the "Julia Ann" between 1853 and 1855. I'm not saying that songs which are not on my/Gibb's list couldn't have been used on those voyages. I will consider some of them later. But first I want to look at these "hauling" work songs. I am theorizing that they emerged as chanties sometime between about 1820 and 1860. I know that this is debatable, so I'm simply using it as a hypothesis.

I also know that there are very few "proof texts" for dating and locating these songs before the 1880s. So I am not trying to "prove" anything. I want to try to establish a "likely" historical context in which to place these songs. I am using "likely" to mean somewhere between "possible" and "probable". In order to build such a context I want to use what I would call multiple categories of multiple, independent attestations.   

I realize that a category of multiple attestation only proves that something is attested to a certain number of times, which may mean that it was "popular" or available or compatible with those who noted it or any number of other things. There are all kinds of things that could determine why a given song shows up in any given number of places. And I am not suggesting any kind of statistical analysis here. I know nothing about that kind of thing. However, if a certain song shows up in a number of independently different places it does tell us that that song was "around", that it existed at the time it was noted, and where it was noted. By looking at this kind of information, we might get some sense of the "spread" of the song, how broadly it was known and used. This could tell us something useful about its historical context at a particular time.

Using only one such category of multiple attestation would only give us one thin slice and not much in the way of depth for a historical context. This is why I want to use multiple categories. I am hoping that the cumulative information my give us some depth over a period of time. I will present my categories in two parts.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 02 Mar 10 - 11:51 AM

Lighter, you say:

"What I think is more important than a possible connection to any of Dana's shanties is the sheer primitiveness of this. Of the various shanties "N.C." presumably heard on his voyage to Smyrna, why would he remember this one? Or to put it another way, if tuneful shanties with interesting lyrics were being sung (like "Rio Grande" and "Shenandoah"), why report only this one? Surely the editor of the magazine would have preferred to print a better song. The magazine appeared several years before the possible "shanty boom" of the California Gold Rush, though that too may mean nothing."

I was thinking about this and it seems to me that there is a "sheer primitiveness" about the call/response work song itself. This really comes through in the southern prison songs I was listening to yesterday. They are quite monotonous and not particularly melodious. They seem almost closer to a chant than a song. Then listening to some of the Georgia Sea Islander "chanties", I had the same feeling. The Bahamian songs seem a bit more "mellower" but this may be due to some of the harmonies. This morning I have been listening to some of the chanties on the list of hauling songs, and I am picking up the same sense of almost monotonous back and forth chanting.

While both the African Americans and the Irish, for example, contributed very "lyrical" tunes for some of these chanties, not all of them have such tunes. Perhaps the form served as something of a limit on the aesthetics of these songs. And while the magazine editors might have preferred more "tuneful shanties with interesting lyrics", the more prosaic examples such as the one you have discovered and the ones from Dana, as well as many of the ones we have from the later collections may well have been what were actually being used.

I appreciate your argument from what I would call "silence". If they are not mentioned maybe/possibly/probably they didn't exist. Or, if they were around, why weren't they mentioned, rather than some of these other more obscure songs. I think this does raise question marks over my project to try to imagine the later-collected songs back into an earlier time frame. And I suppose that to say that an argument from silence can go both ways is not a very strong position to take, but it is also true. Just because they are not mentioned doesn't necessarily mean they weren't there in the 1840's and 1850's. Perhaps the very nature of their monotonous, chant-like qualities worked against them being remarkable as far as those who might record them were concerned.

Treading gingerly on some thin ice, I also wonder whether the mostly "white" travelers - do we have any records at all of accounts of being at sea by non-white travelers or mariners? - would not have either been interested, or perhaps able to note down some of the African American songs. Their ears may not have been dialect-tuned.   Or, as with so many things having to do with white perspectives on non-white issues, they simply didn't "hear" the African American songs. They were audibly "invisible".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 02 Mar 10 - 10:17 AM

John-

I believe that "falls" are any lines that a sailor would grab on to in order to hoist something, be it a sail, a yard, a lifeboat, or even cargo.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 02 Mar 10 - 10:08 AM

