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The Advent and Development of Chanties

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What your favorite sea shanty? (83)
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Watered Down Shanties (33)
Who Said - Shanty worth 5 men? (30)
Sea Chanteys (shanteys) part two (3)
Lyr Req: Shantyman (Bob Watson) (14)
shanty sessions in U.K. (12)
New England Shanty Sessions (31)
Lyr Req: Whalen's Fate (Doerflinger version) (6)
Shanty Gathering Ideas for New England (26)
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Musical question (chantey types) (30)
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help: Moby Dick shanty thread? (19)
Shantyfest at Mystic Seaport (3)
help a struggling student! - triple meter chant? (10)
Lyr Req: Seeking: 2 Shanties & 1 Traditional Folk (9)
Shanty background: Portland's Tunnels (32)
Rum, Sea Shanties and Women (27)
William Main Doerflinger 1909-2000 (15)


GUEST,Phil d'Conch 28 Sep 19 - 06:10 PM
Mrrzy 28 Sep 19 - 09:37 AM
Lighter 28 Sep 19 - 09:02 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 27 Sep 19 - 03:05 PM
Mrrzy 27 Sep 19 - 01:18 PM
Lighter 26 Sep 19 - 09:36 AM
GUEST,Spot 30 Aug 18 - 08:30 AM
Steve Gardham 31 May 18 - 04:52 PM
Steve Gardham 31 May 18 - 04:37 PM
Steve Gardham 31 May 18 - 04:25 PM
Steve Gardham 31 May 18 - 04:11 PM
Steve Gardham 31 May 18 - 04:00 PM
Steve Gardham 31 May 18 - 03:51 PM
Steve Gardham 31 May 18 - 03:41 PM
Steve Gardham 31 May 18 - 03:22 PM
Steve Gardham 31 May 18 - 08:45 AM
Gibb Sahib 31 May 18 - 04:07 AM
Steve Gardham 28 May 18 - 12:22 PM
Gibb Sahib 28 May 18 - 04:24 AM
Steve Gardham 16 May 18 - 05:21 PM
Gibb Sahib 15 May 18 - 10:28 PM
Lighter 15 May 18 - 09:50 PM
Gibb Sahib 15 May 18 - 08:23 PM
Gibb Sahib 15 May 18 - 08:05 PM
Lighter 15 May 18 - 05:18 PM
Steve Gardham 13 May 18 - 05:45 PM
Lighter 13 May 18 - 11:43 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 May 18 - 12:18 AM
Lighter 12 May 18 - 08:20 PM
Gibb Sahib 12 May 18 - 07:49 PM
Gibb Sahib 12 May 18 - 07:00 PM
Gibb Sahib 12 May 18 - 06:58 PM
RTim 12 May 18 - 05:11 PM
Lighter 12 May 18 - 04:16 PM
Steve Gardham 12 May 18 - 02:53 PM
Lighter 11 May 18 - 05:59 PM
Gibb Sahib 10 May 18 - 12:27 AM
Steve Gardham 09 May 18 - 06:12 PM
Lighter 03 May 18 - 09:08 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 02 May 18 - 12:08 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 02 May 18 - 12:05 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 31 Aug 17 - 02:40 PM
Gibb Sahib 31 Aug 17 - 01:36 PM
Dave Hanson 31 Aug 17 - 11:16 AM
Lighter 31 Aug 17 - 07:23 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 30 Aug 17 - 11:41 PM
Sandra in Sydney 30 Aug 17 - 09:48 PM
Gallus Moll 30 Aug 17 - 07:17 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 30 Aug 17 - 06:41 PM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 26 Aug 17 - 05:10 AM
GUEST,Phil d'Conch 24 Aug 17 - 09:52 PM
Steve Gardham 15 Jan 17 - 09:50 AM
Charley Noble 29 Oct 15 - 08:48 AM
Lighter 28 Oct 15 - 01:24 PM
Steve Gardham 24 Aug 15 - 02:34 PM
dick greenhaus 24 Aug 15 - 10:25 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Aug 15 - 08:05 AM
Steve Gardham 22 Aug 15 - 09:11 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Aug 15 - 10:59 PM
Gibb Sahib 15 Aug 15 - 07:04 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Aug 15 - 12:33 AM
GUEST,Andrew 23 Mar 15 - 09:42 AM
Lighter 26 Sep 14 - 08:23 AM
Lighter 23 Aug 14 - 06:21 PM
Gibb Sahib 23 Aug 14 - 05:15 PM
Lighter 23 Aug 14 - 10:45 AM
Gibb Sahib 23 Aug 14 - 08:25 AM
Gibb Sahib 23 Aug 14 - 07:56 AM
Lighter 23 Aug 14 - 07:41 AM
RTim 22 Aug 14 - 07:11 PM
Gibb Sahib 22 Aug 14 - 06:07 PM
Lighter 22 Aug 14 - 10:55 AM
Lighter 22 Aug 14 - 10:53 AM
Gibb Sahib 20 Jun 14 - 02:38 AM
Charley Noble 09 Jul 13 - 10:28 PM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jul 13 - 09:58 PM
Doodlepip 09 Jul 13 - 02:04 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Apr 13 - 03:53 PM
Lighter 14 Apr 13 - 09:45 AM
John Minear 14 Apr 13 - 07:50 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Apr 13 - 05:34 AM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jan 13 - 09:23 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jan 13 - 08:35 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jan 13 - 05:29 PM
GUEST,Lighter 27 Jan 13 - 05:12 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jan 13 - 05:00 PM
Charley Noble 27 Jan 13 - 04:52 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jan 13 - 04:36 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jan 13 - 04:22 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jan 13 - 03:35 PM
Charley Noble 26 Jan 13 - 08:44 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Jan 13 - 12:34 AM
Gibb Sahib 18 Jan 13 - 11:43 PM
Gibb Sahib 18 Jan 13 - 11:35 PM
John Minear 18 Jan 13 - 08:15 AM
Gibb Sahib 17 Jan 13 - 06:06 PM
John Minear 09 Jan 13 - 08:13 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 13 - 04:18 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 13 - 02:03 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 13 - 02:01 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 13 - 01:59 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 13 - 01:22 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 13 - 01:09 AM
GUEST,Lighter 11 Dec 12 - 07:49 PM
Gibb Sahib 11 Dec 12 - 07:45 PM
GUEST,Lighter 11 Dec 12 - 07:11 PM
GUEST 11 Dec 12 - 06:11 PM
Gibb Sahib 11 Dec 12 - 05:35 PM
Steve Gardham 11 Dec 12 - 05:04 PM
GUEST,Lighter 11 Dec 12 - 03:32 PM
Gibb Sahib 11 Dec 12 - 02:16 PM
GUEST,Lighter 11 Dec 12 - 07:37 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Dec 12 - 03:08 AM
GUEST,Lighter 10 Dec 12 - 09:12 PM
Steve Gardham 22 Jun 12 - 06:06 PM
GUEST,Lighter 22 Jun 12 - 04:13 PM
Gibb Sahib 22 Jun 12 - 03:38 PM
Charley Noble 22 Jun 12 - 03:29 PM
Charley Noble 22 Jun 12 - 03:28 PM
Steve Gardham 22 Jun 12 - 02:56 PM
GUEST,Lighter 22 Jun 12 - 10:05 AM
Charley Noble 22 Jun 12 - 08:40 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Jun 12 - 08:18 PM
Gibb Sahib 01 Oct 11 - 12:55 AM
Gibb Sahib 30 Sep 11 - 09:32 PM
Gibb Sahib 30 Sep 11 - 09:08 PM
Gibb Sahib 30 Sep 11 - 07:20 PM
Gibb Sahib 30 Sep 11 - 06:52 PM
Gibb Sahib 30 Sep 11 - 05:56 PM
Gibb Sahib 30 Sep 11 - 02:59 AM
Gibb Sahib 30 Sep 11 - 01:40 AM
Gibb Sahib 30 Sep 11 - 12:50 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 10:02 PM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 09:39 PM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 09:10 PM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 08:26 PM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 08:02 PM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 07:43 PM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 07:21 PM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 05:50 PM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 05:33 PM
Lighter 29 Sep 11 - 07:20 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 06:29 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 04:22 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 03:22 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 02:45 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Sep 11 - 02:13 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Sep 11 - 11:41 PM
Lighter 28 Sep 11 - 09:31 PM
Gibb Sahib 28 Sep 11 - 08:34 PM
Gibb Sahib 28 Sep 11 - 08:15 PM
Lighter 28 Sep 11 - 10:05 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Sep 11 - 07:01 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Sep 11 - 06:23 AM
Gibb Sahib 12 Sep 11 - 12:52 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Sep 11 - 11:55 PM
Gibb Sahib 11 Sep 11 - 11:22 PM
Gibb Sahib 11 Sep 11 - 11:10 PM
Gibb Sahib 11 Sep 11 - 10:54 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Aug 11 - 03:21 AM
Gibb Sahib 18 Aug 11 - 01:12 AM
Gibb Sahib 18 Aug 11 - 01:31 PM
Gibb Sahib 18 Aug 11 - 01:26 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Aug 11 - 04:53 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Aug 11 - 04:43 PM
RTim 13 Aug 11 - 08:38 PM
Gibb Sahib 13 Aug 11 - 08:30 PM
Gibb Sahib 13 Aug 11 - 08:20 PM
Gibb Sahib 13 Aug 11 - 04:53 PM
Charley Noble 13 Aug 11 - 04:23 PM
Gibb Sahib 13 Aug 11 - 03:57 PM
Charley Noble 13 Aug 11 - 11:30 AM
John Minear 13 Aug 11 - 11:01 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 Aug 11 - 03:21 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 Aug 11 - 02:32 AM
Gibb Sahib 12 Aug 11 - 04:38 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Aug 11 - 04:54 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Aug 11 - 02:16 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Aug 11 - 02:00 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Aug 11 - 01:18 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Aug 11 - 12:09 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Aug 11 - 10:48 PM
GUEST,Lighter 09 Aug 11 - 09:44 PM
Charley Noble 09 Aug 11 - 07:58 PM
Gibb Sahib 09 Aug 11 - 06:43 PM
GUEST,Lighter 05 Aug 11 - 04:04 PM
Gibb Sahib 05 Aug 11 - 03:56 PM
Gibb Sahib 05 Aug 11 - 03:54 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Aug 11 - 09:35 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Aug 11 - 02:16 AM
Gibb Sahib 04 Aug 11 - 02:13 AM
Gibb Sahib 03 Aug 11 - 11:50 PM
Gibb Sahib 03 Aug 11 - 11:45 PM
Gibb Sahib 03 Aug 11 - 06:01 PM
Gibb Sahib 03 Aug 11 - 04:39 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jul 11 - 01:50 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jul 11 - 01:43 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jul 11 - 01:40 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jul 11 - 01:32 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jul 11 - 01:26 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jul 11 - 01:22 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jul 11 - 01:12 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jul 11 - 01:05 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jul 11 - 01:02 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jul 11 - 12:13 AM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jul 11 - 11:58 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jul 11 - 11:52 PM
Charley Noble 16 Jul 11 - 10:13 PM
Gibb Sahib 16 Jul 11 - 05:13 PM
GUEST,Lighter 16 Jul 11 - 04:05 PM
Gibb Sahib 16 Jul 11 - 03:55 PM
GUEST,Lighter 16 Jul 11 - 10:44 AM
Charley Noble 16 Jul 11 - 09:39 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Jul 11 - 10:26 PM
Gibb Sahib 15 Jul 11 - 10:23 PM
Gibb Sahib 13 Jul 11 - 07:42 PM
Gibb Sahib 12 Jul 11 - 08:00 PM
Gibb Sahib 12 Jul 11 - 05:02 PM
GUEST,Lighter 12 Jul 11 - 04:41 PM
John Minear 12 Jul 11 - 08:54 AM
John Minear 12 Jul 11 - 08:47 AM
Gibb Sahib 12 Jul 11 - 02:53 AM
Gibb Sahib 12 Jul 11 - 02:52 AM
Gibb Sahib 12 Jul 11 - 02:50 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Jul 11 - 06:29 PM
John Minear 11 Jul 11 - 11:58 AM
Charley Noble 10 Jul 11 - 08:27 PM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jul 11 - 07:40 PM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jul 11 - 07:38 PM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jul 11 - 07:03 PM
Gibb Sahib 06 Jul 11 - 07:48 PM
John Minear 06 Jul 11 - 08:26 AM
Gibb Sahib 06 Jul 11 - 05:56 AM
Gibb Sahib 05 Jul 11 - 09:49 PM
Gibb Sahib 05 Jul 11 - 09:15 PM
Gibb Sahib 05 Jul 11 - 07:33 PM
Gibb Sahib 05 Jul 11 - 06:07 PM
Gibb Sahib 05 Jul 11 - 05:24 PM
Gibb Sahib 05 Jul 11 - 04:54 PM
Gibb Sahib 05 Jul 11 - 04:16 PM
Lighter 05 Jul 11 - 12:46 PM
Q (Frank Staplin) 04 Jul 11 - 10:52 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Jul 11 - 10:35 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Jul 11 - 10:14 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Jul 11 - 09:52 PM
Lighter 04 Jul 11 - 07:44 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Jul 11 - 06:11 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Jul 11 - 05:42 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Jul 11 - 05:37 PM
Gibb Sahib 04 Jul 11 - 03:29 PM
Charley Noble 04 Jul 11 - 11:53 AM
GUEST 04 Jul 11 - 07:14 AM
Gibb Sahib 04 Jul 11 - 02:41 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jun 11 - 12:17 AM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jun 11 - 09:01 PM
Charley Noble 27 Jun 11 - 08:19 PM
GUEST,Lighter 27 Jun 11 - 08:09 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jun 11 - 06:18 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Jun 11 - 05:11 PM
Charley Noble 23 Apr 11 - 11:12 AM
Gibb Sahib 23 Apr 11 - 03:07 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Mar 11 - 02:36 PM
Lighter 29 Mar 11 - 11:20 AM
John Minear 29 Mar 11 - 10:57 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Mar 11 - 03:41 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Mar 11 - 03:31 AM
John Minear 27 Mar 11 - 08:17 AM
John Minear 27 Mar 11 - 08:01 AM
Gibb Sahib 27 Mar 11 - 03:53 AM
Gibb Sahib 26 Mar 11 - 08:31 PM
Gibb Sahib 19 Mar 11 - 03:04 AM
Lighter 16 Mar 11 - 11:16 AM
Gibb Sahib 16 Mar 11 - 04:16 AM
Gibb Sahib 16 Mar 11 - 04:08 AM
open mike 16 Mar 11 - 02:54 AM
open mike 16 Mar 11 - 02:51 AM
Gibb Sahib 16 Mar 11 - 02:50 AM
Gibb Sahib 16 Mar 11 - 02:28 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Mar 11 - 04:00 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Mar 11 - 07:03 AM
Lighter 13 Mar 11 - 11:07 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 Mar 11 - 06:00 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Mar 11 - 09:36 PM
Charley Noble 11 Mar 11 - 08:00 PM
Lighter 11 Mar 11 - 03:11 PM
Gibb Sahib 11 Mar 11 - 02:57 PM
Lighter 11 Mar 11 - 10:58 AM
Charley Noble 11 Mar 11 - 07:50 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Mar 11 - 05:24 AM
Gibb Sahib 11 Mar 11 - 05:10 AM
GUEST,Lighter 07 Mar 11 - 09:00 PM
GUEST 07 Mar 11 - 08:38 PM
Gibb Sahib 07 Mar 11 - 05:50 AM
Lighter 06 Mar 11 - 09:00 AM
Gibb Sahib 06 Mar 11 - 04:43 AM
Gibb Sahib 06 Mar 11 - 02:48 AM
Gibb Sahib 05 Mar 11 - 02:36 PM
Gibb Sahib 05 Mar 11 - 04:51 AM
Gibb Sahib 05 Mar 11 - 01:55 AM
Gibb Sahib 02 Mar 11 - 03:03 AM
Gibb Sahib 02 Mar 11 - 02:35 AM
Gibb Sahib 02 Mar 11 - 02:31 AM
Lighter 28 Feb 11 - 08:25 AM
Charley Noble 28 Feb 11 - 07:26 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Feb 11 - 05:44 AM
Charley Noble 27 Feb 11 - 12:29 PM
Lighter 27 Feb 11 - 09:24 AM
Gibb Sahib 26 Feb 11 - 11:50 PM
Gibb Sahib 25 Feb 11 - 05:32 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Feb 11 - 11:52 PM
John Minear 24 Feb 11 - 06:20 PM
Lighter 24 Feb 11 - 05:53 PM
Gibb Sahib 24 Feb 11 - 02:48 PM
Lighter 24 Feb 11 - 09:16 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Feb 11 - 03:26 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Feb 11 - 12:08 AM
GUEST,Lighter 22 Feb 11 - 08:39 PM
John Minear 21 Feb 11 - 08:43 PM
GUEST,Lighter 21 Feb 11 - 08:08 PM
Gibb Sahib 21 Feb 11 - 06:22 PM
Charley Noble 21 Feb 11 - 01:17 PM
Lighter 21 Feb 11 - 12:19 PM
GUEST,Azizi 21 Feb 11 - 11:21 AM
GUEST,Azizi 21 Feb 11 - 11:17 AM
GUEST 21 Feb 11 - 10:48 AM
Charley Noble 21 Feb 11 - 10:18 AM
John Minear 21 Feb 11 - 08:20 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Feb 11 - 02:45 AM
Gibb Sahib 18 Feb 11 - 03:47 PM
Charley Noble 18 Feb 11 - 08:00 AM
Gibb Sahib 18 Feb 11 - 02:27 AM
Charley Noble 17 Feb 11 - 07:49 AM
Gibb Sahib 17 Feb 11 - 05:19 AM
Gibb Sahib 16 Feb 11 - 04:53 AM
Gibb Sahib 16 Feb 11 - 03:52 AM
Gibb Sahib 16 Feb 11 - 03:06 AM
Lighter 15 Feb 11 - 08:44 PM
Gibb Sahib 15 Feb 11 - 06:17 PM
Lighter 15 Feb 11 - 03:55 PM
Lighter 15 Feb 11 - 03:14 PM
Gibb Sahib 15 Feb 11 - 05:20 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Feb 11 - 03:09 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Feb 11 - 02:55 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Feb 11 - 02:22 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Feb 11 - 02:06 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Feb 11 - 01:48 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Feb 11 - 01:44 AM
Gibb Sahib 15 Feb 11 - 01:02 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 11:14 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 09:21 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 08:50 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 08:29 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 07:46 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 06:57 PM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 06:40 PM
Lighter 14 Feb 11 - 07:46 AM
Charley Noble 14 Feb 11 - 07:31 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 06:09 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 04:55 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 04:21 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 04:00 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 03:39 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 03:09 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Feb 11 - 02:20 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 Feb 11 - 05:48 PM
Lighter 13 Feb 11 - 02:01 PM
John Minear 13 Feb 11 - 12:33 PM
John Minear 13 Feb 11 - 07:21 AM
Dead Horse 13 Feb 11 - 06:41 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 Feb 11 - 03:58 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 Feb 11 - 03:11 AM
Gibb Sahib 02 Feb 11 - 12:15 AM
GUEST 31 Jan 11 - 09:30 AM
Gibb Sahib 30 Jan 11 - 03:42 PM
Leadfingers 30 Jan 11 - 06:16 AM
John Minear 29 Jan 11 - 10:45 AM
Lighter 29 Jan 11 - 10:32 AM
Snuffy 29 Jan 11 - 09:24 AM
Gibb Sahib 28 Jan 11 - 06:55 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Jan 11 - 05:59 AM
John Minear 23 Jan 11 - 07:48 AM
Gibb Sahib 23 Jan 11 - 07:47 AM
Gibb Sahib 23 Jan 11 - 07:13 AM
Gibb Sahib 23 Jan 11 - 12:13 AM
Gibb Sahib 22 Jan 11 - 10:11 PM
Lighter 22 Jan 11 - 09:04 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Jan 11 - 09:45 PM
Gibb Sahib 21 Jan 11 - 03:14 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Jan 11 - 01:36 AM
John Minear 20 Jan 11 - 08:40 AM
Gibb Sahib 20 Jan 11 - 04:35 AM
Gibb Sahib 18 Jan 11 - 05:36 AM
Gibb Sahib 17 Jan 11 - 09:38 PM
Gibb Sahib 17 Jan 11 - 08:56 PM
Gibb Sahib 17 Jan 11 - 07:03 PM
Gibb Sahib 17 Jan 11 - 06:24 PM
Gibb Sahib 17 Jan 11 - 04:24 PM
Lighter 17 Jan 11 - 03:02 PM
Gibb Sahib 17 Jan 11 - 05:25 AM
Gibb Sahib 17 Jan 11 - 05:16 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Jan 11 - 03:14 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Jan 11 - 01:33 AM
Gibb Sahib 14 Jan 11 - 12:42 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 Jan 11 - 11:16 PM
Gibb Sahib 13 Jan 11 - 06:35 AM
Gibb Sahib 13 Jan 11 - 06:19 AM
Gibb Sahib 12 Jan 11 - 03:40 PM
Gibb Sahib 12 Jan 11 - 03:12 PM
Gibb Sahib 12 Jan 11 - 05:58 AM
Gibb Sahib 12 Jan 11 - 05:03 AM
John Minear 10 Jan 11 - 12:26 PM
GUEST,shipcmo 10 Jan 11 - 08:49 AM
GUEST,shipcmo 10 Jan 11 - 07:19 AM
GUEST,shipcmo 10 Jan 11 - 06:42 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 04:18 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 04:09 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 03:14 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 03:03 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 02:31 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 02:07 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 01:48 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 01:22 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 12:31 AM
Gibb Sahib 10 Jan 11 - 12:11 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 11:54 PM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 11:14 PM
Lighter 09 Jan 11 - 06:13 PM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 03:43 PM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 03:28 PM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 04:41 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 04:32 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 03:29 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 03:12 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 02:38 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 01:57 AM
Gibb Sahib 09 Jan 11 - 01:22 AM
Gibb Sahib 08 Jan 11 - 04:09 PM
GUEST 07 Jan 11 - 02:00 PM
Gibb Sahib 31 Dec 10 - 03:15 AM
Gibb Sahib 31 Dec 10 - 02:59 AM
Gibb Sahib 31 Dec 10 - 02:39 AM
Gibb Sahib 31 Dec 10 - 01:26 AM
Lighter 30 Dec 10 - 09:03 AM
Charley Noble 30 Dec 10 - 08:54 AM
Gibb Sahib 30 Dec 10 - 05:39 AM
shipcmo 29 Dec 10 - 06:16 PM
Lighter 29 Dec 10 - 05:40 PM
Lighter 29 Dec 10 - 01:24 PM
Gibb Sahib 29 Dec 10 - 04:25 AM
Jim Carroll 29 Dec 10 - 03:45 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Dec 10 - 02:02 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Dec 10 - 01:56 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Dec 10 - 01:44 AM
Gibb Sahib 29 Dec 10 - 12:59 AM
Gibb Sahib 27 Dec 10 - 05:17 PM
Gibb Sahib 27 Dec 10 - 05:02 PM
GUEST,Lighter 27 Dec 10 - 12:18 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Dec 10 - 10:48 PM
Gibb Sahib 26 Dec 10 - 10:42 PM
Charley Noble 26 Dec 10 - 02:40 PM
John Minear 26 Dec 10 - 12:44 PM
John Minear 26 Dec 10 - 11:57 AM
Gibb Sahib 26 Dec 10 - 04:24 AM
Gibb Sahib 26 Dec 10 - 04:16 AM
Gibb Sahib 26 Dec 10 - 04:00 AM
Gibb Sahib 26 Dec 10 - 03:48 AM
Gibb Sahib 26 Dec 10 - 03:27 AM
Gibb Sahib 26 Dec 10 - 03:05 AM
Charley Noble 25 Dec 10 - 09:05 AM
Gibb Sahib 25 Dec 10 - 03:49 AM
Gibb Sahib 25 Dec 10 - 03:07 AM
Gibb Sahib 25 Dec 10 - 02:18 AM
Gibb Sahib 25 Dec 10 - 01:32 AM
Gibb Sahib 25 Dec 10 - 12:10 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Dec 10 - 11:58 PM
Charley Noble 24 Dec 10 - 02:45 PM
John Minear 24 Dec 10 - 10:05 AM
John Minear 24 Dec 10 - 09:42 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Dec 10 - 05:33 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Dec 10 - 04:21 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Dec 10 - 03:42 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Dec 10 - 03:35 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Dec 10 - 03:22 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Dec 10 - 03:10 AM
Gibb Sahib 24 Dec 10 - 02:45 AM
Steve Gardham 23 Dec 10 - 05:11 PM
Gibb Sahib 23 Dec 10 - 04:24 PM
Gibb Sahib 22 Dec 10 - 12:40 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Dec 10 - 04:42 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Dec 10 - 04:17 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Dec 10 - 03:55 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Dec 10 - 03:33 AM
Gibb Sahib 21 Dec 10 - 03:05 AM
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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 28 Sep 19 - 06:10 PM

Maritime work song tradition is measurably older than the English (chanty) + French (chanson) languages laid end-to-end.

And there are more allowances, and synonyms, for 'sailor' than one can count. American cotton screwers were land based unions working alongshore. G. E. Clark's and Charles Nordhoff's chantymen wouldn't meet the dictionary definition of chanty. Neither would T.W. Higginson's gospel singing, U.S.A. infantry oarsmen.

U.S. and Royal Navy fiddle, fife & drum instrumentals or Catholic vespers as capstan cadences would not be a 'qualitative' step backward on any scientific or practical level. Both are older than, and coexisted with, the chanty era.

The usage of the chanty genre label and the practical application of nautical work song have entirely different critical attributes and sorting criteria.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Mrrzy
Date: 28 Sep 19 - 09:37 AM

So there have been chanteys as long as there have been boats. That's what I thought... Yet the examining of the 19th century ones remains fascinating. Of the English ones at least. Must be Dutch Spanish Portuguese ones too, 19th c I mean.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 28 Sep 19 - 09:02 AM

Mrrzy's musing about why rowing song are not usually thought of as chanteys, led me to check the definition of the word in major dictionaries.

Definitions range from extremely specific (Chambers's 1908): "a sailor's song, usually with a drawling refrain, sung in concert while raising the anchor, &c."    (Sorry about "sung in concert": hmmm, meanings change.)

To the most general (Macmillan): "a song that sailors sing."

As for the two most prestigious dictionaries, Oxford allows wiggle room:

"A sailor's song, esp. one sung during heavy work"

that Merriam-Webster doesn't :

"a song sung by sailors in rhythm with their work"

Folklorists generally require that a "chantey" must be sung by sailors for shipboard work. If rowers are sailors and small boats propelled by oars are ships, then folklorists should consider rowing songs to be chanteys.

But they don't, because they're not. On the other hand, the teeming millions who define "sea chantey" as "any song related to the sea" would have no problem applying the word to a rowing song.

And, of course, one may speak "figuratively" too.

So that's settled....


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 27 Sep 19 - 03:05 PM

Naval science considers the Battle of Lepanto (1571) to be the turning point from muscle to wind power but large vessels continued to use oars and sweeps as auxiliary propulsion until the advent of steam.

The chanty era began and ended entirely within the steam age. The steam powered rotary printing press had far more effect on popular culture than sails, oars or engines.

Chanties sound less like 18th century plain song or plain chant and more like 19th century popular song because... they were produced, packaged and consumed by 19th century popular culture.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Mrrzy
Date: 27 Sep 19 - 01:18 PM

Question: are y'all positing that the shift from dugout/early boat to sails and requiring a crew brought a *qualitative* change in the worksongs sung? That actually might make sense, given the class distinction between crew and officers which was likely absent in canoes. The dugout folks would certainly have had seafaring work songs. Which we don't call chanteys for a reason which escapes me (2nd question).
I am thoroughly enjoying this thread. Thanks, refresher.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Sep 19 - 09:36 AM

Dr. J. E. Crockett of Boston wrote a *very* brief note to the Boston Herald in 1916 about chanteys he'd sung at sea in his youth:

"The words of the solo of all chanties were mostly made up or improvised, mostly as hits on matters pertaining to the ship, officers, and crew."

He gives on stanza of a chantey that used the pattern of "Sing Song Kitchee Kitchee Ki Me O" (as "Sing song Polly, can't you ri-me-o?")

He gives one couplet to illustrate:

"I knew a fellow and his name was Bill,...
And he went around gathering swill."

Crockett mentioned that he'd recently "turned 83."


So he was presumably at sea about 1850.

The use of couplets (often with a repeated line) with nonsensical refrains to satirize people, places, and things may have reached a pinnacle in World War One's "Hinky Dinky Parlez-Vous."

"Johnny Fill Up the Bowl" (and"When Johnny Comes Marching Home Again" functioned similarly in the Civil War.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Spot
Date: 30 Aug 18 - 08:30 AM

Here is a 'major piece of work' on shanties in case people have not seen it. It is by a well respected blues historian, so may be of interest.


https://www.earlyblues.com/Essay%20-%20Blues%20at%20Sea.htm


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 May 18 - 04:52 PM

Ah, I've found the transcription of the tape. I acquired it in 1969. The quality of recording is very poor but could perhaps be digitised. The singers are German and English seamen on board ship accompanied by an organ/accordeon of some sort.

Among some modern songs they sang Sacramento in German, Rolling Home, and Shenandoah which I haven't transcribed.


Sally Brown (First 3 verse seem pretty standard.)

O Sally Brown, she's a bright mulatto
Way, hay, she roll and go
O she drinks rum and chews terbaccer
Spend my money on Sally Brown

Seven long years I courted Sally
She's my own, my favourite Sally

O Sally Brown was a Creole lady
I know she's got a n.....r baby

O Sally Brown I kissed goodbye ter
I've sailed too long across the water

O Sally Brown has a big buck n.....r
Her bow is big but his starn is bigger.

O Sally Brown she wears red laces
O man aloft the white pull stays'ls (not sure if this is right)


What shall we do with a drunken sailor etc.

Put him in the longboat till he's sober etc.

What shall we do with a drunken skipper? etc.

Rub on the belly with a (not clear) etc.

That's what we do with a drunken sailor. etc.



A hundred years is a very long time
Oh, yes, oh
Yes, a hundred years is a very long time
A hundred years ago.

They thought that the moon was made of cheese
You can believe this if you please.

They thought that the stars were set alight
By some angels every night.

I thought I heard the old man say
that this old ship was leaving today.

(Ever since 69 I have incorporated these last 3 verses into my version of John Kanaka)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 May 18 - 04:37 PM

Captain Yates served his apprenticeship in sail and was a Cape-Horner of many years standing. He was 78 in 1970 when I recorded him. He recorded the chanties himself as a sort of voyage scenario with the orders to go with the tasks. The songs I recorded from him were the forebitters and other pieces.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 May 18 - 04:25 PM

Ted Calcott was on the Argentine meat run in tops'l riggers. He talks about shanghaiing sailors on the Barbary Coast and of killing and eating a cabin boy when cast adrift in a lifeboat.

He was born in Willesden in London and first came to Hull (where I recorded him) in 1899. He was 86 when I recorded him in a pub in 1967. Therefore born in 1881.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 May 18 - 04:11 PM

Captain Norman Yates I recorded in 1970. This is on C1009/6 tracks 5 - 23.

Includes
Sailor's Alphabet
Rio Grande
A-Roving
Blow the Man Down
Whiskey Johnny
Drunken Sailor
No more pulling on the lee-fore brace
Spanish Ladies
Rolling Home
Sacramento (Blackball Line)
Roll the Cotton Down
Blow, Boys, Blow
than some repeats
All accompanied on banjo.
I suspect these are more likely to be derivative.

I also have a tape somewhere I have had since the 60s which was passed on to me of a group of seamen singing chanties. I don't remember who gave me it or know who is singing on it. It didn't make it onto the BL online collection because it wasn't something I had recorded myself. It does sound like real seamen singing rather than folksingers. I'll try to find it and at least transcribe what they were singing.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 May 18 - 04:00 PM

Here are the online references for some of the chanties I recorded from old capehorners in the 60s. At the British Library Sound Archive if you search my name it will bring up my collection C1009. 2 chanty singers are at C1009/2.

Jack Smith was an east coast bargeman out of Hull, tracks 6 to 20.
Includes
Bold Princess Royal
Rolling Home
Blow the Man Down
A Roving
Dogger Bank
Ten Thousand Miles Away
Wild Rover
Kitty Wells
Tom Bowling

Ted Calcott was a Londoner and old Cape-Horner before the mast
, tracks 21-29 include
Ratcliffe Highway (Blow the Man Down)
Rolling Home
Whiskey Johnny
Rio Grande
Sacramento
Ratcliffe Highway again and talk of Shenandoah
Then some Cockney popular songs from the 1890s


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 May 18 - 03:51 PM

p86
The ship had run out of tobacco while running round the west coast and the sailors wanted to pull into Fremantle to remedy the situation.

'The chantymen in both watches added verses to their chanties drawing pointed attention to their need for a smoke.'

p87
'In any other lime-juice ship the poor food and the ordinary discomforts of the sea life would have formed the basis of dogwatch songs, to be sung round the main hatch to the accompaniment of music played on dilapidated combs. Except for chanties there was little singing in the 'Bellands' that voyage.'


p92
'As at last we warped her through the lock gates at St. Nazaire, the chantyman shouted verse after verse of long-prepared imprecations upon her, for her tobaccoless voyage, her ham-fisted sailing, her food shortage, her long swelter in the doldrums. I sang the choruses as loudly as the rest, but it was not the ship that should have been criticised.'


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 May 18 - 03:41 PM

P54
….there were rude comments in the chanties at the many pully-haulie jobs. The soloist in the chanties had traditional liberty to improvise and was free to criticise anything. In this way the sailors let off some steam. no one ever paid attention to their broad and frequently blasphemous hints.....

The favourite time for a rousing chanty was when the tops'l halliards were manned, which was generally at the change of the watches. there was a Welshman for'ard--one of our few Britishers there who sang extremely well and was a first-rate improvisor.
    "Oh, our old man he don't set no sail!" he'd begin, all hands trailing on the stout line ready to come in with two mighty shouts of "Leave her, Johnny, leave her" and two hearty synchronised hauls which would shift the yard about a quarter of a foot.

    "An I could 'a stayed in a lovely jail!" Again the soloist sang melodiously.

"Oh, leave her, Johnny, leave her,
With all night in and plenty of ale.
Leave her....
'Stead o' driftin' about the Tasman Sea.
Oh, a Jackshite's life it ain't for me!
Leave her...….
Cos there ain't no grub an' there ain't no pay!
Leave her......
But they tell me we'll come in some day,
Leave her......
Before then we'll be eating hay!
Leave her ......
Now it's time for me to shout belay!


"Belay the halliards there! Do you want to jam the parral in the bloody cross-trees?" Jackie would shout, and a couple of strong men would run to the fore-part of the halliards, by the block, while at a shout of "Come up there!" all the others let go, and the line was quickly belayed round its pin.'


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 May 18 - 03:22 PM

Apart from his biography the only book of Villiers that I have read so far is 'The Set of the Sails-Adventures of a cape Horn Seaman' 1949.

p32
'The second mate shouted at boys aloft to overhaul buntlines, clear gaskets, see what the hell was in the way of the t'gall'nt sheets. the strong young sailors, drunk to a man, manned the haliards lustily and mastheaded the two tops'l and t'gall'nt yards as if they had been broomsticks. they went at everything with such a will that they never finished a chanty, and the chanties they sang were such as I had never read in any books.' (I think this was his first sea voyage before the mast as a youngster)


p40

'Eight bells! Struck mighty fast , and the clock flogged by the impatient mate.
"All hands close-reef the main tops'l"

We struggled up on deck, where the fierce wind cut into us after the fug of the half-deck. A hurried muster; no shout of relieve the wheel and lookout as usual (they could remain where they were till the tops'ls was subdued), and all hands hastened in their heavy oilskins and sea-boots to the main rigging, port watch to port and starboard to starboard, and in a moment the melodious shouts of the chanty-singers rose against the tumult of the west wind. the yard was lowered to its lifts, the reef tackles manned, and the reef cringles in each leech hauled snug to the yardarms.'


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 31 May 18 - 08:45 AM

Got you.
Will do.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 31 May 18 - 04:07 AM

Steve, you're not catching my subtle implication... which has nothing to do with authority (I consider everyone to be an authority on their own experience), but rather: Just tell us some specifics of the book's contents! ;)

We have 80% (I'm randomly guesstimating!) of available sources posted up here with details here, and we *can* discern whether Villiers' info and/or examples fits into well-worn narratives or if it's fresh etc etc. We can check up on whether his "Leave Her" matches what we've seen before, for example. We just need to know what it is!


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 28 May 18 - 12:22 PM

Difficult to say, Gibb. I don't doubt that he had first-hand experience of Chanty usage in situ. He sailed out of Australia in some pretty basic sailing ships under dodgy conditions and seems to write with authority. He certainly had a great love of sailing the seas. He writes of the competing of tall ships in the run from Australia to the UK. I don't know of many other deep-water men of that time who wrote with authority and served before the mast. However, it wasn't long before he was skippering such ships as there weren't that many left with the required knowledge. In the latter years the tall ships seem to have been manned by very young Scandinavians who knew little about the chanties.


I have recorded chanties myself in the 60s from deep-water seamen and these can be listened to on the British Library Sound Archive. I'll put some details out when I can get the time. I'm working on a presentation at the moment.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 May 18 - 04:24 AM

Hi, Steve-- thanks!

I know about Villiers, but I'm wondering what makes these particular references (in 1949, following the myth-making period and rather late to be memories of eye-witness stuff) distinguishable from other data. For example: Does Villiers provide good assurance that they are first-hand observations? Are they music or verbal texts that appear to be unique? Is Villiers making a commentary that provides quality evidence of the history/genre itself, or does it tell us more about Villiers and his time?


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 16 May 18 - 05:21 PM

One of Villiers' books is 'The Set of the Sails' 1949 which has lots of references to singing chanties. He was from Adelaide in Australia and he sought out the last of the tall ships to sail in in the 20s. I haven't got to hand the date he first went to sea. The useful chanty references in that book are pp 32, 40, 54, 86, 87, 92. There is an unusual text for 'Leave her, Johnny' on p54.

I know Villiers wrote several books. At times he came ashore as a journalist. I had a copy of his biography but passed it on to Les Fromull, I think. This would contain a list of all his works.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 15 May 18 - 10:28 PM

Thanks for the more details of Hutcheson! I think you did present that one, partially, before; I have notes from it in my draft writing about cotton screwing. I've been trying to pull together a piece that makes sense of all the data on the topic.

Among the points that I hope to make is that the foremen of the chanty gangs (cotton screwing gangs) belong to the ports. The would scrape up the other four men to constitute the gang. That's opposed to 5 guys, which may have come off a ship, getting hired. This is significant because the foreman is the chantyman, and it suggests that he would be the one based in the local chanty singing practice, to which the migrant laborers would conform when hired.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 15 May 18 - 09:50 PM

Gibb, you should look up that entire article. It's a model of nostalgic schmaltz - the very best kind, if you ask me.

"Whiskey, Johnny" is the only chantey mentioned. And it's entirely possible that the reporter was a little hazy on what a "main sheet" is.

Meanwhile ...

On June 9, 1934, the Wellington [N.Z.] Evening Post printed a letter from 78-year-old John Hutcheson, listing the titles of chanteys he'd learned as an "apprentice in a Western Ocean packet-ship (Liverpool-New York)" in 1871:

"Reuben Ranzo"
"Johnnie Boker"
"Paddy Doyle"
"Blow, my Bully Boys, Blow"
"Tom's Gone to Hilo"
"John France Wah"
"Whisky for my Johnnie!"
"Hurrah, My Boys, We're Homeward Bound!"
"Santa Anna"
"Shenandoah"
"Heave Away, My Johnnie, Heave Away-ay"
"Old Stormalong"
"Oh! You New York Girls, Can't You Dance the Polka?"

Hutcheson also quotes two lines from the forebitter, "The Stately Southerner," though he doesn't identify the song by name:

"When bending low her bosom in snow,
She buried the lee cathead.’”


Besides the "Western Ocean" shanties, Hutcheson mentions that:

“I have heard the Mississippi Screwmen (the very aristocrats of labour) screwing cotton in the hold till they raised the decks to the sound of 'Hurrah for the Bonnie Blue Flag that Flies the Single Star!' etc. I've heard the Jamaica niggers sing 'The Saucy Rosabella' or 'Waitin' for de Steamboat,' or 'Jimmy Riley,' etc., as they rolled the big hogsheads of raw sugar or hove at the winch discharging their coastal drogher; I've heard the coolies in Moulmein chanting as they staged rice over the side; but of all the sea songs, for real life and go, give me the good old vulgar, obscene Western Ocean chanty before them all.


Mention of “The Saucy Rosabella” is valuable. Horace P. Beck also found it being sung in the Caribbean in the 1950s. Hutcheson's 1870s date for "Can't You Dance the Polka?" may be uniquely early. I can't identify "Jimmy Riley" unless (as seems likely) it's "Old Billy Riley."]

Further, Hutcheson mentions that “The language of the average sailorman in those days was, as [the American humorist] Bill Nye puts it, ‘painful and frequent and free,’ and was scarcely fit for polite society. Some of the most popular chanties just could not be written - they'd set the paper afire!” Concerning sung complaints about the officers, the food, and the treatment, “It's wonderful what they got away with when expressed allegorically to music.”

Hutcheson seems unaware that any shanties had ever been printed. “Of course, the music could be scored, but that's a job nobody seems to have done yet.”


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 15 May 18 - 08:23 PM

Tangentially related:

I don't know whether I've shared this before, but I got a group together on a brigantine to try hoisting a fore and aft sail (gaff) with chanties. This is something I've never read of being done, so it was an experiment to see how it might work. Namely, it involves hauling on two different halyards in consort, while commands are given periodically for one or the other halyard haulers to hold. To do this, would you have one chantyman? That's very awkward. So, we tried having a chantyman at each halyard! Granted, the operation could go more smoothly if the crew was more experienced at being attentive to the mate's commands.

Here is an audio recording of the experience. I am chantyman on the throat halyard and one of my students was chantyman on the peak halyard. Note: We decided (based on experience) that towards the end of the haul, which tends to be more difficult, we'd switch from halyard chanties to short drag chants. Since the decision to switch to the short drag was based on the subjective impression of "when the work was getting too hard" (and since this was also affected by the inexperience of the crew, for whom it may have felt "too hard" at an earlier point than is usual), the short drag segments went on a bit long.

https://soundcloud.com/user-225366318/chanty-sing-while-setting-mainsail-on-brig

During the same voyage we conducted numerous upper topsail hoists (with chanties) on the foremast, varying the number of haulers, tempo and style of the chanties. But these did not get recorded.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 15 May 18 - 08:05 PM

Hi Steve,

I don't have data from Villiers in my notes, which may mean that I didn't look or it may mean that I've looked through his books (for example, I reviewed a lot of books of that sort at Mystic Seaport's library) and decided the information was not so notable. Probably the former. Could you give us a summary?

Lighter,

The last account is pretty fun, presented as it is as an account of the "last" clipper ship. The attribution of a halyard song (as I believe "Whiskey Johnny" is *without* much flexibility) to the main sheet is something I don't recall seeing before. Which could mean this is either an interesting exception or a misattribution by the author. Hard to say.

The nature of the work of hauling the main sheet, in my experience, does not fit well with chanties in this form. Generally one pulls on the main sheet willy nilly until all the slack is taken out, and then one or a few so called "short drag" chanties may come into play to get the last slack out. Said differently, the task of hauling a sheet entails pulling until a line is taut (well, until the corner of the sail, sometimes stubborn, comes into place), versus hauling a halyard which lifts a yard gradually into place but which doesn't require such force.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 15 May 18 - 05:18 PM

"LAST CLIPPER SHIP SAILS AWAY UPON SEA OF MEMORIES," Boston Daily Globe (Oct. 22, 1925), p. 4:

"New York (Oct. 21)...The last American clipper ship has 'set sail' on her final voyage, a journey from the realm of things material to the land of memories. Within a few weeks she will be junked, ground to bits...., torn down because she has outlived her usefulness.

"A little group of sober-faced men ... who had swabbed her decks and oiled her masts in years gone by, men who raced with her round the Horn,...gathered today on the decks of the Benjamin F. Packard, last of the clippers, to bid her farewell.

"...Some little ceremony was planned.Capt. D. J. Martin, who brought the Packard safely through on her last trip, ...grasped the halyards, the little group in the waist faced aft, and with bared heads watched the ensign flutter to the deck.

"But it did not stay down, for Capt. Martin sent it aloft again immediately. ...The response was instantaneous...as an involuntary cheer broke from husky throats.

"'Champagne is good and so is rum,' boomed Capt. P. B. Blanchard. In a flash, the 'crew' was at the main sheet, hauling away and roaring the chorus: 'Whisky for my Johnny.'

"'And beer is good enough for some,
But whisky for my Johnny.'

"...Captained by a phantom skipper, manned by a ghostly crew of bygone days, she will sail on in the remembrance of those who trod today, for the last time, the decks of a clipper ship. Better than a painted ship upon a painted ocean, she will be recalled to sail around many a fireside, when old skippers gather to swap yarns."


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 13 May 18 - 05:45 PM

Gibb
January 2017 I asked if you were aware of the chanteys in Alan Villiers' books. I presume you are because he wrote an intro for Hugill's SfTSS.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 13 May 18 - 11:43 AM

Victorian writers who mention specific chanteys in contemporaneous use - and express an opinion - often disparage the words, though not usually the music. As a mundane, rather than a vanishing, activity, chanteying was not usually regarded as holding any interest for the educated public. It was at best a diverting curiosity.

From Henry John Webber, "The Voyagers’ Companion and Adviser" (London: The Author, 1885) p.20:


"About every four hours the sailors had to pump the ship; they always did so about half-past seven in the evening, when they would lighten their labours with a song. All their songs were celebrated for strong choruses, but for what else, I will leave you to judge by the following specimens. The burden of one of them was an illustrious lady rejoicing in the name of Brown, the chorus of which was:--

                Sally! Sally! round the corner, Sally Brown!
                Hi! hi! hi! hi! round the corner, Sally!

"No less sublime and beautiful is the following effusion:--

                Huzza! huzza! huzza! my boys, huzza!
                Then fare you well, my bonnie brown gal,
                        Britannia rules the main!

"This is highly patriotic:--

                Victoria! Victoria ! very well done, Jim Crow-o-o!
                Victoria ! Victoria! very well done, Jim Crow!

"The beauty and romance of the following must be apparent to every intelligent observer :—

                Yankee John, storm along;
                        Hurrah for Liza Lee!
                Yankee John, storm along;
                        Hurrah for Liza Lee!"


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 May 18 - 12:18 AM

I agree, to Hugill's credit!

Some of the other old timers at the festival have told me about Hugill's scheister ways there.

I do think, however, that Hugill's research (for better or worse) changed his ideas about what he thought about this subject versus what he did / might have thought previously and based only on his life experience.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 12 May 18 - 08:20 PM

Hugill may not have wanted to dampen any spirits by interfering with the kitschy fun.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 May 18 - 07:49 PM

Lighter,

We are already aware though, I think, that chanty singing is non-narrative. As I put it in my teaching: There's a start and a stop, but not a beginning and end. We know it both from earlier authors' statements and from the direct evidence of the texts themselves. What would be notable (though not terribly) about Bowling's statement, in my opinion, is he is saying this in the context of an article that is presumably about the "passing" of the genre/practice and in which one might expect a similar idealization and romanticization as one sees in many other writings of that style/time period. But he doesn't do the latter.

The typology / categorization of chanty repertoire by task, as a concept, may have been put on the table by certain writers (as I outline in _Boxing the Compass_). The truism of "things can vary" is another one but there e.g. by Hugill as a response, something I also address in BTC. The truth is somewhere in the middle. It's clear that certain items of repertoire—more to the point, certain styles of song—were predominantly applied to one task or another. "Blow the Man Down" is overwhelmingly attributed to halyards, specifically topsail halyards, and I think for Hugill to say one might also sing it at the capstan is true but disingenuous, and maybe even part of his M.O. to constantly assert his superior (e.g. more nuanced) understanding over other plebs'. Go ahead and apply lots of different songs to capstan, sure... but try doing the "reverse" and applying them to halyards--Nope! Doesn't work. The "Misleading Capstan Issue" (as I'll call it) causes a lot of confusion; because it appears that one can sing nearly "any" song at the capstan, and because people apply a definition to "chanty" that identifies its place of practice (shipboard) rather than its sound-form, you get this situation where it appears "Tiny Bubble" could be a chanty and where chanties can be said to have come from every cultural group in the world and where they can be any speed and any meter and whatever form, etc... and where ultimately one who asserts some borders may be called (in Hugill's words) "too dogmatic". But that weird dogmatism was some by product of the Revival that Hugill had to deal with. I don't think we are being dogmatic if we are being descriptive, accurately. And anti-dogma rhetoric from Hugill, in my opinion, keeps us from being accurate.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 May 18 - 07:00 PM

Let's try one more spelling!: PAWL


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 May 18 - 06:58 PM

heave and paul/pall


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: RTim
Date: 12 May 18 - 05:11 PM

Dr Gardiner collected a version of Leave Her Johnny from Frank Shilley in Portsmouth Workhouse in April 1907 and he finished the song by singing:
- "Heave and Paw"....

Tim Radford


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 12 May 18 - 04:16 PM

You're right, Steve.

"'Vast heaving!" it was.

...as a few more brain cells bite the dust.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 12 May 18 - 02:53 PM

Jon
If you were at the capstan the call should be 'vast heaving!' You wouldn't be belaying anything on a capstan surely?


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 11 May 18 - 05:59 PM

While working on other projects over the years I've collected hundreds of passing comments about traditional music from old books, newspapers, etc.

A lot relate to chanteys. I'll post the most interesting from time to time.

I like Bowling's observation that typically the chanteys had no beginning, middle, or end. Surely this means that he heard few thoroughly fixed texts and that the "performances" (obviously) ended when the mate shouted "Belay!" rather than when the story (as of "Boney," for example) or the verses "ran out." And, of course, if the job was a long one, ad lib verses could be added to any chantey, no matter how "established" the usual text. Hence, "no end," and for thoroughly plotless chanteys, no absolutely prescribed opening stanzas or "beginning."

When I visited Mystic thirty years ago and took a hand at the capstan of "Joseph Conrad," I was impressed by just how unlike a "musical performance" the chantey singing sounded. First (of course) not all the singers were in tune. More importantly, the length and difficulty of the job - not contents of the song - ultimately dictated the text that was sung. (When "Belay!" was shouted, "Blow the Man Down" - ended somewhere in the middle.)

Stan Hugill was present, and when somebody objected that "Blow the Man Down" was *really* a "halliard chantey," he observed that it ultimately depended on the whim of the chanteyman. If a song worked for a particular job, it worked. The familiar chantey categories were pretty loose rather than highly prescribed.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 10 May 18 - 12:27 AM

Great info, Lighter!

It's good to know that Bowling wasn't a mariner who sang the songs at work, but rather someone with the memory of hearing them from others. And he was conscious of the 1920s revival (or at least the narrative of the "dead/dying genre of the past."

For reference purposes, I have in my notes that the songs Bowling contributed were:

SING SALLY-O [MUDDER DINAH]
[WHISKEY JOHNNY]
ALL FOR THE GROG [ALL FOR ME GROG]
[HANGING JOHNNY]
[ROLL THE COTTON DOWN]
[DRUNKEN SAILOR]
[BLOW YE WINDS]
JOHNNY’S GONE TO HILO [TOMMY’S GONE]


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 09 May 18 - 06:12 PM

Refresh


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 03 May 18 - 09:08 PM

The same Harry Bowling whom Carpenter recorded in 1928 appears to have been the author of the article "The Chantey Passes" (Los Angeles Times, Nov. 8, 1925, p. B4.) Bowling (1867-1955) was a prominent journalist with the Times between 1912 and his retirement in 1942. He was born in Warwickshire and came to the U.S. in 1895.


Besides giving a few scraps of chantey words, Bowling's article is notable as one more eloquent statement about the nature of chanteys as the writer recalled them in actual use:

"In my boyhood I heard many of these songs straight from the crews of the windjammer, and the story of the last clipper ship and an appropriate requiem brought them back with a strange, sad rush of memory.

"These persistent chanteys had no form, little tune, and less sense. They were neither sweet nor humorous. The tunes were draggy, without beginning, middle, or end, so that they lent themselves to continuous performance. They generally had "grog" as the motif and the misery of Jack afloat for the antiphon. Yet in their right setting of tar and cordage and seamen's kits, rough weather and rougher human nature, they had the same penetrating quality as folk songs, gospel hymns, and negro melodies, in their repective and more respectable spheres.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 May 18 - 12:08 AM

Same dictionary:

CHANTIER, fr.s. m. (Du bas latin Canterium.) (Gr. mod. ?????.) Pièce de bois équarrie. Plusieurs de ces poutres, mises les unes au-dessus des autres, forment des piles plus ou moins hautes, espacées entre elles et solidement attachées au sol. Sur ces piles s'établit la quille d'un navire qui s'y développera, y grandira, et s'y achèvera avec le temps. Ces piles sont les Chantiers. Le bâtiment qui s'édifie sur ces bases, assez élevées pour qu'on puisse librement travailler sous le ventre du vaisseau, est dit Être sur les Chantiers (augl. On the stocks). C'est par extension du sens primitif qu'on a nommé Chantier le lieu où sont établis les Chantiers. Un Chantier de construction (gr. anc. et gr. Litt. mod. ?p??e???, ?e??, 'Es??????, Na?p?????, ?????; gr. Mod. Ne???a, S????; lat. Textrinuin; bas lat. Scharium; ital. Scario, Schario, Squero, Squerro; port. Escaleiro; provenc. Tchiantiero; basq. vulg. Chantiera; bas bret. Chantier, March'-koad; angl. Ship wright's yard; all. Stapel, Werft, holl. Stapel, Werf; dan. Vœrf; suéd. Värf; rus. ????? [Verfe], ?????? [Stapel]; tur. Kiakanè; pers. Derïabend; hongr. Hajó-epitö-hely, Hajó-gyartó-hely; ar. côte N. d'Afr. Mandjèra; mal. Tampat baik-i kapal parang), un Chantier de construction peut contenir plusieurs cales de construction ou plusieurs établissements et files de Chantiers. Il y a des Chantiers couverts (gr. mod. ?e?s?x??). Le Chantier des embarcations (angl. Boat-yard; bas bret. Kal ar embarkasioun) est celui où, dans un arsenal, on construit les chaloupes et les canots. Sur les navires, l'espèce de berceau dans lequel sont fixés, debout et l'un dans l'autre, la chaloupe et quelques canots, s'appelle: Chantier (angl. Scantlings).— «A l'égard de la fluste le Chariot, faites-la acheuer promptement, n'y ayant rien qui préjudicie tant à la bonté des bastimens que de les laisser longtemps sur les Chantiers.» Lettre de Colbertà Desclouzeaux, 28 mai 1678; Ordr. du Roy, vol. XLIV, p. 273 ; Ms. Arch. de la Mar.— «Le Roy,veut à l'aduenir que vous fassiez en sorte que les vaisseaux que vous aurez ordre de faire bastir ne soient pas plus de trois ou quatre mois sur les Chantiers...» Colbert à Demuin, 21 juillet 1678, p. 361, vol. cité. — «Sa Majesté veut aussi qu'il fasse commencer les deux vaisseaux qu'il a eu ordre de faire construire; et comme il sait qu'il n'y a rien de si préjudiciable à leur bonté et à leur durée que de les laisser longtemps sur les Chantiers, c'est à lui à réparer par vne diligence extraordinaire le temps qui a esté perdu, en sorte qu'ils ne demeurent pas sur les Chantiers pendant l'hyuer.» Lettre au sieur Arnoul, intendant de la Mar. à Toulon, 2 juin 1779. Ordres du Roy, vol. XLVI, p. 3o5; v° Arch. de la Mar.

Les instructions qu'on vient de lire constatent l'opinion des charpentiers du XVII* siècle sur une question que nos constructeurs ont résolue, depuis une trentaine d'années , dans un sens tout à fait opposé à celui qu'avait fait prévaloir l'expérience des Hollandais. Aujourd'hui la construction des navires de guerre est partagée en vingt-quatre vingt-quatrièmes; et chaque année on fait deux, trois vingt-quatrièmes, plus ou moins, selon que les ressources du budget sont plus ou moins grandes, ou quel'on a besoin des bâtiments commencés. On trouve, dit-on, cet avantage au mode de construction par vingt-quatrièmes, que le navire restant longtemps sur les Chantiers, son bois est plus sec et moins exposé à la pourriture ; que le vaisseau est d'ailleurs plus léger, et que, pendant sa durée, ses membres sont moins disposés à se déjeter. Le jeu qu'avait à faire la matière ligneuse est fait, et les défauts contractés peuvent être réparés à temps.

[ibid pp.455-56]


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 02 May 18 - 12:05 AM

Posted the Combes reference here:

CHANTER, fr. v. a. (De l'ital. ou du lat. Cantare.) (Angl. Song [To]; bas bret. Kana; rus. ??????? [Trioukate].) La marine antique avait l'Hortator (V.) et le Svmplioniaque, dont la voix ou la flûte donnait le mouvement aux rameurs pour obtenir une action simultanée et une nage au besoin courte ou allongée, lente ou précipitée. Le rhythme vocal ou instrumental avait pour effet de soutenir les matelots dans leur travail, et de les encourager tant que durait l'action fatigante à laquelle ils prenarent part. Nous ignorons quand la flûte du symphoniaque disparut; mais nous savons qu'au moyen âge le comité, armé d'un bâton qui n'était pas sans rapport avec celui du Portisculus (V.), était aussi muni d'un sifflet qui donnait le signal aux rameurs, et leur commandait toutes les manoeuvres. Le sifflet et le bâton restèrent sur les galères tant que vécurent ces navires. A la fin du XVIII siècle, les galères furent réformées; mais le sifflet (V.) avait été introduit à bord des vaisseaux ronds, où il communiquait les commandements aux matelots. En même temps que lui, et même avant lui sans doute, le chant de l'Hortator avait passé des navires à rames sur les autres vaisseaux, et chaque bâtiment avait, non pas peut-être un Céleuste à gages pour Chanter dans les manœuvres de force, mais un Chanteur volontaire (rus. ???????????. [Trioukalchtchik]) qui, toutes les fois qu'on voulait hisser un corps d'un poids considérable, haler un cordage qu'il fallait roidir, ou faire toute autre opération du même genre, donnait le signal d'ensemble à l'aide d'un certain cri, d'un certain Chant, répété quelquefois par tous ses camarades.

Ce Chant (angl.-sax. Soe-leoð; chin. Pang) s'est perpétué traditionnellement, et il est encore d'usage à bord des navires du commerce, qui, en général, ont des équipages peu nombreux , obligés de ne rien perdre de leurs forces. Sur les bâtiments de guerre, les Chants ont été supprimés; le sifflet, le tambour et le fifre les remplacent à l'avantage de la discipline, qu'on a basée en partie sur le silence observé pendant la manoeuvre. Dans les arsenaux, les ouvriers, les forçats Chantent pour cercler les mâts, et pour faire les autres opérations qui veulent des efforts simultanés.—V. ?e?e?st??, ?e?e?µa, ?at??at?. — Voici un passage du Voyage en Egypte et en Nubie, par M. Edmond Combes (1846), qui prouve que la tradition antique du Céleusme ou Chant d'en couragement s'est perpétuée dans la marine arabe de la mer Rouge: « Les matelots ne mettent jamais la main à l'œuvre sans Chanter, ou plutôt sans réciter des espèces de litanies sur un rhythme très-monotone, mais qui paraissent les exciter beaucoup. Il en est qui , pour s'encourager, expriment des vœux essentiellement matériels dans un chant improvisé, et l'espoir de voir ces vœux exaucés redouble leur ardeur: « Allah! Allah! fais-moi l'époux d'une esclave blanche,» s'écrie le matelot noir; et tous les autres répètent son refrain avec des transports frénétiques, et les manoeuvres s'exécutent avec plus de promptitude et de vigueur. »M. J.-J. Ampère, dans ses Voyage et recherches en Egypte et en Nubie (Revue des Deux Mondes, t. XIX [15 juillet], p. 215), s'exprime ainsi sur le Céleusme des navigateurs du Nil: — « Les matelots» (des canges, sur le Nil)« Chantent perpétuellement; toutes les fois qu'ils ont à ramer, le Chant est pour eux une nécessité. Ils entonnent alors une sorte de litanie qui marque la mesure, et leur permet de combiner leurs efforts. Cet usage, fondé sur un besoin naturel, paraît bien ancien en Egypte. Dans une représentation qu'on a trouvée deux fois répétée dans ce pays, et qui montre un colosse traîné par un très-grand nombre de bras, on voit un homme qui frappe des mains pour diriger le travail, et paraît Chanter.»

[Glossaire Nautique. Répertoire Polyglotte de Termes de Marine Anciens et Modernes, Par A. Jal, (Paris, Chez Firmin Didot Fréres, Libraires-Éditeurs, Imprimeurs de L'Institut de France, 1848, p.455)]


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 31 Aug 17 - 02:40 PM

I prefer "fhanty." -

"They have particular laws amongſt themſelves, during thoſe piratical cruiſes; and keep up a certain order and diſcipline. In rowing, at which, from habit, they are dextrous, they have always a ſong as a kind of tačtic, and beat on twobraſs timbrels to keep time. I have known one man on board my little veſſel opportunely, with ſometimes a Molucca, ſometimes a Mindano Mangaio ſong, revive the reſt, who from fatigue, were droufing at their oars; and operate with pleaſing power, what no proffered reward could effect: ſo cheared, they will row a whole night....

...The Moors, in what is called country ſhips in Eaſt India, have alſo their chearing ſongs ; at work in hoiſting, or in their boats a rowing. The Javans and Molucca people have theirs. Thoſe of the Malays are drawling and inſipid. In Europe the French provençals have their ſong: it is the reverſe of lively. The Mangaio is briſk, the Malabar tender. The Greeks and Romans had their Celeuſma or chearing ſong. Martial ſeems to have made one, III. 67.
"

A Voyage to New Guinea, and the Moluccas, from Balambangan: An Account of Magindano, SooLoo, and other Islands; And Illustrated with Thirty Copperplates. Performed in the Tartar Galley Belonging to The Honourable East India Company, During the Years 1774, 1775, 1776, By Captain Thomas Forrest, pp.303-305

I'll post some of the lyrics in a bit.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 31 Aug 17 - 01:36 PM

http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=125224#2848422

This is not really the thread to go around and around again with these 2-bit comments.

In brief: We largely have musicologist and organist Richard Runciman Terry to thank for popularizing the "sh" spelling particularly in spheres of UK and Commonwealth English. Terry was not a chantyman, but rather an academic musician who favored a "sh" spelling because he worried people would mispronounce the French-style orthography "ch" and because he had a theory that the word related to huts/small dwellings. There was also an aversion to things French going on. He was met with resistance by other UK colleagues. Yet due to his classical music clout, not his seafaring or scholarly clout, Terry won out. He put together one of the most handy collections of pre-arranged chanties set to piano accompaniment. The book was a boon to the people in classical and popular music circles -- those people that had no idea how to create music without having the dots on the page. It became the basis of countless performances and recording which, naturally enough, used the "sh" spelling it contained. The American chanty collection editor Concord followed in the steps of Terry, and her own book became poised as a resource for folk revival people like Lloyd and MacColl. Hugely entered the scene after both Terry and Colcord, also borrowing heavily from their works, and added another coat to the varnish.

Any spelling is indeed "good enough" for basic communication, but if you want to do any research on the subject before the 1920s, then you'd better be prepared to use "ch" spellings.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Dave Hanson
Date: 31 Aug 17 - 11:16 AM

If ' shanty ' was good enough for Stan Hugill, an actual shantyman, it's good enough for me.

Dave H


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 31 Aug 17 - 07:23 AM

It was established on this thread long ago that the etymologically correct spelling is indeed "chantey."

While the pronunciation remains "shanty," for those who care.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 Aug 17 - 11:41 PM

*Lee rail.

Process of elimination. Can't afford a pot on sailor's pay.

Also: Michael Jackson sang the theme song to Free Willy.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Sandra in Sydney
Date: 30 Aug 17 - 09:48 PM

we call it a guzunder (which is actually a Brummie word, I didn't know that)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gallus Moll
Date: 30 Aug 17 - 07:17 PM

wish you'd call them shantys

(chanty is stored under the bed for having a pee during the night!)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 30 Aug 17 - 06:41 PM

The capstan/windlass/pulley/crane (& viticulture & the proceleusmatic metric & much of Western art music's "roots") were invented/developed over 2,500 years ago by the Greeks and Romans. Why wait until circa 1800 for a chanty system?

Answer: We didn't. The modern "practical working" shanty was born with the steam printing press and mass produced sheet music. It is the popular music, vernacular descendant of the Latin lingua franca "celeusma." The latter still means "rower's chant," "sea song" &c in Portuguese, Latin & Greek.

In having popular entertainment to fall back on, Euro-American chanties managed to outlive the steam era altogether.

The more it changes...


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 26 Aug 17 - 05:10 AM

Peregrinatorium Religiosum

When the Priests and Clerks embarked, the Captain made them mount to the castle (round-top) of the ship, and chaunt psalms in praise of God, that he might be pleased to send them a prosperous voyage. They all with a loud voice sang the beautiful hymn of Veni Creator, from the beginning to the end, and while they were singing, the mariners set their sails in the name of God," [singing "Salve Regina ,"] which was the Celeusma of the Middle Age. A Priest having said, that God and his mother would deliver them from all danger if processions were made three times on a Saturday, a procession round the mast was accordingly begun on that day.

Fosbroke, Thomas Dudley, British monachism, (London: M.A. Nattali, 1843, p.331


CELEUSMA (κελεύειυ, to call). In antiquity the celeusma was the shout or cry of boatmen, whereby they animated each other in the work of rowing; or, a kind of song, or formula, rehearsed or played by the master or others, to direct the strokes and movements of the mariners, as well as to encourage them to labour. The word is used by some early Christian writers in application to the hallelujah, which was sung in ecclesiastical assemblies. Apollinaris says, that the seamen used the word hallelujah as their signal, or celeusma, at their common labour; making the banks echo when they sung hallelujah to Christ. In the church, hallelujah was sung by all the people. St. Augustine says, it was the Christians' sweet celeusma, whereby they invited one another to sing praises to Christ.

Farrar, Rev. John, An Ecclesiastical Dictionary, Explanatory of the History, Antiquities, Heresies, Sects, and Religious Denominations of the Christian Church, (London: John Mason, 1853, p.142)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Phil d'Conch
Date: 24 Aug 17 - 09:52 PM

Bit too off topic for the "chantwell" thread.

Morris-ey (22 Mar 10 - 11:41AM):

"Call-and-response goes back to ancient Greek theatre: it is, as a form, very old."

CELEUS'MA (κέλευσμα). The chaunt or cry given out by the cockswain (hortator, pausarius, κελευστής) to the rowers of Greek and Roman vessels, in order to aid them in keeping the stroke, and encourage them at their work. (Mart. Ep. iii. 67. Rutil. I. 370.) The chaunt was sometimes taken up, and sung in chorus by the rowers, and sometimes played upon musical instruments. Auson. in Div. Verr. 17.

Rich, Anthony, A Dictionary of Roman and Greek Antiquities with Nearly 200 Engravings on Wood From Ancient Originals, (London: Longman, Green, & Co., 1884, p.140)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 15 Jan 17 - 09:50 AM

GS
Apologies if there are already refs on Mudcat but have you got Alan Villiers' books? I have just acquired 'The Set of the Sails' written in 1949 in which he describes his sailing ship experiences in the 20s. There are several pages that describe chanteying. He was an Australian sailor. The book makes fascinating reading. it's an old Pan paperback.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 29 Oct 15 - 08:48 AM

Gibb et al-

Just checking in for an update. Glad to hear you made it to Galveston. Sad that you were not able to find more photos of cotton screwing/jamming.

I did find a cotton screw-jack at the Maine Maritime Museum in Bath but not much information about where it was from or how it was used.

Cheerily,
Charlie Ipcar


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 28 Oct 15 - 01:24 PM

Here's a significant but all too brief note about the nature of chanteys before the American Civil War.

On Nov. 17, 1916, the Boston Herald printed a letter from Dr. J. E. Crockett who, as he said, had just turned eighty-three. Crockett notes that when he was a youth at sea, the solos of chanteys "were mostly made up or improvised, mostly as hits on matters pertaining to the ship, officers, and crew."

Unfortunately Crockett gives no examples, but at least he confirms what we might suspect.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 24 Aug 15 - 02:34 PM

Fascinating stuff. And some surprising observations. In England we tend to associate the chanty with the tea clippers and the meat run. A good book charting the different origins and evolutions it seems is long overdue.

I particularly look forward to learning how a work-song aboard can be different to a chanty. And of course those all-important references upto about 1840.

Thanks for the summary.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: dick greenhaus
Date: 24 Aug 15 - 10:25 AM

Still eagerly awaiting the book.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 24 Aug 15 - 08:05 AM

Hi, Steve,

These are just addenda.

I am working on a book dealing with the early goings-on, up to about 1845. I prefer devoting the time to that rather than Mudcat housekeeping.

I have several conference/symposium papers. The latest is from the last Mystic Music of the Sea Symposium, and can be seen here:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B8MBMfZJUEBSLWVXdnFOcE5hS3M/view?usp=sharing

Most of what I have to say (though I hope to eventually say it better) about "Cheer'ly Man" is in this Mudcat thread:
http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=152560

I'm not too focused on "Cheer'ly" as such because I don't consider it part of "the chanty genre", but rather one particular shipboard working song that, I think, merely co-exited with chanties. I think it was practically in a class of its own, rather than representative of a genre or a wide-ranging body of songs. And I try to carefully distinguish my main topic, "the chanty genre," from a different topic, vocalizations or singing at work on sailing vessels. They overlap at times, but they aren't the same.

There is much more than port workers in the Gulf to consider. I consider there to be a wide-ranging base of an African-American style work-song paradigm or genre, connected by water indeed, but shared between such contexts as:
Squads of enslaved canoe/boat rowers
Black firefighting companies
Steamboat "deck" crews - firemen, deckhands, and roustabouts
Longshoremen
Cotton-stowers
Corn-shucking on plantations

Some of this activity introduced the genre to sailing ship crews before the Gulf ports were operating. I think the plantations and rivers of the Eastern seaboard of the US, which was then well connected to the Caribbean via ports at the mouths of those rivers, provided the first "layer" of chanty-singing to deep sea craft. We are talking end of 18h c, through 1830s.

I suggest some of the prior established customs of vocalizing at work in Anglophone ships, somewhat limited, primed them for acceptance of the chanty genre. I also think that a new found popular/mainstream appreciation of Black American music may have encouraged the adoption of chanties by non-Black seamen. Another factor was the advent of the lever windlass (discussed in my paper, above) by the mid 1840s.

Cotton-screwing remains, along with seafaring, the only of the above mentioned contexts where non-Blacks participated in chanty performance to a degree, and seems to have been a gateway to the shipboard practices. The cultural/ethnic map of the cotton-screwing is complex and varied. It started in the East (before the Gulf ports were established) and began with Blacks only. Enslaved and free Blacks (the latter who were a significant part of the population in the former French/Spanish parts of the Gulf) both worked. Slaves were "leased" out by their masters, so the pay was relevant to all. In New Orleans, Irish and German immigrants had begun to displace Black American cotton-screwers, and an all White (largely Irish) union of cotton screwers founded in 1850 excluded Blacks. But that is late in the timeline. I can't say at what point exactly, whether in the late 30's or the 40's that the Black-White balance shifted, but those years (end of 30s through mid 40s) looks to be when the next "layer" of chanty practice on ships was laid -- when transient White laborers were in most contact with the earlier-established practices of Black laborers. Things became very segregated after the U.S. Civil War, and shipboard chanty customs of European/White seamen would develop in their separate way.

In the big picture, I think shipboard work may have been the least significant context for chanty-singing. It was, however, a context where White people would become most likely to participate or observe it, resulting in that the history of chanties has tended to be told through the narrow lens of where White writers encountered it.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 22 Aug 15 - 09:11 AM

So when's the definitive book out then, GS? I appreciate a lot of your research is on here, but in a very haphazard way.

You really ought to start a new thread. It must take those people on slow computers an age to download this lot.

If nothing else, how about a new timeline on mentions of shantying and in what contexts? I am getting the impression that the whole phenomeneon evolved from the workers in port in the Gulf. Which references if any appear to predate the Gulf influence. Is it still thought that British seamen used 'Cheer'ly Man' earlier?


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 21 Aug 15 - 10:59 PM

Re: Charles Nordhoff and his well-known observation of chanty-singing as a merchant seaman --

I was frustrated that I did not have the exact years of his account. After considerably more frustration and too-much time, I believe I have determined:

His observation of cotton-stowers' "chants" in Mobile Bay would have been in the autumn (say, October) of 1848, and his account of "Across the Western Ocean" (returning from Liverpool to Philadelphia) would have been November (or very early December) 1848.

He finished up his merchant sailor life in 1851 (afterwards being a whaler man for a couple years), but he notes no other chanties after that. He goes on to London, to Calcutta, Madras, Sydney, Canton, Mauritius, Rio de Janeiro, New Orleans… Much of his time in the eastern hemisphere he was in British vessels.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 15 Aug 15 - 07:04 AM

Addendum:

The "one reference" I mentioned in the last post, to cotton-screwers of Galveston singing chanties, came from a statement by Maud Cuney Hare, the daughter of the activist/businessman/politician Norris Cuney who had organized Black screwmen. So she must have been thinking of those let couple decades of cotton-screwing—her remarks come in 1924-ish. An excerpt:

Negro chanteys were sung by the crews of the West Indian vessels that loaded and unloaded at the wharves in Baltimore. Many of the old songs are those of the longshoremen who were employed on the wharves in southern ports to stow cotton in the holds of the ships. The custom still prevails of employing large gangs of both American and West Indian Negroes in the ports of Galveston and New Orleans.

[from _The Crisis_ vol 29, #?]

Cuney-Hare, a conservatory trained musician, would go on to write _Negro Musicians and their music_ (1936).

A curiosity is this letter from her to W.E.B. DuBois, editor of _The Crisis_, asking if he'd be interested in her writing an article for the magazine on "Songs of the sailor -- those of Negro origin."
letter to Du Bois, Nov. 1924

The passage above was simply quoted in The Crisis from Cuney-Hare's piece she mentions in The Christain Science Monitor. It may be that DuBois never took interest in a chanties article, and instead just borrowed the passage after reading this letter.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 15 Aug 15 - 12:33 AM

re: Cotton-screwing

I paid a visit to Galveston, Texas this summer to do some research on cotton-screwing. The reason for Galveston is that it seems the knowledge of cotton-screwing as a phenomenon is most alive there, as one might say, in the "cultural memory." For comparison, I also paid a (second) visit to the port of Mobile, and there it seems the local historians are hardly aware of it. Perhaps it is best known in Galveston because, in the last quarter of the 19th century, Galveston became the leading port of cotton export.

Unfortunately, Galveston's cotton-screwing enterprise seems to intersect little with the early history of chanties. We can surely imagine that chanty singing was practiced there, however the histories of cotton-screwing in that port are silent on it. (Well, I do have one reference from the early 1920s that refers to Black chanty-singing cotton screwers in Galveston, but that's it.) Nonetheless, and though the situation in Galveston was quite different from other ports (I'm thinking especially in relation to the ethnic composition of cotton-screwers), there was a little information to be had about the logistics of this type of labor.

As a point of reference, when cotton was screwed in Savannah in the 1810s -- see the journal of Capt. Carr a few posts above (which I also examined in Columbia, SC this summer)-- the work was done completely by enslaved African-Americans. Galveston as a port, of course, did not develop until significantly later: the late 1830s. The harbor was less than ideal. Until 1874, cargo had to be lightered out to ships. It also had to be brought into Galveston by rail, rather than down river as in Mobile and New Orleans. Before 1838, Texas cotton was actually brought to New Orleans.

It seems the cotton stowing work had hardly started by the time the Civil War upset it. However, after the War, the business grew back up to and then far exceeded pre-War cotton output. Again, this later (post-War) history is not very helpful to the study of chanties. Still, it is interesting to note what went on.

Allen Taylor wrote a M.A. thesis for UT Austin on this period (post-War until the decisive end of cotton-screwing), "A History of the Screwmen's Benevolent Association from 1866 to 1924", 1968. Taylor interviewed at least one retired screwman, along with some other people in the business.

What makes the scene very different is that White cotton-screwers formed a union right after the War, excluding the recently freed Black laborers. Black men were excluded from cotton-screwing in Galveston until 1882, and even after that a lot on conflict meant that Black cotton-screwers did not become "significant" in the workforce (after forming two unions of their own) until around 1900 -- the time when cotton-screwing itself was in major decline. Black cotton-screwers were only able to get some leverage in the late 19th century due to a labor shortage; some men were recruited from New Orleans. Galveston paid higher wages. The 4 regular screwers in a gang made about $6 a day, whereas the foreman (5th member, who arranged for the labor through local stevedore agents) made $7.

Each gang carried a pair of jackscrews. The screws weighed about 200 pounds. They were about 3 1/2 feet long, and the screw extended a further 2 1/2 feet. Along with the screws they had other tools, including a stout metal rod called a "dolley." This came into use when needing to sneak in more cotton bales after screwing one. That is, after screwing in a bale, in the space that was gained by the extension of the screw, one needed to insert another bale…without releasing the pressure. This was very tricky business, and the trick of it (in addition to the strength required) is what made cotton-screwing a specialized labor. Taylor describes the process of screwing in his thesis, but I must admit that it is difficult to follow. Several posts, the dolley, and the second jackscrew were needed to be employed, as certain angles, to make it all happen. The second screw in the pair was called the "tuming screw." Yes, tuming -- I suppose related to "tumid," swollen.

Screwing cotton resulted in a gain of 10-15%. Because having cotton screwed (i.e. rather than just placing the bales in there by hand) required more time and expense (to pay the screwmen), this margin was rather tight. Ultimately it was profitable to screw cotton, but the gains were precarious -- and ultimately became negligible as technology progressed.

3-4 gangs were assigned to work each hold. A small vessel might have 9 gangs working at a time, whereas the very large vessels (later) might have 25 gangs.

A transition to steel hulled steamships occurred in the 1880s. This was one of the big technological changes. Earlier, smaller vessels might ship out 1500 bales, whereas later ships could take 20,000.

The real death knell to cotton-screwing was the perfection of a high-density cotton press, by 1900. Up until WWI, there were still some "standard" bales (older level of compression) produced, and cotton stowing was still used for those, here and there. But eventually all bales were "high-density bales." These bales meant 1/3 more cotton could be stowed, and while at first the screwmen tried to screw them, eventually they realized there was no point to it. So, it only made sense to hand-stow (no screw), and the cotton-screwing profession became obsolete.

A few publications I encountered in Galveston used the photo we have seen (Charlie posted), from the New York Public Library. Here, for example, is from the city of Galveston's website:
http://www.galveston.com/juneteenthcottonjammerspark/
Incidentally, I went to look for the site of the Cotton Jammers' Park (this was the Black screwmens' union), exploring on foot, only to discover that this place, once a spot of community functions of Black screwmen, had long been built over with homes.

A brochure in the Galveston and Texas History center, from around 1915, also includes the photo, allowing us to estimate its date between 1900-1915.

Each cotton bale weighed about 500 pounds.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Andrew
Date: 23 Mar 15 - 09:42 AM

Hi All - This is Andrew from Cardiff, Wales, UK.
I've been researching my family tree and find that I come from a family of welsh shipwrights. My Grandfather, born in 1888 had an unusual middle name: Orenso. We have never been able to find the origin of this name (which apparently he was a bit embarrassed about). However there is a reference in this thread to a book called 'Around Cape Horn to Honolulu on The Bark Amy Turner 1880' which appears to refer to an original form of the well known chanty 'Ranzo' being 'Orenso'. Does anyone have the book (By Briggs?) and can help?

Many thanks
Andrew
(e-mail : tomo.home@me.com)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 26 Sep 14 - 08:23 AM

Worth listening to:


http://www.mediafire.com/listen/47n101di4sl8n69/Songs+of+the+People+4+-+A.L.Lloyd+-+Sea+%26+Sailors.mp3


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 23 Aug 14 - 06:21 PM

> Man, you've just summed up one of the major points of my book

Oops.

Your diligent research, however, makes you the real expert.

Many of us are looking forward to your shanty book.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 23 Aug 14 - 05:15 PM

It suggests to me that the influence of the increased size of sailing vessels after 1812, while significant, may have been less critical in the development of shanties than has been supposed. The tradition was already there, at least in South Carolina, and the bigger ships and increased commerce merely gave it the opportunity to spread out.

Man, you've just summed up one of the major points of my book - if I can ever get it out! …and with full acknowledgements, of course.

In the spirit of acknowledgements: though the South Carolina site does not credit it, my guess is that Prof. Michael Thompson, History, U Tennessee may have been the person to get the Carr journal excerpts in the remotely-accessible world of the Web. Thompson has worked on labor history in Charleston, and I hope one day we'll hear more from him about what he might have seen in archival material.


Although I haven't been very active writing on Mudcat lately, I think it was in the "Visuals of Chanties at Work" thread that I mentioned one of the main issues that has been driving my research lately. Which is, separating out the factor of "need" from the development of chanties. The common narrative, from "rise" to "fall," is based on what is supposed to have been needed. While practical requirements *were* an issue at various points, however, cultural custom was at least as important a factor. One does things a certain way because, well, that's how one does things. So the focus becomes the sites of cultural exchange / acculturation.

As has long been supposed, the cotton screwing trade was one of the sites. Up to a point, it was all slave labor, although not necessarily unwaged. Perhaps another point can be distinguished of when the labor became (in certain ports, thinking of the Gulf) waged ore highly, and practiced by Freemen of color. Then would be the point that White men entered the trade. This would be one of the notable professions, in Antebellum US, where White and Black men both participated. And though I believe the work gangs were segregated, White men taking up cotton screwing in the 1830s (? - by the 1840s) would be entering a space where "chanting" had been a long-established *custom*.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 23 Aug 14 - 10:45 AM

Really a fabulous discovery, Gibb.

>they work & sing with all their might & whither hoisting hauling – rowing – or heaving at the Jack screw, they keep perfect time in all their motions – this gives them more force as they are united & simultaneous in the exertion.

This is one of the best brief descriptions of shantying I've seen, as well as the earliest by far. The whole passage suggests a well-developed shantying tradition in the Charleston area by 1815, 25 years after the rowing songs of 1790.

It suggests to me that the influence of the increased size of sailing vessels after 1812, while significant, may have been less critical in the development of shanties than has been supposed. The tradition was already there, at least in South Carolina, and the bigger ships and increased commerce merely gave it the opportunity to spread out.

As far as we know.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 23 Aug 14 - 08:25 AM

No, I haven't seen those Porter articles.

I do have lots of "new" references in my notes that are not logged in this thread. However, I am SO behind on the work for the book related to this topic that I have felt guilty about taking any time to do things not directly related to it! I spent several weeks this summer just getting the references, bookmarked over the last couple years, into a bibliography.

Anyway, there is one that comes to mind that I'd like to share because it is quite exciting - AND available on-line to boot…

***

This comes from the journal of James Carr, 21 July 1815 ‐ 4 May 1816. It is part of the collection "James Carr Papers," South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

Carr was a captain and shipping merchant, of Bangor, Me. The voyage covered in the journal was Bangor, Me., to Charleston, S.C., and then to Liverpool, England, 21 July 1815 - 4 May 1816, aboard the ship MARY.

Below is a portion I've picked out from a section of the journal provided by the archive in scanned pages from the manuscript.

All of the songs quoted can be connected to later chanties. This illustrates again (e.g. as in Hay's account of Jamaican stevedores in 1811) that these songs were being sung by African-American slaves along the shore/rivers before anything like them was recognized aboard deep sea-going English vessels. It is especially nice to fill in one more step for "Grog Time o' Day". The description of Charleston as like a town in the West Indies resonates along with the line from Hay's 1811 "Grog Time" reference in Jamaica. Important, too, is the early reference to a cotton-screwing gang.

Incidentally, another account of slave rowing songs in Charleston, ca1790s, had been one of the earliest entires in this thread.

N.B. Some spellings may be off from the manuscript, because this is from a transcription made by the South Caroliniana Library. I made a couple corrections myself.

//
I shall now give some little account of Charleston […]
[Page 2]
[…] – before the city on Coopers river is a large marsh covered with coarse grass or rushes – as you approach the city you appear on board your vessel to be higher than the streets. I was told by Mr. Crafts an intelligent gentleman, that the highest of their streets was not more than two feet above the higest tides ­ you frequently meet long narrow barges belonging to plantations or used for packet boats with awnings over the stern to defend the passengers from the intense rays of the sun rowed by 4, 6, & 8 negroes – plantation boats with produce poultry pigs &c for the market – larger river boats laden with rice ­ cotton corn flour wood &c almost all
[Page 3]
of them propelled by oars & managed by negroes, some few of them have [scurvy] looking sails – this appearance with the song of the negroes & the martial sound of a musical instrument about 8 feet long made of a bamboo by the negroes resembling in sound the French horn has all together a very pleasing effect – you are struck by the appearance of the vessels with their awnings. The wharves, the stores & houses built in the West India manner – flights of Turkey buzzards &c taking the tout ensemble –
buzzards, houses, stores wharves vessels negroes french, Spanish black & white inhabitants Charleston is much more like a town in the West Indies than our towns in the United States – As you approach the wharves the Song of the negroes at work greets your eer cheerfully from every quarter, I had so much of it while they were loading the ship, that it made such an impression on my mind as to enable me to give you a few specimens of the african working songs in Charleston:

Cheerly up, and cheerly down;
hey boys hey.
Cheerly up, and cheerly down;
ho boys ho.
Cheerly up, and cheerly down;
high land a.
Cheerly up, and cheerly down;
high land o.

[Page 4]
    Sing talio,
Sally is a fine girl,
    sing talio;
Sally is a good girl,
    sing talio, sing talio;
hoora, hoora, sing talio.
Sally in the morning, Susan in the evening;
sing talio, sing talio;
Sally is a sweet girl, Susan is a beauty;
sing talio, sing talio,
hoora, hoora, sing talio.

Ceasar should you like a dram;
Ceasar boy Ceasar.
Ceasar will you have a dram;
Ceasar boy Ceasar.
Ceasar is a smart fellow,
Ceasar boy Ceasar.

Tis grog time a day,
    huzza my jolly boys, tis grog time a day;
Back like a crow bar, belly like a tin pan,
    huzza my jolly boys, tis grog time a day;
Tis grog time a day; tis grog time a day.
huzza my jolly boys, tis grog time a day.

Tis time for to go, tis time for to go;
        Huzza my jolly boys, tis time for to go;
Haul away so, tis time for to go,
        Huzza my jolly boys, tis time for to go.
[Page 5]
Those words underscored is the chorus – those double scored are sung more loud & strong, in which the whole gang join with all their force, and generally much glee – the black having remarkable nice ears for music, are very correct in their time & pauses one & seldom more than two, repeat what they consider the words of the song, all join in the chorus, and whatever work they are doing when in gangs – they work & sing with all their might & whither hoisting hauling – rowing – or heaving at the Jack screw, they keep perfect time in all their motions – this gives them more force as they are united & simultaneous in the exertion – besides it makes their tasks go off hand more cheerily – for five days I had four pr of Jack screws & four gangs of five each at work on board the ships stowing cotton – I was in the midst of them – it often happened that they all had their throats open at the same time as loud as they cou'd ball – you may be able from the discription I have given you to form some opinion of the music – add to that the savoury smell that may be supposed to arise from twenty negroes using violent exercise in warm weather, in the hot and confined hold of ship and you may imagine what a delicious treat I enjoyed, I was happy for business was brisk – things went on well – I retired to rest satisfied and resumed my station the next day with pleasure – A negro alone, seems a solitary being – he delights to work in large gangs – is loquacious & appears perfectly happy.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 23 Aug 14 - 07:56 AM

OK, here are the rest of the Mulford references that I have in my notes.

Prentice Mulford (1834-1891) was born in Sag Harbor, sailed to San Francisco in 1856, where he settled a while and worked as a writer. Returned to New York City in 1872. He wrote for The New York Daily Graphic, 1875-81.

In 1871, he authored this piece in his hometown newspaper:

"Fifteen Years Ago: Reminiscences of San Francisco in 1856." _The Sag-Harbor Express_, 27 July 1871.

The clipper ship WIZARD, from New York, was tied up at the Valejo street wharf. The passage had taken four months. Mulford was one of seven Americans in the multinational crew. Mulford writes,

//
He [Mulford] gave the Wizard a final jump [pump?] out, to the tune of "Miranza Lee," then marched, hat in hand, to the cabin, was paid off at the rate of five dollars per month, and went ashore, just fifteen years ago.
//

So, "Miranza Lee" was a pumping song.

Next, in 1879, Mulford is writing anonymously as a theatre critic. Here he reviews several recent performances on the New York stage:

"A Gallery God's Reminiscences Past and Criticisms Present of the Stage." _The Daily Graphic_ [New York], 29 March 1879.

Meandering into an editorial-like passage, Mulford longs for an "American comic opera" practice to come about (as opposed to, for example, French operettas translated to English). Such would be, he envisions, filled with "the airs of forty years ago," such as "the old negro songs before the days of Christy…" etc. He goes on to say,

//
There's half a dozen old "shanty songs" that are never heard on shore, sung by sailors at work. Such as "The Bully Boat's a Coming," "Santy Anna," Miranza Lee," "Storm along, John." Take any of these chanted by a Blackball liner's crew as they were making everything taut in the dog watch with top gallant sails set and a lively breeze humming through the rigging, and there's music which would, with a little trimming and polishing, out-Pinafore "Pinafore."
//

Again it's "Miranza Lee"—evidently well-remembered from his 1856 voyage. "The Bully Boat's a Coming" is nowadays known also as "Ranzo Ray."

After this comes the reference, recently posted by Lighter, in the SF _Sunday Chronicle_, 23 Jan. 1881. In it, "Bully in the Alley" takes the place of "Bully Boat" in the list of four "Shanti songs." "Miranza Lee" appears to have been misspelled as "Mirama Lee." The Pinafore idea is repeated.

Finally, Mulford's autobiography, _Life by Land and Sea_, comes in 1889. I suppose it is the final, compiled version of what was earlier printed (in pieces?), because it has the same passage as the _Sunday Chronicle_ piece. But now it's "Miranda Lee"!

Here are the two passage, for comparison:

1881:
"For the first six weeks all the 'Shanti songs' [sic] known on the sea had been sung. Regularly at each pumping exercise we had 'Santy Anna,' 'Bully in the Alley,' 'Mirama Lee,' 'Storm Along John,' and other operatic maritime gems, some of which might have a place in our modern operas of the Pinafore school. There's a good deal of rough melody when these airs are rolled out by twenty or thorty strong lungs to the accompaniment of a windlass' clank and the wild, shrill sweep of the wind in the rigging above."

1889:
"For the first six weeks all the "shanty songs" known on the sea had been sung. Regularly at each pumping exercise we had "Santy Anna," "Bully in the Alley," "Miranda Lee," "Storm Along, John," and other operatic maritime gems, some of which might have a place in our modern operas of "The Pinafore" school. There's a good deal of rough melody when these airs are rolled out, by twenty or thirty strong lungs to the accompaniment of a windlass' clank and the wild, shrill sweep of the winds in the rigging above."

I would guess that "Miranza Lee" was perhaps "Eliza Lee"/"Clear the Track," as that was also a pump chanty.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 23 Aug 14 - 07:41 AM

Yes, Mulford was the author.

"Miranda Lee" certainly sounds more likely.

Have you seen the articles "The Chanty Man's Passing Deeply Deplored" (1909)(Anon.) and "Drift from the Seven Seas," by Albert J. Porter (1911)?