Gibb, with regard to your question about Dana and his "falls" : "When Dana talked about "songs for capstan and falls".... do we have any sense which are the hauling ones among these? First: is "fall" restricted in use at all, i.e. for any particular line (e.g. halyard versus sheet)? If so, that would add specificity", I'm wondering if it would help to look in his other book THE SEAMAN'S FRIEND CONTAINING A TREATISE ON PRACTICAL SEAMANSHIP, etc. I tried reading some of it with regard to "halyards" but immediately got lost. Perhaps someone who is better acquainted with the technical side of this could sort it out and find an answer to your question. If I remember correctly, Dana does not mention any singing, worksongs, or chanties in this book. This fifth edition was published in 1847:

http://books.google.com/books?id=eGVGAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=A+Seaman's+Friend&cd=3#v=onepage&q=&f=false


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 01 Mar 10 - 07:57 PM

Lighter-

Nice to have another early "shanty" added to the archives, with a literary reference.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 01 Mar 10 - 06:55 PM

The American Journal of Music and Musical Vistor (Feb. 25, 1845), p. 53, gives what may be the earliest ex. of an American shanty printed with its tune. After several verbosely chatty paragraphs typical of the period, the anonymous writer offers "Heaving Anchor. A Sailor Song. Furnished by N. C.," a "lad who, several years since, used to fold our papers" and who has "recently returned from a voyage to Smyrna, up the Mediterranean." The text:

Then walk him up so lively,
Ho, O, heave O,
Then walk him up so lively, hearties,
Ho, O, heave O.

I'm Bonny of the Skylark,
Ho, O, heave O,
Then walk him up so lively, hearties,
Ho, O, heave, O.

I'm going away to leave you,
Ho, O, heave O,
Then walk, &c.


The writer then notes that in "rowing, the words are slightly altered, as follows":

Then walk him up so lively,
Row, Billy, row,
Then walk him up so lively, hearties,
Row, Billy, row.

I'm Bunny of the Skylark,
Row, Billy, row,
Then walk, &c.

I'm going away to leave you,
Row, Billy, row,
I'm going, &c.

Sorry I can't reproduce the modal tune, but it isn't much. Its shape resembles that of "Bounty was a Packet Ship," but I wouldn't say they're clearly related. The solo lines, "Then walk him up so lively, hearties" interestingly fit the meter of Dana's "Heave Away, My Hearty Bullies!" (Plus the word "hearty" appears, FWIW.)

What I think is more important than a possible connection to any of Dana's shanties is the sheer primitiveness of this. Of the various shanties "N.C." presumably heard on his voyage to Smyrna, why would he remember this one? Or to put it another way, if tuneful shanties with interesting lyrics were being sung (like "Rio Grande" and "Shenandoah"), why report only this one? Surely the editor of the magazine would have preferred to print a better song. The magazine appeared several years before the possible "shanty boom" of the California Gold Rush, though that too may mean nothing.

It doesn't pay to overinterpret, but one does get the feeling that
"Ho, O, Heave O" (which almost sounds like a Hebridean waulking song)may be close in form to one of the earliest sea shanties "as we know them," and that Dana's lost shanties may have been not much better (a possible explanation of why he didn't offer any lyrics).

Concerning shanties in general, the writer notes that "On the yard-arm, in a clear air, they compose verses and tunes and sing to their companions. It is to be hoped, that the time is coming, when the sentiment of their songs will be such as the good and virtuous will approve."

"On the yardarm" suggests a bunting shanty. "Paddy Doyle"? We may never know.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 01 Mar 10 - 06:10 PM

"To what extent (and how far back) DOES the task of hoisting yards (square sails) exist before the post-War of 1812 era?"


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 01 Mar 10 - 06:07 PM

I've wondered (yes, rather idly -- someone more knowledgeable can contribute to this brainstorm!) when historically the need for hoisting yards came into the picture. There is the idea that these "new" "chanties" were adopted in a big way to suit the newer packet ships...and also the fact that they were manned by smaller crews. (Smaller crews meant, for instance, that the guys really had to pace and coordinate their hoisting efforts, whereas huge crews could just grab the fall and march away with it as a walk-away.) To what extent (and how far back) to the task of hoisting yards (square sails) exist before the post-War of 1812 era?

It's clear that, earlier, there were "capstan songs." Those did not coordinate action per se. Rather, they set a manageable pace or just made the work less toilsome.

And there were short-drags -- 1 pull -- though it seems unlikely that these could/would have been used to hoist a yard. They were for tacks/sheets, catting anchor, or the infamous "bowline." But maybe not only?