They contain a few variant lines of common shanties.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: RTim
Date: 22 Aug 14 - 07:11 PM

Hi all,
This is such an Important Thread - how can we assure that it will ALWAYS be available to anyone interested in the subject? Can Dick Greenhaus turn it into a book?

Tim Radford
Ps - Even I have not read all of this thread, but should..........


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 22 Aug 14 - 06:07 PM

Lighter,

Thanks for that! It sounded familiar and as it turns out: The same passage (later) appears in Prentice Mulford's _Life by Land and Sea_ (New York, 1889). Perhaps Mulford was the author of the newspaper article/story.

HOWEVER: In Mulford's book, he has "Miranda Lee"! Sounds like a more plausible name, no? Perhaps it was a typo being corrected.

THE PLOT THICKENS: There is an even earlier reference than the one you posted, to "Miranza Lee." I'll try to post it later, but it seems likely composed by the same author again (even though it is anonymous).

"Miranza Lee" gives more to chew on. The mind goes to "My-ranzo-ray", "ranzo-ree", "marengo", etc.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 22 Aug 14 - 10:55 AM

That's "p. 1."


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 22 Aug 14 - 10:53 AM

Here's one of the few findable, early chantey references that haven't been posted yet:

"Sunday Chronicle" [San Francisco] (Jan. 23, 1881), p.:

"For the first six weeks all the 'Shanti songs' [sic] known on the sea had been sung. Regularly at each pumping exercise we had 'Santy Anna,' 'Bully in the Alley,' 'Mirama Lee,' 'Storm Along John,' and other operatic maritime gems, some of which might have a place in our modern operas of the Pinafore school. There's a good deal of rough melody when these airs are rolled out by twenty or thorty strong lungs to the accompaniment of a windlass' clank and the wild, shrill sweep of the wind in the rigging above."

I can't guess at "Mirama Lee." (Surely it wasn't "The Spanish Nobilio," noted for his damaged "miralto maree," or even a version of "The Loss of the Ramillies.")


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 20 Jun 14 - 02:38 AM

Hello! It has been a busy last year for me with work/living concerns, and that means hard to find the time for this research. But I am working back into a research mode for the next several weeks, and in the process of rediscovering references I had stowed away. Here's one.

1903        "Old Corn-husking Song." _The Wichita Daily Eagle_. 1 December: 7.

The Wichita Daily Eagle for 1 Dec., 1903 which looks to have reproduced a Baltimore Sun article, entitled "Old Corn-husking Song." The anonymous author claims this song was "in vogue in Frederick county, Maryland seventy-years ago." That would make 1833 - which seems impossible to verify. Yet, these songs ended with Emancipation, so 1830s-50s would make sense.

The text of the song follows. The solo parts are improvisational in style. Aside from the first and last couplet, I've omitted the refrains that come after each line.
//
The Jack Snipe said unto the Crane,
    Whiskey Johnnie;
I wish de Lord there would come rain.
    Oh, Hilo!
The Wild Goose said unto the Swan,
The coming winter will be sharp and long,
They say old master's sick again,
He suffers many an ache and pain,
When my old master's dead and gone,
This old nigger will stop husking corn,
Oh, my master's good to me,
And when he dies he'll set me free,
We've possum fat and taters, too,
Good enough for me and you,
If you have cider good and strong,
I'll be to see you before very long,
The watermelons now in their height,
I stol'd two out de patch last night,
The nigger who finds the most red corn,
Will be de next leader 'sho as he's born,
The corn is husked, the supper is o'er,
And now we'll pull the other shore,
And all you niggers start tonight,
So you'll get home before daylight,
And now my friends I'll bid you all adieu,
I've done the best I could for you,
And remember that we niggers all,
Will be on hand next fall,
And now, my friend, again good night,
We husked that corn good and all right,
We stripped the husk off like a shirt,
    Whiskey Johnnie,
And left no silk that would ever hurt,
    Oh, Hilo!
        —Old Timer, in Baltimore Sun.
//

"Hilo" is familiar in this type of song. As for "Whiskey Johnnie": If it didn't originate there, how do you suppose it got there? In a sailor context, I believe the early reference for [WHISKEY JOHNNY] is Clark 1867.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 09 Jul 13 - 10:28 PM

Interesting discussion of "Ranzo."

"Round the Corn, Sally" is certainly similar to "Round the Corner, Sally."

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Jul 13 - 09:58 PM

Hi Doodlepip,

I don't believe there is any other source besides the manuscript from Cecil Sharp (of John Short) on which Tom Brown of "Short Sharp Shanties" based that rendition. If you're having trouble hearing what Tom sings, perhaps you could jot down what you do hear (or think you hear) and we can fill in the gaps.

Tom Brown (doc.tom on Mudcat) could possibly supply the words he sang—only a couple verses of which (correct me if I'm wrong) were actually sung by the chantyman John Short.

There must certainly be other parodies of "Dixie's Land" like this, too.

As far as sailor-generated parodies go, there is one in Hugill's unabridged _Shanties from the Seven Seas_. I don't remember offhand exactly what Hugill printed, but I red between the lines (always a perilous endeavor) and came up with this rendition.
Dixie


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Doodlepip
Date: 09 Jul 13 - 02:04 PM

Lyrics to "I wish I was with Nancy" from Short Sharp Shanties or any other source would be appreciated please


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Apr 13 - 03:53 PM

No tune.

I share in the sentiment of your comment, Lighter.

I should have mentioned that I thought this was an interesting reference to share because Abrahams' comment about the sharing between corn-shucking and other "inland" work-songs with chanties has been one of the ideas on this thread. I think that when Abrahams did his Caribbean chanties research he may not have realized the extent of sharing, but then later when he wrote this book all about corn-shucking bees he was struck by the similarities.

Whether those overall similarities may have caused him to "stretch" in making some connections is a different matter.

Abrahams presented the "ju-ran-zie' song in the book before making the comment. When I saw the song, I actually immediately thought, "ranzo!" I may be stretching as well! - but looking at the material with similar "eyes" as Abrahams.

But then when I saw his endnote saying this was a "version" of "Reuben Ranzo," I was surprised that he would be so positive about it. I would leave it at the possibility that the phrase "ranzo" courses through a number of song choruses.

I believe Abrahams' rationale here goes beyond the immediate contents of the text in the example. He does also mention the "Grey Goose"—good catch, John Minear! He points out that "Grey Goose" and some other songs have a similar narrative in the solo lines. He considers this what he calls the "Marster-John" theme, about a slave owner trying to kill a slave, but the slave won't go easily. ...so... Abraham reads the story of "Reuben Ranzo," who is whipped and punished by the ship's "master" as being a "re-coded" version of what "might at one point have been a cante-fable."

The very short solo lines, like, "and then this happened. and then this, then this. then this" do seem to characterize Reuben Ranzo, Grey Goose, and the corn-shucking example. Abrahams, I believe, is juggling all the loose characteristics—poetic meter, narrative theme, "ranz" morpheme, working context—and making a connection. This is the type of thing I've been hoping to accomplish with this thread, etc....to read better between the lines after exposure to lots of data.

However, I do balk again when I read another of his statements. "It should be noted that almost all of the corn songs reported here are also widely found as sea chanteys." (pg191) Almost all?


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 14 Apr 13 - 09:45 AM

I don't see any resemblance to "Reuben Ranzo" except for the syllable "ranz" in the refrain.

Are the tunes similar?


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 14 Apr 13 - 07:50 AM

Hey Gibb, a very interesting connection. It, of course, brings to mind Leadbelly's "Grey Goose" song about "the preacher went a huntin'". The refrain there is simply, "Lord, Lord, Lord".


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Apr 13 - 05:34 AM

In his _Singing the Master_ (1992), Roger Abrahams comments,

Songs with the same refrains and tunes as corn shuckings are found in cotton-loading and hoeing songs and sea shanties (including the songs above, "Ju-ran-zie," "Long Time Ago," and "It Rain, Boy, It Rain." (pg120)

Elsewhere Abrahams states that the following song is a version of the sea chantey "Reuben Ranzo"...

The song, from a corn shucking, comes in

Chenault, John Cabell and Jonathan Truman Dorris. _Old Cane Springs: A Story of the War Between the States in Madison County, Kentucky_. Louisville, KY: Standard Print Co., 1937.

pg.47

//
Old marster shot a wild goose

A hundred vices answered from all parts of the field and each mangrabbed a stalk for shucking.

Ju-ran-zie, hio ho.
It wuz seben years fallin'

The multitude of voices cried out as at first—

Ju-ran-zie, hio ho.

It was seben years cookin'.
        Ju-ran-zie, hio ho.

A knife couldn't cut it.
        Ju-ran-zie, hio ho.

A fork couldn't stick it.
        Ju-ran-zie, hio ho.

There was great harmony and perfect concord, although the men were scattered.
//

The "wild goose" in conjunction with "Ranzo" (?) is notable here.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jan 13 - 09:23 PM

1839         'Knickerbocker.' "Odds and Ends: From the Portfolio of a Penny-A-Liner." _The Family Magazine_ [monthly, Cincinnati] 4. Pp. 76-9.

The author is presumably a native of New York. Another sort of early musing on what might be called "folk music." Describes/praises the singing of Black stevedores in New Orleans. They are hauling by hand, the chantyman gathering up the end of the rope. Also makes reference to TD Rice's minstrel performances.

Pg 78:
//
…What I call unwritten musick, is such as has never been marked and dotted out on five straight lines—such as cannot be bought at Atwill's—such as is never thumbed by the young miss who yawns at her piano. Reader, if you want to hear unwritten musick, go down to the docks, find a ship from New Orleans, with a negro crew, sit down on a cotton bag, and you will hear, while she is unloading, airs that will haunt you for weeks afterward. You will see half a dozen stout fellows, with lungs like a boss chimneysweep, and wind like a bellows, pulling at the rope which raises the cargo from the hold, keeping time to the air which is sung by their ship-mate who coils away, and at the end of every half minute join in the chorus with a heartiness and power that is most edifying to hear and behold. Unwritten musick is to be heard everywhere. The shoemaker keeps time to it, as he pulls out his long waxed-ends; the porter walks to it; it regulates the strokes of the blacksmith, when the heated iron sparkles upon his anvil; the black cook hums it, as she turns the spit, and it is ever falling from the lips of the young, the lovely, the innocent, and the gay.
Musick of all kinds, written or unwritten, is to be had in this city [New York] in great quantities, and at various prices. It costs a dollar to hear Mrs. Wood sing at the Park Theatre; seventy-five cents to hear Mr. Rice execute "Jim Crow" at the Bowery; and for fifty cents we can hear "Sittin' on a rail" done by the great composer himself, at the Franklin.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jan 13 - 08:35 PM

The following may not be directly relevant to chanties, but it is another example of the observation of Black boatmen's songs, with a text in a familiar topical style, and with a sentiment that reveals the author finds them to be both unusual and interesting.

1856        Lanman, Charles. Adventures in the Wilds of the United States and British American Provinces. Vol. II. Philadelphia: John W. Moore.

The writings come from tours in North America from the previous 10 years, i.e. since 1846.

Up the Chattahoochee River, through Georgia, on steamboat South Carolina, manned by Black slaves (who received some pay).

Pg149:
//
But I must not forget to mention the cheerful aspect which our steamboat presented as she came in sight of Columbus and paddled her way up to the levee. While the captain invited the passengers to assemble on the upper-deck the mate treated his negro boatmen to a drink of whiskey, which was a signal for them to march to the bow of the boat for the purpose of singing a song. There were twenty of them, and the ceremony was commenced by one of the fellows mounting the capstan and pretending to read the words to be sung from a newspaper, which he held upside down. Their voices were exceedingly good, but, instead of a regular song, the music was more of an incoherent chant, wild and mournful, and breathing forth such impromptu words as these:

"We's up the Chattahoochee, 

On de good old South Calina, 

Going to see my true love, 

How is you my darlin?

Now de work is over 

We's all coming home I"

To my unsophisticated ear there was more melody and pure sentiment in this native chant as it echoed over the tranquil waters, than I ever enjoyed in a fashionable concert room.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jan 13 - 05:29 PM

1847        "Auto-Biographical Sketches, by a Merchant Sailor, Illustrative of the State of the British Merchant Service." _The Nautical Magazine_ 16 (Feb. 1847): 73-8

This is at least part 3 of a series, started in volume 15 (1846). I wasn't able to ascertain exactly what years are being remembered. If it's the West India trade, I am guessing 1830s (?). Likewise, I'm not sure if Bay of Kingston refers to Jamaica or St. Vincent or...

Local Black stevedores at a capstan are described singing in a unique way.

//
We arrived in the magnificent Bay of Kingston in the island of _____ after a very fine passage of twenty-nine days. Jemmy and his wife landed, with their traps, and took up. their abode with his relation, a planter, the mate was left in full charge, and I heard the master, among the last words he said, tell him to send to the consignee's store for any thing he wanted. We had no spirits ou board on the passage out for the crew, the master saying that it had been forgotten in Liverpool…

To enable the reader to understand the events which occurred on board our vessel, during our stay, it will be necessary to explain the custom of the trade as regards loading the cargoes of produce. The sugar and other articles are all collected at the various estates by small cutters and schooners, carrying from twelve to twenty hogsheads; at some places they are loaded at small jetties, at others, the hogsheads are carried to the droger singly, in a boat constructed on purpose, and called a Moses boat. When there is a strong trade wind, the drogers cannot get the produce loaded in consequence of the surf being too high to permit the Moses boat to land. They, therefore, take every opportunity of procuring sugar during favourable weather, and, in order that no time may be lost, it is the custom for the ship's crew to commence taking in sugar from the droger whenever she comes alongside the vessel, whether Sunday or week-day, day or night. These drogers are all commanded by white men, respectable and trustworthy, generally old mates of vessels; they are well paid, and looked on as a very respectable class; the crew is-always composed of negroes, and always numerous from the heavy nature of the work, the hogsheads weighing often one ton each. When the droger goes alongside to commence discharging, the greater port of her crew generally go on board to assist in heaving the sugars on board, which is done by the capstan, (or, at least, was done at the time I am writing of, now, the double winch is often used, and some vessels have regular cranes, which they set up on deck when taking in or discharging,) the negroes singing the whole time a variety of songs, and beating time with their feet. Many of the negroes are improvisatoires of no mean talent, and many a severe remark is passed while singing, upon both mate and master, if not favourites. On some of the beautifully still, calm, clear, evenings enjoyed in the tropics, when no sound is heard save the chirping of the cricket amongst the rigging, or the dull murmur of the distant surf, the sudden commencement of the negro song, on board some vessel in the bay, taking in sugar, would rouse the mind from its lethargy, and recall the wandering thoughts to the realities around.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 27 Jan 13 - 05:12 PM

Moore's "Canadian Boat Song" (1804) is a fairly fancy melody, with a text to match.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jan 13 - 05:00 PM

The following remembrance of life on the Liverpool docks ca.1830, appears to quote [DRUNKEN SAILOR].

1855         Roberts, Edwin F. "Dock-side; Or, Liverpool Twenty-five Years Ago: A Local Sketch." _The United Service Magazine_ 2(319) (June 1855) 240-8.

Pg. 248
//
On either side a dock-gateman is winding open the enormous watergates. The tide is up to the level of that held in the dock; and, being high water, vessels are now coming in and going out. Here is one entering the gut outward-bound, heavily laden, and looking very trim and compact. Half a dozen men and a gigantic negro are heaving away at the capstan. The topsails are hanging in the brails. As yet she is short-handed, for the whole of the crew are not aboard; but here they come, drunk and sober, leaping and tumbling upon the decks. Some go below to sleep their orgies out, and some aloft and hither and thither—and the vessel's way is quickened.
She is not yet out of the dock gates, and till then the gateman acts as a sort of pilot to her—giving directions and orders in the quick, short, stern tone which is the habit of seamen, from the fact that whatever is to be done must be done instantaneously, at once, without debate or dispute.
"Ship ahoy!" the gateman sings out, while, with a merry tramp and an enlivening song, the capstan bars go round—with some such burthen as this:

"Shove him in the long-boat till he gets sober."
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 27 Jan 13 - 04:52 PM

Gibb-

Very interesting.

I'm sure that the dockyard workers who helped warp the ships in and out of the pools via capstan power also had their work songs. Some day we'll find someone who was interested enough to describe them.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jan 13 - 04:36 PM

Now this reference is a comment on slaves of African descent on the island of St. Vincent, in 1833.

1834[1833]        "Manners of West India Slaves." _Chambers' Edinburgh Journal_ no.101 (4 Jan. 1834): 387-8.

It's one of those pieces that shows a European's impression that Africans were making music "all the time."

The verse it quotes, one for entertainment, seems to have the same meter as a typical chanty, and the author says that the same type as shared between different contexts, including work.

The bit on nautical songs is interesting. Why would the author need to compare them to the "Canadian boat song" if, not far away, Newcastle sailors were also using capstan songs? I reason that there must have been something significantly different about the style of song.

I am not sure how to read "Our negro sailors, too, have their nautical songs..." Does me mean that they have songs in addition to the nautical songs of White sailors? Or does he mean that in addition to all the other Black songs I have been naming, they have nautical ones? The fact that he needs to elaborate on what that entails *may* mean the latter was intended.

//
A gentleman, resident in St Vincent's, has sent us a large mass of interesting original information on the condition and character of the slaves on one of the estates in that island; but from the controversial nature of the subject, we are prevented from inserting any portion of the details in our Journal, except that which relates to the manners and customs of the negroes.

"In their manners (says our correspondent) they are more polite than many would be inclined to credit:….
…They are passionately fond of music, and very readily acquire any tune they hear, turning every circumstance or important event into such rude verses as those sung on the day after my arrival at Grand Sable Estate, when they had holiday given them, and something to make merry.

'My Lady Brisbane gone away, 

Massa come and give us holiday.
    Huzza! huzza!'

And these you hear repeated over and over again, as they pass along the road, or down the cane-rows at work. On another occasion, when returning from an excursion, I was amused as well as surprised by hearing a negro boy as he approached me whistling, with great accuracy and precision, and at the same time with some melody and execution, the hunting-song in Der Freischutz. The adult negroes, when working in the fields, have their favourite songs, in which the whole gang unite, iterating or bringing down together a long line of glittering hoes in exact time; the delicate and attenuated voices of the females, blended sweetly and prettily with the full deep tones of the male performers. Our negro sailors, too, have their nautical songs, similar to the 'Canadian boat-song,' and ply the oar, or pull upon the hawser and capstan, adapting the measure to the slowness or rapidity of their movements. Nay, even the little Creole gang of children have some favourite choruses; and a leader, a little improvisature, who composes as he goes along, drawing from the stores of his own imagination, or forming rude verses from the ideas suggested by passing objects: first comes the solo of their leader, and then his little band of followers, joining in one simultaneous and merry chorus, beating the time with their hands or upon their little breakfast tins..."
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jan 13 - 04:22 PM

Scratch that! The passage in my last post seems to have been developed from a still earlier comment on Newcastle capstan song.

1818         Ford, James. "Suffolk Provincial Songs, Ditties, Healths and Proverbs." In _The Suffolk Garland: or, A Collection of Poems, Songs, Tales, Ballads, Sonnets, and Elegies, Legendary and Romantic, Historical and Descriptive, Relative to that County; And Illustrative of its Scenery, Places, Biography, Manners, Habits and Customs._ Ipswich: John Raw. Pp. 395-404.

//
Songs of trades, or songs of the people, are of very remote antiquity. The Grecians, says D'Israeli in his entertaining work, the "Curiosities of Literature," had songs appropriated to the various trades. There was a song for the corn-grinders; another for the workers in wool; another for the weavers. The reapers had their carol; the herdsmen had a song, which an ox-driver of Sicily had composed; the kneuders, and the bakers, and the galley-rowers, were not without their chaunt. We have ourselves a song of the weavers, which Ritson has preserved in his "Ancient Songs;" and it may be found in the popular chap-book of "the Life of "Jack of Newberry;" and the songs of anglers, of old Isaac Walton, and Charles Cotton, still retain their freshness. Dr. Johnson is the only writer I recollect who has noticed something of this nature which he observed in the Highlands. The strokes of the sickle were timed by the modulation of the harvest song, in which all their voices were united. They accompany every action which can be done in equal time with an appropriate strain, which has, they say, not much meaning, but its effects are regularity and cheerfulness, There is an oar song used by the Hebrideans, and our sailors at Newcastle, in heaving their anchors, &c. use a song of this kind.
//

A song? A single song? Or does he mean a *class* of song? Either way, it sounds limited. But interesting!


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jan 13 - 03:35 PM

Here's one from the early 1840s confirming Northeastern English sailors were doing some kind of capstan songs—no surprise, but to add the small-ish body of data. The author uses the word "chaunt" to encompass working songs.


1842         M., C. "Songs for the People." _The Musical World_ [weekly, London] 17(17) (28 April, 1942): 130.

Sort of an early essay on "folk song" (though not called that).

//
But if these chaunts have not much meaning, they will not produce the desired effect of touching the heart, as well as animating the arm of the labourer. The gondoliers of Venice while away their long midnight hours on the water, with the stanzas of Tasso; our sailors at Newcastle, in heaving their anchors, &c, use a song of this kind. A society, instituted in Holland for general good, do not consider among their least useful projects, that of having printed, at a low price, a collection of songs for sailors.
//

Hmm, a collection of songs? But were they work songs?


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 26 Jan 13 - 08:44 PM

Gibb-

I certainly agree with you that the stevedore work songs have been sadly neglected, and many were most likely the origin of deep sea shanties.

Anyone who wants to find some vintage photos of the stevedores at work should access the portal at the Library of Congress Digital Archives; the photos are available at high resolution, copyright free, and with a little editing are superb.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 26 Jan 13 - 12:34 AM

"Wild Goose Shanty" of AL Lloyd, a version of [HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING] or [RANZO RAY], appears to be developed from an item in W. Roy MacKenzie's _Ballads and Sea Songs from Nova Scotia_ (1928). MacKenzie collected it from Ephraim Tattrie of Talamagouche.

Did you ever see a wild goose floating on the ocean?
    Ranzo, ranzo, away, away!
It's just like the young girls when they take the notion
    Ranzo, ranzo, away, away!

Tune is given. The pitches are almost identical to Lloyd's rendition, but, unlike Lloyd's, the tune is in strict meter.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 18 Jan 13 - 11:43 PM

What I mean to say is that stevedores' chanties were more than sailors'. But their cultural context did not form a sort of "framed" picture that would lead people to consider them as a particular "thing" that formed a topic of discussion.

The pattern was to frame "sailors' songs" and then divide that into work and non-work songs, rather than to frame a category of worksongs that straddled the occupations of sailor and stevedore.

In many ways, the lives and identities of sailors and stevedores must have seemed irreconcilable. They did not both fit into the same "file." Yet their songs probably do.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 18 Jan 13 - 11:35 PM

I am starting to thing maybe chanties should not be called sailors' worksongs but rather, first and foremost, stevedores' worksongs.

If we think about it: Chanties were probably sung more by stevedores. On sea vessels, anchor-raising chanties would only be sung comparatively rarely—mainly in/out of port. So capstan/windlass chanties would not be sung so much, unless these devices were used as an alternative way to hoist yards and such. Halyard chanties would appear more often, but not constantly. Yes, there was pumping, too. It seems that most of the regular singing would be for the adjustments of sail direction and to tautness, i.e the so-called "sing-outs." And yet these sing-outs are not generally placed at the center of the concept of "chanties," and only a few authors on chanties give them much attention (for whatever reason—their relative "insignificance" is easy to imagine).

On the other hand, stevedores would be working "all day" to the singing of chanties. They would be closer in touch with the "land" songs that would inspire new creations.

And yet did many folklorists and such go out to collect songs from stevedores? There are certainly some studies, but are they not mostly studies of Black stevedores specifically? Other stevedore songs get mentioned only in the context of studies of sailors who heard them or also participated in that work. People didn't go out looking for retired stevedores to interview about their songs. (Stevedores, I suppose, did not figure in the national imagination of the "nautical heritage" of places like England.) While White stevedores were there, and I think of them in the observations of cotton stowing, no other observations of them are coming to mind, outside of mention in works about sailors.

It seems to me that this is a big gap, that probably shaped/skewed the narratives about chanties that developed.

In the least, chanties should really be called, IMO, "worksongs of sailors and stevedores." To define them first and foremost as just sailor songs may be a mischaracterization, that inadvertently marginalizes the stevedores' songs as something extra that one would include only when stretching the definition/discussion.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 18 Jan 13 - 08:15 AM

Wow! Elsie Clews Parsons collecting sea chanties in Nova Scotia. The last time I came across her she was down on the Rio Grande in New Mexico collecting Pueblo Indian stories. Very interesting find, Gibb.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 17 Jan 13 - 06:06 PM

Fauset, Arthur Huff. 1931. Folklore from Nova Scotia. New York: The American Folk-lore Society.

This contains a couple stevedores' songs that seem to have been still current in the 1920s, Nova Scotia.

Fauset worked in the field with Elsie Clews Parsons.

Introduction dated 1925. States that the majority of material came from people with Black ancestry. Though popular perception of Americans might be otherwise, in Nova Scotia "the frequency with which one encounters the Negro is not unlike similar experiences in states like New Jersey and Pennsylvania." (pg vii)

Two chanty items, text only. Both were collected by Parsons. Pg. 119.

[BLOW BOYS BLOW] (mis-titled) looks like it might be similar to one of the Caribbean forms in the Lomax recordings. That is just my impression based on the phrasing of the refrain.
//
BLOW THE MAN DOWN

Yankee ship
Coming down the river
Blow boys!
Bully boys blow!

How do you know
She's a Yankee Clipper.
Blow boys!
Bully boys blow!

Knock him down
With a marlin clipper,
Blow boys!
Bully boys blow!

The shipper's [sic] got your grog,
In an old hand dipper,
Blow boys!
Bully boys blow!

The cook is a Swede,
And you want yer supper,
Blow boys!
Bully boys blow!

The mate's arm,
Is just like a hammer,
Blow boys!
Bully boys blow!
//
The above was sung by Basil Robinson, 28, a longshoreman in Yarmouth. Sailor in West Indies, Atlantic Coast. "His parents are colored."

[ROLL THE WOODPILE DOWN]
//
HOLD THE WOOD PILE DOWN

Steamboat comin round the bend,
'Way down in Georgia
Loaded down with colored men,
Hold the woodpile down.
//

This was sung by Clarence Marie, 25, also a longshoreman in Yarmouth. Black man.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 09 Jan 13 - 08:13 AM

Wow, Gibb! That is a lot of culling with some good results! I really appreciate this kind of sorting. Now to go and begin listening to all of this. Thanks for your good work. J.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Jan 13 - 04:18 AM

hmm, I missed a few....Hope I didn't miss many more.

> Oh The Yellow Line Fall
[has harmony, minor key]
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26587

> Oh Mother Dinah (cf. [MUDDER DINAH] in Hugill)
[Melody is curiously similar to preceding "Yellow Line Fall"]
Sing Sally O, fal-de-rol-day!
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26588

> Adieu, Fare-You-Well To The Girls In This Town [GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL]
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26594

> One Hundred Can't Pay My Way [HUNDRED YEARS AGO]
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26590


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Jan 13 - 02:03 AM

Last set,

Tobago

18 August, 1962
Pembroke (None), Tobago

>Island Day [HILONDAY]
Oh poor Miss Mary
Island day
Miss Mary gone a mountain
Island day
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27278

>A Long Time Ago [LONG TIME AGO]
Johnny ~Matto was a fisherman's son
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27266

> Blow, Boys, Blow, Boys
Nancy o, blow my diggy man!
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27276


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Jan 13 - 02:01 AM

Grenada

29 July, 1962
Six Roads (None), Carriacou (Grenada)

>Hi Lo Boys (cf. [HILO BOYS])
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25921

>Interview with Newton Joseph about sailor songs
Doesn't know "A-rovin".
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25919

>Long Time Ago (Caesar Boys)
Caesar, boy, I know you well
Long time in Mobile Bay
Bully, long time ago
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25920

30 July, 1962
L'Esterre (None), Carriacou (Grenada)
>Ride 'Em Trinidad (I) (cf. [SHINY O] [DOWN TRINDAD], Bullen's [SHENANDOAH])
{from Lighter:}
Brandy and wine, whisky and soda
       Hey-ey! Shiny O!
Shannydo, my bully boy, where you land that cyahgo?
       Right down Trinidad, brandy and wine!
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25925

Ride 'Em Trinidad (II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27038

>Yankee John (Stormalong) [YANKEE JOHN STORMALONG]
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25926

>Hi Lo Boys (cf. [HILO BOYS])
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25927

>Steamboat Due Tomorrow (cf "Drive her captain"/ "And Away ay-ah", above)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25928

>Roseanna (cf. poor [LUCIANA], in Bullen, Abrahams)
The mountain so high and the valley so low
Poor Lucy Anna
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25930

>Shiloh, Boys, Shiloh (cf. [HILO BOYS])
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25931

>Yard-o, Yard-o (I) (cf. Abrahams, "Bell a-Ring")
Bell a-ring a yard o
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27034

>Yard-o, Yard-o (II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27522

Ring Down Below (cf. Beck)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27035

Rosibella (I) ([ROSABELLA]; cf. Beck, etc)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27036

Rosibella (II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27037

(early) August 1962
La Resource (None), Carriacou (Grenada)

>Blow the Man Down [BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
The Yankee give lumber to build collie so
Give me the rum, I will blow she away
Come blow, come blow, she bound to go
…she can't say no
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27107

>Shame, Shame, Shame For Uncle Riley (cf [BILLY RILEY])
Shame Jimmy Riley oh!
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27113

>Long Time Ago (Caesar Boy) [LONG TIME AGO]
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27114

>Long Time Ago (Caesar Boys)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27039

>Roll, Roll, Roll and Go (cf [SALLY BROWN])
Roll and go Blackeyed Susianna
Spend my money the I can't get ashore
I want to get ashore and I cannot get ashore
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27115

>It's Time For A Man Go Home
It time, it time it time it time
It time for man go home!
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27116

>Roll My Riley
Seven long years I was courting
I was courting Mrs. Jemimiah
Hurroh, my Riley [grand chorus]
Immediately when I spoke to her she was down by the police station
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27040


5 Aug. 1962
La Fortune (Saint Patrick), None (Grenada)

> Roll, Roll, Roll And Go (I) (cf. [Sally Brown])
I spend my money and I can't get ashore
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27157

>(II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25935

> Jean Jean-o (I) (cf. [DAN DAN], Hugill, Abrahams)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27159

>(II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27603

> Sound Me Doctor, Sound Me
Sound me, I tell you, sound me doctor
My head to me elbow
Sound me doctor, sound me forever
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27163

> John Gone Away (cf. "Man o' War")
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25933

> Hurrah-lo, Put Me Ashore
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25938


7 Aug 1962
La Filette (Saint Andrew), Carriacou (Grenada)

>Hilo Boys, Hilo (cf. [HILO BOYS])
hilo, bully boy, hilo!
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27231

> Going Away
We are going away to London town
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27232

> Fare You Well, Captain, Give The Men A Blow
Blow, blow, blow she away
Give the man a blow and let him go away
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27233

> Way-o, Way-o
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27234

>In My Own Native Land
In my own beloved land
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27235


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Jan 13 - 01:59 AM

Next batch.

Nevis

10 July 1962
Newcastle (Saint James Windward), Nevis (St. Kitts and Nevis)

>Interview with Walter Roberts about chanties
Roberts seems to accidentally (?) say "shankey" a couple times, like he is getting it mixed up with "Sankeys" (hymns). Sometimes "k" gets substituted for "t" in Caribbean dialects; but is this significant?
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26690

>Do, My Jolly Boy (I) ([JOHNNY BOKER; cf. Abrahams)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26672

>(II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27023

>(III)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26678

>Pull My Jolly Boys (I) [JOHNNY BOKER]
[done while pulling boat]
Long and strong, me hearty man
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25904

>(II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26695

>Caesar Boy, Caesar (cf. Abrahams)
You look 'pon Caesar, you no look 'pon me
Caesar, boy, Caesar
Caesar drum a-go boom-boom-boom
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26671

>(II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26687

>(III)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26696

>Bear Away Yankee, Bear Away, Boy (I) (cf. Abrahams)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26673

>(II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26692

>Blow Boys Blow (I) [BLOW BOYS BLOW]
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26674

>(III)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26694

>Blow, Bully, Blow Boy (cf. [BLOW BOYS BLOW])
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26675

>See Me Nanny-o (I) (cf. "Boney", above; Abrahams, "Woman belly full of hair")
Woman belly full o' hair
See me nanny-o
I see it when I went there
See me nanny-o
Hurrah for de golden
See me nanny-o

You want to see a monkey kick
Bus' a pepper 'pon his prick
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26676

>(II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26689

>Blow the Man Down [BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
Blow the man down in the hold below
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26679

>Yankee John, Stormalong (I) [YANKEE JOHN STORMALONG]
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26681

>(II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26696

>Long Time Ago [LONG TIME AGO]
A long time me never know you, bully
A long long time in the hold below
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26683

>Bull Dog Goin' Bite Me (cf. Abrahams, Barouallie Whalers, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tM9ziMvI2ms)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26684

>Feeny Brown (I) (cf. Abrahams; cf. [SALLY BROWN])
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26685

>(II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26686

>Interview with Walter Roberts about chanties.
They sing when pushing the boats and when rowing.
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26690


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Jan 13 - 01:22 AM

Next batch.

Anguilla

4 July, 1962
The Valley (North Side) (None), North Side (Anguilla)
>A Sailor Likes a Bottle-o [BOTTLE O]
So early in the morning the sailor likes a bottle O
A bottle of this and a bottle of that
And a bottle of very good brandy O
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27472

>We All Going Ashore
Captain captain where are you going
We all going ashore (cf. HIGHLAND LADDIE for cotton stowing in Hill 1893)
Going ashore but not to stay
We are going ashore this evening
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27473

>Dio, The Tree Fall Down
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27474

>Sundown, I'm Going Home
We hear Martin bawling now…
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27476

>Miss Nancy Went To The Corner
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27477

>Haul 'Em So Long
haul 'em ~below
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26564

>Sally Brown [SALLY BROWN]
Sally Brown, the bright mullata
O sing Sally
Sally belly ~
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26565

>Ivan Boy You'll Clear My Ground
dance all night till the morning come
oh oh oh!
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26567

>Tom Gone Away (cf. [TOMMY'S GONE])
I wonder where my Stormy gone
Tom gone away
He gone on board of the ~mountain ship
Tom gone away
He gone away, the world don't know
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26569

>Peter, Remember You're Courting Her
Peter don't go ~
Peter!
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26570

The Valley (None), North Side (Anguilla)

>Drive Her Home (cf. [BILLY BOY]. "Driver her home" also a popular song in Jamaica)
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26626

4 July, 1962
South Hill Village (None), South End (Anguilla)

>Boney (cf. [BONEY])
The Russians and the Prussians
Sing Nanny O!
Poor old Boney
Sing Nanny O!
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26598

>Bowline [BOWLINE]
oh, ho, the bowline hi!
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26597

>Early in the Morning, The Sailors like their bottle-o [BOTTLE O]
So early in the morning the sailors the bottle o
A bottle of rum, a bottle of gin
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26586

>Fight On, the American Bullies
Hurray, boys, hurray!
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26592

>Haul Away (cf. Hugill p. 357, from Harding - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZn7H_Ivlx4)
haul away, boys, haul away
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26596

>I Can't Go Long Pond
? – audio not working
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26777

>Yankee John, Storm Along ([YANKEE JOHN STORMALONG], cf Abrahams, etc)
O me Liza Lee
Who been here since I been gone?
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26595

>You Never Get a Sail
? – audio not working
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26775

5 July 1962
Copse Eastern (None), Anguilla (unspecified) (Anguilla)

>Island Deh [cf. [HILONDAY]
~ gone on the mountain
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26628

>Somebody 'Round
Everybody singing
Everybody calling
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26629

>Tom Gone Away ([TOMMY'S GONE])
I wonder where my Stormy gone
My Stormy gone, the world don't know
My Stormy to read and write
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26631

>Haul Away
I spend 40 shilling and I spend no more
Haul away, haul away!
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27633

>Tell Mister Duncan I Want No More Coil Rope (cf. "Diana hey", above; [FIRE MARENGO])
fire 'em away, fire 'em away
~ steamboat
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26634

>II
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26635

>Interview with a performer about Tell Mister Duncan I Want More Coil Rope
A donkey or a hog with long hair… haul up a steamboat. "coil rope" means a fuss.
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26636

>Spit Fire, Throw Away
Boiling mother!
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26637

>Interview with a performer about Spit Fire, Throw Away
"Spit Fire" is a boat going so fast that she is boiling the water
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26638

>We All Goin' Ashore (cf. another version, above)
We all going ashore but not to stay
We all going ashore!
Captain, captain lend me a boat
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26645

>Hombre
Say ~ahmbrey
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26646

>Sundown, I Goin' Home
Sundown, I never know
Sundown!
I hear Martin bell ring
Sundown!
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26647


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Jan 13 - 01:09 AM

I've been taking a closer look at the recordings by Alan Lomax in the Caribbean, 1962. Not studying them in depth per se, but just trying to pull out all the chanties and get them logged for future reference. My notes on each, therefore, are mainly to "tag" them and make them notable for later comparisons, etc. As people know, Lomax's titles are often hasty and cryptic, so some sort of minimal notes are necessary.

I've not made any systematic comparison to Abraham's and Beck's collections -- just going on memory, being haphazard. Another disclaimer would be that I have listened to these in a poor acoustic environment, and haven't made too much effort to decipher words.

The main object is simply to have pulled these out of an enormous body of recordings, to gather together what might be relevant for further study.

Lomax (or the people at Cultural Equity) have used tags like "chantey", "sailor song" and "work song" without any particular rigor. I suspect Lomax's preconceived ideas about the chantey repertoire affected his methodology in collecting. There is one notable interview where he is awkwardly plying an interviewee for "A-Roving", and other times he asks vaguely about "pulling up the anchor" and "pulling on the main sheet" (!). Not so effective, I imagine, but of course Lomax's style, very useful in its own way, was to capture the whole "forest" and so miss a lot of "trees." I am generally considering them all to be chanties of some sort (or relevant to the topic).

Generally speaking, I think most of the work songs in the collection struck me as relevant. However, this goes only for the English language ones. There are work songs in other languages, too, but they sound appreciably different from "chanties" to my ear. So these are just *my* "picks"; someone else going through it all might find other songs of relevance. It's a start.

I apologize that I can't spare the time to make all of the links click-able. Sorry.

Here's the first batch.

Trinidad and Tobago

25 April 1962
Diego Martin (None), Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago)

> Down Below (Mosquito And Sand-Fly) (cf. "Helluva wedding…", [BLOW BOYS BLOW])
sandfly married to baboon daughter…
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=27627

30 April 1962
Plaisance (Rio Claro-Mayaro), Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago)

>And Away, Ah Ah
O Captain, captain, what's your cargo?
We are traveling to Dover,
And Away, Ah Ah
Travelling 90 knots an hour,
And Away, Ah Ah
Asking captain what's its cargo,
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26075

>Miss Nancy Oh
Oh, Miss Nancy have a wooden foot
Heave er away, miss Nancy oh,
Miss Nancy ey, Miss Nancy oh
Heave er away, miss Nancy oh,
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26076

>O Eliza (I) (cf. Carpenter collection: "Poor Little Liza," by JS Scott)
Miss Liza, Miss Liza we're going away tomorrow…
O Eliza, don't say so
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26072

>O Eliza (II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=25816

>Tom Gone Away (I) (cf. "Man o' War" in Beck (?) etc)
I wish I was a fisherman boy aboard de man-o-war oh
Tom gone away, aboard a man o' war
From Dover to Scotland is 40 miles an over, boys…
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26074

>Tom Gone Away (II)
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26078

> Juliana
Ah Juliana, you say you never been there
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26077

8 May, 1962
San Juan (San Juan-Laventille), Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago)

> Mister Ram Goat-O (I) (not a chanty, but of the course the melody of [HAUL HER AWAY]/Sally Rackett
http://research.culturalequity.org/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26293

18 May 1962
Rampanalgas (Sangre-Grande), Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago)

>Diana Hey, Diana Ho (cf. "Helluva wedding…", "Down below" (above), [BLOW BOYS BLOW])
What you think they had for dinner?
Diana Hey, Diana Ho
Mosquito liver and sandfly liver (leggo)
Diana Hey, Diana Ho

Helluva wedding across the river,
Mosquito marry to sandfly daughter,
http://research.culturalequity.org/rc-b2/get-audio-detailed-recording.do?recordingId=26418


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 11 Dec 12 - 07:49 PM

I believe I was mistaken. A note penciled into my copy of O'Neill thirty years ago says that the opening bars of the reel "Green Fields of America" are just about identical except in tempo to the first line if "Haul on the Bowline."

In fact, you can listen here:

http://thesession.org/tunes/695

Coincidence? There's no telling.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Dec 12 - 07:45 PM

Lighter, I also think that Drunken Sailor counts as a "real" shanty. But that is by my inclusive and ex post facto definition of "shanty." When I am thinking specifically of shanties as a body of songs developed in the merchant trade for double pulls on the halyards and heaving windlasses (my category, to be sure), I tend to qualify DS.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 11 Dec 12 - 07:11 PM

I hear a vague resemblance between DS and RTOCA. It may simply mean that the use of one (presumably DS) unconsciously influenced some singer(s) to adopt the other for shipboard use. Or it may be completely coincidental.

Years and years ago I noticed an Irish reel that I thought was surprisingly reminiscent of DS, but I don't remember the name and can't say whether the resemblance would seem as striking today.

It was probably in O'Neill's collection (1903), so even if it's quite similar it could have been influenced by the shanty rather than the other way around. Most frustrating.

FWIW, my view is that DS counts as a "real" (if perhaps unusual)shanty because not only was it used as one and thought of as one by various shanty collectors, it seems not to have been sung in non-shanty contexts.

It's minor point, however.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST
Date: 11 Dec 12 - 06:11 PM

Gibb,
These long threads take a long time to download even on my quite fast new computer. Have you considered breaking up the thread at some point to make it more manageable? It could have a tag of 'part 2' quite easily. I suggested this successfully to Richie on his thread. Just a thought.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Dec 12 - 05:35 PM

What you say is true, Lighter. I simply take a more strict approach to reading the evidence in that I require some indication that a song was used as a shanty. Dating a song is one thing; dating its use as a shanty is another. The 1830s-ish existence of minstrel song "Coal Black Rose," for instance, which at some point was adapted to be a work song, does not suggest to me (n itself) that that sort of song had a life as a shanty in earlier days.

Steve, the info on "Chariot" suggests circa 1880s genesis of its shanty use. FWIW I group Chariot and DS in my mind (for right or wrong) due to their formal similarity to each other and their distinct difference from other songs that, and the end of it all, are grouped as "shanties." I can picture "Chariot" being developed as a shanty through the use of DS as a model. Just a thought.

The history of these two tunes is interesting, but at the same time (again a reflection of my personal disposition) I view them both as sort of "outliers" of the shanty phenomenon/genre. One is "too early," they other is too late!

"John Brown's Body" is a similar sort of song, I think, formally speaking.

Definitely shades of bagpipe tunes, I think, but I wouldn't limit it to that. The tune style could possibly be generalized to British Isles / Ireland music (?)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 11 Dec 12 - 05:04 PM

To me the DS tune is very close to 'Roll the Old Chariot Along'. How far back has that been traced? I'm sure there's also an old Scottish tune that is pretty similar. It has the smack of a Highland Pipe tune.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 11 Dec 12 - 03:32 PM

> the possibility that the composer had borrowed from a sailor song that was existing by the 1820s, or that some time after the 1820s sailors based a work song on a composer's popular air. Both seem plausible to me at this point.

If the "Three Little Indians" tune antedates Meineke's composition, it would increase the likelihood that the shanty already existed. If not, not.

It's probably impossible to show that the tune did *not* exist earlier.

The point is that there are two sources of evidence to suggest the shanty was in existence more than decade before Olmsted's voyage.

That isn't a very exciting claim, but it's about the best that can usually be made in 19th C. folk music research.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Dec 12 - 02:16 PM

Sure...but we need more info! (Will we ever not? haha)

My perspective would be that the development of shanties and the origins of the song "Drunken Sailor," two different inquiries, do have a relationship...but not so relevant a relationship (this is where my opinion comes in) as some might feel.

I think the idea that the song DS is based in a previously known "air" -- in particular, one of a marching type....as might be played on fife/fiddle (the instruments of motivation in Navy ships) -- is very plausible.

In this case, the evidence is not, as Lighter obliquely suggests, that the song "Drunken Sailor" was "in use" i.e. as a shanty. Rather it presents the possibility that the composer had borrowed from a sailor song that was existing by the 1820s, or that some time after the 1820s sailors based a work song on a composer's popular air. Both seem plausible to me at this point.

That being said, I consider the *use* of DS as a shanty to be something appreciably distinct from the origin of its component parts.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 11 Dec 12 - 07:37 AM

Well, if the 1825 date is accurate, that beats 1840 and tends to corroborate the otherwise uncorroborated 1827.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Dec 12 - 03:08 AM

Further than who thought? ;)

We certainly have Olmsted's whaling voyage of 1840 that cites it as a work-song.

Then there is the claim in Eckstorm & Smith (1927) that it was heard before 1827.

I have heard this Drunken Sailor composition, but guessed it was inspired by the sailor song. I have no trouble believing that the sailor song dates back to at least 1820 (though without contemporaneous proof).

I call "Drunken Sailor" a shanty, but only after the fact. So far as its form was different from almost every other shanty, and it's use was so particularly circumscribed (walk-away), and (it seems) it was allowed in the navy, I understand it to be one of the work-songs that predated most chanties.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 10 Dec 12 - 09:12 PM

There is evidence that "Drunken Sailor" goes back considerably further than we thought.

This site:

http://www.pdmusic.org/1800s.html

includes a MIDI for the composition "Drunken Sailor (Rondo/Divertimento)" by Christopher Meineke (1782-1850). The piece is said to have been published in 1825.

Its first strain is the major version of the shanty tune (essentially "One Little Two Little Three Little Indians"). At least one shanty authority (can't remember which one) states that this was a "modern" variant.

Either way, Meineke's composition suggests that the shanty, with one tune or the other, was in use long before the Civil War.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 22 Jun 12 - 06:06 PM

Hi, Jonathan,
I think this is the version I used to sing many years ago. I must say I could never figure out how it ever could have been sung aboard as a shanty.

Thanks, Gibb,
I've seen the link on the other thread now.

I wasn't questioning Masefield's sea experiences, only calling him a 'shantyman'! Surely someone with so little experience would not have been allowed to take on this prestigious role.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 22 Jun 12 - 04:13 PM

To add to the confusion:

On Nov. 26, 1932, the Irish song collector Sam Henry published the following text (with tune)in the Coleraine "Northern Constitution":   

I dreamt I saw my own dear bride,
Lowlands, lowlands away, my John.
I dreamt I saw my own dear bride,
My lowlands away.

[similarly:]

And she was dressed in shimmering white.

All dressed in white, like some fair bride.

And then she smiled her sweetest smile.

She sang and made my heart rejoice.

The salt seaweed was in her hair.

It filled my heart with dark despair.

And then I knew that she was dead.

Then I awoke to hear the cry.

"All hand on deck! Oh, watch ahoy!"

This appears on p. 144 of _Sam Henry's Songs of the People_ (1990).

The infuriating note by the editors says: "Source not given."

If this text has appeared upthread, I apologize. It was easier to copy it than to search the entire thread.

Comments?


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 22 Jun 12 - 03:38 PM

Hi Steve

As Charley says, Masefield seems to have been familiar with a number of chanties in direct experience, though he indicates that chanties were on their way out or otherwise not in their prime when he was working.

In my paper, I argue that despite what Masefield's familiarity may have been with some chanties, in the case of "Lowlands," he had no experience (or else chose to ignore it).

I'll PM you link to paper on-line.

Gibb


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 22 Jun 12 - 03:29 PM

I guess it's actually called "messages."

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 22 Jun 12 - 03:28 PM

Steve-

If you first click on "the number of replies" rather than the thread name, the thread will come up in sets of 50, much more manageable.

Masefield did sail a couple of years as an apprentice, and was trained aboard the "Conway" as a cadet in England. He certainly was familiar with shanties as sung and most likely chorused along as he worked but it's not clear if he actually led them.

Masefield had very bad luck with both his first and second captains and finally jumped ship in New York City, getting jobs as a waiter in sailortown dives and eventually getting a job via a friend he met in a textile mill in New Jersey. Eventually he quit that job and steamed back to England and eventually became a successful poet. His mother was most distressed to learn he was throwing away "his career."

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Steve Gardham
Date: 22 Jun 12 - 02:56 PM

Gibb,
Any chance of posting your research somewhere please? For those of us on t'other side of the pond.

Jonathan
Was Masefield a 'shantyman'? Is there evidence for this? I'll have to check my copy of his 'sea songs'.

Gibb,
I've suggested this before to other thread leaders. This thread is so long even on my new superfast computer it takes a while to download this thread. All that is needed is to start a new thread , part 2...part 3 etc every couple of hundred posts.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 22 Jun 12 - 10:05 AM

I confess that I feel somewhat skeptical too. Surely one of the most lyrical and melancholy trad songs can't have been created step by step by careless and romantic 20th century editors!

But Gibb's evidence that it was isn't easily disputed. I'm going to think about it some more, however.

As to Hugill, he certainly had no reason to expect that the shanty collections were fooling him. Maybe he learned the song from print even before he went to sea, then taught it to his shipmates.

At least that would make the "dead lover" "Lowlands" a real shanty, even if sung by only one real shantyman! (Two if Masefield had ever sung it.)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 22 Jun 12 - 08:40 AM

Gibb-

You probably got a lot of feedback from your lecture at the recent Mystic Sea Music Festival. Would you be willing to summarize the reaction? My friends were very interested in your presentation but were skeptical of your conclusions. Maybe they just needed to review this thread.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 21 Jun 12 - 08:18 PM

A recently digitized source.

1890            Bassett, F.S. "Songs of the Sea." _Brainard's Musical World_ [Chicago] 27(313) (January 1890): 7-8.

Nothing too interesting here, though I consider any 19th century article of chanties to be of some notability. Each contributes in some way to broadening the audience and solidifying standardized print knowledge.

So this one is basically whipped up based in L.A. Smith's _The Music of the Waters_ (1888). I see no unique info. On the other hand, the author tweaks some lyrics here and there. For instance, "I am bound to the Rio Grande" becomes "I am off to Rio Grande." And "Slapandergosheka" becomes "Slopandergosha." However, despite such differences, and in light of several mistakes, it is absolutely clear to me that this knowledge is derived from Smith's text. There is no evidence that the author had his/her own direct knowledge of chanties.

Notable is the tweak of the text for "Lowlands", wherein Smith's "Lowlands a-ray" has become here "Lowlands away." I believe in this case that this was a rationalization, not a correction.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 01 Oct 11 - 12:55 AM

2011-2012        Various Artists. Short Sharp Shanties: Sea Songs of a Watchet Sailor. Wild Goose Studios. 3 CDs.

I compared (well, collated) the John Short items presented by Tom Brown and co. on this project with the C Sharp and RR Terry collections, to see what items were unique to the unpublished manuscripts. I realize of course that the published versions aren't exactly the same as the manuscripts, however my understanding is that what Sharp and Terry attributed to Short in their publications was based in the manuscripts, even if the editors made composite versions that come out different. My interest here is purely to track the unique appearances of chanty items.

Anyway these are the unique (i.e. not previously "tallied") items I came up with. Hopefully I didn't mess up. Corrections appreciated.

NEW YORK GIRLS
SACRAMENTO
WHISKEY JOHNNY
DIXIE'S LAND
CLEAR THE TRACK
GOODBYE FARE YE WELL
LOWLANDS AWAY
PADDY ON THE RAILWAY
REUBEN RANZO
ROSABELLA


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 30 Sep 11 - 09:32 PM

1896        Hawley, G. "The Foundations of the Sea." The Pall Mall Magazine 14(57).

Nov. 1891, ship Manilla > Honolulu. Can't quite tell if this is supposed to be fiction (I presume) or possibly a true account. Uses the phrase "shanty song."

//
The rest of the crew staggered out, carrying those who were beyond walking. Fresh air and cold water galvanised them into something like life; but the rest of the voyage was a sad lot. The greyness had eaten into us, and the clank of the pump brakes, watch in, watch out, took the place of the cheery, shanty song. The ship leaked like a basket, the heat having started the pitch from the caulking in every seam, and we made Honolulu with three feet of water in the hold.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 30 Sep 11 - 09:08 PM

1895        Stedman, Thomas L., ed. Twentieth Century Practice: An International Encyclopedia of Modern Medical Science. Vol. 3. New York: William Wood and Co.

Chanties inducing nausea!

Not much info here except to add to our sense of how familiar laypersons may have been with the genre in the 1890s, i.e. the phrase, in quotes, is "chanty song."

//
A distinguished surgeon in the United States Navy, formerly associated with me on duty, who, although he had passed half of his twenty-five years of service at sea, was always a great sufferer from seasickness, assured me that he could at any time excite in himself feelings of nausea, by recalling occasions and circumstances of former attacks. Charteris quotes Henry Ward Beecher as relating how "many years after his first voyage across the Atlantic, he heard some sailors in a Brooklyn dock singing the same old 'chanty song' that he had heard when ill at sea, and that the mere listening to it produced the creepy feeling of seasickness;"
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 30 Sep 11 - 07:20 PM

1894        Walling, Lieutenant Burns T. "The Wreck of the Kearsarge." The Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute 21(4).

Feb 1894, the famed USS KEARSARGE is wrecked on Roncador Bank, off the east coast of Central America. At one point during the activities, singing of chanties is described.

The men sang "Shantee songs", [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [A-ROVING].
//
What preparations could be made for the approach of daylight were now pushed ahead. Three rafts were constructed from the light spars and lumber, their heads resting on the rail forward, all being ready to launch in case the other boats should fare no better than had the second cutter. As much extra provision and fresh water as possible was brought up, limited only in amount by a desire to keep the gangway clear for a rush forward in case she should break in two.

The galley fires were started and coffee was made and served out, reinforced by cigars and cigarrettes from the wine mess stores. The men kept at their work singing cheerily a number of 'Shantee songs, the most popular being "Heigho, knock a man down" and "No more I'll go a-rovin' with you, fair maid.''
//

It's interesting as another appearance of the "knock a man" variation.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 30 Sep 11 - 06:52 PM

1895        Manchester Literary Club. _Papers of the Manchester Literary Club._ Vol. 21. Manchester: John Heywood.

4 Feb., 1895, at one of the weekly meetings of the Manchester Literary Club, J.B. Shaw presented a paper on chanties. It was accompanied by performances, with piano accompaniment.

Two sentences are verbatim copy of Alden's 1882 article, so that was used as a source on background. If they had piano accompaniment, there is a good chance they were using Davis & Tozer's Third Edition, published in the early 1890s, as it was the only source then with accompaniment. However, they might have made their own accompaniment.

This event is interesting because it marks perhaps the first (or first I've seen!) instances of chanties being performed by "laymen". Although we don't know if, perhaps, some or all of the performers were ex-seamen, it seems to me that most or all were simply interested amateurs. They speak of preserving the songs – the first rumblings of a revival? As I said, Davis/Tozer's volume, which doesn't seem to have gotten much notice until its third edition, looks to have been the only publication in the 19th century that was created to facilitate performance of chanties by laypersons.

The brief reads as follows.
//
Sailors' Chanties.
Mr. J. B. Shaw contributed the principal paper. It dealt with Sailors' Chanties and other Sea Songs, and was illustrated by the singing of a number of these "chanties" and songs by Messrs. Derby, Butterworth, Dinsmore, Edmeston, Mercer, and Wilcock, who were accompanied on the piano by Mr. W. Noel Johnson. The reader said that "Sailors' Chanties" belonged to a time now no more. The typical "Jack " of the pre-propeller age has utterly vanished, has passed into the dusty domain of the archaeologist, and his real habits and customs will soon be forgotten. We should therefore make an effort to preserve the memory of his songs before the last man who heard them and can give testimony in regard to them is gone. The "Chanty-man," the chorister of the old packet ship, has left no successors. In the place of rousing "pulling songs" we now hear the rattle of the steam-winch, and the steamwinch or pump give us the rattle of cog-wheels or the hiss of steam instead of the wild choruses of other days. Sailors' songs might be divided into two classes, pulling songs and windlass songs. The former were used merely to aid the men when pulling on a rope, to pull at the same precise instant. The latter were intended to beguile the men while getting up the anchor or working the pumps into temporary forgetfulness of their prosaic labour. These songs are worth studying from various points of view. Musically they are most valuable, as showing how much they are characteristic of their subject, vocationally as proving the amount of impetus or encouragement needed by the singer in his work, and poetically by making known the feelings which animate a sailor's breast with regard to his home, his wife, his captain, and all that concerns him.
In the conversation which followed the reading of the paper, Messrs. Milner, Kay, Crosland, Chrystal, and Newton took part.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 30 Sep 11 - 05:56 PM

1894        Burn Murdoch, W.G. _From Edinburgh to the Antarctic._ London: Longmans, Green and Co.

During the Dundee Antarctic Expedition of 1892-93. Barque BALAENA.
Passenger/observer notes several instances of chanties. He spells the word two ways: "shantie" and "chantie". I believe the experiences were genuine, however he seems to utilize Davis/Tozer to "refresh" his memory of the chanties.

[WHISKEY JOHNNY]
//
Men and boys there were of every sailor type: old Arctic whalers, red cheeked and bearded; tanned South Spainers with shaven chins and faces lined with the rough and smooth; quiet men and boys from the East Coast fishing villages, and gentle men from the Shetlands. Fifty men from all the world; strangers an hour ago, brothers now—in the one spirit of whisky, devilment, and adventure.
What a picture they made as they swung together at the topsail halyards, their eyes gleaming, with open, thirsty mouths shouting the old shantie, 'Whis—ky John — nie. Oh—whisky makes the life of man. Whis—ky for—my Johnnie,' with the shantie man's solo, 'Oh, whisky made me pawn my clothes,' and all together again, with a double haul and a shout of 'Whis—ky—John—nie,' that makes the blood tingle even to remember it.
//

[MR. STORMALONG]
//
A Danish ship passed us to-day; she came up from leeward, passed under our stern, and faded out of sight in a veil of mist ahead of us and to windward. She was sailing quite two points closer than we could. She had a windmill working her pump, an arrangement much despised by our sailors—without reason, I think, as it saves an immense amount of work. We have to pump ship every four hours, and it takes about ten minutes each time. After heavy weather and the ship has been straining we have to pump her for about half an hour out of each watch. The pump stands at the foot of the mainmast inside the fife-rail, and has a handle on either side; some of the watch turn the hands and the rest stand in a line along the deck and haul on a rope attached to the pump handle each time it comes up. As we pump, the chantie (pronounced shanty) man trolls out some old sea song, and after each line all hands join in the refrain. Some of our men have a large stock of these songs. Most of them are sung to sad, minor tunes, with sometimes almost meaningless, but time-honoured words. The airs have much of the dignity of early Norse and Gaelic tunes, quite unlike any modern music ; when and where they originated I should like well to know. Here is one of them that the men sung frequently. It refers to some ideal skipper, beloved by his crew, who had died and gone to his rest a long time ago. [w/ score]

Oh, Stormie's gone, the good old man.
Aye, aye, aye, Mister Stormalong.
Oh, Stormie's gone, that good old man,
To be with you Stormalong.
We dug his grave with a golden spade, 

Aye, aye, aye, Mister Stormalong;
His shroud of finest silk was made, 

To be with you, Storm-along.
We lowered him with a silver chain, 

Aye, aye, aye, Mister Storm-along;
Our eyes were dim with more than rain, 

To be with you, Storm-along.
And now he lies in an earthen bed,
Aye, aye, aye, Mister Storm-along; 

Our hearts are sore, our eyes are red, 

To be with you, Storm-along.
Old Stormie heard the Angel call,
Aye, aye, aye, Mister Storm-along; 

So sing his dirge now one and all, 

To be with you, Storm-along.

Think of this very slowly chanted, in time to the clank of the pump, the waves surging over the decks, sky and sea grey, and the wind booming through the shrouds overhead, and you have as dreary a scene as can well be pictured.
//

The [DEAD HORSE] ceremony is described.
//
OCTOBER 6th.—Lat. 30.30 ; long. 20.4. Old Horse day.
The cat's wind has held fair, and the Balaena, with a white feather in her teeth, bowls merrily southward.
The Old Horse came out in great style. The sailors consider that they do their first month's work at sea for nothing, having received the month's pay in advance when they signed articles, and the old horse is made an emblem of this month, and is hanged. I fail to see the analogy between an old horse and an unpaid month's work, but I am told that it is quite evident. However, I relate the incident as I saw it. It may be a custom of the past in a few years, for the reason that men are now trying to have their wages paid weekly. They would like to have a portion of their first pay handed them in advance, and would like their wives to receive their half pay in weekly, instead of in monthly, instalments. There are several other regulations they wish to have formed as to their pay; for instance, that in case of shipwreck, they should receive pay up to date of reaching home, or at least till they make land, or a port. If we were to lose this ship in the Antarctic and lived in the boats or on the ice for a month or so, and then had the good fortune to be picked up by one of our companion vessels and brought home alive, the men would only be entitled to claim pay up to the moment the ship went down, and instead of returning with their pockets full of money, they would arrive in debt to their employers for the cost of their board on the vessel that took them home, whilst the owners by insurance might lose nothing, and might even profit by the wreck. This seems hardly a considerate arrangement in regard to the men; and if employers would still be employers, they ought to be very considerate in this respect, or the time will come for sailors to work for their united interest, and the consideration of the employers will be of no account.

For some days reports have come aft from the focsle that the horse was being constructed. When I heard an unfamiliar song being chanted this afternoon, I went forward and found the men hauling on two lines that led down to the focsle-hatch. At the end of the lines came the dummy horse, made of wood and canvas, bestrode by Braidy, arrayed in a scarlet flannel jacket and a black jockey's cap. The horse was supported on either side and at its latter end by some of the old hands. As the hatch is very steep, they had some difficulty in hauling up the horse and its rider properly and in time to the chant. At last they got him on deck and then began a slow march round the ship, going aft on the starboard side, round the poop, and forward again by the port side. The procession really made a splendid picture-subject, the colouring of the men's clothes in the sunlight was so varied and so harmonious; there was faded blue, and purple, and pale green, and a sky-blue Tam-o'-Shanter, and all the faces and arms were dyed nut-brown by the sun. In the middle of the group sat Braidy in his scarlet coat, with the brown unpainted wood of the bulwarks and the blue sea above forming a back-ground. Round the deck they went singing 'The Old Horse,' chanting the time-honoured song with all solemnity, making the old horse plunge at times, for they had to pull it along the deck in short jerks to keep time to the tune. In the lee channels the sea was frothing white, and I thought Braidy would come off, for the horse grew very restive there; but he held to its neck.

Under the foreyard the procession halted, and a running bowline was dropped over the horse's head, and Braidy got off, and to a second mournful chant it was hauled up to the yard's-arm. It was a curious, quaint, and pretty performance; the solemn seriousness of the whole affair and the suppressed childish fun were in extreme contrast. For a minute the horse hung swinging against the bright sky, then a man lay out along the yard and drew his knife across the line, and the 'Poor Old Horse' dropped with a splash into the blue waves and floated sadly astern: These are some of the words of the song, and the air as nearly as I can remember it.

THE OLD HORSE [w/ score]

They say my horse is dead and gone,
And they say so, and they hope so!
They say my horse is dead and gone;
Oh, poor old man!

For one long month I rode him hard, 

And they say so, and they hope so! 

For one long month I rode him hard; 

Oh, poor old man!

But if he's dead I 'll bury him low,

And they say so, and they hope so! 

But if he's dead I'll bury him low; 

Oh, poor old man! 


Then drop him to the depths of the sea, 

And they say so, and they hope so! 

Then drop him to the depths of the sea; 

Oh, poor old man!
//

[REUBEN RANZO]
//
Now a chantie is started as the crew haul on the main topsail halyards. Lately the chanties have been few, and half drowned by the racket of the storm and hail-showers; but this morning there is a ring of triumph in the hearty voices, and the white sails that have been imprisoned so long seem to signal to the gale as they unfurl that we have beaten it, and are ready to face it again.
It is a new chantie to me, this old song, which one of our harpooneers trolls out—sung in the ark, probably, when Noah hauled in the gangway. Marshall has an endless stock of these chanties, and brings out a new one when we get tired of the last.

Chantie man: Ran-zo was a tailor,
All together: Ranzo, boys, Ranzo!
Chantie man: Now he's called a sailor,
All together: Ranzo, boys, Ranzo!
The skipper was a dandy, 

Ranzo, boys, Ranzo! 

And was too fond of Brandy, 

Ranzo, boys, Ranzo!
They call him now a sailor! 

Ranzo, boys, Ranzo! 

The master of a whaler! 

Ranzo, boys, Ranzo!

There is a fine sudden ring in the chorus that goes well with the wind and squalls. 'Belay,' shouts the mate, and the crew repeat' belay,' and the chantie stops in the middle of a Ran-zo.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 30 Sep 11 - 02:59 AM

1903[Dec.]        Gilbert, Paul Thomas. The Great White Tribe in Filipinia. Cincinnati: Jennings and Pye.

Dec.1901, Oroquieta, Phillipines. A ship is wrecked off shore, and this incident happens with one of the rescued officers. He sings [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL]

//
The mate, aroused by the example of the chief, rendered a "Tops'l halliard shanty," "Blow, Bullies, Blow." It was almost as though a character had stepped from Pinafore, when the athletic, gallant little mate, giving a hitch to his trousers, thus began: "Strike up a light there, Bullies; who's the last man sober?"

Song.

"O, a Yankee ship came down the river—
      Blow, Bullies, blow! 

Her sails were silk and her yards were silver—
      Blow, my Bully boys, blow!

Now, who do you think was the cap'n of 'er?
      Blow, Bullies, blow! 

Old Black Ben, the down-east bucko—
Blow, my Bully boys, blow!"

"'Ere is a shanty what the packeteers sings when, with 'full an' plenty,' we are 'omeward bound. It is a 'windlass shanty,' an' we sings it to the music of the winch. The order comes 'hup anchors,' and the A one packeteer starts hup:

"'We're hom'ard bound; we're bound away;
        Good-bye, fare y' well.
We're mone'ard bound; we leave to-day;
        Hooray, my boys! We're home'ard bound.
We're home'ard bound from Liverpool town;
        Hooray, my boys, hooray!
A bully ship and a bully crew;
        Good-bye, fare y' well.
A bucko mate an' a skipper too;
        Hooray, my boys, we're home'ard bound!'"
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 30 Sep 11 - 01:40 AM

1889        J., F.H. "Negro Music of the United States." In _A Dictionary of Music and Musicians_, ed. by Sir George Grove. Vol. 4. London: Macmillan. 728-730.

Early edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Reflects the "common knowledge" about African-American musical style that probably would have informed C. Sharp and Arnold (w/ Bullen) in their comments from their collections.

Just one excerpt here on work-singing, by stevedores and firemen:

//
They [African-Americans] have songs for all occasions where they move in concert, such as loading or unloading ships, or working at the pumps of a fire engine. Their rhythmic sympathies are most strongly active on these occasions. Often one of a gang acts as a precentor, giving a line or two by himself, and the chorus coming in with the refrain. This leader, when his supply of lines gives out or his memory fails, resorts to improvisation.
//

No mention of any sailors' songs in this volume.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 30 Sep 11 - 12:50 AM

1893        Ralph, Julian. "The Old Way to Dixie." _Harper's New Monthly Magazine_ 86(512) (Jan. 1893).

Headed down the Mississippi on the old fashioned steamboat CITY OF PROVIDENCE. The refrains of roustabouts (who earn "a dollar a day") are noted. One has the famus floating lyric of "Johnny Come Down to Hilo" and "Hog-eye", i.e. "Who's been here since I been gone?"
Pg174
//
At one stop which we did make, Captain Carvell ordered a barge pushed out of the way—"so's we shan't make a bunglesome landing," he said. The nearest great landingstage, a long gang-plank hung by the middle from a sort of derrick,and capable of connecting the boat with a hill or a flat surface, was let down on the bank. The unavoidable flour-barrels came head foremost along a wooden slide this time.and a darky on the boat sang an incessant line, "Somebody told me so," as a warning to the men below that another and another barrel was coming. They are fond of chanting at their work, and they give vent to whatever comes into their heads, and then repeat it thousands of times, perhaps. It is not always a pretty sentence, but every such refrain serves to time their movements. "O Lord God! you know you done wrong," I have heard a negro say with each bag that was handed to him to lift upon a pile. "Been a slave all yo' days; you 'ain't got a penny saved," was another refrain: and still another, chanted incessantly, was: "Who's been here since I's been gone? Big buck nigger with a derby on." They are all "niggers" once you enter the Southern country. Every one calls them so, and they do not often vary the custom among themselves.
These roustabouts are nothing like as forward as the lowest of their race that we see in the North. …They earn a dollar a day, but have not learned to save it. …Though they chant at their work, I seldom saw them laugh or heard them sing a song, or knew one of them to dance during the voyage. The work is hard, and they are kept at it, urged constantly by the mates on shore and aboard, as the Southern folks say that negroes and mules always need to be. But the roustabouts' faults are excessively human, after all, and the consequence of a sturdy belief that they need sharper treatment than the rest of us leads to their being urged to do more work than a white man.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 10:02 PM

1853        Bright, Henry Arthur. Free Blacks and Slaves. Would Immediate Abolition Be a Blessing? London: Arthur Hall Virtue & Co.

Just something as a point of reference to the speculative idea that has popped up here and there that, if African-Americans were at the forefront of introducing the concept and/or the repertoire for the "modern" chanties, a subsequent shift in that development may have been due to the disappearance of Black labor in certain trades. Or, the development and spread of chanties may have been affected by the movement of non-Blacks replacing them, taking over the reins and perhaps acquiring the chanties.

A letter from an anti-abolitionist.

Quotes from a letter to the Maryland Colonization Journal from Mr. Latrobe of Baltimore, Oct. 1851.
//
Again, I would quote in support of my position a few facts from Mr. Latrobe's letter :—he is speaking of the effect of competition between the two races—"In Baltimore, ten years since, the shipping at Fell's Point was loaded by free coloured stevedores ; the labour at the coal-yards was free coloured labour. In the rural districts round Bal timore, the principal city of a slave state, free coloured labourers, ten years ago, got in the harvest, worked the mine banks, made the fences, and indeed supplied, to a great extent, all agricultural wants in this respect. Now all this is changed. The white man stands in the black man's shoes—or else is fast getting into them. In Cincinnati, the labour that used to be performed by free blacks in the great pork establishments, is now performed by white men. The firemen on the steam-boats on the western waters are now whites, where they used to be free coloured men ; and the negro's song, as he filled his furnaces, has ceased on the Ohio and Mississippi."
//

So, dating the death of the steamboat firemen's songs to the turn of the 1850s and saying that much of the free Black labor – at which time Whites would have worked relatively "side by side"—was in the 1840s. That's the decade in which I believe we see the burgeoning of chanties.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 09:39 PM

The last author, 1879, used the phrase "shanty song" (without quotes). This author, same year, puts it in quotes as "shantee."

1879        MacMichael, Morton. _A Landlubbers Log of a Voyage Round the "Horn"._

From a journal kept. By a passenger in the ship PACTOLUS, (of New York) captained by Colcord (aged 30), from Philadelphia to San Francisco via Cape Horn. Left Philly in July 1879. The passage is from August 1879.
//
The men, who are now prevented from working about deck or aloft at their usual jobs, are only worked at tending the sails, and between orders stay under the lee of the forward house. They look very odd, being swelled to nearly twice their natural size by their thick clothes, over which they wear oil-skin coats and pants, and also rubber " sou'wester" hats. Those that have new suits of oil-skins look like mammoth canary birds, the color of the garments being a bright yellow. Through all their hardships, and this weather is really very hard on them, they seem as cheerful as possible, and sing their queer monotonous songs with a vim when pulling on the ropes, where all hands, or a whole watch is needed. At these times the carpenter is expected to lend a hand, and when on deck I too catch hold and help pull. The song or " shantee" as they call it, and which is sung when a whole watch or more are hauling, consists in the leader singing a line, then all hands the chorus, which is only one line long, and at the same time giving two long steady pulls; as the leader chants the next line the men rest, then another chorus and pull, and so on until the yard is hoisted or the sail sheeted home.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 09:10 PM

1879        Featon, John. The Waikato War 1863-4. Capper Press.

ca.1863 New Zealand, during the Waikato War. Pg69. Deep-water shanties adapted for rowing, with SHENADOAH and an ambiguous other.
//
The majority of the men who volunteered for the Water Transport Corps, were, as may be imagined, those who had been used to a sea-faring life, and accustomed to boats and rowing. They were a rough-and-tumble lot, and many are the wild stories told of their escapades. The boats' crews (8 and 12 oars), used generally to sweep up against the stream to the chorus of a sailors shanty song, "I'm bound away," or "Ye rolling rivers," usurping the canoe chant of the natives.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 08:26 PM

1903        Des Voeux, Sir G. William. _My Colonial Service in British Guiana, St. Lucia, Trinidad, Fiji, Australia, Newfoundland, and Hong Kong with Interludes._ Vol. 1. London: John Murray.

December 1863-ca. 1867, a magistrate in Demerara. The observer talks about rowing songs led by a Barbadian, including [JOHN BROWN'S BODY]. Pp24-25

//
As I was destined to spend a large proportion of the next four years in them, it may be as well to give here a short description of the boats used for travelling in Guiana by Europeans and the upper class of coloured people….
The rowers were usually negroes or "coloured men," who, when they got away from town and drink, showed marvellous endurance. I have known them of their own accord labour steadily at the oars for sixteen to eighteen hours, with scarcely any intermission, when they had any special desire to reach their destination quickly. At first when they began to tire I used to give them spirit, but I soon found by experience that this was worse than useless. It put some additional life into the stroke for a short time, but always caused a very quick collapse afterwards. At night the pace was increased when they sang in chorus. The songs, usually led by a Barbadian negro, were much of a kind described in Marryat's Peter Simple, remarkable neither for sense nor tune. Only one of these songs, as far as I remember, had in it anything approaching to melody. That was the Union battle-song of "John Brown," with the refrain of " Glory, hallelujah, as we go marching on." And even that, reiterated many times, became, to say the least, monotonous; especially during the night hours when sleep in view of the next day's work was desirable. But however wanting in other respects, this singing was always in good time and no doubt lightened the labour, as it seemed absolutely essential to good going; so that whenever there was necessity for expedition I never put an end to it.

[footnote]
The chorus of one of them, which I took down in writing and happen to have preserved, ran as follows:—

"He hi ha, bow wow wow, the days of the petticoats are coming, 

Never mind the weather, but get over double trouble; 

Then we're bound for the happy land of Canaan."

The verses, of which there are many, preceding this chorus were equally nonsensical. For instance :—

"Tom Sayers and Heenan, they made a night to brag, 

They swear'd they'd beat all creation; 

But the little Malitia Boy did tap him on the nose, 

And knocked him in the happy land of Canaan."

This was, o course, a reference to the celebrated prize fight which had recently taken place in England, "Malitia" being evidently intended for "Benicia," and the singers quite innocent of the fact that the "Benicia Boy" was Heenan himself.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 08:02 PM

1871        King, Rev. F. "In the Bahamas." _Mission Life_ (1 June 1871). 309-13.

On Abaco.
//
"There are large sugar cultivations on the mainland," writes Mr. Philpot from Abaco, "and the fields of waving cane, with their delicate green leaves and golden tassels, look very pretty, especially when they relieve a dark background of sombre pine-wood. A windmill crushes the cane, and when wind fails, manual labour is called in—a number of negroes turning the windlass to the wild chaunts of their own country."
//

On Bimini. A "hilo" song while working cargo.
//
Shocking as it may seem to our notions, the main source of wealth and employment to the Bahama islander used in former times to consist in "wrecking." Wrecks then were more often designed than accidental, and the goods rescued from the ship were bought at a nominal sum, and sold afterwards by the wreckers at a considerable profit in Nassau. …

"When the ship is above water, the work is pleasant enough. Blocks and ropes are fixed, hatchways opened, and sturdy arms at work, while strong lungs shout the wrecking songs—

'High low, high low,
Johnny come blow the organ! 

Walk him up and walk him down, 

High low, high low!'

and the cotton-bales and sugar-boxes seem to fly into the boats. But when it is a sunken wreck, and the goods have to be dived for out of the hold, then comes the danger. The diver descends into the ship with a line tied round him, which he jerks when he wishes to ascend. Woe betide him if he gets entangled in the ship's hold and cannot come out! and this is not seldom the case."
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 07:43 PM

1833        Unknown (Johnstone, ed.). "Sierra Leone and its Capitol, Freetown." _The Schoolmaster_ 34(2) (23 March 1833).

About the "Kroumen" and their singing when rowing. Recall that Alden (1882) made a comparison to, "the lawless, halfmournful, half-exulting songs of the Kroomen."
//
The habitations of the Krou people, Krou Town as it is called, are, in the direction of this spot adjoining Freetown, a complete Indian village; the houses formed, like all the huts in the colony, of clay, twigs, and thatch. These men are an emigrant and industrious race, natives of a part of the Grain Cost, in the neighbourhood of Cape Palmos, about thret hundred and fifty or four hundred miles south-east of this, who come here for a few years only—let themselves out for hire to ships or as servants on shore—make a little money—return home again, and are succeeded by some more of their fortune-pushing countrymen- They are, in fact, the Scotsmen of Africa. They are a remarkably strong, active, hardy and intelligent race of men. Their skin varies from a dark copper colour to black, tattooed about the face, chest and arms. They are distinguished by a tattooed arrow on each temple with its point to the eye; and almost all of them have the front teeth of the upper jaw filed to a point, or some portion of each tooth removed, according to the fancy of the wearer or those who begat him, which gives them a savage appearance. Their only article of dress is a piece of printed cotton cloth round the middle. None of them have their wives and families here; these are left at home under the guardianship of their own relations, and the protection of their chief, to whom, on returning home, they always carry a present of cloth, muskets, gunpowder, or some article of dress, as a sort of tribute and acknowledgment for his protection.
Every ship of war on arriving at Freetown, enters certain number of these Kroumen over and above her compliment, for the purpose of manning her boats when the may be sent on any service where there is likely to be much exposure to the sun or rain, and to the mephitic exhalation from the soil, such as weeding and watering so that our unassimilated seamen may be subjected as little as possible to the deleterious influence of the climate.
We received upwards of twenty of them on board, chiefly young men, all of them more muscular and athletic, though not generally taller, than our own people;…

In rowing, they have always a song of some sort or other at command, to which they keep time with the oar, someimes melodious, but usually harsh and untuneful, having generally for its subject something connected with the ship, or the officers, or the duty that is going on, each chanting a subject in turn, while the rest join in the chorus.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 07:21 PM

1854        Hogg, James, ed. "A Letter from Mauritius." Hogg's Instructor. Vol. 3. (July-December 1854). Edingurgh: James Hogg.

Mauritius. Observer calls sailors chantying "chanting".
//
The little bay looks active and busy with shipping; loading and unloading goes on merrily to the chanting of the sailors, which sound is borne pleasantly across the water with every little breath of wind;
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 05:50 PM

The "xxxx" in my last post doesn't mean anything (just a marker in my notes).
***

1835        Atkinson, Samuel Coate, ed. "Going to Bed without Your Dinner (from Leave From a Log: A West India Story)." Atkinson's Casket 1 (January 1835).

Published Philadelphia.
Commenting on a sight in "the West Indies" – Trinidad? Calls Black work songs "a kind of Creole chaunt."

//
1 now passed the estate belonging to Monsieur Honnemaison: the field-gang were cutting canes, and the muleteers loading their animals,—all were chaunting a short song. Negro songs are always short; it was what on French estates is called a "belle air," a kind of Creole chaunt, almost agreeable enough to merit its appellation.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 05:33 PM

xxxx1850        Baird, Robert. _Impressions and Experiences of the West Indies and North America in 1849._ Vol. 1. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons.

Early 1849, Antigua.

//
Nothing to break the calm silence of the scene, save the occasional chaunt of a negro band, who were engaged, at some distance, putting up the sails of a windmill, and whose chorus, rude and imperfectly heard as it was, sounded pleasantly in the ear, as the indication of light hearts.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 07:20 AM

Gibb, the OED gives no support for that pronunciation of "chaunt."

It lists it simply as an 18th and 19th century spelling variant of "chant," with the "ch" in "church" and the "au" as in "palm."

This suggests to me that if "shanty" had come directly from "cha(u)nt," it would almost certainly have had the "hard ch" from the very beginning. But if it had, I doubt anyone would have suggested French as an origin.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 06:29 AM

Fanny Elssler is back! This time she is in Havana, rather than New Orleans, and the stevedores are rolling cargoes rather than hoisting them. Their song is a "lively chaunt."

1843        Unknown. "Fanny Elssler at the Havanah." Fraser's Magazine 168(28) (December 1843).

Havana, Jan. 1841. A rough translation of Elssler's own accounts.

//
Before me lay the harbour, beautiful in shape, and its fine quays thickly lined with hundreds of vessels of all nations. …Great masses of idle people were standing contemplating our arrival, the vessels teeming with negroes, oddly attired, were at work rolling cargoes in and out, and accompanying their labour with a lively chaunt, both musical and strange.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 04:22 AM

1835        Hoffman, Charles Fenno. A Winter in the Far West. Vol. 2. London: Richard Bentley.

Contains a letter dated March 25th, 1834. The author is embarking upon a trip out of St. Louis on a steamboat.

//
The hoarse panting of the high-pressure engines, the rattling of the drays on the paved wharfs, and the discordant cries in every tongue mingling with the song of the negro boatmen, as their wild chaunt on coming into port would rise ever and anon above the general din, made a confusion of sights and sounds that was bewildering.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 03:22 AM

1851[March]        Dixon ("A Rugbaen"). _Transatlantic Rambles; or, A Record of Twelve Months' Travels in the United States, Cuba, & the Brazils._ London: George Bell.

A visitor from England to Virginia. Makes a generic comparison of Black songs to deep-water chanty. Being ca.1850/51, "chanty" wasn't in common use, but rather than call the sailor song a "song", he calls it a "chaunt."

Pg54
//
I am told that negroes, although living in " Old Virginny," never did, and never would, sing such songs as Old Dan Tucker and Lucy Neale, which only originated in the brains of their sham Ethiopian personifiers. The songs they do sing are almost always of a religious turn, something between a nautical anchor-hauling chaunt and the "Old Hundredth."
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 02:45 AM

1831[Oct. 1830]        Ormond, Cyprian. "The Star of St. Philippe." In _The Amethyst_, ed. by Nathan Covington Brooks. Baltimore: N.C. Brooks.

A story set in New Orleans. "Wild yet rich" rowing songs, called a "rude chaunt."

//
By this time we had arrived upon the levee. The City, with its white stuccoed houses, lay on the interior of the high embankment, and the shipping, with its dark hulls and its forests of spars and rigging, upon the outside in equally profound repose. It was as bright as the sunshine of noon. The sea breeze, whose steady current came freshly up the river, wafted the musquitoes from the shore, gave us a pure reanimating atmosphere to breathe and fanned the feverish brow of my companion, who opened his bosom to the cooling air. The stillness was now and then broken by the shrill, harsh creaking of the ungreased wheels of one of those water carts, that ply daily and nightly through the streets, piercing the tortured ears of the stranger, till his hardened auriculars become habituated to the sound. In the pauses of this melody came music, floating over the waters, of a finely contrasted description. It was the rude chaunt of some negroes returning down the river to their master's plantation, and beguiling the toil of their oars with a wild yet rich and well harmonized chorus.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 29 Sep 11 - 02:13 AM

A net-fishing reference to 1840s Jamaica.

1851        Gosse, Philip Henry and Richard Hill. A Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans.

July 1885, west coast of Jamaica. Fishermen are using seine nets. Their songs are...WILD!!

//
The sound of human voices in melody falls now upon the ear, the song of the negroes who have begun to haul in the seine. Rude their music is and artless their tune; yet, mellowed and softened by distance, now swelling in chorus, now feeble and faint, it has considerable sweetness, as the human voice always has under such circumstances. Yonder we see them, forming two lines in the water, ten or a dozen men in each row, hauling upon the two ropes; the outmost up to the neck in the sea, and the inmost on the beach; all naked, regardless of the burning sun that now pours down his beams upon their woolly heads and glossy backs. It is a slow operation ; and as they all throw their weight upon the line together, they sway backward and forward in time with the wild air whose notes they are singing.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Sep 11 - 11:41 PM

1839        "The Old Sailor." "A West India Sketch." _Chambers's Edinburgh Journal_ 367 (9 Feb, 1839).

The author is on the Mahaica river in British Guiana. He interrupts his narrative to remark on the rowing songs of the Black oarsmen. If indeed the author was an "Old Sailor," it is notable that he does not compares these to any sailor songs.

Although it seems completely original, it's remarkable how similar this description is to others of the time.

//
Suddenly, on a signal from their spokesman, the negroes struck up a song, to which they kept time with their oars. The leading songster sang a line solo, taking up any occurrence that crossed his mind at the moment, or that took place in our progress. Thus, when the looms of the oars were thrown aft to replunge the blade in the water, the leader sang his line, whatever it might be, and as they one and all took their stroke together, every voice united in a general chorus. The first subject was connected with our voyage. The leader commenced—
Wo da boy for pull da boat,
to which the rest instantly rejoined—
Sing cheerly row!

then the first line was repeated, and the response again followed; and it was extremely rare that a subject was alluded to more than once; indeed, as the scenery and circumstances were changing, he was seldom at a loss for a theme; and when it flagged, some sly hit at the manager, myself, or their fellow-negroes, supplied the deficiency. There was something extremely musical in the tone and manner of singing, that rendered it any thing but unpleasant; and as it acted upon the energies of the negroes, to incite them to greater exertion, we had no objection to it. Two or three other lines I remember were—

Sun him get abub da bush,
Sing cheerly row; 

Sun him get abub da bush,
Sing cheerly row.

Captain hab da grog-bottell,
        Sing cheerly row; 

Captain hab da grog-bottell, 

Sing cheerly row.

At one time the voice of the leader became low and solemn as he pronounced—

Poor Charley neber cum again.
Nigger boy cry oh! 

Poor Charley neber cum again, 

Nigger boy cry oh!

There was something exceedingly plaintive in the tone of the leader, as well as the response, and Mitchell informed me that they referred to the death of a favourite slave belonging to his plantation, who had been drowned at that very spot about twelve months previous. The motion of the oars was equally slow with the utterance of the singer, and several other allusions to the deceased were made in the same mournful strain, till all at once the leader shouted—

Alligator in da mud. 

Sing cheerly row;
Alligator in da mud. 

Sing cheerly row.
//

Later in the account, more verses are given, and the narrator refers to the rowing song as a "chaunt."
//
The boatmen could hear very little if any thing of our conversation; but seeing us earnestly engaged, they ceased their chaunt, for they guessed poor Charley's history was the theme: still they narrowly watched our looks, and spoke in an under tone to each other; and when my friend could no longer repress his feelings, the spokesman suddenly burst forth in a loud song that was really startling, on account of the previous stillness, though it e: the honest sentiments of the negroes' hearts—
Massa Mitchell bery good man.
Sing cheerly row; 

Massa Mitchell bery good man,
Sing cheerly row.

…I was going to inquire who Hammerton was, but the question was delayed by the peculiar mournful cadences of the negroes as they continued their chaunt. Their voices sank yet lower, as the leader, having looked towards a clump of plantain and papaw trees, uttered,
Old man tan upon da shore,
Sing saafly row; 
[I'm not sure of "saafly", but it's not "cheerly"]
Old man tan upon da shore. 

Sing saafly row.
"Hush, Sam—hush I" said Mitchell; "leave off your song: he is indeed there, bending over the grave of his child."
"Massa Hammerton like for hearee we peaka too much sorry," answered Sam, the leader of the chaunt.
//

And later, a guy ("Caesar") refers to the singing as "chant":
//
"Go, massa, go," continued the negro; "you no top longer; Golamity bless Massa Mitchell; go den quick, and no let em boys sing em chant hearee, spose you please."
//

This suggests that rowing songs (perhaps, specifically those in the style of New World Africans) were sometimes called "chaunt" or "chant", both by "outsiders" and "insiders". There seems to be a correspondence between the terms, as if perhaps "chaunt" was "proper English" and "chant" was dialect. However, I'm not sure what this says about pronunciation. My assumption is that "chaunt" would have been with "sh" sound, while "chant" (as a dialect term in that spelling) would have had "ch/tsh" sound.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 28 Sep 11 - 09:31 PM

Munsey's Magazine, Feb. 1918, p. 71:

"One of the most interesting innovations in the American army and navy camps is the teaching of mass singing to the soldiers and sailors. This is being done not merely as a pastime, but with the distinct object of making better fighting men as a result of such training."

The official repertoire appeared in a USGPO publication called "Songs of the Soldiers and Sailors." The closest it came to shanties were "Sailing, Sailing" and "A Life on the Ocean Wave."


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Sep 11 - 08:34 PM

Here is more about the popularization of chanteys via the U.S. Merchant Marine of the time, foreshadowing the appearance of chanteys on record.

1918        Unknown. "Carrying the Sea Atmosphere Inland." _Shipping_ 5(7) (16 November 1918): 13-5.

//
Folks back home at Bangor, Maine, or Mesa, Arizona, who have boys in the Merchant Marine, may soon hear real sea songs, as they now look on scenes aboard ship, without leaving their own neighborhood —sailors' "chanteys" are being preserved on phonograph records for home use—life on square-riggers, cargo steamers and merchant marine training ships, has become material for the "Movies"—altogether an interesting phase of a "back to the sea" movement of national proportions.
…In this educational effort for it is such, purely, undertaken from various angles by various people, but under authority of the United States Shipping Board, official sponsor for the merchant marine --some novel effects are being worked out. For example, in due time it may be expected that sailors' songs and sailors' "chanteys"--as sung in forecastles and at tasks on deck when Jack the merchant mariner was a personage afloat and ashore, as he is getting to be again --will be reproduced in the records of the family phonograph.

"Chanteys" for the Music Machine.

Chantey singing is being revived in the merchant marine, at least on the training ships which are preparing Young America, at the rate of 4,000 lads a month, for service on our vast new commerce fleets, and under the new order of things it will be possible for Bangor, Maine, and Mesa, Arizona to hear in the same hour the actual notes and phrases of such famous chanteys as "Shenandoah," "Bound for the Rio Grande" and "Blow the Man Down," for the record may have them hard and fast before spring flowers bloom again. …
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Sep 11 - 08:15 PM

Lighter --

Could the distinction there, in your neighbour's case, have been between Navy and Merchant Marine?

***

Here's an announcement that I would guess fairly well dates the time when Stanton King was first appointed Merchant Marine chanteyman. Interesting that his reputation (at the Sailors' Home) preceded him, and I wonder if we might consider him one of the people who proverbially "kept shanties alive" during what seems to have been a gap period in the U.S. I recall the interest in chanties in some American articles from the turn of the century, but most of the other interest in evidence in the first couple decades was coming from Britain.

1918         Unknown. "Official Chantey Singer." New York Times (27 Jan. 1918). Pg. 46.

//
A new war job under the sun has
been created. It is Official Chantey
Man for the American Merchant
Marine. Stanton H. King of Boston
has been appointed to revive singing
among merchant sailors who will
Join the country's new cargo ships
through the United States Shipping
Board Recruiting Service. Chanteys,
sea sharps say. insure team work when
a crew is pulllng on ropes, even aboard
a steamer, while the bullding of a large
number of American schooners means
increased demand for men who can "reef, hand, and steer" on sailing vessels,
where chantey singing used to
flourish.
    Mr. King is probably the best known
chantey singer in the, country. He is
now the head of the Sailors' Haven
Mission at Charlestown, Mass., widely
known for its religious work among
sailors. Chantey singing is a part of
the service, and many go there to hear
Mr. King lead his sailor friends in
"Bound for the Rio Grande" or "'Blow
the Man Down." The Official ,Chantey
Man is an old salt and learned chantey
singing in its home, on board deep-sea-golng vessels.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Lighter
Date: 28 Sep 11 - 10:05 AM

On another thread long ago and far away, I mentioned my neighbor who, as a navy recruit, had trained on the Constellation in 1918.