When Dana talked about "songs for capstan and falls".... do we have any sense which are the hauling ones among these? First: is "fall" restricted in use at all, i.e. for any particular line (e.g. halyard versus sheet)? If so, that would add specificity. Second, my hunch is that, with "Cheerly, Men" as the model, the hauling songs were 1-pull items. I realize that I'm not providing much evidence to go on here, but my "brainstorm" is that what was going on in the brig PILGRIM was some really hard, single pulls...big bursts of force, like you'd get at the end of a "haul away JOE!" The "classic" (arguably cotton-screwing based) double pull chanties are more measured and energy is conserved a bit better, for the long task.

A close reading of Dana's text could give an idea if chanties "as we know them" yet existed in his day.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 01 Mar 10 - 05:36 PM

Just going by the sound of it -- at least how it is performed these days-- I'm doubtful that "London Julie" was a halyard chanty. Does the original source say that it was? Sorry, I don't know where that is. However, I would like to be wrong about this because it would expand my notion of a halyard chanty.

And "Whisky O," IMHO, is quite another thing altogether. If it was used as a timed-pull halyard chanty, then it is something rare that doesn't fit the pattern of "Category 1." I'm fond of the idea that it was two timed pulls, followed by a walk-away.

Anyways, my goal in sorting chanties that John listed was just to give examples, not a comprehensive list. Through examples, one can see how (*IF*) a category coheres. I don't think every chanty needs to be put in a category, but from all those examples one can get an idea of what makes them similar.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 01 Mar 10 - 03:54 PM

Thanks, Charlie. That's helpful for me.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 01 Mar 10 - 03:08 PM

John-

With regard to "London Julie," which I'm very familiar with from doing harmony on Barry's CD, I think the pulls happen as follows:

LONDON JULIE


Well, we took a long loving walk,
A-HA, me London JULIE!
And we had a long, loving talk,
A-HA, me London JULIE!

Full Chorus:

Julianna, Julianna, where do you go?
A-HA, me London JULIE!
Julianna, Julianna, where do you go?
A-HA, me London JULIE!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: John Minear
Date: 01 Mar 10 - 01:16 PM

Charley, I think Hugill lists your "Whisky O, Johnny O" as "Rise Me Up From Down Below" (pages 280-281/'61), which he calls a "stamp 'n go" song, and I've listed it as such at the bottom of my first list. Hugill gives "Roller Bowler" as a "capstan" song (pages 347-349/'61). And he says the the "Saltpeter Shanty/Slav Ho" was "used at the capstan" (p. 518/'6). Harlow gives "The Priest and the Nuns" as a pumping chanty, but doesn't say anything about it (pages 166-167). I've been listening to the Lomax recording of the Georgia Sea Island singers of "Hard Time in Ole Virginia" (John Davis & Group). It is a call/response work song and it sounds to me like it's got two pulls.

http://www.amazon.com/Southern-Journey-V-13-Earliest/dp/B0012JG27I/ref=sr_shvl_album_2?ie=UTF8&qid=1267467203&sr=301-2

I can't find much on "London Julie" other than what Barry Finn says, which is that it's in both the Carpenter collection and the Gordon collection. It doesn't sound to me like a hauling song. But I am really new at this business of *listening* for the "pulls".


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Lighter
Date: 01 Mar 10 - 12:07 PM

"The Priest and the Nuns" is reported only by Harlow. I have always had the feeling that it was originally a translation from German or French, possibly because of the tune, which also seems untraditional, at least in the English-speaking world and at least to me.

It is also unusual for an English folksong to focus on priests and nuns, especially in Austria.


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?
From: Charley Noble
Date: 01 Mar 10 - 09:21 AM

John-

Thanks for the dedication but "Charley Noble" is only a figment of our collective imagination.

Oh, and to be even more picky with regard to sorted title lists, consider relegating the "A's" and "The's" to the end of the song title separated with a comma.

But here's a more substantive comment. With regard to "Whisky Johnny" there's also the halyard version in Hugill which I know as "Whisky-O" with the grand chorus:

Whiskey-O, Johnny-O,
Rise 'er UP from down be-LOW
Whiskey, whiskey, whiskey-o,
Up a-LOFT this yard must GO
John, rise 'er UP from down be-LOW!

And I'm still trying to figure out where Barry Finn's traditional shanties fit in:

Hard Times in Ol' Virginia
London Julie
Priests and Nuns (pumping shanty)
Roller Bowler
Saltpeter Shanty/Slav Ho

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: From SF to Sydney - 1853 Shanties Sung?