He said the only time he'd heard any singing was when "drunk and on liberty." Possibly compulsory mass singing wouldn't have counted.

He couldn't remember any specific songs, but he was sure that nobody was caroling shanties.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Sep 11 - 07:01 AM

1918        Collins, James H. "Vikings of the Future." _St. Nicholas_ 45 (10) (August 1918).

Another mention of the merchant marine training program set up by Howard, and the role of chanteys.

//
… Only men of draft age—twenty-one to thirty —are taken, and the novices are taught the rudiments of their new calling in six weeks of intensive instruction aboard one of the training-ships.

There are four of these training-ships in commission now, three of them located at Boston and one at San Francisco, while others are to be stationed at Norfolk, New Orleans, and Seattle. They are big, comfortable, roomy ships. One is a former ocean greyhound which held some speed records in her day. Another, the Calvin Austin, a former coastwise passenger-ship, with her load of recruits in training was the first ship to reach Halifax after the disaster there.

The young man who takes this training is equipped with a uniform and receives thirty dollars a month while he is in training. The students are grouped in squads of ten, with an instructor for each squad. Eight hours a day are consumed in the study of the compass, knots and splices, the nomenclature of ships, both sail and steam, the handling of life-boats, and other important things…

Mr. Howard has put spirit into the training by reviving the old sailing-ship practice of chantey singing. The sea chantey is a slow, melodious song whose measures fall into the rhythm of a gang of sailors hauling on a rope. Mr. Stanton H. King, of Boston, an old deep-water sailor, is the chantey instructor; and now on our modern, standardized, steam vessels of wood or steel, or even concrete, are to be heard such ancient windjammer tunes as "Shenandoah," "Blow the Man Down," and "Bound for the Rio Grande."
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Sep 11 - 06:23 AM

1918        Howard, Henry. "Manning the New Merchant Marine." _Pacific Marine Review_ 15 (August 1918).

By the Director of Recruiting, U.S. Shipping Board.

Section on "Training Merchant Crews" gives the daily schedule on training (steam) ships. 6-9pm included recreation, about which it says,

//
Recreation includes singing, for each ship is supplied with a piano. The musical program includes old-time chanties, in which the young men are instructed by a veteran deep-water chantie man.
//

I would guess that the "veteran" was Stanton King – though it seems like more than one "veteran" would need to have been recruited.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 Sep 11 - 12:52 AM

Here's a sketch of the "most common" chanties of the 60s-70s-80s, from my charts...with the rationale being that most of Carpenter's singers would have been learning shanties in that era.

WHISKEY JOHNNY (25)

SHENANDOAH (22), REUBEN RANZO (22)

BONEY (21), BLOW THE MAN DOWN (21)

HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (20)

RIO GRANDE (19), GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (19)

HAUL AWAY JOE (18)

SANTIANA (17)

JOHNNY BOWKER (15), BOWLINE (15), BLOW BOYS BLOW (15)

SALLY BROWN (14)

SACRAMENTO (12)

TOMMY'S GONE (10), MR. STORMALONG (10), BLACKBALL LINE (10)

DEAD HORSE (9)

PADDY ON THE RAILWAY (8), PADDY DOYLE (8)

As compared with this list, notably absent from the "top" shanties among Carpenter's singers are GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL and BLACKBALL LINE. As compared with this list, notably PRESENT in Carpenter's set are ALL FOR ME GROG, LONG TIME AGO, JAMBOREE, and HIGHLAND. The last *might* be explained by Carpenter's emphasis on Scottish locales (?). LONG TIME AGO is supposed to have been more popular in later days, i.e. 1890s, which is why it might not be in my list.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Sep 11 - 11:55 PM

Way back in his 1998 article, RY Walser gave a chart presenting the most common chanties in the Carpenter Collection. I can't tell if he meant that this tally came from only those chanties on audio recordings, or if it also included those for which there is text but no audio.

Walser's list (w/ my tags added, for comparison purposes):

//
Figure 1 lists the most numerous shanties, shown in order of frequency, of which recordings survive in Carpenter's collection.

Blow the Man Down [BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
Haul Away Joe [HAUL AWAY JOE]
Ranzo [REUBEN RANZO]
Whisky Johnny [WHISKEY JOHNNY]
Santy Anna [SANTIANA]
Blow Boys Blow [BLOW BOYS BLOW]
Bonnie Hielan Laddie [HIGHLAND]
Sally Brown [SALLY BROWN]
Poor Old Man [DEAD HORSE]
Shenandoah [SHENANDOAH]
Boney [BONEY]
Jamboree [JAMBOREE]
Leave Her Johnny [LEAVE HER JOHNNY]
Run Let the Bulgine Run [RUN LET THE BULGINE]
Tom's Gone to Hilo [TOMMY'S GONE]
Heave Away Me Johnnies [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES]
Paddy Doyle [PADDY DOYLE]
Haul for the Grog [ALL FOR ME GROG]
Rio Grande [RIO GRANDE]
Johnny Boker [JOHNNY BOWKER]
//

I've drafted my own list based on my work with the available info. It includes any shnty-form for which there were at least 6 instances. Ranked from most to least common. The number following the names, in parenthesis) tells how many instances there were. The number with "W" refers yo the ranking on Walser's list.

1. (W1) BLOW THE MAN DOWN (26)

2a. (W4) WHISKEY JOHNNY (17)
2b. (W6) BLOW BOYS BLOW (17)

3. (W3) REUBEN RANZO (14) + REUBEN RANZO?

4a. (W8) SALLY BROWN (14)
4b. (W2) HAUL AWAY JOE (14)

5. (W5) SANTIANA (13)

6. (W7) HIGHLAND (13)

7. LONG TIME AGO (11)

8a. (W19) RIO GRANDE (10)
8b. (W16) HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (10)

9a. (W9) DEAD HORSE (8) + DEAD HORSE?
9b. BOWLINE (9)

10a. (W15) TOMMY'S GONE (8)
10b. (W11) BONEY (8)
10c. (W18) ALL FOR ME GROG (8)

11a. SACRAMENTO (7)
11b. ROLL THE COTTON DOWN (7)
11c. MR. STORMALONG (3) + MR. STORMALONG? (4)
11d. (W20) JOHNNY BOWKER (7)
11e. (W12) JAMBOREE (7)

12a. (W10) SHENANDOAH (6)
12b. (W17) PADDY DOYLE (6)
12c. (W13) LEAVE HER JOHNNY (6)
12d. HUNDRED YEARS (6)
12e. HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING (6)
12f. A ROVING (6)

(W14) RUN LET THE BULGINE


Like Walser, I found BLOW THE MAN DOWN the most. As earlier discussed, Carpenter wrote an article on variants of that chanty, and I wonder if maybe it was a personal mission of his to collect as many variations as possible. We don't know (?) his exact fieldwork methodology, and it may have been that he influenced what songs were sung, say, by requesting them or reminding informants about them.

Anyway, it's hard to compare my list and Walser's precisely, because his does not indicate ties in the ranking. Sure, it's only a rough guide. FWIW however, we may note that LONG TIME AGO, BOWLINE, SACRAMENTO, ROLL THE COTTON DOWN, and MR. STORMALONG (among the first 20 of my list) did not make his set. I'm not sure why. And his RUN LET THE BULGINE did not make my list.

The one surprise for me was the frequency of ALL FOR ME GROG, which up to this point has not appeared in this survey of chanty literature. Could this be another song that Carpenter perhaps requested from informants? Might he have filed it incorrectly as a shanty? Again, I am not sure.

One can also compare the repertoire to my list of shanties SO FAR most common up through the 1880s.

WHISKEY JOHNNY (20)

REUBEN RANZO (16), SANTIANA (16), SHENANDOAH (16)

BLOW THE MAN DOWN (15), CHEERLY (15)

BOWLINE (14)

BONEY (13), GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (13), HAUL AWAY JOE (13), HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (13), RIO GRANDE (13)

SALLY BROWN (12), STORMY (12)

MR. STORMALONG (11)


Blow the Man Down was certainly common, but Carpenter's set seems skewed. "Blow Boys Blow" also has a high ranking in Carpenter, and it's another that, judging from his writing, he took particular interest in. "Shenandoah" was lower in the rankings of Carpenter than one might expect, and I might speculate that it was a little more common with American singers rather than the British singers that Carpenter interviewed. "Cheerily Men" is poorly represented in Carpenter's, which we know to be because it was a song of an earlier era.

I supposed I'd have to compare only the chanteys of the core time of Carpenter's singers -- 1860s, 70s, 80s -- for a better representation of the similarities and differences.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Sep 11 - 11:22 PM

The Carpenter Collection contains some 98 different chanty-forms, by my tally. Here they are, followed by the numbers of time a variant of each occurs.

A ROVING (6)
ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN (2)
ALL FOR ME GROG (8)
Billibirumpidoodlupiday" ("Oh goin down the river…")
BLOW BOYS BLOW (17)
Blow high, blow low"
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (26)
BLOW YE WINDS
BONEY (8)
BOTTLE O
BOWLINE (9)
BULLY IN ALLEY (2) [remove one]
Captain row me ashore"
CHEERLY (3)
CHURCH CHAPEL
Dance Callidio"
DEAD HORSE (8) + DEAD HORSE?
Down in the Meadows" ("As I was a walking down the street")
Down in those Valleys" ("Aye, aye, aye, Bendigo")
DOWN TRINIDAD
DRUNKEN SAILOR (5)
Fire away Lily, come down below"
FIRE DOWN BELOW (5)
FIRE FIRE FIRE
FISHES + FISHES? (2)
GALS OF DUBLIN TOWN (2)
Go down below, you pretty girls, go down below"
GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL (5)
HANDY MY BOYS (3)
HANGING JOHNNY (5)
HAUL AWAY JOE (14)
Haul away Rosie. Rosie haul"
HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES (10)
Here we come home in a leaky ship"
HIGHLAND (13)
HILO BOYS
HOGEYE (4)
HOOKER JOHN (2) [remove one]
How can I row the boat ashore without a paddle or an oar"
HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING (6)
Humble-lee and a humble-lo"
HUNDRED YEARS (6)
I saw an elephant chase a flea"
In the Morning" ("I went down the river in an old steamboat")
IRISH EMIGRANT ("Lay me down") (2)
JAMBOREE (7)
John Surran was a little old man"
JOHNNY BOWKER (7)
JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO (2) + JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO?
John's a rookey ookey"
Juber mind the bee, and mind it while I sing"
Kizee, Makazee, yah"
LEAVE HER JOHNNY (6)
LONDON JULIE (2)
LONG TIME AGO (11)
LOWLANDS AWAY (2)
LUCIANNA (3) + LUCIANNA?
Mind how you swing your tail"
MR. STORMALONG (3) + MR. STORMALONG? (4)
MUDDER DINAH + MUDDER DINAH?
NEW YORK GIRLS (4)
Nothin' but a humbug"
On a Visit Sunday" ("When first in London I arrived…")
Once I had a good hat, an a good hat was he"
ONE MORE DAY (5)
OUTWARD AND HOMEWARD BOUND
PADDY DOYLE (6)
PADDY LAY BACK (5)
PADDY ON THE RAILWAY (4)
Poor little Liza, don't say so"
Pull down below" ("Johnny come down to Hilo…")
RANZO RAY + RANZO RAY? (2)
REUBEN RANZO (14) + REUBEN RANZO?
RIO GRANDE (10)
RISE HER UP ("Hoist her up from down below" )
ROLL BULLIES ROLL (2)
ROLL THE COTTON DOWN (7)
ROLL THE OLD CHARIOT ALONG (2)
ROLLING HOME (3)
ROSABELLA (2)
RUN LET THE BULGINE (5)
SACRAMENTO (7)
SALLY BROWN (14)
SALLY RACKET? ("Old mamie Hackett")
SALT HORSE RHYME? (2)
SANTIANA (13)
SHALLOW BROWN (4)
SHENANDOAH (6)
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (2)
TALLY
TEN STONE
TOMMY'S GONE (8)
VICTORIO (4)
Walk along you Saucy Anna"
We're the Boys to Drive Her Right"
Were you ever in Fairy [?]"
WHISKEY JOHNNY (17)
White Man Thinks that a Nigger Can't Steal"


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Sep 11 - 11:10 PM

The dates indicate when the song was said to have been heard/learned or, in lieu of that, an estimate of when the singer(s) may have learned it (often based on the dates of their sailing careers). For many there was no informations, and I simply filed them under "1920s or earlier".

1846-1877

- [HOGEYE] and "Can't you give us a bucket of water, chaps/There's a fire down below" [FIRE DOWN BELOW] and [HUNDRED YEARS] and [PADDY DOYLE] and "Hilo, boys, hilo" [HILO BOYS] and [LEAVE HER JOHNNY] and "Juley, Juley, she bode ah-ha-a-a Juley!" [LONDON JULIE] and [HIGHLAND] and [JAMBOREE] and [BONEY] and [REUBEN RANZO] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and "In eighteen hundred and fifty one" [PADDY ON THE RAILWAY] and "Hurrah, Santa Anna" [SANTIANA] and "Well done and clever, heigh ho/Cheerily men" [CHEERLY], Edward Robinson, incl. ship Halcyon? (1846), Sunderland/ (Carpenter rec.)

- "John Brown's body in the alley" [BULLY IN ALLEY], Edward Robinson, Sunderland/ cotton-screwing (Carpenter rec.)

1849-1879

- [HOGEYE] and [HANGING JOHNNY] and [HAUL AWAY JOE] and "Camp Town races nine mile long" [SACRAMENTO] and "In eighteen hundred and fifty-one" [PADDY ON THE RAILWAY] and [ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN] and "I put my hand upon her toe" [VICTORIO] and "How can I row the boat ashore without a paddle or an oar" [BILLY BOY?] and "And a hoojun John, a hoojah/My Mary's on the island" [HOOKER JOHN] and [RIO GRANDE] and [DEAD HORSE] and "When first in London I arrived ('On a Visit Sunday')" and [HIGHLAND] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY], Capt. Mark Page, incl. ship Smark[?], Sunderland/ (Carpenter rec.)

1854

- "Old mammie Dido had a lovely daughter" [MUDDER DINAH?], David Anton, Tayport / (Carpenter rec.)

1856 >

- "Oh, oh, I'm Billy in the Alley" [BULLY IN ALLEY], James Forman, Leith, Scotland/ (Carpenter 1928)

1856-1900-

- "Very well done, Jim Crow" [VICTORIO] and "Johnny was a warrior" [BONEY] and [HUNDRED YEARS] and [ONE MORE DAY] and [RUN LET THE BULGINE] and [BOWLINE], James Forman, Leith, Scotland/ (Carpenter 1928)

1863-1903

- "Poor little Liza, don't say so" and [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] and [LONG TIME AGO] and [NEW YORK GIRLS] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [SACRAMENTO] and [SALLY BROWN] and "Highlow, Heelo/Tom's gone to Heelo" [TOMMY'S GONE] and "Heave away, heave away/Cause we're bound for South Australia" [SOUTH AUSTRALIA] and "I'm going on board the Rosabella" [ROSABELLA] J.S. Scott, incl. Clan Graham (Glasgow, 1903), London/ (Carpenter rec. 1929)

1864-1911

- [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and [HUNDRED YEARS] and [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [SALLY BROWN] and [OUTWARD AND HOMEWARD BOUND] and [SANTIANA] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [BOTTLE O] and [JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO] and [RUN LET THE BULGINE], James Wright, Leith/ (Carpenter rec.)

- "Way, hey, hey, hey, hey/Fire, Fire" [FIRE FIRE FIRE], James Wright, Leith/ West Indian Blacks loading sugar casks, pushing, with crowbars (Carpenter rec.)

1866-1914-

- [BOWLINE] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] and "We're homeward bound for New York town" [GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL] and [JOHNNY BOWKER] and [LONG TIME AGO] and [MR. STORMALONG] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY], Harry Perry, incl. ship Daylight (1914), 'S.S. Leviathan'/ (Carpenter 1928)

1867-1885

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [BONEY] and [HAUL AWAY JOE] and [HIGHLAND] and [JOHNNY BOWKER] and [PADDY DOYLE] and [REUBEN RANZO] and [RUN LET THE BULGINE] and [SALLY BROWN] and [SANTIANA] and [TOMMY'S GONE] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and "Oh shirts I've got one and the collar it's wore done" [ALL FOR ME GROG] and [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] and [LEAVE HER JOHNNY] and [GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL] and [BOWLINE] and [RIO GRANDE] and [SACRAMENTO] and [A LONG TIME AGO] and [SHENANDOAH] and "Fire down below, walk over/Fire down below" [FIRE DOWN BELOW] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [A ROVING] and [DRUNKEN SAILOR], Jack Murray, incl. ship Zedring (Saint John, New Brunswick, c.1874/5), Luke Simcoe (c.1883), Star of Dundee (c.1885), Aberdeen / (Carpenter rec.)

1868 <

- "Whitee manee, he no savey! Kizee, Makazee, yah", Capt. Edward B. Trumbull, incl. barque Taria Topan (Zanzibar > Boston), Salem, Mass./ worksong of Zanzibar locals (Carpenter 1927)

- [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and "Away, haul away, haul away my Josie" [HAUL AWAY JOE] and [BOWLINE] and "Old horse! Old horse! How came you here?" [SALT HORSE RHYME?] and [ONE MORE DAY] and [SACRAMENTO] and [RIO GRANDE] and [REUBEN RANZO] and [SANTIANA] and [SHENANDOAH] and [SALLY BROWN], Capt. Edward B. Trumbull, incl. barque Taria Topan (Zanzibar > Boston), Salem, Mass./ (Carpenter 1927)

1869-1879

- "Humble-lee and a humble-lo/A-ha, humble-lay", Robert Yeoman, Dundee/ Blacks in Havana screwing sugar (Carpenter rec.)

- [TOMMY'S GONE] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [REUBEN RANZO?] and [SALLY BROWN] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and [HAUL AWAY JOE] and [BONEY] and [ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] and [ONE MORE DAY] and [SANTIANA] and [HIGHLAND] and [JAMBOREE] and [ALL FOR ME GROG] and [DEAD HORSE], Robert Yeoman, Dundee/ (Carpenter rec.)

1869-1905

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [RIO GRANDE] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY], George Houghton, ship Lancaster (1869), Cormarthan Castle (1905), Sunderland/ (Carpenter rec.)

1870 <

- [ALL FOR ME GROG, *tallied earlier], George Methias, brigantine William & Annie (Madeira > Newfoundland) / (Carpenter rec.)

1871 <

- [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and "As I was a walking down the street ('Down in the Meadows')" and "Tell me, Susan, tell me dear, what makes you look so gay?" [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES], Roderick, Enderson, London/ (Carpenter 1928)

1872

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN], James Henderson, whaler Active, Dundee/ (Carpenter rec.)

1872 <

- "A yankee ship comes down the river" [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and "Oh have you been in New Orleans?" [ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] and "Where ha ye been all the day" [HIGHLAND] and "Santy Anna sailed away" [SANTIANA] and "Ranzo, boys, a-Ranzo" [REUBEN RANZO], David Atkinson, Glasgow/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [DEAD HORSE] and [LONG TIME AGO] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [HIGHLAND] and "Oh haul her on the bowline" [HAUL AWAY JOE] and [ONE MORE DAY] and [PADDY DOYLE] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and [TOMMY'S GONE] and [HANGING JOHNNY] and "O Juber mind the bee, and mind it while I sing" and [SANTIANA] and [ROLLING HOME], Andrew Salters, Greenock, Scotland/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)


1872-1888

- [HIGHLAND] and "From New York to Frisco, California we went" [ROLL BULLIES ROLL], Capt. H.J. Hammond, Sunderland/ (Carpenter rec.)

1872-1913

- [A ROVING] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [BONEY] and "Old man come riding by" [DEAD HORSE] and [REUBEN RANZO] and [SALLY BROWN] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and "All for the grog, the jolly, jolly grog" [ALL FOR ME GROG] and "'We're the Boys to Drive Her Right'" and [BOWLINE] and [SANTIANA], James Henderson, whaler Active, Dundee/ (Carpenter rec.)

1873

- "Victoria, Victoria/Very well done Jim Crow" [VICTORIO], Andrew Salters, Greenock, Scotland/ heard in West Indies (Carpenter rec. 1928)

1874 <

- [NEW YORK GIRLS] and [JAMBOREE], Jack Murray, ship Zedring (Saint John, New Brunswick, c.1874/5), Aberdeen / (Carpenter rec.)

1875 <

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [JAMBOREE] and [HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING] and [BONEY] and [HAUL AWAY JOE] and [SANTIANA], Jimmie Cronin, English ships, one American (1884), London/ (Carpenter rec. 1929)

1876 <

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and "Away down South where I was born" [LUCIANNA] [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] and [SHENANDOAH], James Garricy, Cardiff/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

1877 <

- "Way sing Sunny Dore!/Bound down Trinidad to look for Sunny Dore" [DOWN TRINIDAD], Richard Warner, incl. Oxford, Cardiff/ screwing sugar in Barbados, screwing cotton in US (Carpenter 1928)

- [HANDY MY BOYS] and [ALL FOR ME GROG] and [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [LONG TIME AGO] and "Times are hard and wages low" [ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN], Richard Warner, incl. Oxford, Cardiff/ (Carpenter 1928)

c.1878

- [HAUL AWAY JOE] and "To me way-ay hilo man" [HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING] and "For it's windy weather, stormy weather/When the wind blows, we'll haul together", William Fender, Swansea Cape Horners, South Wales/ (Carpenter rec. 1929)

- "Haul in the bowline, keep the ship a rollin" [BOWLINE], unknown singer/ tug of war contest in Aberdeen (Carpenter rec.)

1878-1883

"Tally-i-o, tally-i-o/Sing tilly-i-o, you know: [TALLY], James Wright, ship ACCRINGTON, Liverpool > Calcutta, Leith/ Black cook sang this chanty (Carpenter rec.)

- "Ranzo, Ranzo Ray" [RANZO RAY], James Wright, tea clipper CLETA, Leith/ windlass (Carpenter rec.)

1878-1890

- [MR. STORMALONG] and [REUBEN RANZO], Edward Robinson Jr., Sunderland/ (Carpenter rec.)

1878-1900

- "Fire in the fore-top, fire in the main-top/Fire down below" [FIRE DOWN BELOW] and "Here we come home in a leaky ship" and "My dollar and a half a day" [LOWLANDS AWAY] and [BONEY] and "Aye, aye, aye, Bendigo ('Down in those Valleys')" and [MR. STORMALONG] and [SHALLOW BROWN] and "Sometimes we are bound for Liverpool town and others bound to France" [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] and [HUNDRED YEARS] and "The bulgine's come and we all must go-o" [RUN LET THE BULGINE] and [SANTIANA] and [BOWLINE] and [PADDY DOYLE], William Fender, Ship Ingomar (1880, Valparaiso), South Wales/ (Carpenter rec. 1929)

1879 <

- "Oh I went down the river in an old steamboat ('In the Morning')" W. Thomas, Haford, South Wales/ in a Norwegian ship (Carpenter rec.)

1879-1894

- [HANDY MY BOYS] and [A ROVING] and [SHALLOW BROWN] and [LEAVE HER JOHNNY] and [JOHNNY BOWKER] and [SHENANDOAH] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and "Mind how you swing your tail" and [DEAD HORSE], John Middleton, Leith/ (Carpenter rec.)

1879-1908

- "I went to church, I went to chapel/Pull down below" [CHURCH CHAPEL] and "The priest from the parish with his gallant band" [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and "Johnny come down to Hilo/Oh pull down below" and [JAMBOREE] and "Whilst walking out one morning, down by the Clarence Docks" [IRISH EMIGRANT] and "This old girl, she had no hat" [NEW YORK GIRLS] and "O Sally on the mainyard picking up the bunt" [HOGEYE] and [REUBEN RANZO] and "Raise her up from down below/Haul away Rosie. Rosie haul" and "Heave away, haul away/For we are bound for South Australia" [SOUTH AUSTRALIA] and [BONEY] and [RANZO RAY?] and [HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING] and [HIGHLAND] and "Oh, Johnny's gone, and I'll go too/John's gone to Hilo" [TOMMY'S GONE] and [HAUL AWAY JOE].
Rees Baldwyn, South Wales/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

- "You're nothin' but a humbug!", Rees Baldwyn, South Wales/ learned from Black pile drivers, Savannah/New Orleans, (Carpenter rec. 1928)

1880-1895

- "There was a jolly ploughboy, ploughing on the land" [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] and "O I had a little boat, a jolly little boat" [ALL FOR ME GROG] and [PADDY LAY BACK] and "Fire on the gundeck, fire down below" [FIRE DOWN BELOW], Willie Rennie, South Shields/ (Carpenter rec.)

1880 <

- [HIGHLAND] and "Oh now my lads be of good cheer" [JAMBOREE] and "We'll scrape her down and scrub her around" [GALS OF DUBLIN TOWN] and [ROLL THE OLD CHARIOT ALONG] and "One night off Cape Horn, I remember it well" [ROLL BULLIES ROLL], John Boyd, Belfast, Ireland/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN], G. Douglas, Lanarkshire/ (Carpenter 1928)

- "I shipped on board the Rosabella" [ROSABELLA] and [HIGHLAND] and [DRUNKEN SAILOR], John McPherson, ship Aristides (1880), South Shields/ (Carpenter rec.)

- [ROLLING HOME], John McPherson, ship Aristides (1880), South Shields/ marked as both forebitter and shanty (Carpenter rec.)

1880s <

- [LONG TIME AGO] and [A ROVING] and BLOW BOYS BLOW] and "Oh blow the man down, bullies, knock him right down" [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [BOWLINE] and [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] and [LEAVE HER JOHNNY] and [JOHNNY BOWKER] and "They call me Hangman Johnnie" [HANGING JOHNNY] and [DEAD HORSE] and "Only one more day of pumping" [ONE MORE DAY] and [PADDY DOYLE] and "Rio Grande is no place for me" [RIO GRANDE] and [SALLY BROWN] and [SANTIANA] and [SHENANDOAH] and [MR. STORMALONG?] and [TOMMY'S GONE] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and "'Haul Together'" [FISHES], Stanton King, Boston/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

1882 <

- "Now me boys, you need not fear" [JAMBOREE] and "I saw an elephant chase a flea" and "Oh, John Surran was a little old man" and "Oh goin down the river ('Billibirumpidoodlupiday')" and [HOGEYE], Capt. John Conway, Wiclow, Ireland/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

1883 >

- "Oh in eighteen hundred and forty one" [PADDY ON THE RAILWAY] and [HANDY MY BOYS] and "'I'm Just Gone Over the Mountain'" [LUCIANNA], William "Paddy" Gaul, London/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

1883-1910

- [LONG TIME AGO] and "O there's fire in the fore-top" [FIRE DOWN BELOW] and [PADDY LAY BACK] and [HAUL AWAY JOE] and "I hear, old man, you've been and bought a horse" [DEAD HORSE] and "Whose that gal with the blue dress on" [SACRAMENTO] and "As I was a walking one morning in May" [RIO GRANDE] and [REUBEN RANZO] and [SALLY BROWN] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW], Thomas Ginovan, Bristol, England/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

1885

- "I wish I was in Mobile Bay" [LOWLANDS AWAY], William Fender, ship INGOMAR > Valparaiso, South Wales/ (Carpenter rec. 1929)

c.1885

- "To my hilo, to my Ranzo way" [HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING], Jack Murray, AURORA, Aberdeen / American capstan shanty (Carpenter rec.)

- "Go down below, you pretty girls, go down below", Jack Murray, whaler Star of Dundee (c.1885), Aberdeen / halyards (Carpenter rec.)

1885-1902

- [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and "One morning I took a ramble down by the Bramleymoore Dock" [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] and [SHALLOW BROWN] and [TOMMY'S GONE] and [SACRAMENTO] and [PADDY DOYLE] and [JOHNNY BOWKER] and [HAUL AWAY JOE] and [BOWLINE] and [JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO] and [RIO GRANDE] and [SALLY BROWN] and [ALL FOR ME GROG], Alexander Henderson, American ships, Dundee/ (Carpenter rec.)

1886-1919

- [SHALLOW BROWN] and [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [REUBEN RANZO] Thomas Carfrae, Boyne of Findhom (1895), Sunderland/ (Carpenter rec.)

1887

- "Down below, oh ho oh ho/ Hoist her up from down below" [RISE HER UP], J.S. Scott, GILROY, London/ halyards (Carpenter rec. 1929)

1888

- "Walk along you Saucy Anna" William Fender, South Wales/ stevedore's song in West Indies (Carpenter rec. 1929)

c.1888-1889

- "Blow high, blow low/Blow high, blow low", George Simpson, incl. ship Castleroy (1888), Dundee/ sheets (Carpenter rec.)

- [LONG TIME AGO], George Simpson, incl. ship Castleroy (1888), Dundee/ heard in South of US (Carpenter rec.)

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [MR. STORMALONG?] and [ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] and [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] and [SALLY BROWN] and [ROLL THE OLD CHARIOT ALONG] and [HAUL AWAY JOE] and [REUBEN RANZO] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and [DRUNKEN SAILOR] and [SANTIANA] and [LEAVE HER JOHNNY] and [DEAD HORSE?] and [SHENANDOAH] and [PADDY ON THE RAILWAY] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW] and [A ROVING] and [JOHNNY BOWKER] and [ROLLING HOME], George Simpson, incl. ship Castleroy (1888), Dundee/ (Carpenter rec.)

1889-1894

- "I'm bound right over the mountain" [LUCIANNA], J.S. Scott, London/ (Carpenter rec. 1929)

1892 <

- "Lay me down, itchy-go, Mrs McCay" [IRISH EMIGRANT] and [HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING] John Ferries, South Sheilds/ (Carpenter rec.)

1895

- [HIGHLAND] Thomas Carfrae, Boyne of Findhom (1895), Sunderland/ (Carpenter rec.)

1920s >

- "A hundred years is a very long time" [HUNDRED YEARS] William Beggs, Belfast/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

- "Oh row, oh row, we're bound to go/A-ha, London Julie" [LONDON JULIE] Captain Alexander Blue, Greenock, Scotland/ heard in West Indies (Carpenter rec. 1928)

- "Fire away Lily, come down below", Captain Alexander Blue, Greenock, Scotland/ attributed to Blacks screwing cotton (Carpenter rec. 1928)

- [JOHNNY BOWKER] and "Have you been in Mobile Bay" [JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO?] and [TEN STONE], Captain Alexander Blue, Greenock, Scotland/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

- "Heave away me boys it's John's a rookey ookey", Joseph Bound, Pill, England/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

- "Hurrah! Hurrah! for Old Mother Dinah/Sing Sally-O! Whack, fol-deray!"
[MUDDER DINAH] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and "I have an old shoe with never a back or tongue" [ALL FOR ME GROG] and [HANGING JOHNNY] [ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] and [DRUNKEN SAILOR] and [BLOW YE WINDS] and "Oh Johnny's gone; what shall I do?" [TOMMY'S GONE], Harry Bowling, Los Angeles/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

- [LEAVE HER JOHNNY] and [CHEERLY] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW], George Boyle, Glasgow / (Carpenter rec.)

- [PADDY LAY BACK] and [SALLY BROWN], Benjamin Bright, Fairport (1908), Mafalda (Norwegian) (1910), Belmont (1911), Brynhilda, (1922), Golden Gate CA/ (Carpenter rec.)

"Oh Captain row me ashore" and [HIGHLAND], Capt. W. Dalziel, Glasgow/ (Carpenter rec.)

- "Victorio, Victorio" [VICTORIO] and [DRUNKEN SAILOR] and [PADDY LAY BACK] and "Run with the bulgine" [RUN LET THE BULGINE] and [GALS OF DUBLIN TOWN] and [HIGHLAND] and "Oh [railroad?] had a steamboat on the old canal/But now she is the keeper of Louisiana [fal?]", James Dwyer, Glasgow/ (Carpenter rec.)

- "Where are you going to, my pretty maid" [RIO GRANDE] and [REUBEN RANZO], Walter, Eade, Edinburgh/ (Carpenter rec.)

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [REUBEN RANZO] and [SALLY BROWN] and [SANTIANA], A.E. Foster, Sailors' Snug Harbor/ (Carpenter rec. 1927, 1928)

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and "Old horse! Old horse! How came you here?" [SALT HORSE RHYME?] and [SALLY BROWN] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and "The next fish that came was a hoary old shark" [FISHES?], Francis L. Herrshoff, Marblehead, Mass/ (Carpenter 1928)

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN], James Moncrieff, Dundee/ (Carpenter rec.)

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and [MR. STORMALONG?] and [HAUL AWAY JOE] Harry Johnson, London/ (Carpenter rec. 1928)

- "Once I had a good hat, an a good hat was he" [ALL FOR ME GROG], Tom Lucas, Cricklade, England/ (Carpenter rec.)

- [REUBEN RANZO], John Macaulay, Kelvinhaugh/ (Carpenter rec.)

- [HUNDRED YEARS], Albert Morris, Marblehead, Mass, / (Carpenter rec. 1927)

- [LONG TIME AGO] and [BLOW THE MAN DOWN], Capt. D.F. Mullins, New Bedford, Mass./ (Carpenter rec. 1927/28)

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] and [LONG TIME AGO], Dennis O'Connors, Sailors' Snug Harbor/ (Carpenter 1927, 1928)

- [NEW YORK GIRLS] and "Sometimes we're bound for Liverpool" [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] and [FIRE DOWN BELOW], William Prosser, London/ (Carpenter 1928)

- [PADDY LAY BACK], John Vass, Invergordon/ (Carpenter rec.)

- [DEAD HORSE], James Stevenson / (Carpenter rec.)

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] and [A ROVING] and [HAUL AWAY JOE] and [SACRAMENTO] and "Where are you going to my pretty maid?" [RIO GRANDE] and [REUBEN RANZO] and [SALLY BROWN] and [BLOW BOYS BLOW], Charlton L. Smith, Marblehead, Mass./ (Carpenter 1928)

- [GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL] and [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and "We're outward bound for Melbourne town" [GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL], Harry Turner, Sandport St./ (Carpenter rec.)

- [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] and "Oh our ship is in the harbor" [RANZO RAY?] and [LONG TIME AGO] and "Haul taut the bowline" [HAUL AWAY JOE] and [GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL] and "As I was a strolling one morning in May" [RIO GRANDE] and [MR. STORMALONG?], Frank Waters, Sailors' Snug Harbor/ (Carpenter 1927/1928)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Sep 11 - 10:54 PM

I've been trying to get my head around the Carpenter Collection, and to somehow fit that evidence into this huge survey of the chanty materials. Of course, without being on-site with the Carpenter materials, that can't be done completely. But this "phase" of the survey -- the broad strokes -- requires some short cuts! Anyway, I have been greatly assisted by prior posts by many on Mudcat and especially by Snuffy (who has done much work analyzing and organizing info related to the available recordings). Also helpful have been these articles:

1998        Jabbour, Alan and Julia C. Bishop. "The James Madison Carpenter Collection." Folk Music Journal 7(4): 399-401.

1998        Bishop, Julia C. "'Dr Carpenter from the Harvard College in America': An Introduction to James Madison Carpenter and his Collection." Folk Music Journal 7(4): 402-420.

1998        Walser, Robert Young. "'Here We Come Home in a Leaky Ship!': The Shanty Collection of James Madison Carpenter." Folk Music Journal 7(4): 471-495.

Of course, Bob Walser's is the most helpful, since he is working on the shanties in the archive. Yet, the article is quite old at this point. I'm assuming his work with the material has progressed very very much since then. Alas, with the online access in its current state, this is the best we bystanders have for now.

As many will know, and as reflected in the non-pukka, current online database, the Carpenter materials are often sketchy. It is often unclear who sang what. However, based on the info suggested in the database, I have collated the information of singers with songs. (I am concerned *only* with those songs marked as chanties -- inevitably that will lead to some error, but hopefully a minor one.) And, yes, the sketchy information will lead to some error about who sang what. This is a rough attempt based on available info. In light of the work needed for the total survey, I am not at this point trying to do an absolutely thorough study of the Carpenter materials!

Of the collection, Walser wrote in 1998,

the recordings of maritime material, made primarily in the British Isles, comprise about 750 items. Allowing for Carpenter's duplicating, this yields about 375 original recordings. Among these, at least 141 different songs were sung by a number of singers, 34 of whom are identified with a last name and either first name or initials. In addition, the manuscripts and typescripts include shanties gathered by Carpenter in the United States; these include only words, and come from both printed sources (for example, Alden's Harper's Magazine article) and his own collections made in Massachusetts and elsewhere.

As I mentioned, I am only concerned with the shanties. And, I am ignoring the secondary sources that Carpenter archived, as we've dealt with all those before. (One thing I have not done is compare Stanton King's shanty collection with the items he sang for Carpenter.) With this in mind, and taking into consideration that 1998 was at a much earlier stage of Walser's work with the archive, I'm not sure where he got "34" singers from. My own survey has turned up around 61 singers.

Also worth noting is that I think in the Folktrax release of Carpenter recordings, some of the songs are misattributed. However, I have taken them at face value, which means there may be some duplication of items, i.e. the same song being attributed to 2 different singers, due to the CD and archive having different attributions. In the greater scheme of things, at this stage, that error shouldn't really affect our getting an idea of the scope of the chanties represented in the collection, however.

Following will be a consolidated form of my notes mapping the repertoire represented in the Collection.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 26 Aug 11 - 03:21 AM

1903        Stone, Herbert Lawrence. "The Reckoning: A Story of the Sea." Short Stories vol. 52 (Oct-Dec. 1903). Edited by Alfred Ludlow White. New York: The Current Literature Publishing Co. 190-

Though a fictional short story, the chanties mentioned would seem to be based in reality. The material looks original, at least.

The story concerns a ship bound out of Frisco.

[LEAVE HER JOHNNY] is set at the capstan.
//
This Tam-o'-Shanter was anchored in the stream not far from the Vigilant, and as Captain Bradshaw was put aboard his own ship again, he could see her sixteen men gathered on the top-gallant forecastle, their bodies bent over the capstan bars as the cable was hove in. And the refrain of the chanty that arose therefrom and drifted across the narrow stretch of water to the listeners on the Vigilant, ran:
          —"Leave her, Johnny, leave her. 

Oh, there's six feet o' water in her lower hold, 

So leave her, Johnny, leave her."
//

Later capstan songs are "Down the Bay of Mexico", which likely refers to this song,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OilQra0NlRg
and "Walk Her Round" and "West Australia" ([SOUTH AUSTRALIA], I suppose]. And at the halyards there is [JOHNNY BOWKER] (not a customary use?) and [TOMMY'S GONE].
//
Soon the click of the iron pawl dropping into place drifts aft, then the words of "Down the Bay of Mexico" rise in loud, crude tones, followed by "Walk Her Round" and "West Australia," to the rhythm of which the shuffling feet keep time. The iron cable comes slowly in, a link at a time, grating harshly on the hawsepipe, the mate now leaning out on the bumpkin to watch it, now admonishing the men to "walk her round briskly." Suddenly he straightens up, raises a hand to the men to cease heaving and shouts aft: "Up and down, sir!"

"Break her out, Mr. Dunning," answers the captain, and the bodies bend lower over the bars and muscles swell as the strain on the capstan increases. The songs have ceased and in their places are heard, here and there, the muttered words "Heave and raise the dead," "Dig your nails in, now," "Break her out." Slowly the anchor leaves its bed at the bottom of the bay and when it is at last clear and the strain on the cable is eased, the men break into a run and soon have it, dripping and muddy, hanging at the fore-foot…

…The wind being fair, the gaskets are soon off the topsails and the sails sheeted home. The upper topsails are mastheaded to the tunes of "Johnny Bowker" and "My Tom's Gone to Hilo," the ex-boarding master being driven from one halyard to another, where he "tailed out" with the crew as well as his aching arm would allow.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 18 Aug 11 - 01:12 AM

1938        Carpenter, J.M. "Chanteys in the Age of Sail." _New York Times_ (30 October 1938). Pg. XX6.

Carpenter had around 3 more years of fieldwork under his belt when he wrote this later article. I wish, however, he'd have matched the names of his informants to the texts!

An "unfamiliar" song, and [ACROSS THE WESTERN OCEAN]:
//
During half a dozen years of knocking about British ports, by rallying the excellent memories of old salts, I have made a record of several hundred versions of chanteys not in the familiar collections.
Take this:

O I joined a ship to make a trip
Away to the Suth-ron Seas.
Blow high! Blo-o-ow lo-o-ow!

Or this:
Away, we're bound to go
Across the Western Ocean!
//

[HIGHLAND]
//
…Scottish chanteymen took aboard ship their bagpipe tune, "Hieland Laddie." And the spirited air and rhythm, born to the march-step of kilted clansmen, echoed for years to the clump of circling teet and the clack of capstan pawl as sailors weighed anchor out of the ports of the world. A Scottish chanteyman from Sunderland gave me the following version:

Whae hae ye been all the day,
Bonnie Lassie, Hieland Laddie?
I've been courtin' Allie Gray,
My bonnie Hieland Laddie!

Whae, hey, and awa we go!
Bonnie Lassie, Hieland Laddie!
Hey, hey, fair Hieland ho!
My bonnie Hieland Lassie!

But in the scuffle of the Chanteyman's workaday world, most of the romance of the ballad was shorn away, as in the following stanza:

Were you ever in Quebeck,
Hieand Laddie, Bonnie Laddie?
A-stowing timbers on the deck,
My bonnie Hieland Laddie!

Whay, hey, and away she goes!
Hieland Laddie, Bonnie Laddie!
Whay, hey, and away she goes,
My bonnie Hieland Laddie!
//

Tune + rhythm more important than text.
//
…For the ballad singer, having a story to tell, aimed at sense, coherency--and usually attained it. But in the chanteys tunes and rhythm count for everything; the words for next to nothing. For the chanteyman was not concemed with sense, but with sound. Occasionally he created glorious nonsense.
//

[ROLL THE COTTON DOWN]
//
One swinging chantey tune…came obviously from Negro stevedores (in New Orleans or Mobile), sweating, laughing, showing rows of gleaming teeth as they sang:

O have you been in New Orleans!
Roll the cotton down!
O-O-O, rolling cotton day by day
O roll the cotton down!

It's there I worked on the old levee,
Roll the cotton down!
A-screwing cotton by the day,
O roll the cotton down!

Indeed, it is not surprising to find a fairly large proportion of the chanteys coming from the American South. Chanteymen were naturally
quick to press into service aboard ship the Negro gang-work songs--with their droll fun, languorous cadences, and well-worn rhythm.
//

[LONG TIME AGO]
//
The Southern chantey that follows, sung to slow plaintive melody, suggests the shimmer of dancing heat waves and the sleepy drone of grasshoppers of a Summer day:

Away down South where I was born,
To me way, hey, hey-yah!
Among the fields of yellow corn,
A long time ago!

O they set me free from s1avery,
But they shipped me aboard and sent me to sea,

My first voyage was around Cape Horn,
Where the nights were short and the days were long.
//

[LOWLANDS AWAY]
//
Belonging to this group--at least in its slow pensive tune and dreamy atmosphere--is a.curious chantey, "Low-lands." The refrain "low-land," is common to a great many songs. One Scottish song begins.

"Low in the low-lands a wee, wee boy did wander"—

And In the ballad, "The Golden Vanity"…

…Usually in the chantey the refrain seems to have been employed purely for its music and for its atmospheric effect, as shown In the following stanza, quoted from Miss Colcord's collection:

I dreamed a dream the other night,
Low-lands, low-lands, away my John!
I dreamed a dream the other night,
My low-ands, away!

To carry torward the story, stanzas from Sir Richard Terry's collection read:

All in the night my true love came;
She came to me all in my sleep.

And her eyes were white my love.
And then I knew my love was dead.


…But my version, veering away, as usual, from the romance of the
story, moves toward the sailors' world of winds and sails and seas:

One night In Mobile the Yankees knew,
Low-lands, low-lands! Away my John!
The nor'west winds most bitter blew,
My dollar and and a half a day!

Our Captain was a grand old man,
His name it was Jack Tannerand-tan.

He called us aft and to us did say
'Now, my boys, we're bound to sea.'
//

Stock verses.
//
Whatever the chantey theme, the inarticulate burden in the back of
every sailor's mind ran:

Then up aloft this yard must go,
To where the wind in the sail will blow."

Or it ran:

To the sheave hole she must go,
Let the wind blow high or low!
//

[SACRAMENTO]
//
Blow, boys, blow
For Californie-O!
There's plenty of gold, so I've been told,
On the banks of the Sacramento!
//

[RIO GRANDE]
//
Where are you going to, my pretty maid,
Away-ay-ay, Rio!
I'm going amilking, kind sir, she said,
On the banks of the Rio Grande.
And away Rio! Away, Rio!
Sing fare you well, my bonnie young gal,
For we're bound for the Rio Grande!
//

[MR. STORMALONG]
//
…The chantey usually began:

Stormalong was a good old man,
Aye, aye, aye, Mr. Stormalong!
O Stormalong was a good old man,
Heave away, Old Storm!

But the version of a typical American deep-sea sailor runs:

O Storm today and storm no more,
Aye, aye, aye, Mr. Stormalong!
We storm today on sea and shore,
To me way-ay-ay, Mr. Stormalong!
Old Stormy's dead, what shall we do?
Old Stormy's dead, what shall we do?
We'll dig his grave with a silver spade, .
And lower him down with a golden chain.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 18 Aug 11 - 01:31 PM

1932        Hutchison, Percy. "Walking the Capstan 'Round." The New York Times (20 March 1932).

Hutchison (born 1875) reviews David Bone's collection. In the course, he offers this anecdote.

//
The present writer recalls the time when he first heard a capstan chanty. He was in the roadstead of Bridgetown, Barbados, and a short distance
away lay an English brig that was getting up anchor, the crew aided by a gang from the shore that made a business of such assistance for vessels carrying few hands. Since the ship the writer was aboard, a four-masted barkentine, had a donkey-engine forward, the anchor was never handled by sailors walking the capstan 'round; and although he had for weeks listened to halyard and close-haul chanties, had himself swung on the ropes in unison with others, he was unfamiliar with the marching rhythms with which stolid men lightened their weary rounds of the fo'c's'l head. Hence a reader can imagine his pleasure when he caught the wistful strains of "Shenandoah" drifting across the water from the deck of the brig.
//

He wrote an article on chanties in 1906, so I'd guess this incident was before then.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 18 Aug 11 - 01:26 PM

The third and final article in JM Carpenter's NYT series.

1931        Carpenter, James M. "Chanteys that 'Blow the Man Down.'" New York Times (26 July 1931).

Case study of "Blow the Man Down" to show the fluid and adaptable nature of chanties. Excerpts follow.

//
"Blow the Man Down."…In its numerous versions - I have
collected thirty in the United States and the principal ports of England,
South Wales, Scotland and Irelan - it has woven into itself two fore-castle
songs, "Radcliffe Highway" and "Tiger Bay"; two ballads, "Blow the Winds Westerly" and "The Farmer's Curst Wife"; one broadside, "The Indian Lass"; a Scottish bothy song, "Erin Go Bra"; four chanteys, "Knock A Man
Down," "The Black Ball Chantey Song," "The Flying Fish Sailor" and "The Ship Neptune"; and love adventures in Radcliffe Highway, Paradise Street, Denison Street, Waterloo Road, Winchester Street, Tiger Bay, Lemon Street, Cleveland Square. Scarborough Town, the outskirts of Bristol and two or three without a local habitation or a name.
//

Review of print sources: Chambers's 1869, Alden 1882, Adams 1879. But then supplemented by field sources, finding the song attributed to mid 1850s.
//
I had thought until a short time ago that this unusual ehantey was
of recent origin. since it was not included in lists given by Chambers Journal (1869), "On Board the Rocket" (1879), and Harper's Magazine
(1882). But recently I found two saIlors, both more than 90
years old, who stated that they bad heard it In 1854 and 1855. At
all events, a stanza. learned by a sailing-ship master in 1870,

We'll blow a man down and we'll knock a man down,
Give us some time to knock a man down.

is of unusual significance in its bearing on the origin of the chantey.
For in its earliest printed form, In 1879, it appears as "Knock
a Man Down":
[quotes Adams]

With this compare the version of a sea captain from Salem, Mass.,
who first went to sea in 1868;

I wish I was in Mobile Bay,
Way, hey, blow the man down!
A screwing cotton by the day,
Give me some time to blow the man down!

"Knock a Man Down" is clearly the original form of the chantey.
The tune unmistakably is of Negro origin. probably trom the cotton
screwers of the Southern ports. Barring the chorus, the air is
closer to that of a Negro chantey that I found recently than to the
current tune of "Blow the Man Down," which first appeared with
tbe printed version of 1883 [i.e Luce's Naval Songs]. There
the piece listed as "Black Ball Chantey Song," shows signs of a
thorough over-hauling and re-working:

Come all you young fellows that follow the sea,
With a yeo, ho! blow the men down!
And pray pay attention, and listen to me;
Oh, give me some time to blow the men down! [from Luce 1883]
//

//
…An encounter with a policeman, evidently a parody on the Black
Ball version, deals with the same theme:

As I was a-walking down Radcliffe Highway,
To me, way, hey, blow the man down!
I met a policeman and to me he did say,
Oh, give me some time to blow the man down!

"I know you're a buck by the cap that you wear;
I can tell you're a buck by the red shirt that you wear.

"You've sailed on a packet that flies the Black Ball;
You've robbed some poor Dutchman of boots, clothes and all."

"Oh, no, Mr. P'liceman, you do me great wrong,
I'm a Flying Fish sailor, just come from Hongkong!"

They gave me three months in Gamboree Jail
For booting and kicking and blowing him down.

A version from ScotIand gives new detail. After the verse beginning,
"I'm a Flying Fish sailor," it continues:

"My name is Pat Campbell, I live in Argyle;
I've traveled this nation for many the long mile.

"Through England, through Ireland, through Scotland ava,
And the name I go under is 'Bold Erin Go Bra.'"

Thus is revealed the source of the chantey "Erin Go Bra," current in
Scotland as a bothy ballad, whose lively scene depicts the discomfiture
of the sailors' old enemy, the police. Two stanzas from a colorful
version that I found last Summer will illustrate the chanteyman's
method of treating his material:

Ae nicht in Auld Reekie [Edinburgh] as I walked doon the street,
A saucy policeman I chanced for tae meet;

He gloored in me faca an' I gied him some jaw;
Says, "When came ye over frae Erin Go Bra!"

The policeman goes on to say, "I ken ye're a Paddie by the cut o' yer
Hair," and he concludes that "since ye're a Paddie, ye sudna be here." But

A switch o' black thorn that I held in my fist.
I made it aroon his big body tae twist;

The blood frae his napper I quickly did draw,
I showed him a game played in Erin Go Bra.
//

//
A fanciful version of "The Fish of the Sea," sung by an American
chanteyman to the tune of "Blow, Boys, Blow," was popular once
both in England and the United States. It seems better adapted to
the movement ot "Blow the Man Down," as sung by a chanteyman
in the north of England:

Now pray pay attention and listen to me,
To me way, hey, blow the man down!
And I'll sing you a song of the fish of the sea.
Oh, give me some time to blow the man down!

Up jumps the cod with his big chuckle head,
He jumps in the chains for to heave the iron lead.

Oh, up jumps the flounder, the bottom to swim.
You fat-headed monster, don't do that again.

Then up jumps the porpoise with his long snoot;
He waltzes round the deck, sing" Ready, aboot!"

The next fish that came was a hoary old shark.
I'll eat you all up, if you play any lark!"

A short time ago I found a very old sea song, "Haul Together, Boys," which seems to be the source of the version quoted above. It was given to me by a fishwife, 88 years old, who learned it as a child from the "Iron Horse," another very old fishwife, so called on account of her great strength and imperviousness. to cold. The tune is the most suggestive of the sea that ever I have heard. The ballad begins:

An' it's up starts the herrin', the king o' the sea,
Singin' "Farewell to thee, boys,
Oh, farewell to thee!'"

So it's haul together, boys!
Stor-r-my weather, boys!
Let the wind blo-o-ow!
Stor-r-rmy weather, boys!
We shall sail slo-ow!
//

//
The sailors found keen amusement in the old ballad "The Farmer's
Curst Wife," just as the ballad singers of Scotland enjoyed "The
Wee Cooper of Fife," a ballad with a kindred theme. "The Farmer's
Curst Wife" appears in varying forms in four versions of "Blow the
Man Down," two from America and two others, more regular, from
England. Richard' Warner's version, one of the English renderings,
runs:

Now listen to me, and a story I'll tell,
To me way, hey, blow the man down!
Oh, listen to me, and a story I'll tell,
Give me some time to blow the man down!

There was on old farmer, as I have heard tell;
He had on old wife and he didn't wish her well.

Now the Devil he came to him one day at the plough;
"I want your old woman, I've come for her now.

"And if you're not civil, I'll take you as well."
So off with the old woman, right straight down to Hell.

There were three little devils chained up to the wall;
She took off her clog and she walloped them all.

Now these three little devils for mercy did bawl,
"Chuck out the old hag, or she'll murder us all!"

The American versions are rather more vigorous and colorful, showing, in one instance, the sailor's leaning toward a racy sea yarn:

As I was a-walking one morning in Spring,
Way, hey, blow the man down!
I walked into a country inn,
Oh give me some time to blow the man down!

I set meself down, and I called for some gin,
And a commercial traveler next came in.

We talked of the weather and things of the day;
Says he, "My friend, a story I'll tell.

"lt's of an old tailor in London did dwell;
The Devil came to him one day out of Hell.

"Says he, 'My friend, I've come a long way
Especially you a visit to pay.'"

Thereupon the frightened tallor calls out, "Oh, please, Mr. Devil,
don't take me away," and Satan replies soothingly:

"It's not you nor your daughter nor your son that I crave;
It's your grumbling old wife, the drunken old Jade."

The story continues as in the former rendering, but with ingeniously
improvised incident and vigorous idiom. …

A Scottish version adds a quaint touch. After the devil had pronounced his ultimatum and delivered the unwanted woman to her husband, the narrative concludes:

She was seven year gaun an' seven year comin'
An' she cried for the sawens she left in the pot.
//

//
…But among the chanteys' motley array of renderings, perhaps the
drollest portray the cruises down Tiger Bay, Radcliffe Highway.
Paradise Street, and numerous other landlocked harbors well
known to sailors. The taste for the incongruous, even to the point
of the grotesque, which preferred to "blow" rather than "knock" a
man down, to regard the fishes of the sea as sailors and the latter as
hangmen Johnnies or a "mixture of an Indian, a Turk, and a chimpanzee,"
would be expected to find in a drab London alley "flash-looking"
packets.

An incident of a land cruise related of a chanteyman illustrates the nature ot the raw material that was finally etherealized into the body...or the epics. For ten years he had been a packet sailor under the rough-and-ready code of ethics which deprived the men at the forecastle "of the pleasure of stealing from each other." During an
amour ashore, therefore, he stole a gold watch belonging to his sweetheart's mistress. His thick, massive shoulders and powerful stature, even at 86, lent easy credence to the story told by one of his mates that the chanteyman, entrapped the following evening by several men who were awaiting his return, smashed off the cumbersome part of a chair against a wall and used the long slats to the complete discomfiture of his adversaries.

So with contagious enthusiasm and picturesque symbolism the
chantey singer tells his crew:

I'll put on my long boots, and I'll blow the man down,
Way, hey, blow the man down!
I'll put on my long boots and I'll blow him right down,
Oh, gimmie some time to blow the man down!

As I was a-cruising down Paradise Street,
A flash-looking packet I chanced for to meet.

I fired off my bow gun to make her heave to,
She backed her main topsail. The signal she knew.

I hailed her in English and asked her the news,
"Thia morning from Sally Port, bound for a cruise."

Then I hove out my tow-rope and took her in tow,
And yard-arm to yard-arm to the grog shop did go.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Aug 11 - 04:53 PM

Copied from Vaughan's post above, for a point of reference on the "3 informants" that Carpenter was saying, in his article, were on the sea by 49/50...well, 2 of them. Not sure who the third was (yet), or if I misread something.

* Edward Robinson - born 1834 - to sea 1846
* Mark Page - born 1835 - to sea 1849
* James Forman - born 1844 - to sea 1856.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 14 Aug 11 - 04:43 PM

Carpenter's writing is of much interest for its role in the discussions both of how chanties developed and how *writing about* chanties developed. His belief was that African-American work songs were a major contributing element to the form of chanties, and that chanties did not exist in great numbers until after Dana's time. These are the sort of ideas that have been voiced on this thread (though all may not agree, it is my opinion at least), after studying the literary evidence available. What is significant is that Carpenter arrived at those ideas without so much of a literary survey (though he did read certain things, say Alden's 1882 article, though I'm not sure of the extent of what else). Rather, his material was the recordings he gathered and the statements of his informants. Living at the time he did, he was able to do real ethnography and oral history. The troupe of folklorists in Sharp's school did also do fieldwork, but their style differed in that they always accomopanied their discussions with a run-down of what prior authors on the subject had said. I think that all that secondary reading, though necessary in scholarship, colored their presentations in a way that Carpenter's, perhaps, was not.

Carpenter, Gordon, and to some extent, Lomax, all ended up with similar thrusts of emphasis and conclusions about chanty development. These, I think, were on a different "track" than those of the early British folklorists *and* the writers who followed in the vein of what one might call "secondary-source collating." It may be significant that all three men were American and all did extensive field recording in America.

1931        Carpenter, James M. "Lusty Chanteys from Long-dead Ships." New York Times (12 July 1931).

1st of 3-article series.

Notes that 3 of his informants were on the sea by 1850.

One went to sea in 1846. Sang:
[HUNDRED YEARS]
//
'Watchman, watchman, don't take me,
O-o-o, yes, O!
I've got a wife and a small family,
A hundred years ago.
//

More chanties…

[HOGEYE]
//
Oh, the hog-eye men are all the go
When they come down to San Francisco!
With a hog-eye!
Railroad niggah an a hog-eye!
Row the boat ashore in a hog-eye!
O-o-o! An She wanted was a hog-eye man!
//

On the advent of chanties – arising in era of packet and clipper ships. Maybe 10 of the known chanties were from an earlier time.
//
As a natural consequence of the greatly increased crews of the clippers and large packets, with their massive spars and enormous spread of sail. there arose the chanteys. Perhaps half a score are of earlier origin, but by far the greater number belong to this period. For out of the twelve "choruses" listed by Dana…only one has come down to us, "Cheerily Men." And of these "choruses" "Cheerily Men" was the only one known to the three veteran sailors I have mentioned, who were at sea in 1849, although two of them gave me twenty-seven chanteys that were current during the period, and had heard six others. One of these men, who was at sea from 1846 to 1877, sang seventeen that are among the best known of the chanteys, and had heard seven others. So It is safe to say that the
greater majority arose between 1836 and 1877, the period of the clipper
ships.
//

Sailors "discovered" Black work songs.
//
These working choruses, frequently taken from the Negro laborers of different countries, especially the Southern States, existed in large numbers, for the Negro required a song to lighten his work. I have found scores that have never been published. Most of them are of the simplest nature, being little more than a rhythmical, melodious drone of nonsense syllables. But created In the midst of toil and chanted over and over again for the brief respite that they gave trom its weary monotony, they bear a hidden charm that the sailor was quick to discover. In the more pensive ones he must have found something of the strange satisfaction and restfulness of the chant.
//

Mentions sugar screwing here. I don't recall (though I wasn't looking for it?) Carpenter OR Gordon talking about cotton-screwing. The narrative of chanties developing from cotton screwing was there in writing about chanties, and the fact (?) that these two researchers aren't quick to relay that narrative MAY suggest that they were relatively uninfluenced by the published narratives. By the same token, drawing the comparison to sugar screwing, may suggest that Carpenter independently arrived at a similar idea.
//
A good example is furnished by a "sugar-screwing" chorus picked up
from the Negroes of Havana. Four men, gathered about a large press,
swung the four handles of a horizontal plane, one leading the chant,
the others failing in on the refrain:

A-hum-bl-ee! A-hum-bl-o! (solo)
Ah-ha! And a-hum-bl-ey! (refrain)
A-hum-bl-ee! A-hum-bl-o!
Ah-ha! And a-hum-bl-ey!

But here more than in other songs the words are futile without the
tune.
//

A hammering song is compared.
//
Another, taken from Negro pile drivers of the Southern ports, illustrates a rhythm adapted to the alternate blows of two laborers as they struck the same pile with huge sledges:

You's nothin' but a humbug! (First Singer.)
So they say! So they say! (Second Singer.)
You's nothin' but a humbug!
That's all I know!

This was sometimes varied so that it went:

Catfish grow on a huckleberry vines!
So they say! So they say!
Catfish grow on a huckleberry vines!
That's all I know!
//

And an actually capstan chantey, which Carpenter implies may have been a Black work-song:
//
A slightly more potent type came to be used aboard ship as a capstan
chantey:

Oh, I went to church. 1 went to chapel!
Pull down below!
And on the road I found an apple!
Pull down below!
Oh, hee-dle-allie!
Pull down below! (Crew)
Oh, hee-dle-allie in the valley!
Pull down below!
//

More chanties. [A-ROVING]
//
In Amsterdam there lived a maid,
Mark well what I do say!
In Amsterdam there lived a maid,
And she was a mistress of her trade,
And I'll go no more a-roving
With you, fair maid.
A-roving, a-roving,
Since roving's been my ruin!
I'll go no more a-roving
With you, fair maid!
//

[TOMMY'S GONE]
//
Oh, Tommy's gone, what shall I do!
Hilo! Hilo!
My Tommy's gone and I'll go, too,
My Tom's gone to Hilo!
//

A very interesting statement of opinion on the songs of Dana's voyage, and their contrast with later songs:
//
And with each racing voyage around the boisterous Horn, across
the world to Australia, or through the typhoon-infested China Seas,
larger, faster, and more beautiful ships were constantly appearing, creating for the seafarer a new world. It is little wonder that the insipid "Yo-heave-ho" ing and the characterless "choruses," "Heave Round Hearty," "Heave to the Girls," and "Hurrah. Hurrah, My Hearty Fellows," that had served the drab decades preceding should give place to the virile, exuberant, and colorful cbanteys, "Blow The Man Down," "Sally Brown," "The Rio Grande" and "Shanadore."
//

Making the point that chanty texts weren't much about "the sea" per se.
//
Approached, then, as records of absorbing interest, they are at first
a little baffling in that they deal with almost every topic besides the sea. For despite the fact that they were created upon the sea, sung
upon the sea and handed down from chanteyman to chanteyman
for decades upon the sea, the 340 versions that I have collected mention
the sea in the most casual way only eighteen times. The expressions
are: "Went to sea," "bound to sea," "across the sea," "out to sea," "ready for sea," "across the Western Ocean," and, in a banterIng
tone, "the briny sea."

Obviously the sailors felt no need for lengthy descriptions of the sea, since the wild rude rhythm of their melodies and the bald, disjointed
meter of their verse entailed and inevitably had the wash and roll of the sea as an accompaniment.

If not the sea, what, according to their records, was uppermost in
their minds? A cross-section from their favorite chanteys will best
answer:… [chanties already quoted elsewhere]…

Here then, in the first stanzas of their favorite chanteys, is a fair
answer: Ships, "blowing the man down," drinking, love adventures,
burlesque heroes and real heroes.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: RTim
Date: 13 Aug 11 - 08:38 PM

This Thread should be printed as a book!!!!!!!

Tim


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Aug 11 - 08:30 PM

1977        Jones, Bessie & The Georgia Sea Island Singers. _Georgia Sea Island Songs_. New World Records 80278.

From the Notes by Alan Lomax.

1960 Lomax made his first trip to the Sea Islands and recorded people led by singers surviving from Parrish's day.
//
Lydia (Mrs. Maxfield) Parrish, wife of the painter, had much to do with the authenticity of the songs in this collection…

She sponsored the formation of a society of the best singers and dancers, the Spiritual Singers of Georgia, whose members each received a button distinguishing him or her as a "Star Chorister" and signified that he or she was a folk singer and dancer in the old tradition. The regular meetings and performances of this group afforded an opportunity for the best singers on the island to continue their art and to keep alive a
remarkable body of songs and an even more remarkable musical style, very African in character. I first heard them when I visited St. Simons in l935, in the company of Zora Neale Hurston, the great black folklorist, who had worked with Mrs. Parrish. When I returned twenty-five years later with a stereo rig adequate to record this multipart music, I was greeted as an old friend. During that visit I recorded Group A (as designated in the notes that follow), led by surviving members of the original island singers, Joe Armstrong and Willis Proctor.
//

Later, the group "the Sea Islands Singers," was formed to tour the country and present the style, composed of Big John Davis, the community leader; Bessie Jones, song leader; Peter Davis, bass; Henry Morrison, Emma Ramsay, and Mable Hillary.

A few work songs are on the album, but I've only seen fit to excerpt two here. And the first, "Raggy Levy," is only to elucidate Parrish's text. Though classified it under the category of chantey, I am having a hard to envisioning it as the sort of song that could correspond with sailor worksongs. It has the "grunt" that, like in menhaden chanties, comes *after* a line of singing. The performers are the touring troupe: John Davis, leader; Peter Davis, Bessie Jones, Henry Morrison, and Willis Proctor.
//
Raggy Levy

In this black stevedore's song (part of the family that inspired so many better-known chanties) made for lifting or pulling heavy weights, the pulls come at the end of every pair of lines. The meaning is obscure. The song peers back into a long-dead time of rising soon (early) in the morning to sit by the fireplace and breakfast off sweet potatoes roasting in the ashes, and of fences built by hand of piled-up stones. Who Mr. Sippelin was or what ill fate overtook poor Raggy Levy to reduce him to a
jaybird's condition I could not determine. However, it's a great song for singing.

Leader: Oh, Raggy Levy,
Group: Oho! Raggy Levy,
L: Oh, Raggy Levy,
G: Poor boy, he's ragged as a jaybird.

L: In the mornin',
G: Oho! soon in the mornin',
L: In the mornin'
G: When I rise, I'm goin' ta sit by the fiah.

L: Mr. Sippelin,
G: Hi gonna build me a stone fence,
(Repeat)

L: Sweet potato,
G: Oho! Sweet potato,
L: Sweet potato,
G: Poor boy, got two in the fiah,

L: Mr. Sippelin,
G: Hi gonna build me a stone fence.

L: Sweet potato,
G: Oho! Sweet potato,
L: Oh, sweet potato,
G: Poor boy, got two in the fiah.

L: Old Mr. Sippelin,
G: Hi build another stone fence.

L: Raggy Levy,
G: Oho! Raggy Levy.
L: Raggy Levy,
G: Poor boy, just raggy as a jaybird.
//
When Lomax said that this kind of song inspired chanties, I think perhaps he is just vamping off the idea, so far as that formally the genres are a bot different. However, Lomax's choice of wording, "the pulls come at the end of every pair of lines," reminds me of Nordhoff's description of cotton screwing. Perhaps it was that the cotton screwers did not exert themselves at timed points within the text, but rather after the lines, with a grunt. If so, that would alow for songs to be sung slow, ametrically, and with rubato/melisma. Nordhoff didn't mention grunts ("hunh!"), but then again, neither does Lomax, here.

One can hear a sample of the track and the following one here:

http://www.allmusic.com/album/georgia-sea-island-songs-r88371

The other chantey is [MONEY DOWN]. This rendition, I believe, is a sort of reproduction of the version collected by Parrish. Recorded in 1960, with Joe Armstrong, leader; Jerome Davis, John Davis, Peter Davis, Bessie Jones, Henry Morris, Willis Proctor, and Ben Ramsay.
//
Pay Me
(arr. Lydia Parrish)

A stevedore song long ago preempted and made famous by the Weavers…

Chorus
Pay me, oh, pay me,
Pay me my money down.
Pay me or go to jail,
Pay me my money down.

Think I heard my captain say,
Pay me my money down,
Tomorrow is my sailin' day,
Pay me my money down.
(Chorus)

Wish I was Mrs. Alfred Jones's son,
Pay me my money down.
I'd stay in the house and drink good rum,
Pay me my money down.
(Chorus)
//

I am surprised they are also singing this with "hunh!" Parrish did not indicate that. And yet (unlike Raggy Levy), this does have a halyard chanty form and would not seem to call for the grunts.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Aug 11 - 08:20 PM

I realize that the posts I've been making recently may seem haphazard. This is partly because I am going through bits here and there where I've noted references to chanties, and just now trying to consider them.

But the other thing I am working on, slightly more coherent, is the recorded field sources. These included:

-The stuff from Library of Congress on the American Sea Songs and Shanties album (posted earlier)
-A couple more tracks from Capt. L. Robinson from those sessions
-Gordon collection stuff
-Carpenter collection stuff
-Lomax stuff

These are what's on my radar right now. I'd appreciate other sources.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Aug 11 - 04:53 PM

Thanks, Charley.

That brings up the question of whether Colcord went to Florida, or if the information Davids gave was purely through written correspondence.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 13 Aug 11 - 04:23 PM

R. M. Davids is acknowledged, among others, as an informant and a former seafarer who had "swallowed the anchor." Preface, p. 11, Songs of American Sailormen, Joanna C. Colcord, Bramhill House, NYC, © 1938.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Aug 11 - 03:57 PM

Hi guys,

I am just collating this material from online. It's starting to make a little more sense to me now that I have a better perspective on Gordon's bio. The retrospective album on Gordon's work is here:
http://www.loc.gov/folklife/Gordon/AnnotationsandTexts.html

And a reproduction of the Inferno collection is here:

http://www.horntip.com/html/books_&_MSS/1910s/1917-1933_gordon_inferno_collectio

I drew out only the texts I considered to be relevant to chanties development. There are of course other sailor-ly songs like Abrahm Brown, Madamoiselle from Armentierres, etc.

In addition to these, there are the texts from Gordon's 1927 NYT articles, that I put above.

There are Gordon's articles in _Adventure_ magazine.

There's the 1938 book, which I haven't seen, based on stuff Gordon Collected, _Folk-Songs of America_.

Lighter provided a list of shanties recorded by Gordon, posted upthread on Feb. 22. However, I am confused by the discrepancy between that number of items and the supposedly "over 300" sailor song items that the LP liner notes say he recorded.

If you guys have any other texts from the Gordon manuscript collections (there are supposedly hundreds?), picked up here or there, please consider posting them.

To answer your question, Charley, my guess is that Colcord collected some "unprintable" songs during her research. I seem to remember my friend Revell Carr saying these unprintable songs were gathered somewhere in manuscript form. I don't know if the one's she sent to Gordon, i.e. those in Inferno collection, correspond. The Inferno has 13 items, but I only considered 1 (A-Roving) to be useful here.
I know there has been discussion of this, but don't remember where. The question would be whether any of Colcord's informants would have sung indecent songs in her presence. If they didn't perhaps it is only these 13 items that she got, which had to be written down and "submitted" by someone else to alleviate the awkwardness. Just speculating.

I don't have Colcord's book with me. Is RM Davids mentioned as an informant?


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 13 Aug 11 - 11:30 AM

Gibb-

Do we know any more about "R.M. Davids, Cross X Ranch, Woodmere Florida, c. 1924"?

I suppose if the Colcord archives at the Penobscot Maritime Museum were in any kind of order, one could find some information there. But unfortunately they are in almost total disarray.

Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 13 Aug 11 - 11:01 AM

Gibb, thanks for putting up the Carpenter and the Gordon materials, especially from Gordon's "Inferno" collection. At least we know that there were chanties being sung in San Francisco area in the 1920's! I don't suppose Gordon gives any indication about how far back these songs might go in that area. This is the kind of material that I had hoped to find 75 years earlier, but without success on the "San Francisco to Sydney" thread.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Aug 11 - 03:21 AM

I have included here the chanties or chanty-relevant songs contained in Gordon's manuscript collections that were filed in the bawdy-songs "Inferno" collection. This was only because that collection was available to me on-line. Does anyone know if transcripts of the other manuscripts are publicly accessible on-line, or must one go to the Library of Congress?

Written down by R.M. Davids, Cross X Ranch, Woodmere Florida, c. 1924. Sent in to R.W. Gordon by J.C. Colcord 12/21/29.

[A-ROVING]
//
I'LL GO NO MORE A ROVING
In Amsterdam there lived a maid,

Now mark well what I say.

In Amsterdam there lived a maid,

And she was mistress of a trade.
I'll go no more a roving, for you fair maid,

I'll go no more a roving, for rovings been my ruin,

I'll go no more a roving, for you fair maid.

In Amsterdam there lived a maid,

And she did have a maidenhead.
I laid this maid down on the bed,
 

And slote away her maidenhead.
I laid this maid over in such style

That in nine months she had a child.
//


Texts acquired by Robert Winslow Gordon while he lived in California, ca. 1920-23.

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN] Contributor unidentified.
//
BLOW THE MAN DOWN.---
Oh blow the man down, bullies blow him away

To my Way-Hay-ay Blow the man down

Oh blow the man down, bullies blow him away

Give me some time to blow the man down.

As I was a walking down Paradise Street

A pretty young damsel, I happened to meet.

I said where are you ging, my pretty maid

I'm going a-milking, kind sir she said.

Then I smiled at this damsel, so beautous to see

And said-pretty maiden will you milk me.

Oh no Sir she answered, oh no sir not I

If I was to milk you I'd milk you too dry.

I gave her 5 shillings, she took me in tow

And away to her stateroom we quickly did go.

As I stripped off my dunnage and jumped into bed

This fair maid she scared me till I was nearly dead.

Her catheads came off when she took off her dress

Also with her bonnet came off her bright tress.

Then she unscrewed her left leg-unhooked her right ear

By that time believe me, I was feelin' dam queer.

When she spat out her teeth, and gouged out her right eye,
I grabbed up my dunnage, and left her to die.

Take warnin' my hearties, when you go ashore

Steer clear of false riggins & moor to a whore.

A.M. Turner, 8/24/23.
[FIRE DOWN BELOW] "Pumping or Capstan chanty"
//
FIRE DOWN BELOW
Oh there's fire in the fo'c'sle, all hands on deck

Fire down below

There's fire in the fore-peak, comin' thru the deck

There's fire down below.

There's fire in the fore-top, fire in the main

We thought we had it drownded, there it comes again.

There's fire in the cabin, fire in the poop,

There's a fire in the galley, burnin' up the soup.

The old man he's a terror, allays cussin' at the crew,

If this old wagon burns, me boys, he'll only get his due.

The old woman she's a pissin', she's spoutin' like a whale

The ocean is a risin' way 'bove the t'gallant rail.

Pass along the buckets boys, and let the old girl spout

Double bank the pump my sons, we'll drownd the ----- out.
//

[HANDY MY BOYS] "To' gallan's'l halyards chanty."
//
HANDY, ME BOYS, BE HANDY.
As I was a strollin' one fine summer day

So handy, my boys, so handy,

A rosy cheeked damsel, I met on the way

By handy, me boys, be handy.

She passed out her hawser and took me in tow

I shortened all sail and away we did go.


She led me to her father's halls

To a beautiful garden inside the walls.

And there I embraced this pretty maid

And love me, Oh love me, kind sir, she said.


Then she led me to her snowhite bed

And I hugged her there till she was dead.
//

[BLOW YE WINDS] "Fragment—Capstan Chanty"
//
Three times they give you peasoup

Three tines they give you duff

On Saturdays they give you rice

To make you blow and puff .
So blow ye winds in the mornin'
Blow ye winds Aye Oh

We're outward boun' in the ship Renown

To the port of Callao.
//

[SACRAMENTO]?
//
RIKKI DIKKI DOO DA DAY
One night I slept with an English maid

Dooda dooda

A virgin pure as the snow--she said

Rikki dikki doo da day.

She swore that I was her very first love

And gave me her maidenhead by the Gods above.

I spent all my payday in buying her clothes

But all that she gave me was a dam dirty dose.

So every night when I go out to piss

I curse the whore who gave me this.

Now all you young sailors take my advice

Don't play with virgin women, for you'll have to pay the price.
//

J.N. West, Bayonne, New Jersey, 11/10/24.
[SALLY BROWN]
//
SALLY BROWN
Oh Sally Brown my love grows bigger

But for Heavens sake don't f-ck that nigger.
//

[LONG TIME AGO]
//
A LONG TIME AGO
I wish to God that I'd never been born

To me way-hey-heyan.

To go rambling round and round Cape Horn,

A long time ago.

Around Cape Horn where the wild winds blow,

Around Cape Horn through sleet and snow.

It's a long, long time since I've had a glass rum

Oh, if I was the skipper I'd give the crew some.

Oh, it's a long, long time since I've had a "short time".
[This and some more lines of like character were repeated twice.]
Oh, it's a long, long time since I've had a good "f-ck",

Oh, it's a long, long time since I've had a good "f-ck".


And it's a long, long time since I've had a sore cock.


And it's a long, long time since my last "chancre" went.


Oh, it's a long, long time since I've had a "whole night".
//


[ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] with (?)[GO TO SEA NO MORE]
//
"I cannot remember some lines that are missing and
anyway this whole thing seems garbled to me but that's
how I heard it from an old Irishman."

ROLL THE COTTON DOWN
Oh, when last I was in Frisco Town

Roll the cotton down,

I never ever will forget

Oh, roll the cotton down.

I was drinking steam beer all day long

Until I could drink no more, no more.

And I felt in my mind full inclined

That I would go to sea no more.

Oh, last night I slept with "Angelina"

An' she was afeared and wouldn't turn in.

But when I woke up next morning

All my clothes and money then had fled.

Oh, when I was walking down the street

All the whores and pimps were roaring.

See there goes poor Jack to sea once more

So I went down to a boarding house.

Which was kept by Mister "Shang Haj" Brown

Says he, I'll give you a chance and take your advance.

And send you to sea once more

So he shipped me on a whaler.

Who was bound for the cold antartic seas

An' I had no money to buy clothes.

And Lord almighty how I froze.
//


John R. Spears, Utica, New York, 3/20/25.
[RIO GRANDE]
//
"Then they began at the top and sang it over again
until the cable was up and down. They were supported—
at least once I remember--by the captain--a Norwegian.-
I remember that when I went to Greenland on the bark Argenta for a load of cryolite the sailors usually sang
Sunday School songs, learned at the bethels, instead of
chanteys, and those were sung at the windlass only.
They never sang when making sail. On smother bark in
the port (Ivighet [?]) the men sang 'Away Rio' over and
over again--no other song of any kind."

AWAY RIO
Oh where are you going to my pretty maid?

Away Rio!

Oh where are you going to my pretty maid?

And we're bound to Rio Grande.

"I'm going out milking, sor," she said.

May I go with you my pretty maid?

"Oh, yes, if you please, kind sir," she said.

Well then will you diddle me, my pretty maid?

"Oh, yes, if you please, kind sir," she said.
//


R.W. Yearley, Quincy, Illinois, 5/28/26
[SLAPANDER]
//
A young Dutch soldier came over the Rhine,

Schnapoo, schnapoo,

A young Dutch soldier came over the Rhine,

Schnapoo, schnapoo,

A young Dutch soldier came over the Rhine,

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -,
Schnapoo, schnapoo,
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Schnapoo.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
No, my daughter is too young,

Schnapoo, schnapoo,
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

O no, mother, I'm not too young,

O no, mother, I'm not too young,

Oh no mother, I'm not too young,

It's often been tried by Richard and John,

//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Aug 11 - 02:32 AM

1978        Rosenberg, Neil V. and Deborah G. Kodish, ed. _"Folk-songs of America": The Robert Winslow Gordon Collection, 1922-1932_. Library of Congress. LP.

Two major phases of Gordon's work seem of most interest to this topic. One is his collecting in the San Francisco Bay area; the other is his collecting in Georgia. As seen in the 1927 article of his posted above, he connected deepwater chanties with Black folk songs.

From the Introduction of the liner notes:

//
…Gordon spent much of his time collecting songs on the Oakland and San Francisco waterfronts, where he won the cooperation of stevedores, sailors, captains, hoboes, and convicts…

During his years in California, 1917-24, Gordon gathered more than one thousand shanties and sea songs, at least three hundred of which he recorded on cylinders, making his the largest collection of maritime songs then in existence. Gordon was not interested in the sheer number of texts; instead he hoped to learn from this large body of data something of the role that Afro-American traditions and popular minstrel show materials played in the development of the sea shanty. He was successful in his fieldwork, but most of his colleagues in Berkeley's English department failed to recognize it. Few of them knew what he was doing on the waterfront, and many expressed the wish that he would spend his time in more orthodox academic pursuits…
//

Here are the relevant items on this album.

Two chanties in Frisco Bay.
//
…almost certainly recorded in the San Francisco Bay Area, probably in Oakland, in the early twenties. The singer appears to have been a veteran of sailing ships, for he begins the first song with appropriate instructions to the short-haul crew.
//

First, a relative if [ROLL THE WOODPILE], in a sweating-up style.
//
…Aside from it's use as a shanty, it has stylistic and historical connections with the minstrel stage. Doerflinger (p.350) dates it from an 1887 songster, Delaney's Song Book No.3, where the words are credited to Edward Harrigan. Sheet music copyrighted in 1887 by William A. Pond & Co., New York, also credits the words to Harrigan, gives the score to Dave Braham, and adds the information "As sung in Edward Harrigan's drama, "Pete"(in Harrigan and Braham's Popular Songs As Sung by Harrigan and Hart, Volume 2, New York: Wm. A. Pond & Co., 1892, pp.51-52)…

HAUL THE WOODPILE DOWN
Gordon cyl.50, ms. Cal. 104B 

Anon,
Bay Area, California,
Early 1920s

Spoken:
Cast her up! Sweat up that weather main brace.
Fetch on there, boys, look to it, come on,
Shake a leg, all together now.

Sung:

Yankee John with his sea boots on,

Haul the woodpile down.

Yankee John with his sea boots on,

Haul the woodpile down.

Way down in Florida,
Way down in Florida,
Way down in Florida,

Haul the woodpile down.
//

[ROLL THE OLD CHARIOT]
//
"Roll the Old Chariot Along" has direct connections with black folk music of the nineteenth century, appearing in most of the standard collections of spirituals (Dett, pp. 192-93; Fenner and Rathbun, pp. 106-7; Johnson, pp. 110-11). Sandburg published a variant (pp. 196-97), and it has also been noted by collectors of shanties, including Hugill (pp. 150-51) and Doerflinger (pp. 49-50, 357). A version of this was sent to Gordon by an Adventure reader (3758) and he collected another text in California (Cal. 243). There were many black sailors on the crews of nineteenth-century vessels. They brought with them traditions of work songs, and their songs, religious and secular, were usually rhythmic and thus suited for the many kinds of gang labor needed on the big sailing ships. Gordon devoted a chapter in Folk-Songs of America to "Negro work songs from Georgia" (pp. 13-19).

ROLL THE OLD CHARIOT ALONG
Gordon cyl. 50, ms. Cal. 104A

Anon,
Bay Area, California,
Early 1920s

Roll the old chariot along

And we'll roll the old chariot along

And we'll roll the old chariot along

And we'll all hang on behind.
If the devil's in the way,
We'll roll it over him

If the devil's in the way,
Why we'll roll it over him,

If the devil's in the way,
We'll roll it over him.

And we'll all hang on behind.
//

Continuing Gordon's bio,
//
By Christmas 1925, Gordon had been living away from his family for more than a year. The separation was difficult, emotionally and financially, and he decided to move to a field station on the southern coast of Georgia--to Darien, the childhood home of Mrs. Gordon. The reunited family occupied a two-room house, and Gordon resumed work, eagerly setting out to record the Afro-American traditions of the Georgia coast. The rowing songs and the boat songs which he discovered are represented on this record by the performances of Mary C. Mann and J. A. S. Spencer. Mary Mann, a deaconess at a local black church, had organized a school in Darien in which she taught young black women the domestic skills they needed to find employment. Mary Mann had a large repertoire herself, and she encouraged her students and members of her church to contribute their songs to Gordon as well…

In July 1928, Herbert Putnam, the Librarian of Congress, appointed Gordon "specialist and consultant in the field of Folk Song and Literature." Gordon later proposed a title that he thought would appeal more to the imagination of the general public: director of the Archive of American Folk Song.
During the first year of the archive's existence, Gordon remained in Darien collecting the shouts, rowing songs, rags, reels, and turning songs that were of primary importance in the study of American folk song and of special significance in learning how folksongs start and spread….
//

One recorded example is a rowing song.
//
Mary Mann's second song is, in her words, a "boat song". Such songs are familiar in the Georgia Sea Islands. In "Negro Work Songs From Georgia," Gordon described the rowing songs which he collected. He found them "very close to spirituals—some of them are spirituals slightly made over." …
This song, like Mann's first, shares the non-stanzaic construction noted by Gordon for rowing songs. The contrast between strophic construction found in European folksong and the litany form found in Africa supports Gordon's argument that these songs in Mann's repertoire represent an early stage in the progress from African to Afro-American folksong traditions. Gordon collected several other rowing songs from Mann; he also collected another version of "Finger Ring" from a Darien informant (A285, GA75). Mann's statement at the end refers to Mrs. (Roberta Paul) Gordon, whom Mann had known since childhood.

FINGER RING
Gordon cyl. A345, Item GA122

Mary C. Mann,
Darien, Georgia,
April 12, 1926

I lost mama's finger ring, finger ring, the finger ring,

I lost mama finger ring, finger ring, the finger ring,

I lost my mama finger ring, finger ring, the finger ring.

I lost my mama finger ring, finger ring, the finger ring.

I know how, I know how to row the boat,

I know how, I know how to row the boat,

I know how to row the boat,
I can row the boat just so, finger ring, the finger ring.

I can row the boat just so, finger ring, the finger ring.
I can row, I can row the Bumble Bee,

I can how, I know how to row the Bee,

I know how to row the Bee, Bumble Bee, the Bumble Bee.
I know how to row the Bee, the Bumble Bee, the Bumble Bee.

I know how to row the boat, the Bumble Bee, the Bumble Bee.

I know how to row the boat, the Bumble Bee, the Bumble Bee.

I lost mama, I lost mama finger ring,

I lost mama, I lost my mama finger ring, finger ring,
the finger ring, finger ring, the finger ring.

I know how to row the boat, Bumble Bee, Bumble Bee.

Spoken:
This is Miss Roberta Paul's, Paul's "boat song" that I have sung just now—the "Finger Ring."…
//

Then come tracks from Georgia of shanties.
//
From rowing songs to sea shanties in black song tradition is a logical step, for during the nineteenth-century black seamen and dock workers had an important effect upon shantying traditions.
//

First version of [BLOW BOYS BLOW]:
//
J. A. S. Spencer's "Blow Boys Blow" is what Gordon called a "quick time" shanty (Gordon, p. 14) with an unusual text and a familiar refrain. Doboy sound is on the Atlantic coast of Georgia, just north of Darien.

BLOW BOYS BLOW (1)
Gordon cyl. A479, Item GA252

J. A. S. Spencer
Darien, Georgia [?]
 May 11, 1926

The prettiest girl in Doboy town,

Blow, boys, blow.

Her name is fancy Nellie Brown,

Blow, my bully boys, blow.



Heave her high and let her go,

Heave her high and let her blow,


The prettiest girl I ever knew,

She wear the red morraca shoe,

The prettiest girl I ever saw,

She's always riding the white horse,


The prettiest boy in Doboy town,

His name is Little Johnny Brown,

Heave her high and let her go,

Heave her high and jam her low,
//

Second version of [BLOW BOYS BLOW]:
//
It is not known where or when Gordon recorded A. Wilkins, who sang good versions of both "Blow Boys Blow" and "Haul Away" in a splendid voice. Adventure correspondents sent Gordon four other versions of this "Blow Boys Blow" (770, 1033, 1642, 2362). …

BLOW BOYS BLOW (2)
Gordon cyl. G100, Item Misc.188

A. Wilkins [?]
Place and date unknown

Oh, blow, my boys, for I love to hear you,

Blow, boys, blow;

Oh blow, my boys, for I long to hear you,

Blow, my bully boys, blow.

Oh, a Yankee ship dropping down the river,

It's a Yankee ship dropping down the river,

Now, how do you know she's a Yankee clipper?

Her spars and decks they shine like silver,
Oh who do you think was the chief mate of her?

Oh, Skys'l Taylor, the Frisco slugger,

And who do you think was the chief cook of her?

Oh big black Sam, the Baltimore nigger,

And what do you think we had for dinner?
A monkey's legs and a monkey's liver,

And what do you think we had for supper?

The starboard side of an old sou'wester,

//

[HAUL AWAY JOE]
//
…The testimony of sailors is that this song was one to which improvisation occurred freely, and the verses which Wilkins sings here are a mixture of the familiar (verse one) and the novel (verse two). …Gordon collected a version of this in California (Cal. 249).

HAUL AWAY
Gordon cyl. G100, Item Misc.190

A. Wilkins [?]
Eastern U. S. [?]
1930-32 [?]

Away, haul away, a-haul away, my Rosie,

Away, haul away, a-haul away, Joe.

I wish I was in Ireland, a diggin' turf an' taters,


But now I'm in a Yankee ship, a-pullin cleats [sheets] and braces,


Once I loved an Irish gal and she was double jointed,


I thought she had a double chin but I was disappointed,


Away, haul away, the old man he's a-growlin',


Away, haul away, our oats are growing mouldy;


Away, haul away, the bloody ship is rollin',

//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 Aug 11 - 04:38 AM

In 1931, JM Carpenter published a series of 3 articles on his shanty research in the NYT. Here are excerpts from his second article. I've not yet attempted to collate these texts with others appearing in his collection.

1931        Carpenter, James M. "Life Before the Mast: A Chantey Log." New York Times (19 July 1931).

This installment describes typical chanteying events, supported by text examples. The surrounding notes are rather generic and I've not reproduced them.

[RIO GRANDE]
//
Boys, man the capstan and let us away.
Away-ay-ay-ee, Rio!
Boys, man the capstan and let us away.
For we're bound for the Rio Grande.
Then away-ay, Rio!
Away-ay-ay-ee, Rio!
Sing fare you well, my bonny young gal,
For we're bound for the Rio Grande!

Where are you going to, my pretty maid!
I'm going a milking, kind sir, she said,
//

Continues the capstan scene with [SACRAMENTO]
//…the crisp staccato of "The Banks of the Sacramento," which, with its Negro exuberance, tickles the heels of the sailors as they grind around the capstan:

When I was young and in my prime,
And a-hoo-dah! And a-hoo-dah!
I served my time in the Black Ball Line,
And a-hoo-dah, hoo-dah-day!
For Californi-o-o!
Blow, boys, blow!
There's plenty of gold, so I've been told,
On the banks of Sacramento!

Punkin puddin', an' a Injun pie,
De black cat kick out de gray cat's eye.
Oh, my ole missus she tole me
That when she die, she gwina set me free.
//

Doesn't say this verse from [BANKS OF NEWFOUNDLAND] was a chanty, but I think its being in the article implies it.
//
As I was a-lying in my bunk
And lying there alone,
I dreamt I was in Liverpool
Or down in the Marlebone,
With a rosy lass upon my knee,
And her at my command.
//

[WHISKEY JOHNNY]
//
Oh, whisky is the life of man
Whisky, Johnnie!
Oh, I'll drink whisky when I can,
Whisky for my Johnnie!

And when we doubled Old Cape Horn,
I was so cold and, oh, forlorn.

I wish I had some whiskey now,
I'd tip her up, and down she'd go.

Whisky made the Old Man cough,
Whisky made the bo's'n laugh.

Oh, my Old Duchess she likes gin,
And gin she'll have when she's got the tin.

Whisky killed my poor old dad,
Whisky druv my mother mad,
//

[HAUL AWAY JOE]
//
Way. haul away, Oh, haul away,my Rosy!
Way, haul away! Haul away—Joe!

Oh, once I had an Irish girl, and she was fat and lazy,

And then I had a Scotch girl, and she was thin and crazy,

And next I had a Yankee girl, and she was just a daisy,

And then I had a nigger girl, and she drove me ravin' crazy.

Oh, will you haul away, we will either bust or bend her,

Oh, will you haul away, if we bust her we can mend her.
//

[BLOW BOYS BLOW]
//
A Yankee ship comes down the river,
Blow, boys, blow!
Her masts and yards they shine like silver,
Blow, my bully boys, blow!

Then came tbe question, "Who d'ye s'pose wsa ca.ptaln of her?" To
this there was a a series of ribald answers, such as:

One-eyed Kelly, the bowery runner,
Snowball Sam, the flat-foot nigger,
Bully Jones, the California digger,
Bully Brown, the limejuice robber,
Captain Drunk, the horse-bull driver.

And after that the chanteyman had more fun with the query,
"What d' ye s'pose they had for dinner?" Here imagination ran
riot with responses like:

Pickled eel's feet and nigger's liver.
Monkey's gizzard and cock-a-roach liver.
Mosquito's heart and sandfly's liver.
Belaying pin soup and monkey's liver.
The starboard side of an old sou'-wester.
//

[REUBEN RANZO]
//
Oh, poor old Ruben Ranzo,
Ranzo, boys, Ranzo!
Oh, pity poor Ruben Ranzo,
Ranzo, boys, Ranzo!

Oh, Ranzo was no sailor,
He might have been a tailor,

Now Ranzo took a notion
That he would plough the ocean.

So he sold his plough and harrow
And his pony to a laidy.

He went to London City
Where the barmaids are so pretty.

And now he's Captain Ranzo,
And he ploughs the briny ocean.
//

[HANGING JOHNNY]
//
Oh, they call me Hanging Johnnie,
Hurrah, hurrah!
Because I hang so many,
So it's hang, boys, hang!

Oh first I hung my mother
And then I hung my brother.

I hung my sister Sally;
I swung her in the galley,

I hung my brother Billy
Because he seemed so silly.
//

[GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL]
//
We're homeward bound for New York Town.
Good-bye, fare you well! Good-bye, fare you well!
We're homeward bound lor New York Town.
Hurrah, my boys, we're homeward bound!

And when we arrive in the Carrier Dock,
There the boys and girls around us will flock.
And one to another you'll hear them say,
"O here comes Jack with nine months' pay!"
Now it's "John, get up and let Jack sit down,
For you know that he is homeward bound!"
//

[ROLLING HOME]
//
Call all hands to man the capstan,
See your cable runs all clear,
For very soon we'll weigh our anchor,
And for Old England we will steer.
If you all heave with a will, boys,
We will soon our anchor trip,
And upon the briny ocean
We'll steer our gallant ship.

Rolling home, rolling home!
Rolling home across the sea!
Rolling home to dear Old England,
Rolling home, dear land, to thee!
//

[JAMBOREE]
//
Now my boys, be of good cheer,
For the Irish lands are drawing near;
Tomorrow night we'll rise Cape Clear,
Oh, Jenny, get your hoe-cake done!
//

[ONE MORE DAY]
//
Only one more day, me Johnnie,
One more day!
Oh, come rock and roll me over.
Only one more day!

Only one more day a-reefing,
Only one more day a-furling.
//

[LEAVE HER JOHNNY]
//
The work was hard, the voyage long,
Leave her, Johnnie, leave her!
The seas were high, the gales were strong,
It's time for us to leave her!

The skipper's name was Bully Brown,
If you looked at him, he would knock you down,
//

[GO TO SEA NO MORE]
//
While my money did last, I went full fast;
I got drunk as drunk could be;
I was roving round all day, me boys,
And at night I did far more.
Then I made up my mind with fellows blind
To go to sea no more.

No more, no more!
No more, Oh, no more!
If ever I'm landed safe again,
I'll go to sea no more!


I'll take your advance and give you a chance
Once more, once more!
Once more, Oh, once more!
To try the sea once more!
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Aug 11 - 04:54 AM

Gordon published a series of articles related to his work in the NYT in 1927. My last post comes from the first, introductory article in the series. The following is his work-songs article, which is focused on songs collected from Black men in the Southeast U.S. Evidently, though he uses the term "chantey" for these (yet also says they are "related to chanteys"), he has kept them distinct from the deepwater songs he collected.

1927        Gordon, Robert W. "Folk Songs of America: Work Chanteys." _New York Times_ (16 Jan. 1927).

Observes that texts are fluid. Only rhythm, basic tune, and refrain remain the same.

Section: "Related to Chanteys"

Songs collected on southern coast of Georgia,
First 2 are pulling chanteys.

Says "Riley" is
//
…in fact an adaptation of the white chantey "Old Stormy" though the tune is different. "Hilup, Boys, Hilo" probably came to the negro through the crew of some timber schooner. "Zekiel" is pure negro.
//
These seem to me poor examples in supporting an argument of the adaptation of White men's songs. The only connection I *see* to "Stormy" is the verse about wishing you were Such-n-such's son. But Gordon goes through pains to emphasize the fluidity of texts, so I see no reason to suggest it is an "adaptation" of the "white chantey"!

"Riley": "typical song often used on the docks". I think it has the flavour of [TOMMY'S GONE]:
//
Riley, Riley, where were you?
        Ho, Riley, ho, man!
Riley, Riley, where were you?
        Ho, Riley, row!

Riley gone to Liverpool. [x2]

Wish I were Cap'n Riley's son.

I'd lay down town an' drink good rum.

Riley lived till his head got bald.

Got out de notion o' dyin' at all.

Think I heard my captain say
"Tomorrer is our sailin' day!"
//

"quick time" chanty [HILO BOYS]. Is this the original source of a similar song that Charley has in his notes (supposed to have been reproduced in Southern's _Music of Black Americans_)?
//
O dis de day to roll an' go,
        Hilup, boys, hilo!
O dis de day to roll an' go,
        Hilup, boys, hilo!

De captain say "Tomorrow day"
"Tomorrow is my sailin' day"

O hit her hard and jam her lo.
O roll dat cotton in de hol'.
//

for slow time:
//
O Zekiel, when de Lord called Zekiel
        Tell dem dry bones live again!
O Zekiel, when de Lord called Zekiel
        Tell dem dry bones live again!

Think I heard my captain say, sir,
"Tomorrow is our sailin' day, sir,"

Think I heard my header say, sir,
"In de hold his [dis?] piece mus' go, sir"

Noble cap'n an' a bully crew, sir,
Need a bar to make him go, sir,


Ole hen cackle an' de rooster crow, sir
In de hol' dis a piece a mus' a go, sir,

Think I heard my captain say, sir,
One more heave an' dat will do, sir,
//

Notes that songs used in hammering are quite different. They have the coordinated grunt rather than a chorus.

Section: "Haunting Rowing Songs"

Formerly used along coastal regions of Geogia and the Carolinas. "…there is in many of them a depth of feeling not to be found in the other work songs." Suggests they are like "spirituals slightly made over". Too late to collect them, long boats with 6-8 men have pract disappeared. Up to Civil War, great island plantations had boat crews that took intense pride in both their rowing and singing skill.

On "Butler's" they wore uniforms. Largest boat of that plantation was called The Whale (destroyed in 1898) – but long before that singing crews were a thing of the past.

Leader sang in tenor, response in lower key. Lines overlapped "with curious effectiveness." All three of the following songs were sung to Gordon by men who had rowed in The Whale.

"Kneebow/kneebone". Feels a bit like [SHALLOW BROWN]

//
Kneebow when I call you,
        O Lord, kneebow!
Kneebow, O knee bow,
        O Lord, kneebow ben'!

Kneebow in baptism groun'.
Kneebow to de buryin' groun'.

Kneebow, O kneebow.
Kneebow to the elbow.

Bend my knees in de mornin'.
Kneebow ben' to save my soul.

Bend my knees in de evenin'.
Kneebow ben', de soul set free.

Elbow, O elbow.
I bend my knees, de boat do fly.
//

"My Army Cross Over"
//
O Lord, my army.
        My army cross over!
O Lord, my army.
        My army cross over!

How you do de crossin'?
Jedus [sic] help me over.

Cross him once a'ready.
Cross de mighty water.

Cross de river of Jordan.
Cross de mighty water.

Help me cross de ocean!
Jedus help me over!

Tell my Sister Sarah good-bye
Tell my sisters good-bye.

Cross dat mighty water. [x2]

Humor seldom appears in the rowing songs. Most are sad in tone and sung to slow and rather mournful tunes.
//

an exception:
//
Sandfly bite me, sen' for de doctor.
        Farewell, Lord, I gwine!
Sandfly bite me, sen' for de doctor.
        Farewell, Lord, I gwine!

O-o-oh, carry me over! [x2]

When I git over yonder I kick back Satan!
Git over yonder I kick back Satan!

O my lovin' mother!
I done forever!

Sandfly bite me, sen' for de doctor.
I done forever!
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Aug 11 - 02:16 AM

Brief statement on how RW Gordon viewed (part of) the development of chanties.

1927        Gordon, Robert W. "The Folk Songs of America: A Hunt on Hidden Trails." _New York Times_ (2 Jan. 1927).

//
With the sailor chanteys he did much the same thing [as with camp-meeting hymns > spirituals]. The negro on the docks heard them sung by white sailors. He borrowed them with minor variations. Those he liked he rebuilt to suit better his own tasks and later he invented new chanties on the old model.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Aug 11 - 02:00 AM

The first "chantey sing"?

1926        Unknown. "Sea Chanteys Kept Alive. Sailors' Club in London is Collecting and Preserving the Old Songs of Sail." New York Times (7 Nov. 1926).

Seven Seas Club of London, holding monthly dinners. After formalities, people invited to sing chanteys. Examples mentioned: [BLOW THE MAN DOWN] ("O Blow the man down from Liverpool Town…") and [JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO] ("I nebber see de like since I bin born, When a big buck nigger wid his seaboots on, Says Johnny come down to Hilo, Poor ole man…") and "The Stately Southerner" (author of this article mixes up work and non-work songs) and [SACRAMENTO] ("As I was walking on the quay, Hoodah, to my hoodah…") and [SANTIANA] ("He won the day at Monterey, All on the plains of Mexico…") and [BONEY] ("Prooshians…") and [REUBEN RANZO] ("Now he's Captain Ranzo…") and [DRUNKEN SAILOR}and [SHENANDOAH] and [WHISKEY JOHNNY] and [ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] and [A-ROVING] and [HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] ("Heave Away! My Bullies" and [RIO GRANDE] and "High Barbaree."

They were singing "Terry's" version of "JCD to Hilo".

This is the group for which Sampson was requested to compile his shanty book.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Aug 11 - 01:18 AM

1850[Sept. 1849]        Melville, Herman. _Redburn: His First Voyage_. New York: Harper & Bros.

Singing out at a rope, evidently for sweating up. pp.63-64.
//
While I stood watching the red cigar-end promenading up and down, the mate suddenly stopped and gave an order, and the men sprang to obey it. It was not much, only something about hoisting one of the sails a little higher up on the mast. The men took hold of the rope, and began pulling upon it; the foremost man of all setting up a song with no words to it, only a strange musical rise and fall of notes. In the dark night, and far out upon the lonely sea, it sounded wild enough, and made me feel as I had sometimes felt, when in a twilight room a cousin of mine, with black eyes, used to play some old German airs on the piano. I almost looked round for goblins, and felt just a little bit afraid. But I soon got used to this singing; for the sailors never touched a rope without it. Sometimes, when no one happened to strike up, and the pulling, whatever it might be, did not seem to be getting forward very well, the mate would always say, "Come, men, can't any of you sing? Sing now, and raise the dead." And then some one of them would begin, and if every man's arms were as much relieved as mine by the song, and he could pull as much better as I did, with such a cheering accompaniment, I am sure the song was well worth the breath expended on it. It is a great thing in a sailor to know how to sing well, for he gets a great name by it from the officers, and a good deal of popularity among his shipmates. Some sea-captains, before shipping a man, always ask him whether he can sing out at a rope.
//

pg. 156
//
A thorough sailor must understand much of other avocations. …he must be a bit of a musician, in order to sing out at the halyards.
//

[CHEERLY} again for catting anchor. pg.303
//
Owing to a strong breeze, which had been blowing up the river for four days past, holding wind-bound in the various docks a multitude of ships for all parts of the world; there was now under weigh, a vast fleet of merchantmen, all steering broad out to sea. The white sails glistened in the clear morning air like a great Eastern encampment of sultans; and from many a forecastle, came the deep mellow old song Ho-o-he-yo, cheerily men! as the crews catted their anchors.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Aug 11 - 12:09 AM

The following reference suggests that the word "chantey" was still somewhat obscure for the general public. Recall that in the 1880s, several authors used the term, however these were mainly nautical writers, and the term was used in quotes. Here, in 1890, it is still being treated as something that would be unfamiliar to readers.

1890[July]        Unknown. "Jack Tar's Vernacular." _New York Times_ (20 July, 1890).

"Some of the Odd Words and Phrases Used at Sea. A Dialect which the Landsman Could Never Hope to Master Except on Shipboard."

//
Jack's ditties, too, are frequently vehicles of his emotions. When he does not know how to "growl" fairly, he will put his feelings into a topsail-halyard song, and often has the anchor come up to a fierce chorus compounded of improvised abuse of the ship and the skipper, to which expression could not be given in a quieter method. Unfortunately the list of melodies is somewhat limited, but the lack of variety is no obstruction to the sailor's poetical inspiration when he wants the "old man" to know his private opinions without expressing them to his face, and so the same "chantey," as the windlass or halyard chorus is called, furnishes the music to as many various indignant remonstrances as Jack can find injuries to sing about.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Aug 11 - 10:48 PM

Sounds good, Charley. And thanks for that info, Lighter, that would explain things somewhat -- insofar as the chanty lyrics have a nice "ring" of authenticity for the most part, though there are also probably some borrowings going on to beef up the presentations. It would also rule out Terry as a possible source of borrowings.

If you you guys have a notion, I'd be curious to get your reaction to Frothingham's (King's?) presentation of "Tom's Gone to Ilo," which I've posted to the "Origins: Hilo" thread. My opinion is that it's very likely not "from tradition," in which case that confirms that Frothingham/King's chanties were influenced by publications.

One of my interests, as you know, is to get some semblance of an idea of what chanties were commonly sung and where/when/etc. That explains why I am interested in monitoring whether certain print appearances are all or "mostly" drawn from earlier publications, i.e. so the "tally" does not get too skewed.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 09 Aug 11 - 09:44 PM

IIRC, Frothingham's shanties are all taken from Stanton H. King's _Book of Chanties_ (Boston, 1918).

During WWI, the U.S. Merchant Marine Shipping Board Recruiting Service named King its "official chanty-man," though I believe it only meant that he led sailors in mass singing, a popular morale-builder of the day.

According to King's preface, "The chanties in this book are as I heard them sung, and have often sung them myself when a sailor on our deep water American sailing ships."

According to Who's Who in New England (1909), King was born in Barbados in 1867. He apparently went to sea in 1880, served six years in merchant ships and then six more as an enlisted man in the U.S. Navy. Who's Who lists him as a "sailors' missionary." He was Superintendent of the Sailors' Haven, Charlestown, Mass., for many years.

Carpenter recorded some material from King in the late '20s.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 09 Aug 11 - 07:58 PM

What interests me about Frothingham's publication is that it appeared in the middle of the whast I consider the first revival of sea shanties, as entertainment rather than for assisting with nautical work. His readers were supposed to be people who would want to sing these songs.

The bulk of the book is nautical poetry, and I found that part interesting in identifying forgotten nautical poets such as Bill Adams, Harry Kemp, and Burt Franklin Jenness who had experience at sea. Much of their poetry I've since posted to Allpoetry.com, and some I've set to music.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 09 Aug 11 - 06:43 PM

1924        Frothingham, Robert, ed. _Songs of the Sea and Sailors' Chanteys_. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Contains a section with chanties (i.e. in addition to the nautical poetry that fills the rest).

The chanty selections look like they are based in various secondary sources, especially Davis & Tozer (the formatting of titles and such use it as a guide, at least), along with Masefield and RR Terry. However, the author has also taken the liberty of ~improving~ the songs a bit. Tunes are changed, perhaps based on what Frothingham believed they "should" have been. In "Tom's Gone to Ilo," for example, the contour follows D&T, but rather than the distinctive leaps between 6th and tonic, it has the major 7th degree in there – odd, I think, and contrived.

Did Frothingham have any access to primary sources, or any personal experience with these? He came out with numerous poetry/song anthologies on various themes, so I am assuming at this point that he was a compiler without significant first-hand knowledge. Would like to know more.

Hugill made use of plenty of the verses from this when harvesting for his SfSS collection.

Here is a list of the chanties. They are "typical", and, in my opinion, probably don't add to our historical knowledge of the genre. This evidently was, however, a work that was read and used as a source for later writers.

pg241. SAILORS' CHANTEYS [With score.]

LONG DRAG

[LONG TIME AGO] A Long Time Ago
[BLOW BLOYS BLOW] Blow, Boys, Blow
[BLOW THE MAN DOWN] Blow the Man Down
[BONEY] Boney Was a Warrior
[DEAD HORSE] Dead Horse
[HANGING JOHNNY] Hanging Johnnie
[LEAVE HER JOHNNY} Leave Her, Johnny, Leave Her
[REUBEN RANZO] Reuben Ranzo
[ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] Roll the Cotton Down
[TOMMY'S GONE] Tom's Gone to Ilo
[WHISKEY JOHNNY] Whisky for my Johnnie

SHORT DRAG

[HAUL AWAY JOE] Haul Away, Joe
[BOWLINE] Haul the Bowline
[JOHNNY BOWKER] Johnny Boker
[PADDY DOYLE] Paddy Doyle

CAPSTAN

[GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL] Homeward Bound
[SACRAMENTO] Hoodah-Day
[SANTIANA] The Plains of Mexico
RIO GRANDE] Rio Grande
[SALLY BROWN] Sally Brown
[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] We're All Bound to Go
[SHENANDOAH] The Wide Missouri

PUMPING

[ONE MORE DAY] One More Day
[MR. STORMALONG] Storm-Along

OLD SEA SONGS

A-Roving
Spanish Ladies
Farewell, and Adieu to You
Rolling Home
High Barbaree
The Golden Vanity


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 05 Aug 11 - 04:04 PM

Maybe Jenny was chawin' terbaccer, not gum.

"Johnny Fill Up the Bowl" was the immediate melodic predecessor of "When Johnny Comes Marching Home." Both are frequently mentioned in Civil War memoirs, and the choruses were often blended together.

Carpenter also collected a brief shanty version.

JL


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Aug 11 - 03:56 PM

From one of Gordon Grant's sketchbooks:

1931        Grant, , Gordon. _Sail Ho!: Windjammer Sketches Alow and Aloft_. New York: W.F. Payson.

Pg 6. For brake windlass.
//
"Some say we're bound for Liverpool,
Some say we're bound for France,
I think we're bound for Frisco boys,
To give the girls a chance.

Heave away! my bully boys;
Ho! Heave and bust her!
Hang your beef, my bully boys;
Ho! Heave and bust her!"
//
Hugill printed this, saying, "A capstan shanty, the verses of which are related to the former song ["The Gals of Dublin Town"], has been sent to me by Mr. W.A. Bryce of Sutton Coldfield. Unfortunately he could not remember the tune..." Evidently Bryce had taken it from this book.

A sweating up song.
//
SWAYING OFF

They have set the main topgallant staysail…

"Ho, Molly come down,
Come down with your pretty posey,
Come down with your cheeks so rosy.
Ho, Molly, come down.
He O! He O!"
//
Hugill also mentioned this in connection with a similar sing out by Harlow and with the "Bunch of Roses" chanty. Mr. Bryce also sent him this.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Aug 11 - 03:54 PM

Thought I had caught all the Folk-Song Society articles, but here's one more!

1928        Thomas, J.E., Lucy E. Broadwood, Frank Howes, and Frank Kidson. "Sea Shanties." Journal of the Folk-Song Society 8(32):96-100.

Collected in West Cornwall by J.E. Thomas

Sung by Mr. W. Tarr, 27 May 1924.
//
Whisky, You're My Darling

For 'tis good-bye Mick and good-bye Pat, and good-bye Mary Ann,
I'm goin' away this very day to the dear Americo,
For the ship lies in the harbour, As ev'rybody knows,
And here's to good old Ireland where the dear old shamrock grows. Whisky, you're my darling, Whisky, you're my friend,
Whisky, you're my darling drunk or sober.
//

The following two songs were sung by John Farr (age 76), 6 Dec. 1926.

[SALLY BROWN]
//
Sally Brown

O Sally Brown was a creole lady,
Way O roll and go,
Sally Brown was a creole lady,
Spent my money on Sally Brown.

Sally Brown is a captain's daughter (twice)

Sally Brown is a bright Mulatter,
She drinks rum and chews terbaccer.
//

Not a shanty.
//
The Banks of the Newfoundland

O you Western Ocean Labourers, I would have you all beware,
That when you're aboard of a packet-ship, no dung'ree jumpers wear,
But have a big monkey-jacket always at your command,
And think of the cold Nor'westers On the banks of the Newfoundland.

2 As I lay in my bunk one night
A-dreaming all alone,
I dreamt I was in Liverpool
'Way up in Marylebone,
With my true love beside of me
And a jug of ale in hand,
When I woke quite broken-hearted
On the banks of Newfoun(dland.

3 We had one Lynch from Bally Ack
Jimmy Murphy and Mike Moore,
'Twas in the year of 'sixty-two
And the sea-boys suffered sore.
For they pawned their clothes in Liverpool,
And sold them right out of hand,
Not thinking of Newfoundland.
4 We had one female passenger,
Bridget Riley was her name,
Unto her I promised marriage,
And on me she had a claim.
For she tore up all her petticoats
To make mittens for my hand,
Saving "I can't see my true-love freeze
On the banks of Newfoundland."

5 And now we're round Sandy Hook, my boys
The Island is covered with snow,
The steam-boat she's ahead of us
And to New York we will go.
So we'll rub her round and scrub her round
With holy stone and sand,
And say farewell to the Virgin Rocks
On the banks of Newfoundland.
//

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] Sung by John Farr, 10 Jan. 1926.
//
Heave Away, My Johnny

Sometimes we're bound for Liverpool town,
sometimes we're bound for France,
Heave away O my Johnny, heave away
Sometimes we're bound for Liverpool town,
sometimes we're bound for France,
Heave away O my jolly boys we're all bound to go.
//

[MR. STORMALONG] Sung by John Farr, 25 Jan 1926.
//
Mister Stormalong

O whisky is the life of man,
Hi! hi hi! Mister Stormalong,
O whisky is the life of man,
To my way-o Stormalong.

I wish I was old Stormy's son,
I'd give the boys a plenty of rum.

Old Stormy he is dead and gone (twice).
//

Sung by John Farr, 7 Feb. 1927.
[LOWLANDS]
//
Lowlands Away

Lowlands, Lowlands, away, my John,
I thought I heard our captain say.
Lowlands, Lowlands, away, my John,
We're sailing straight for Mobile Bay,
My dollar and a half a day.

I thought I heard our captain cry
A dollar and a half is a whiteman's pay.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Aug 11 - 09:35 PM

1927        Eckstorm, Fannie Hardy and Mary Winslow Smyth. _Minstrelsy of Maine: Folk-songs and Ballads of the Woods and the Coast_. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin.

[Some question marks due to illegible spots in my copy.]

Deep-Sea Songs:

The Stately Southerner
The Flying Cloud
Tacking Ship Off Shore
The Banks of Newfoundland
Sailors' 'Come-All-Ye'
Old Horse
The Greenland Whale Fishery
The Pretty Mohea
The Sailors' Alphabet

Chanteys:

Contributed by Laura E. Richards of Gardiner, ME, March 1926. Said the verses were learned by her mother in 1852, on board a sailing vessel from Italy to America.

[TOMMY'S GONE]
//
Tom's Gone Away

Oh, Tom he was a darling boy,
        Tom's gone away!
Oh, Tome he was the sailor's joy,
        Tom's gone away!
And hurrah for Jenny, boys,
        Tom's gone away!
And hurrah for Jenny, boys,
//

[HELLO SOMEBODY]
//
Hilo

Arise, old woman, and let me in!
        Way! hi-lo!
Hi-lo, somebody! hi-lo!
//

[LONG TIME AGO]
//
A Long Time Ago

I wish I was in Baltimore,
        I-i-i-o!
A-skating on the sanded floor,
        A long time ago;
Forever and forever,
        I-i-i-o!
Forever and forever, boys,
        A long time ago!
//

Mrs. Seth S. Thornton of Southwest Harbor, Maine, Nov. 1926. Said this topsail halliards chantey "used to be sung on board ship in my father's day."

[CLEAR THE TRACK] is the dominant bit of this, but it also has aspects of "Mobile Bay" and "Roller Bowler."
//
Mobile Bay

Was you ever in Mobile Bay?
        A hay! a hue! Ain't you most done?
A-screwing cotton by the day?
        A hay! a hue! Ain't you most done?
Oh, yes, I've been in Mobile Bay
A-screwing cotton by the day;
So clear the track, let the bullgine run,
With a rig-a-jig-jig and a ha-ha-ha,
Good morning ladies all!
//

Contributed by Frank Stanley of Cranberry Isles, Maine, Nov. 1925. Looks like Stanley took all these texts from Clark's _The Clipper Ship Era_.

[LOWLANDS AWAY] [PADDY DOYLE] "Rolling John" [PADDY ON THE RAILWAY] [WHISLEY JOHNNY]

From Captain J.A. Creighton of Thomaston, Maine, Aug. 192?. Wrote, "This is a chanty the writer has never seen in print but [?-ed] to sing over forty years ago. There must have been fifty verses to this chanty, and it told of a sailor's life from beginning to end and was one of the best chanties the writer ever heard…"

[LIVERPOOL GIRLS]
//
First to California, Oh, Fondly I went

First to California, oh, fondly I went,
For to stop in that country it was my intent;
But the drinking of whiskey, like every damn fool,
Soon got me imported back to Liverpool.

Refrain:
Singing, Row, Row, Row, bullies, Row.
Oh, the Liverpool girls they have got us in tow,
Singing, Row, Row, Row, bullies, Row.
Oh, the Liverpool girls they have got us in tow.

And now we are down and on the line,
The Captain's a-cursing, he's all out of wine,
We're hauling and pulling these yards all about,
For to give this flash packet a quick passage out.

And now we are down and off Cape Horn,
The boys have no clothes for to keep themselves warm,
She's diving bows aunder and the decks are all wet,
And we're going round Cape Horn with the main skysail set.
//

//
Too-li-aye

A negro chantey. Of this and the preceding, Captain Creighton wrote, 'These two chanties do not amount to much without the music, but they never fail to bring down the house when sung by a few old salts that know how to get the funny yodel-like notes that were common in the good old times of the "down-east square-rigger."'

A Yankee ship and a Yankee crew,
Jan Kanaganaga too-li-aye.

Refrain.
Too-li-aye, too-li-aye,
Jan Kanaganaga, too-li-aye.

A Yankee ship with a lot to do,
Jan Kanaganaga, too-li-aye.

A Yankee ship with a Yankee mate,
Jan Kanaganaga, too-li-aye.

If you stop to walk he'll change your gait,
Jan Kanaganaga, too-li-aye.
//

[DRUNKEN SAILOR]
//
…learned by the [??] editor's grandmother, probably considerably over a hundred years ago as she used to hear the sailors singing as they tacked in going up the Penobscot.

What shall we do with the drunken sailor?...
So early in the morning?

Put him in the long-boat and let him bail her;

Ay, ay, up she rises!
//

A "coastwise chantey". Sung by Capt. Rufus H. Young of Hancock Maine, Oct. 1925, 92 years old. Said was favorite for "getting under way". Had 40-50+ verses. Girl is chewing gum (!). So, not until after 1870, maybe not even till after 1890s. Tune is "When Johnny comes marching home."
//
Johnny, Fill Up the Bowl

Johnny and Jenny by the fireside say,
Hoorah! Hoorah!
Johnny and Jenny by the fireside say,
Hoorah! Hoorah!

Johnny and Jenny by the fireside say,
And Johnny saw Jenny's mouth open and shet,
And Johnny saw Jenny's mouth open and shet,
[??..] all drink stone-blind,
Johnny, fill up the bowl!
//

Taken down ca.1904 by WM Hardy of Brewer, Maine, from the singing of Captain William Coombs of Islesboro, Maine. The following 2 are local fishermen's chanteys. Short because the small sails were quickly hoisted.
//
Isle o' Holt (Highland Laddie)

Was you ever on the Isle o' Holt,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan' laddie?
Where John Thompson swallowed a colt,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan' laddie?
Hurroo, my dandies O!
Bonnie laddie, Hielan' laddie;
Hurroo, my dandies O!
Bonnie Hielan' laddie.

I opened an orange and found a letter,
Bonnie laddie, Hielan' laddie.
And the more I read it grew better and better,
Bonnie Hielan' laddie.
Hurroo, my dandies O!
Bonnie laddie, Hielan' laddie,
Hurroo, my dandies O!
Bonnie Hielan' laddie.
//

//
Church and Chapel

I rode to church, I rode to chapel,
Pull down!
With a hickory horse and a white-oak saddle,
        Pull down below!
Pull down, pull down, pull down together,
Pull down, pull down, my dandy fellows,
        Pull down!
//

From L.I. Flower of Central Cambridge, New Brunswick, 1926, who thought these were the favorite chanties among guys in the lumber woods.

[SHENANDOAH]
//
Shenandore

Heave her up from down below, boys!
Hooray, you rolling river!
Heave her up and let her go, boys!
Aha! Bound away o'er the wild Missouri.

Shenandore, I long to see you! X2

Shenandore! I love your daughter,
I love the roar of your rushing waters,
//

Only the chorus remembered. This is connected to a Great Lakes song, "The Cruise of the Bigelow," which was probably not a chanety
//
Buffalo

Stop her! Catch! Jump her up in a juba-ju!
Give her the sheet and let her go!
We are the boys can crowd her through.
You ought to have seen her travel, the wind a-blowing free,
On her passage down to Buffalo from Milwaukee!
//

Says the Black Ball Line sailed from Saint John (New Brunswick), and he remembers them from 55 years ago.
//
Blow the Man Down

'Twas in a Black-Baller I first served my time,
To my yo-heave-ho! blow the man down!
'Twas in a Black-Baller I wasted my prime,
O! give me some time to blow the man down!

'Twas when a Black-Baller was leaving the land,
Our captain then gave us the word of command,

'Lay aft,' was the cry, 'to the break of the poop,'
'And I'll help you along with the toe of my boot,'

'Twas when a Black-Baller came home to the dock,
The lad and the lasses around her did flock,
//

From Susie C. Young of Brewer, Main, 1926.
[HIGHLAND]
//
Highland Laddie

Was you ever to Quebec,
Halan' Laddie, bonnie Laddie!
Where they hoist their timber all on deck,
With a Halan' bonnie Laddie?
Heave-O! me heart and soul,
Halan' Laddie, Bonnie Laddie,
Heave-O! me heart and soul,
To me Halan', Bonnie Laddie.

Was you ever to the Isle of France,
Where the girls are taught to dance
//

Young said apparently of Negro/West Indian origin, sung in Orland for several generations. Thinks her grandfather may have learned it at sea.
//
Shove 'er up! Shove 'er up!
Keep shoving of 'er up!
Shove 'er up! Shove 'er up!
Keep shoving of 'er up!
Shove 'er in the gangway!
Shove 'er in the boat!
I'd rather have a guinea than a ten-pound note.
        Though a guinea it will sink
        And a note it will float,
I'd rather have a guinea than a ten-pound note.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Aug 11 - 02:16 AM

cont.,

Sung by Noble B. Brown at Woodman, Wisconsin. Recorded by Helene Stratman-Thomas and Aubrey Snyder, 1946.

[BLOW BOYS BLOW]
//
BLOW, BOYS, BLOW!

A Yankee ship came down the river,
Blow, boys, blow,
A Yankee ship came down the river,
Blow, boys, bonny boys, blow.

And how do you know she's a Yankee clipper?
Oh, how do you know she's a Yankee clipper?

The stars and bars they flew behind her, [x2]

And who do you think was the skipper of her?
A bluenosed Nova Scotia hardcase.

And who do you think was the chief mate of her?
A loudmouthed disbarred Boston lawyer.

And what do you think we had for breakfast?
The starboard side of an old sou'wester.

Then what do you think we had for dinner?
We had monkey's heart and shark's liver.

Can you guess what we had for supper?
We had strong salt junk and weak tea water.

Then blow us out am blow us homeward,
Oh, blow today and blow tomorrow.

Blow fair and steady, mild and pleasant,
Oh, blow us into Boston Harbor.

We'll blow ashore and blow our pay day,
Then blow aboard and blow away.

We'll blow until our blow is over,
From Singapore to Cliffs of Dover,
//

[REUBEN RANZO]
//
REUBEN RANZO

Poor old Reuben Ranzo,
Ranzo, boy, Ranzo,
Poor old Reuben Ranzo,
Ranzo, boy, Ranzo.

He shipped aboard a whaler,
But Ranzo was no sailor,

He could not do his duty,
For neither love nor beauty.

He could not find his sea legs,
Used clumsy, awkward land pegs.

He could not coil a line right,
Did not know end from rope's bight.

Could not splice the main brace, [laughs]
He was a seasick soft case.

He could not box the compass,
The skipper raised a rumpus.

The old man was a bully,
At sea was wild and woolly.

Abused poor Reuben plenty,
He scourged him five and twenty.

He lashed him to the mainmast,
The poor seafaring outcast.

Poor Reuben cried and pleaded,
But he was left unheeded.

Some vessels are hard cases,
Keep sailors in strict places.

Do not show any mercy,
For Reuben, James, nor Percy.

The ocean is exacting,
Is often cruel acting.

A sailor never whimpers,
Though shanghaied by shore crimpers,

"I learned that aboard a sailing ship on a voyage from San Francisco to Falmouth, England."
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
//
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (I )

…The first version, sung by Noble B. Brown, is rather unusual because of the use of "heave away" rather than "to me way hay" in the first chorus line. …

We will haul, we will pull, we will all heave away,
Heave away, away, blow the man down,
We will haul in the night and we'll pull during day,
Oh, give us some time to blow the man down.

We will pull, we will haul, hearty, healthy, and gay,
Like husky strong seamen to earn able to pay,

We will pull, the commands of our skipper obey,
We will haul till we hear the command to belay,

We'll expend all the energy we can afford,
We'll joyfully heave the dead horse overboard.

We will heave with all might, we will heave with all main,
We will heave till the main brace needs splicing again.

We will heave when we're sickened by roughness of sea,
We will heave when recovering from a big spree.

We will heave when the salt horse and hog becomes rank,
We will heave for good treatment -- our officers think.

To heave is what seamen should know how to do,
And sometimes a vessel is forced to heave, too [heave-toJ•

We'll heave heaving lines to a tender ashore,
Leave heaving of cargo to strong stevedore.

We will heave everywhere on the world's surface round,
We will heave the most joyfully when homeward bound.

Blow the man down, bullies, blow the man down,
We'll heave the most joyfully when homeward bound,
//


Capt. Leighton Robinson.
First set at Mill Valley, California, 1951. Recorded by Sam Eskin.

THE SAILOR'S ALPHABET – not a shanty.


[DEAD HORSE]
//
THE DEAD HORSE

"They would get a tar barrel and get 'Chips' to make a horse's head to it, and put a tar brush in the stern of it and for a tail•••and then they would mount it on this thing [a sort of cart], and generally the shantyman would get astride of it and, as I say, it being fine weather, why they'd start and pull this thing along the deck. And then the shanty-man would sing the song, what they called 'Poor Old Man' or 'The Burying of the Dead Horse.' Having worked up thirty days, why, then the next day they were going on pay. They were really earning some money then. 'Course they'd be into the slopchest probably for a few beans, but at the same time they'd feel that they'd begun to earn their money. And this is the way that that went•••

A poor old man came riding along,
And we say so, and we hope so,
A poor old man comes riding along,
Oh, poor old man.

Poor old man, your horse he must die,
Poor old man, your horse he must die,

Thirty days have come and gone.

Now we are on a good month's pay.

I think I hear our old man say.

Give than grog for the thirtieth day.

Up aloft to the main yard arm.

Cut him adrift, and he'll do no harm,

I might explain to you that we hoisted him up to the main yard arm, and then there was a fellow up there•••we generally used the clew garnet, you know, just to hoist him up there, we had to put a strop around the barrel ••and then they would just cut him adrift. And then you'd see this old thing floating astern."
//

[JOHNNY BOWKER] Seems to make an assumption about Robinson's "shore" singing, based on what he'd read.
//
JOHNNY BOKER

…Capt. Robinson, in his shore singing of it, lengthens the do! beyond the normal manner in which it would have been sung at sea. References: Doerflinger, p. 9; Colcord, p. 44.

"…Well, that's a shanty, of course, when you're taking a drag on the main sheet. You get all hands, say, on deck about the time when you're changing the watches•••and you don't want to put a watch tackle on it or take it to a capstan, and it's not blowing too hard, why, you can get a short drag on that and get a little slack in."

Oh, do, my Johnny Boker, come rock and roll me over,
Do, my Johnny Boker, do!

Oh, do, my Johnny Boker, we're bound across to Dover,
Do, my Johnny Boker, do!

//

The following were recorded at Belvedere, California, 1939, by Sidney Robertson Cowell. The younger Robinson does seem a bit more lively – than the other singers, too.

//
RIO GRANDE

Oh, Rio Grande lies far away,
'Way Rio!
Oh, Rio Grande lies far away,
And we're bound for the Rio Grande.

Chorus: And away Rio, it's away Rio!
Singing fare you well, my bonny young girl,
And we're bound for the Rio Grande.

I thought I heard our old man say,
I thought I heard our old man say,

Two dollars a day is a sailor's pay.
So it's pack up your donkey, and get under way.

Oh, I left my old woman a month's half pay.

So heave up our anchor, away we must go,
Oh, heave up our anchor, away we must go,
//

//
WHISKY JOHNNY

Oh, whisky here, and whisky there,
Whisky Johnny,
Oh, whisky here, and whisky there,
Oh, whisky for my Johnny,

Oh, I'll drink whisky when I can,
Oh, I'll drink whisky while I can,

Oh, whisky gave me a broken nose.

And whisky made me pawn my clothes.

Oh, if whisky were a river, and I were a duck.

I'd swim around till I got right drunk.

Oh, whisky landed me in jail.

Oh, whisky in an old tin pail,
//

[ROLL THE COTTON DOWN]
//
ROLL THE COTTON DOWN

Oh, away down South where I was born,
Oh, roll the cotton down,
Away down South where I was born,
Oh, roll the cotton down.

A dollar a day is the white man's pay,
Oh, a dollar a day is the white man's pay,

I thought I heard our old man say.

We're homeward bound to Mobile Bay.

Oh, hoist away that yard and sing.

"That's enough."
//

[ROLLING HOME]
//
ROLLING HOME

Pipe all hands to man the windlass, see our cable run down clear,
As we heave away our anchor, for old England's shores we'll steer.

Chorus: Rolling home, rolling home, rolling home across the sea,
Rolling home to merry England, rolling home, dear land, to thee.

Man your bars, heave with a will, lads, every hand that can clap on,
As we heave away our anchor, we will sing this well known song.

Fare you well Australia's daughters, fare you well sweet foreign shore,
For we're bound across the waters, homeward bound again once more.

Up aloft amongst the rigging, where the stormy winds do blow,
Oh, the waves as they rush past us seem to murmur as they go.

Twice ten thousand miles before us, twice ten thousand miles we've gone. Oh, the girls in dear old England gaily call us way along.

'''Vast heaving!"
//

[GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL]
//
HOMEWARD BOUND

We're homeward bound, I hear them say,
Goodbye, fare you well, goodbye, fare you well,
We're homeward bound, I hear them say,
Hurrah, my boys, we're homeward bound.

We're homeward bound this very day,
We're homeward bound this very day,

We're homeward bound for 'Frisco town.

Oh, heave away, she's up and down.

Our anchor, boys, we soon will see.

We're homeward bound, 'tis a joyous sound.

Oh, I thought I heard our old man say.

Oh, 'Frisco Bay in three months and a day.

Oh, these 'Frisco girls they have got us in tow.

And it's goodbye to Katie and goodnight to Nell.

Oh, it's goodbye again and fare you well.

And now I hear our first mate say.

We've got the fluke at last in sight,
We've got the fluke at last in sight,

" 'Vast heaving!"
//

WHEN JONES'S ALE WAS NEW, forecastle song, sung by John M. (Sailor Dad) Hunt of Marion, Virginia. Recorded at Washington, D.C., 1941, by John A. Lomax.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 04 Aug 11 - 02:13 AM

1951[reissued 2004] Various Artists. _American Sea Songs & Shanties_. Duncan Emrich, ed. The Library of Congress, Archive of Folk Culture. Rounder, CD, 18964-1519-2.

Incidentally, this is one of the recordings I listened to in college that got me interested in singing chanties.

The author of these notes made great use of Doerflinger, Colcord, and Masefield in order to write the intro notes to each song. These notes are not of much use to us; I am focused on the content of the recordings, some of which includes explanations by the singers.

Notes the slow tempo of the singers.
//
To those who may be acquainted with certain of these songs through the radio or from the singing of trained vocalists, one thing is at once apparent --the slow tempo of the singing. This tempo is true to the tradition, and any faster tempo is a falsification of the shanties. The shanties were work songs, and the work was slow and arduous; …
//

Richard Maitland. Rec by Alan Lomax, 1939.

[BOWLINE]
//
HAUL THE BOWLINE

This is the oldest known short-haul shanty, and, according to John Masefield, goes back to the days of Henry VIII. …

"Now this is a short song that's usually used in pulling aft a sheet or hauling down a tack."

Haul the bowline, the long-tailed bowline,
Haul the bowline, the bowline haul. (That's the chorus")

Haul the bowline, Kitty, oh [YOUR], my darling,
Haul the bowline, the bowline haul.

Haul the bowline, we'll haul and haul together,
Haul the bowline, the bowline haul.

Haul the bowline, we'll haul for better weather,
Haul the bowline, the bowline haul.

Haul the bowline, we'll bust, we'll break our banner, [or bend her]
Haul the bowline, the bowline haul.
//

[DRUNKEN SAILOR]
//
THE DRUNKEN SAILOR

"Now this is a song that's usually sang when men are walking away with the slack of a rope, generally when the iron ships are scrubbing their bottom. After an iron ship has been twelve months at sea, there's a quite a lot of barnacles and grass grows onto her bottom. And generally, in the calm latitudes, up in the horse latitudes in the North Atlantic Ocean, usually they rig up a purchase for to scrub the bottom. You can't do it when the ship is going over three mile an hour, but less than that, of course, you can do so. But it all means a considerable walking, not much labor, but all walking. And they have a song called 'The Drunken Sailor' that comes in for that."

Now what shall we do with the drunken sailor,
What shall we do with the drunken sailor,
What shall we do with the drunken sailor
Early in the morning?

Oh, chuck him in the long boat till he gets sober,

Ay hey and up she rises,

Oh, what shall we do with the drunken soldier,

Oh, put him in the guardhouse and make him bail her,
Put him in the guardhouse till he gets sober,
Put him in the guardhouse till he gets sober
Way hey and up she rises,

Oh, here we are nice and sober,

Oh, way hey and up she rises,
//

[A-ROVING]
//
A-ROVING

"Now this is a song that we usually sing on the capstan, heaving the anchor up, before the days of steam come in to help us out•••also to heave the ship in from different parts of the dock to other berths made for her, when she had to shift around."

In Amsterdam there lived a maid,
And she was mistress of her trade,
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid;
For a-roving, a-roving, since roving's been my ruin,
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid.

Her eyes were like twin stars at night,
And her cheeks they rivalled the roses red,

I asked this fair maid where she lived,
She rooms up on Skidansky Dyke.

I took this fair maid for a walk,
For I liked to hear her loving talk.

I placed my hand upon her knee,
Says she, "Young man, you're getting free."

This last six months I've been to sea,
And, boys, this gal looked good to me.

In three weeks time I was badly bent,
And then to sea I sadly went.

On a red hot Yank bound 'round Cape Horn,
My clothes and boots were in the pawn,
//

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES]
//
HEAVE AWAY

One morning as I was a-walking down by the Waterloo Docks,
Heave away, my Johnny, heave away,
I overheard an emigrant conversing with Tapscott,
And away, my jolly boys, we're all bound to go.

"Good morning, Mr. Tapscott, good morning, sir," says she,
"Oh, have you any ship or two that'll carry me over the sea?"

"Oh, yes, my noble young Irish blade, I have a ship or two,"
"One is the Joshua[y] Walker, and the other's the Kangaroo,"

"Now the Joshua[y] Walker on Friday she will make sail,"
"The present day she's taking on board a thousand bags of male,"

Bad luck to the Joshua[y] Walker and the day that she made sail,
For the sailor's got drunk and broke upon the trunk, and stole all me yallow male!
//

//
PADDY DOYLE

"Now this is a song that's just used in the one place•••on the•••when the men are all together on the yards, one of the lower yards. they call it the main or foreyard •••and they're rolling up the sail. They get the sail all ready for the one big bowsing up, and the man in the bunt will sing•••

Way ay ay yah,
We'll all fling dung at the cook!

With that last word, 'cook,' all hands gives a bowse on it, and that hauls the sail up•••but you'll never get it up with one pull, so the man sings out then…

Way ay ay yah,
Who sold poor Paddy Doyle's boots?

And another pull. Well, if it isn't satisfactory, if you want one more •••

Way ay ay yah,
We'll all go down and hang the cook.

Well, if the sail is bowsed up, that's all there is to be said about it•••but there's never any more than about six verses to that same song."
//

[PADDY LAY BACK]
//
PADDY, GET BACK

I was broke and out of a job in the city of London,
I went down the Shadwell docks to get a ship.

Chorus:
Paddy, get back, take in the slack,
Heave away your capstan, heave a pawl, heave a pawl!
'Bout ship and stations there be handy,
Rise, tacks and sheets and mainsail, haul!

("This is a capstan shanty now•••")

There was a Yankee ship a-laying in the basin,
Oh, they told me she was going to New York.

If I ever lay my hands on that shipping master,
Oh, I'll murder him if it's the last thing that I do.

When the pilot left the ship way down the channel,
Oh, the captain told us we were going around Cape Horn.

The mate and second mate belonged to Boston,
And the captain hailed from Bangor down in Maine.

The three of them were rough and tumble fighters,
When not fighting amongst themselves, they turned on us.

Oh, they called us out one night to reef the topsails,
Now with belaying pins a-flying around the deck.

Oh, and we came on deck and went to set the topsails,
Not a man among the bunch could sing a song.

We had tinkers, we had tailors and firemen, also cooks,
And they couldn't sing a shanty unless they had the book.

Oh, wasn't that a bunch of hoodlums
For to take a ship around Cape Horn!

M: "Now this song•••I forgot to explain it in the first place•••it commences•••The solo is sung by the shantyman sitting on the capstan head, where he always does sing•••sit in case of singing shanties. The shantyman sits there and does nothing, while the crew, walking around the capstan, are singing. The chorus begins at:

Paddy, get back, take in the slack,
Heave away the capstan, heave a pawl,
'Bout ship and stations there be handy,
Rise, tacks and sheets and mainsail, haul!

L: "And show us where the pull.••where the••.comes•••"
M: "That's what I'm telling them now. This 'Paddy, get back' is the chorus••• "
L: "And that's where they pull?"
M: "There's no pull in a capstan shanty! They're walking around the capstan with the bars!"
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
//
BLOW THE MAN DOWN (II)

As I was a-walking down Paradise Street,
Way hey, blow the man down,
A dashing young damsel I chanced for to meet,
Give me some time to blow the man down.

I hailed her in English, and hailed her all 'round,
I hauled up alongside, and asked where she was bound,

She'd left the Black Arrow bound for the Shakespeare,
We went in and had two big glasses of beer,
//

[HANDY MY BOYS]
//
SO HANDY, ME BOYS, SO HANDY

Now handy high and handy low,
Handy, me boys, so handy,
Oh, it's handy high and away we'll go,
Handy, me boys, so handy.

Hoist her up from down below,
We'll hoist her up through frost and snow,

We'll hoist her up from down below,
We'll hoist her and show her clew.

One more pull and that will do.
Oh, we'll sing a song that'll make her go.

Now it's growl you may, but go you must,
If you growl too much, your head they'll bust.

Now one more pull and then belay,
And another long pull and we'll call it a day.

Now handy high and handy low,
Oh, one more pull and we'll send her alow.

We'll hoist her up and show her clew,
And we'll make her go through frost and snow,

Lomax: What kind of a shanty is that?
Maitland: Well, that's a pulling shanty. You see where they --"handy, me boys" Is that thing going?
L: Uh-huh.
M: That's a hoisting shanty, it goes -- you can either take a single long pull except when the mate is out of humor, and he sings out to "double up, double up," then you take a pull at "handy, me boys, so handy."
L: Was that a very popular shanty?
M: Yes, sure it's very popular!
//

[LONG TIME AGO]
//
A LONG TIME AGO

Maitiand: Now this is a song that's very popular in the vessels bound across with cotton from Mobile, New Orleans, Savannah, Charleston, any place where they load cotton, and it's usually sang with a gusto when they do sing it.

Way down South where I was born,
Way ay ay yah,
I've picked the cotton and hoed the corn,
Oh a long time ago.

In the good old State of Alabam' ,
So I've packed my bag, and I'm going away,

When I was young and in my prime,
Oh, I served my time in the Black Ball Line.

I'm going away to Mobile Bay,
Where they screw, the cotton by the day.

Five dollars a day's a white man's pay,
And a dollar and a half is a black man's pay.

When the ship is loaded, I'm going to sea,
For a sailor's life is the life for me,
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 03 Aug 11 - 11:50 PM

1851[Oct.]        Melville, Herman. _Moby-Dick_.

The first reference is to a windlass song mentioning girls of Booble Alley. Stuart Frank (1985) drew a connection to "Haul Away Joe," but IMO that part of his article is weak. He seemed to base it on revival versions of the song, which may have been influenced by Sharp's presentation of John Short. So, not to say that "Booble Alley" could not or was not referenced in potentially any chantey (John Short's is proof), but rather that a connection to "Haul Away, Joe" is unlikely. We have seen that Maryat in 1837 also referenced that place, in his description of [SALLY BROWN] at what seems to have been the newly patented brake windlass. [98 in my Signet edition]
//
…the hands at the windlass, who roared forth some sort of a chorus about the girls in Booble Alley, with hearty good will.
//

The next reference tells us that singing happened at the pumps [pg 238]
//
Nor in the solitary and savage seas far from you to the westward, gentlemen, is it altogether unusual for ships to keep clanging at their pump-handles in full chorus even for a voyage of considerable length;
//

Singing is mentioned during the "cutting in" process of a whale. They are heaving at the windlass while singing a "wild chorus" (in order to flense the animal by means of tackle fastened to blubber) [294-296]
//
And now suspended in stages over the side, Starbuck and Stubb, the mates, armed with their long spades, began cutting a hole in the body for the insertion of the hook just above the nearest of the two side-fins. This done, a broad, semicircular line is cut round the hole, the hook is inserted, and the main body of the crew striking up a wild chorus, now commence heaving in one dense crowd at the windlass…

….The heavers forward now resume their song, and while the one tackle is peeling and hoisting a second strip from the whale, the other is slowly slackened away, and down goes the first strip through the main hatchway right beneath, into an unfurnished parlor called the blubber-room. Into this twilight apartment sundry nimble hands keep coiling away the long blanket-piece as if it were a great live mass of plaited serpents. And thus the work proceeds; the two tackles hoisting and lowering simultaneously; both whale and windlass heaving, the heavers singing, the blubber-room gentlemen coiling, the mates scarfing, the ship straining, and all hands swearing occasionally, by way of assuaging the general friction.
//

[CHEERLY] is used at braces. [Pg492]
//
Instantly the yards were squared, to the lively song of "Ho! the fair wind! oh-he-yo, cheerly men!" the crew singing for joy, that so promising an event should so soon have falsified the evil portents preceding it.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 03 Aug 11 - 11:45 PM

1847[March]        Melville, Herman. _Omoo: A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas_. London: John Murray.

Written in 1846. Melville's sea experience was 1841-42, in whaling ship to South Pacific (Marquesas). He'd also seen Liverpool.

The chanteying references are consistent with what we know about chanteying for the time period, i.e. the popularity of "Cheer'ly Man," the vague "singing" of untitled (and perhaps non-distinct) songs, and, indeed, the overall lack of references to familiar chanteys. Melville was such a richly descriptive writer, and it would be surprising if there was lots of notable chanteying going on but he did not make effort to explain it. On the other hand, maybe he just wasn't interested in dotting his prose with verse all the time, unlike lots of other 19th century authors.

First reference is to [CHEERLY] while catting anchor. [151]
//
The decks were all life and commotion; the sailors on the forecastle singing, "Ho, cheerly men!" as they catted the anchor;
//

In the other reference, sailors ashore are "Farming in Polynesia." They decide to try to make the work of clearing land go more smoothly by brining in one of their windlass songs. "Shorty" in the passage is a Cockney character. [206]
//
"Give us a song, Shorty," said the doctor, who was rather sociable, on a short acquaintance. Where the work to be accomplished is any way difficult, this mode of enlivening toil is quite efficacious among sailors. So, willing to make every thing as cheerful as possible, Shorty struck up, "Were you ever in Dumbarton?" a marvellously inspiring, but somewhat indecorous windlass chorus.
//

Stuart Frank notes that Doerflinger collected "Were you ever in Dumbarton?" from a lumberjack. But while the line is reminiscent of "Highland Laddie" and other chanties, they don't resemble each other in other ways that I can see. Rather, Doerflinger notes the similarity between this and the song in 1832's _The Quid_, i.e.

"Oh! if I had her,
Eh then if I had her,
Oh! how I could love her,
Black although she be."

The similarity comes in the chorus of "Dumbarton." I must say that the "Quid" lyrics do scan quite nicely over the version of "Dumbarton" collected by Doerflinger. I'm even more enthusiastic about the similarity than Doerflinger seemed to be. Doerflinger's is in 3/4 meter. Though tempo comes into play as a variable, my guess is that such a song would not have worked well at the brake/pump windlass, but would have been just fine at the spoke windlass. My hunch is that Melville's ship(s) would have still been fitted with the spoke windlass. I've said before the idea that the adoption of the new brake windlass may have been a factor in ushering in the new kind of worksongs. Perhaps, by the same token, the obsolescence of the old windlass contributed to older songs dying out.

Doerflinger called "Dumbarton" a Scottish folk song, which seems reasonable based on its content, however, I'm not finding any info on the song outside of references to Omoo and Doerflinger's book.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 03 Aug 11 - 06:01 PM

Somehow along the way I forget to register the chanteying references in Melville. (Lighter's recent post about use of chanties in a new Moby-Dick film reminded me.) I'm going to dig those up now, with the help of Stuart Frank's essay,

1985        Frank, Stuart M. "Cheer'ly Man": Chanteying in Omoo and Moby-Dick. The New England Quarterly 58(1) (Mar., 1985), pp. 68-82.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 03 Aug 11 - 04:39 AM

1942        Parrish, Lydia. _Slave Songs of the Georgia Sea Islands_. New York: Creative Age Press.

Parrish first heard this music in Feb. 1909 when she took up residence on St. Simon's Island. However, she's not specific about when particular items were heard, and her presentations may be based on several hearings. Some items were recorded in the 1930s.

Music transcribed by Creighton Churchill and Robert MacGimsey.
Chapter 6 on "Work Songs".

She read Colcord and Terry, and Allen's _Slave Songs_. Also Fanny Kemble's _Journal_. Quotes NGJ Ballanta who wrote of the connection between song and work in Africa.

Talks about field-calls, which include a break in the voice. Says that these "old ways" died after 1880s in her neighborhood (Southern New Jersey).

//
In Brunswick, vessels are still loaded to the musical chant of "Sandy Anna"; freight cars at the sugar terminal are shunted for short distances to the rhythm of "Old Tar River," and the cabin in front of my house was moved on rollers from Kelvin Grove to the significant tune of "Pay Me My Money Down!"
//

Joe Armstrong and Henry Merchant of St. Simon's Island were both at one time leaders of stevedore crews. Loaded lumber, stowed cotton.
Floyd White, Henry Merchant, and others gave her shanties. Employed "the old-fashioned falsetto tones"

"Free at Last" used for "blockin' timber."

[BLOW BOYS BLOW] Used to hoist the gaff:

//
What do you think he had for dinner?
Monkey soup an' gray molasses.
Blow, my bully boys, blow!
//

And

[CLEAR THE TRACK]
//
Clear the track an' let the bullgine back.
//

And

//
O bring me a 'gator
O gal when you come off the islan'.
A ring-tail 'ator
O gal when you come off the islan'
A Darien 'gator
O gal when you come off the islan'
//

[HANGING JOHNNY] Used in loading timber on board vessel, 6 men on each side of rope hauled.
//
Call me hangin' Johnny
        O hang boys hang.
You call me hangin' Johnny
        O hang boys hang. [etc]
Yes, I never hang nobody
I never hang nobody
O we'll heave an' haul together
We heave an' haul forever
They hang my ole Grandaddy
They hang him for his money
O they hang him for his money
They hang him for his money
They call me hangin' Johnny
O I never hang nobody
//

[SANTIANA]
//
Sandy Anna

Seaman, what's the madda?
        Hoo-ray 'o-ray
Seaman, what's the madda?
        Hooray, Sandy Anna.

Seaman stole my dolla'
He stole it in Savannah

He spend it in Havana
I caught 'im in his colla'

I shake 'im till he holla'
Seaman stole my dolla'
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
//
KNOCK A MAN DOWN

Whoever heard talk about Little Johnny Brown
        Oh Ho knock a man down
        Knock a man down from London town
        Oh gimme some time to knock a man down.

Knock a man down bullies an' kick him aroun'
        Oh Ho knock a man down
        Knock a man down from London town
        Oh gimme some time to knock a man down.

Y'u ever hear dtalk about Little Johnny Brown
        Oh Ho knock a man down
        Fines' cap'n on Doboy Sound
        Oh gimme some time to knock a man down.
//

[MONEY DOWN]
//
PAY ME MY MONEY DOWN

Pay me, Oh pay me
        Pay me my money down
Pay me or go to jail
        Pay me my money down.
Oh pay me, Oh pay me
        Pay me my money down
Pay me or go to jail
        Pay me my money down.

Think I heard my captain say
T'morrow is my sailin' day

(chorus)

Wish't I was Mr. Coffin's son
Stay in the house an' drink good rum

(chorus)

You owe me, pay me
Pay me or go to jail

(chorus)

Wish't I was Mr. Foster's son
I'd set on the bank an' see the work done
//

//
DEBT I OWE

Debt I owe, Lord, debt I owe
I ain' gonna pay no debt I owe
Debt I owe, Lord, debt I owe
I ain' gonna pay no debt I owe
        Debt I owe in Brunswick sto'e
I ain' gonna pay no debt I owe
O Mister Watchman don't watch me
I ain' gonna pay no debt I owe
Watch that nig'ah right behine that tree
I ain' gonna pay no debt I owe
//

//
RAGGED LEEVY

Ragged Leevy! Oh—Ho!
        Do ragged Leevy
Ragged Leevy! O boy!
You ragged like a jay bird!
Mr. Sipplin! Han-n-nh
Goin' to buil' me a sto'e fence
In the mornin'—Oh—Ho!
Soon in the mornin'.
Hos' an buggy—Oh—Ho!
Hos' an' buggy
Hos' an' buggy—O boy!
Dey's no one to drive 'um.
Mr. Sipplin' Ha-n-nh
In de mornin'
When I rise
I goin' to sit by de fire.
In the mornin'—Oh—Ho!
O soon in the mornin'
In de mornin'
When I rise I goin' to sit by de fire.
Mauma Dinah Oh—Ho!
Do Mauma Dinah
Mauma Dinah
O gal I can't suppo't you.
Mr. Sipplin! Ha-n-nh
Do Mr. Sipplin
Walkin' talkin'!
O buil' me a sto'e fence.
Sweet potato Oh—Ho!
Sweet potato
Sweet potato O boy
There's two in de fire.
Mr. Sipplin! Ha-n-nh
Goin' to buil' me a sto'e fence
In de mornin' Oh—Ho!
When I rise I goin' to sit by de fire.
//

//
OLE TAR RIVER

Chorus: O, On the ole Tar river
        O-e-e-e
O, On the ole Tar river
Lord, Lord, the ole Tar river
Tar river goin' run tomorrow
        O-e-e-e-
Tar river goin' run tomorrow
Lord, Lord, the ole Tar river.

Tar river run black an' dirty
        O-e-e-e
Tar river run black an' dirty
Lord, Lord, the ole Tar river
Tar river goin' to water my horses
        O-e-e-e
Tar river goin' to water my horses
Lord, Lord, the ole Tar river

Ole Tar river is a healin' water
        O-e-e-e
Ole Tar river is a healin' water
Lord, Lord, the ole Tar river
Ole Tar river run free an' easy
        O-e-e-e
Ole Tar river run free an 'easy
Lord, Lord, the ole Tar river

Chorus: Way down, way down in the country
        O-e-e-e
Way down, way down in the country
Lord, Lord, the ole Tar river
//

Bit similar to TOMMY'S GONE.
//
GOOD-BYE MY RILEY O

Riley, Riley where were you?
        O Riley, O man!
Riley gone an' I'm goin' too
        Goodbye my Riley O!

Riley, Riley, where were you?
Riley gone to Liverpool

You Democrat Riley
You Democrat Riley

Riley, Riley, where were you?
When I played that nine spot through
//

[SHALLOW BROWN]
//
SHILO BROWN

Shilo Ah wonduh what's tuh mattuh?
        Shilo, Shilo Brown.
Shilo Ah wonduh what's tuh mattuh?
        O Shilo, Shilo Brown.

Stivedore's in trouble [x2]

Take yo' time an' drive 'um [x2]

Shilo gone to ruin
Shilo gone to ruin I know
//

//
THIS TIME ANOTHER YEAR

This time another year
I may be gone
In some lonesome graveyard
O Lord how long!
My brother broke the ice an' gone
O Lord how long!
My brother broke the ice an' gone
O Lord how long!

Befo' this time another year
I may be gone
In some lonesome graveyard
O Lord how long!
Mind my sister how you walk on the cross
O Lord how long!
Your right foot slip an' y'ur soul get los'
O Lord how long!
//

[SOUTH AUSTRALIA]
//
HAUL AWAY, I'M A ROLLIN' KING

Haul away, I'm a rollin' king
        Haul away, haul away
I'm boun' for South Australia.
Yonder come a flounder flat on the groun'
Haul away, haul away
I'm boun' for South Australia.
Belly to the groun' an' back to the sun
Haul away, haul away
I'm boun' for South Australia.
Ain' but one thing worry me
Haul away, haul away
I'm boun' for South Australia.
I leave my wife in Tennessee
Haul away, haul away
I'm boun' for South Australia.
Haul away, I'm a rollin' king
Haul away, haul away
I'm boun' for South Australia.
//

//
SUNDOWN BELOW

This tune was sung at the end of the day as a hint to the captain, when the hold was too dark for the stevedores to see what they were doing.

Sun is down an' I must go
Sundown
Sundown below
Sun is down in the hole below
Sundown
Sundown below
I hear my captain say
Sundown
Sundown below
Sun is down an' I mus' go
Sundown
Sundown below
//

//
MY SOUL BE AT RES'

One a dese mornin's—it won't be long
        My soul be at res'.
One a dese mornin's—it won't be long
        My soul be at res'.
Be at res'—goin' be at res'
        My soul be at res'.
Be at res' till Judgement Day
        My soul be at res'.
It won't be long—it won't be long
        My soul be at res'.
Be at res' till Judgement Day
        My soul be at res'.
One a dese mornin's—it won't be long
        My soul be at res'.
Goin' t'hitch on my wings an' try the air
        My soul be at res'.
One a dese mornin's—it won't be long
        My soul be at res'.
You a'ks fo' me an' I'll be gone
        My soul be at res'.
//

//
ANNIBELLE

Of all the shanties, this concerning Anniebelle appears to be adaptable to the most varied uses, and to be the most widely distributed. Joe tells me he learned it over forty years ago from the stevedores who loaded lumber on the vessels at the Hilton-Dodge mills, but its main use was for "spikin' steel" on the railroads. I notice, however, that he puts the song to equally good use in chopping wood or swinging the weed cutter. In the mines it is called a "hammerin'" song."

Anniebelle
        Hunh!
Don't weep
        Hunh!
Anniebelle
        Hunh!
Don't moan
        Hunh!
[etc]
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jul 11 - 01:50 AM

Captain Barker gave the sing-out:

//
Hellie hellie shumra, shumra, shumra,…[etc]
//

Hugill reproduced it. It goes something like this:
Hellie hellie shumra


And that's it for my notes on Doerflinger.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jul 11 - 01:43 AM

Eliezer Zinck, Nova Scotia

[SUSIANA]
//
Susiana

We'll heave him up from down below
[Hooray, oh, Susiana!]
We'll heave him up and away we'll go,
[Away right over the mountain!]
//

**********

Jones O. Morehouse, Sandy Cove, Digby Neck, Nova Scotia.

[GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL]
//
Homeward Bound (III)

"We're homeward bound," I hear our captain say:
Good-bye, fare ye well, good-bye, fare ye well!
"We're homeward bound for Liverpool town,
Hurrah, my boys, we're homeward bound!"

When I get home I will tell my mama
That the girls in Liverpool won't let me alone!

As I walked down Ratcliffe Highway
A pretty maid I chanced for to meet.

[etc, milkmaid lyrics]
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jul 11 - 01:40 AM

Captain James P. Barker (ca.1875, Cheshire, England-1949), master of America's last commercial ship TUSITALA of NY. Went to sea 1889. Commanded British ships in Cape Horn trade, later became American citizen. Rounded Cape Horn 41 times.

[LONG TIME AGO] There is a tune variant here – I've used the TUNE in this recording:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q25dLNyaBK4
//
A Long Time Ago (VI)

Then up aloft this yard must go,
[To me, way, ay, ay, yah,]
Then up a-loft this yard must go,
[For it's a long time a-go.]

I placed my hand upon her knee

"I think, young man, you're rather free!"

Then one more pull and that will do.

Oh, one more pull and then it's belay!
//

[HELLO SOMEBODY] One of the best shantymen he'd known was American Negro, "Lemon" Curtis, crew of ship DOVENBY HALL of Liverpool in the 1890s. Barker heard him, and no others, sing this one.
//
Hello, Somebody

[intro] [Hello, Somebody, hello!]
There's Some-bod-y knock-ing at the garden gate;
[Hello Somebody, hello!]
There's Somebody knocking at the garden gate;
[Hello Somebody, hello!]

Somebody wants to know mah name

It's Nigger Dick from New Brunswick
//

[RISE HER UP] Pulling and Walkaway Shanty. Sung by Barker in the style of Curtis
//
Rise Me Up From Down Below

Oh, I come from the world below.
That is where the cocks do crow.
[Whis-key oh, John-ny oh!
Oh, rise me up from down below,
Down below, oh, oh, oh, oh
Up aloft this yard must go, John!
Rise me up from down below!]

I come from the world below!
That is where the fires do roar.
//

[HIGHLAND] The men sang it in chorus throughout.
//
Highland Laddie

Ay, Ay, and away she goes,
Bonnie laddie, Hieland laddie,
Ay, ay, and away she goes,
Bonnie Hieland laddie!

'Way she goes, heels and toes,

This is the day we sail this way,
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jul 11 - 01:32 AM

From Adolph Colstad of Sailors' Snug Harbor.

[BLOW BOYS BLOW]
//
Blow, Boys, Blow (IV)

I served my time in the Black Ball Line

A Yankee ship comes down the river

[Etc. dinner, then Sailor's Grace lines]
//

**************

William Laurie, born 1862 in Greenock, Scotland. Went to sea circa 1876.

Doerflinger recorded him in 1940 at Sailors' Snug Harbor.

[LONG TIME AGO]
//
A Long Time Ago (I)

Away down South in Old Tennessee,
[Way, hay, hay, yah,]
Away down South in old Tennessee,
[Oh, a long time a-go]

It is a long time, a very long time
A long time, a very long time

Since my young lady has written to me, (twice)

Saying, "Willie dear, come home from sea." (twice)

It is a long time, a very long time,
Oh, a long time, a very long time

If ever I get my foot on the shore (twice)

Oh I will go to sea no more!
Oh I will go to the sea no more!

If ever I get my foot on the land, (twice)

I will be some lady's fancy man!
Oh, I will be some lady's fancy man!

It is a long time, a very long time
It's a long time, a very long time, etc.
//

[GIMME DE BANJO] Laurie first heard it around age 15 in 1877 on American ship _Kit Carson_. Checkerboard watch.
//
Gimme de Banjo

Oh, dis is de day we pick on de banjo
[Dance, gal, gimme de banjo!]

Oh, dat banjo, dat tal-la-tal-la-wan-go

Oh, dat ban-jo, dat seben-string ban-jo

I was only one an' twenty

Ah was sent to school fer to be a scholar!

Mah collar was stiff, an Ah could not swaller.

Oh, dere's mah book, down on de table

An' you kin read it if you're able!
//

[SOUTH AUSTRALIA]
//
South Australia

Oh, in South Australia where I was born,
Heave away, haul away!
In South Australia 'round Cape Horn,
I'm bound for South Australia!
Heave away, you ruler king,
Heave away, haul away!
Heave a way, don't you hear me sing?
We're bound for South Australia!
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jul 11 - 01:26 AM

Leslie Nickerson of Freeport, Nova Scotia. Followed the sea "for some years." No dates given. Doerflinger met him in 1930. 2 chanties.

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
//
Blow the Man Down (IV)

Verses from the ballad "The Twa Corbies".

There was three crows sat on a tree,
Way, hay, blow the man down,
And they was black as black could be.
Gimme some time to blow the man down!

[etc]
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN] w/ Captain Weber.
//
Blow the Man Down (V)

Old Horse, Old horse, what brought you here,
[Way, hay, blow the man down,]
After ploughing the turf for many a year;
[Gimme some time to blow the man down!]

With kicks and cuffs and sad abuse,
We're salted down for sailor's use.

Between the mainmast and the pump,
We're salted down in great big hunks.

And when the mate comes from the rudder
He takes a piece of this old blubber.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jul 11 - 01:22 AM

Captain Patrick Tayluer. Born in Eastport, Maine, but spent a good deal of life in parts of British Empire. Frist went to sea circa 1885. American and British vessels. His recordings are in the Archive of American Folk-Song, Library of Congress.

Seemed to have been a great improviser, and some of his chanties are quite extensive in their verses.

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
//
Blow the Man Down (I)

Now, come all you young sailors and listen to me,
With your way, hay-y, blow the man down,
Ah, come all you young sailors and listen to me,
And we'll give 'em some time for to blow the man down!

[etc, boot him around, home from Hong Kong, Ratcliffe Highway, both bound to hell]
//

[REUBEN RANZO]
//
Reuben Ranzo (II)

Oh, pore old Roving Ranzo,
[Ranzo, boys, a-Ranzo]
Oh, pore old Roving Ranzo
[Ranzo boys, a-Ranzo!]

Now, Ranzo he was (Aw, Ranzo was) no sailor.

So pore old Roving Ranzo,

Now (So) they shipped him on board of a whaler!

Now the captain he liked Ranzo.

So the captain he taught him how to read and write.

He taught him navigation.

when he got his first mate's papers,

He became a terror to whalers!

He was known all over the world as

As the worst old bastard on the seas!

He would take his ship to Georgiay.

And there he'd (he would) drag for sperm whale.

He lost the only ship he had
His first and last and only ship

Was the Morgan, and she's known everywhere.

Now (oh), he's gone to hell and we're all glad!

Now, I've told you he was no sailor.

He was a New York tailor.

Whether (oh, whether) a tailor or a sailor

He sure became a Ranzo!
//

[BLOW BOYS BLOW]
//
Blow, Boys, Blow (III)

Now, it's blow, you winds, 'Ow I long to hear you;
Blow, boys, blow!
Oh, blow, you winds, 'Ow I long to hear you;
Blow, my bully boys, blow!

[etc yonder in the river, bronco mate, Massandatter, Boston slugger, donkey's liver, dirty big brother]
//

[LONG TIME AGO]
//
A Long Time Ago (IV)

Oh, a long, long time and a very long time,
[To me way, ha-ay, hay yah!]
Oh, a long, long time, and a very long time
[Oh, a long time ago]

Old Noah, he built a Hark for to sail (to go)

Around (Oh, around) the world and home again

Now I wend down to the docks one morn for a ship

There was an old wooden packet a-lyin' there,

So I wnet on board and sked for a job.

Oh, it (she) must have been the old Ark that Noah built.

Her hatch you had never saw nothing before!

About thirty-six feet long and nowhere insured.

Oh, her knees were so thick that you could not discern.

It's a long, long time and a very long time

Now this is the hatch (where) the animals must have gone down.(went down)

The gangway it was built of timber six foot high

I thought that I had struck an 'ome at last,

Where I could make a pay-day and go

Out to the western shores and away

But I had (I had) made a mistake when I judged her that way,

For at last, when we got out and to sea

Her bow it was bluff and her counter was round

Her fores'l would come to within about six points,

Her fo'c'sle was low and her poop was so high

That she looked just like a Dutch galley-old-yacht [galleotte]

So it's a long, long time and a very long time
Oh it's a long long time and a very long time, etc.
//

[LONG TIME AGO]
//
A Long Time Ago (V)

[One strung-out verses, the repeat often began with "Oh"]

There was an old lady who lived in Dundee,
[To me way, hay, hay, yah]
There was an old lady who lived in Dundee,
[Oh, a long time ago]

Now her sons (they) grew up and they all went to sea

One became mate and the other a sailor

But the one that I'm going to tell you of, the story is:

He joined a Hark bound out for the East

And not as a sailor nor yet as a mate

He joined as the master of that fine clipper ship

Now, you all remember the ship that I mentioned.

'Twas the Catty Sark, (and) her name was so high

Now (Oh) he took her out East and he lost his old ship (his whole trip)

He took her out East as these words I have told you

Out to Foochow and then home again

Now, un'appily for him, he married out there

A nice little girl with a long pigtail!

Oh, she wore the trousers and he wore the shirt

But when I can tell you the voyage 'e made 'ome.

Now it's a long, long time and a very long time
Oh a long, long time and a very long time

One hundred and eight days, (oh)he did sail.

And 'e used to look at 'is Chinese wife and say,

If it 'adn't a been for your unluck on board!

Now, a long, long time and a very long time.

Now, I told you he was always a-growlin' at 'is wife,

But when in London he did arrive,

The owners they told him he had made a record voyage!

So what did he do but he's blessed his young wife

And instead of callin' her Mong Sallee

He called her the sweet name of Mong Cutty Sark
//

[A-ROVING]
//
A-Roving (II)

[intro] Now, a-roving, a-roving, Since roving has been my downfall,
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid!
Mark well what I do say!
[cho.] Oh, a-roving, a-roving
Since roving has been my downfall,
I'll go no more a roving with you, fair maid!

1. When I laid my hand upon her knee,
She said, "Young man, you're being rather free!
Won't you please go 'way and leave me, your fair young maid?"

2. Now, when I laid my hand upon her old bustle,
She said, "Young man, you're a-goin' to have a tussle!"
So we'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid!

3. So at last we chatted and chaffed away;
She said, "Young man, you're a-goin' today!"
When all I want to leave is for me, fair maid.

4. When I laid my hand on her shoulders then,
She looked at me and gently cried,
"You're going away today, you are, so farewell now!"
//

[RIO GRANDE]
//
Rio Grande (I)

Heave away, Rio! Heave away, Rio! 

Singin' fare you well, my bonnie young gal,

And we're bound to Rio Grande! 



"May I come with you, my pretty maid?" 

Heave away, Rio! 

"Oh, may I come with you, oh, my pretty maid?" 

When you're bound to Rio Grande! 



"You can please yourself, young man," she did say, 


Now, when I can come to you with open arms, 
 


God bless you, may I only hope for your hand, 



Now, there is one thing that I would like to say, 
 


I pray you tell, oh, may I have your hand? 
 



Now, if you'll come back, as you went away-- 


I'll marry you when I come back and we'll say, 
 

//

[SACRAMENTO]
//
Sacramento (I)

It was in the year eighteen hundred and forty-nine,
With me hoodah, and me hoodah,
It was in the year eighteen hundred and forty-nine,
A-with me hoodah, hoodah-ay!
Blow, boys, blow, for Californiay!
Ah, there is lots of gold, oh, so I've been told,
Upon the banks of the Sacari-mento!

[Etc, Horn and home again, one day in May, there did sail, a quartering waind, dipped her nose, we took them in, climbed for a week]
//

[SALLY BROWN]
//
Sally Brown (II)

Aw, Sally Brown, well I loves your daughter,
[next line was "too forthright to print"]

Aw, Sally Brown, I been a long while a-courtin' ya,

Aw, Sally Brown, you know you didn't ought to do,

Etc, court of the sailormen, for fourteen years have I been courtin' ya, buyin' joolery, ]
//

[SANTIANA]
//
Santy Anna (II)

[Solos begin with "Oh" when repeated]

Oh, Mexico, my Mexico,
Heave away, Santy Anno!
Oh, Mexico, my Mexico,
All along the plains of Mexico.

The ladies there, oh, I do adore,

Where I began my lifelong store.

Now, the girls are pretty with their long black hair.

[etc, I do belong, senora right there, you know what you are, you've taught me well, Sannajooves tonight, tight-waisted girl]
//

[CAMPANERO]
//
The Campañero

Intro:

Oh, whenever I went away, The story I'd like to tell,
About an 'andy little bark, the Campanero.

Chorus:
Oh, it's between the cook and the pump,
Well they drive me off me chump
On the 'andy little bark, the Campanero!
If I ever go to sea,Well, it won't be up to me
To go in that handy little bark, the Campanero!

Oh, the skip-per he is a bulldozer, And you never did hear
The words that come from a man's mouth so often
The mate he wants to fight, and then durin' every night,
the boys around the hatch they all surround him.

Well, I'd have you all to know that wherever you do go,
If you see the name a-running fore-and-aft her,
Don't jine her anywhere, or you'll never forget the day
That you jined that 'andy little bark, the Campenaro!

You may ring around the world, and go just where you please,
She's a livin' at a single time for days and months.
But if you';; take a sailor's advice, you'll get married once or twice
Before you jine that 'andy little bark, the Campanero!
//

[JA JA JA] Pump shanty.
//
Ja, Ja, Ja!

O mitsch mein inkum stinkum buckerroom and mein ja, ja, ja,
Mitsch mein inkum stinkum buckerroom and mein ja, ja, ja,
Vell, ve'll git up on der shteeples and ve'll spit down on der peoples,
Mitsch mein ja, ja, ja!
//

[LEAVE HER JOHNNY]
//
Time For Us to Leave Her (Leave Her, Johnny)

Now, the time are hard and the wages low,
Leave her, Johnny, leave her!
Ah, the times are hard and the wages low,
It is time for us to leave her!

Oh, we'll leave her now and we'll leave her very soon.

Oh, no more cracker-hash and dandyfunk!

[etc. give us our pay, leave her very soon, it's this old way, along to the Horn, left her for good]
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jul 11 - 01:12 AM

Harry Steele (b.1869), Sailors' Snug Harbor. Was a deep-water sailor 1886-1910. Born in erstwhile Prussia, came to America in 1886 and sailed in American, British, Canadian, German vessels.

He led this one chanty.

[WHISKEY JOHNNY]
//
Whiskey, Johnny (III)

Whiskey is the life of man,
Whiskey, Johnny
Oh, whiskey is the life of man,
Oh, whiskey for my Johnny!

I'll drink whiseky when I can,
I'll drink whiskey out of a big tin can,

Whiskey killed my poor old dad,
Whiskey drove my old girl mad.

[Etc., brother Ben, whiskey mill, tell me true]
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jul 11 - 01:05 AM

John O'Brien, Sailors' Snug Harbor, contributed the solo on 3 chanties for Doerflinger. They are all rather short.

[WHISKEY JOHNNY]
//
Whiskey, Johnny (I)

Whiskey here and whiskey there,
Whiskey, Johnny!
Oh, whiskey her and whiskey there,
Whiskey for me Johnny!

'Twas whiskey made me wear old clothes.
//

[ROLL THE COTTON DOWN]
//
Roll the Cotton Down (I)

Oh, roll the cotton, roll me, boys,
[Roll the cotton down;]
Oh, roll the cotton, roll me, boys,
[Oh, roll the cotton down.]

2.When I was young and in my prime,

3. I thought I'd jine the Black Ball Line.
//

[GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL]
//
Homeward Bound (II)

"We're homeward bound," I hear them say:
Good-bye, fare you well, good-bye, fare you well!
"We're homeward bound," I hear them say:
Hurrah, my boys, we're homeward bound!

[etc., nine months' pay, New York town, near broke my heart]
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jul 11 - 01:02 AM

Richard Maitland (1857, NY-1942). Went to sea at 12 (circa 1869/70) as a trainee in NY schoolship MERCURY for 2 years, at which time interest in shanties began. Art of shantying was at its peak then, and older sailors took pains to teach the boys. Frisco, Liverpool, Hong Kong voyages, in American and Bluenose ships.

Doerflinger recorded him at Sailors' Snug Harbor, Staten Island. If I counted correctly, this represents a repertoire of 32 chanties.

[HAUL AWAY JOE] Hauling aft the foresheet. Dorian mode.
//
Haul Away, Joe (I)

Away, haul away, rock and roll me over,
Away, haul away, haul away Joe! (or pull!)

Away, haul away, roll me in the clover,
Away, haul away, haul away Joe! (or pull!)

[Etc, around the corner Sally, Saccarappa sailors, turf and praties, Irish gal, German girl, Yankee gal/ break or bend, haul away for roses, haul together, better weather]
//

[BONEY]
//
Boney (I) (Jean François)

Boney was a warrior
Way-ay-yah,
A reg'lar bull and tarrier,
John François!

He beat the Austrians and Rooshians,
The Portugees and Prooshians.

Boney went to school in France,
He learned to make the Prooshians dance.

[etc]
//

[JOHNNY BOWKER]
//
Johnny Boker

Do, my Johnny Boker, we'll bust or break or bend her;
Do, my Johnny Boker, do!

Oh, do, my Johnny Boker; get around the corner Sally!
//

[BOWLINE]
//
Haul on the Bowline

Haul on the bowline, the long-tailed bowline,
Haul the bowline, the bowline haul!

[Etc. bully ship's a-rollin', kitty me darlin', old man growlin']
//

[PADDY DOYLE]
//
Paddy Doyle

Way ah, we'll pay Paddy Doyle for his boots!

Who stole poor Paddy Doyl's boots?

We'll bowse her up and be done!
//

[HANDY MY BOYS]
//
So Handy

Handy high and handy low,
[Handy me boys, so handy]
Oh, it's handy haigh and away we'll go,
[Handy, me boys, so handy!]

You've got your advance and to sea you must go
A-round Cape Horn through frost and snow

Growl you may, but go you must.
Just growl too much and your head they'll bust

Now, up aloft from down below,
Up aloft that yard must go.

Now, one more pull and we'll show her clew!
Oh, we're the boys that'll put her thourgh,

With a bully ship and a bully crew,
And a bully Old Man to drive her through!

We're bound away around Cape Horn,
And we'll get there as sure as you're born!

Now one more pull and that will do!
Oh, We're the gang that'll shove her through.

Now, here we are at sea again;
Two months' advance we're up against.

We're the gang that can do it again!
Oh, we're the boys that'll do it once more.
//

[DEAD HORSE]
//
Poor Old Man

As I walked out up-on the road one day,
[For they say so, and they know so,]
I saw 'n old man with a load of hay,
[Oh, poor old man!]

Says I, old man, your horse is lame,
Says I, Old man that horse will die

Now if he dies he'll be my loss
And if he lives he'll be my horse.

And if he dies I'll tan his skin
If he live I'll ride him again

Round Cape Horn through frost and snow,
Round Cape Horn I had to go.

Growl you may, but go you must
If you growl too loud your head they'll bust.
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
//
Blow the Man Down (III)

Oh, blow the man down, Johnny, Blow him right down, 

To me way - ay, blow the man down, 

Aw, blow the man down for a half a crown, 

Gimme some time to blow the man down! 



As I was a-walking on Paradise Street, 


A sassy policeman I chanced for to meet,



Says he, "You're a Yank by the cut of your hair, 

And you've robbed some poor Dutchman of the clothes that you wear." 



"Oh no, Mister Policeman, I know you are wrong! 

I'm a deep-water sailor just home from Hong Kong."
//

[REUBEN RANZO]
//
Reuben Ranzo (I)

Oh, poor old Reuben Ranzo,
[Ranzo boys, Ranzo!]
Oh Ranzo was no sailor
[Ranzo, boys, Ranzo!]

But he was a Boston tailor,
He went on a visit to New Bedford.

He was shanghaied on a whaler
He could not do his duty.

So they put him to holystoning,
They took him to the gangway,

They tied him on the grating,
And they gave him five and forty.

The captain's youngest daughter
Begged her father for mercy.

The captain loved his daughter,
And he heeded her cries for mercy.

He put Ranzo in the cabin,
And taught him navigation.

Ranzo married his daughter,
And now he's skipper of a whaler,

And he's got a little Ranzo!
And he's got a little Ranzo!
//

[TOMMY'S GONE]
//
Tommy's Gone To Hilo

From the nitrate trade around Cape Horn to the West Coast of South America came "Tommy's Gone to Hilo" (pronounced "high-lo"). Ilo, as the inhabitants call it, is the port in southern Peru. The name of any port could be worked into Tommy's travels by a resourceful shantyman.

1. My Tommy's gone, what shall I do?
Away, Hilo!
My Tommy's gone, what shall I do?
Tommy's gone to Hilo!

2. My Tommy's gone to Liverpool,
My Tommy's gone to Liverpool,

3. Now, Tommy's gone and I'll go too,
My Tommy's gone and I'll go too.

4. Now, pull away and show her clew.
We'll h'ist her up and show her clew.

5. One more pull and that will do.

6. Tommy's gone to Baltimore
And where they carry the cotton shore.

7. Now, pull away, my bully boys,
Oh, pull away and make some noise.

8. Now, Tommy's gone to Mobile Bay.
Tommy's gone to Mobile Bay.

9. A-screwing cotton by the day.

10. My Tommy's gone, they sat to Bombay.
Tommy's gone, they say to Bombay.
//

[HANGING JOHNNY]
//
Hanging Johnny

Now they call me Hanging Johnny
[Away, ay-ay,]
Oh, they say I hang for money,
[Hang, boys, hang!]

They say I hung my daddy
[Hooway-ay hay hay!]
Oh they say I've hung my mam-my,
[Hang, boys, hang!]

I hung my sister Sally,
Now they say I 've hung the fam'ly

Oh, we'll hand , and hang together,
And we'll hang for better weather.

Now, get around the corner Sally
Oh, we'll make you, Saccarappa!
//

[HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING]
//
Huckleberry Hunting

Now, the boys and the girls went out huckleberry hunting,
To me Hilo, me Ranzo boy!
Oh, the girls, they fell down down and the boys they ran after them,
To me Hilo, me Ranzo boy!

One little boy he says to his beau, "I saw your little garter,"
To me Hilo, me Ranzo boy!
"If you'll take me for your beau, I'll be with you ever after,"
To me Hilo, me Ranzo boy!
//

[ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] Supposedly to the tune of 'A Long time Ago'
//
Roll the Cotton Down (II)

Down in Alabama I was born,
[Roll the cotton down;]
Way down in Alabama I was born,
[And I rolled the cotton down.]

When I was young and in my prime;
[Oh, roll the cotton down;]
I thought I'd go and join the Line
[And roll the cotton down]

And as a sailor caught a shine;
[roll the cotton down]
I shipped on board of the Black Ball Line;
[and roll the cotton down]

Now the Black Ball Line is the line for me;
[roll the cotton down]
That's when you want to go on a spree
[And roll the cotton down]

In the Black Ball Line you can cut a big shine;
[oh, roll the cotton down:]
For there you'll wake at any old time,
[And roll the cotton down]

Now see the Black baller prepareing for sea;
[then roll the cotton down]
You'll split your side luaghing, the sights to see,
[and roll the cotton down]

There's tinkers and tailors, shoemakers and all,
[Roll the cotton down]
They're all shanghaied on board the Black Ball
[And roll the cotton down]

[ROLL THE COTTON DOWN]
//
Roll the Cotton Down (III)

Way down South where I was born
[Roll the cotton down:]
I worked in the cotton and the corn,
[Oh, roll the cotton down.]

When I was young and in my prime,
I thought I'd go and join the Line,

And for a sailor caught a shine,
I joined on a ship of the Swallowtail Line.
//

[ROLL ALABAMA]
//
The Alabama (I)

When the Alabama's keel was laid
[Roll, Alabama, Roll!]
They laid her keel in Birkenhead,
[Oh, Roll, Alabama, Roll!]

Oh, she was built at Birkenhead,
she was built in the yard of Jonathan Laird.

And down the Mersey she rolled away,
And Britain supplied her with men and guns

And she sailed away in search of a prize,
And when she came to the port of Cherbourg,

It was there she met with the little Kearsarge.
It was there she met the Kearsarge.

It was off Cherbourg harbor in April, '65,
That the Alabama went to a timely grave.
//

[ROLL ALABAMA] Maitland learned it on the schoolship MERCURY in 1870 or 71. Sung at pumps AND halyards.
//
The Alabama (II)

In eighteen hundred and sixty-one,
[Roll Alabama, roll!]
The Alabama's keel was laid,
[And roll, Alabama, roll!]

Twas laid in the yard of Jonathan Laird
At the town of Birkenhead

At first she was called the 'Two Ninety two'
For the merchants of the city of Liverpool

Put up the money to build the ship,
In the hopes of driving the commerce from the sea.

Down the Mersey she sailed one day
To the port of Fayal in the Western Isles.

There she refitted with men and guns,
and sailed across the Western Sea,

With orders to sink, burn and destroy
all ships belonging to the North.

Till one day in the harbor of Cherbourg she laid,
And the little Kearsarge was waiting there.

And the Kearsarge with Winslow was waiting there,
And Winslow challenged them to fight at sea.

Outside the three mile limit they fought (repeat)

Till a shot from the forward pivot that day
Took the Alabama's steering gear away

And at the Kearsarge's mercy she lay
And Semmes escaped on a British yacht.
//

[LONG TIME AGO]
//
A Long Time Ago (III)

When I was young and in my prime,
[To me way-ay-ay yah,]
I thought I'd go and join the line,
[Oh, a long time ago.]

And as a sailor caught a shine
In a lot they called the Black Ball Line

Now come all you young fellers that's going to sea,
And just listen a while unto me.

I'll sing you a song and I won't keep you long.
It's all about the Black Ball Line

Just see the Black Ballers preparing for sea
You'd split your sides laughing the sights you would see

there's tinkers 'n' tailors, shoemakers 'n' all,
For they're all shipped as sailors on board a Black Ball.

Now, one more pull and we'll let her go
We'll h'ist her up through frost and snow

Just one more pull and we'll show her clew,
And another long pull and that will do.

additional verses:

Around Cape Horn you've got to go;
That's the way to Callao.

In the Black Ball Line I served my time
I sailed in the Webb of the Black Ball Line.
//

[SHALLOW BROWN] Maitland said it was "mainly a Negro shanty." Useful when there's only half dozen pulls. Generally used, "for bowsing down tacks and hauling aft sheets."
//
Shallo Brown

Shallo Brown, now what's the matter?
[Shallo, Shallo Brown!]
Oh, Shallo Brown, what's the matter?
[Shallo, Shallo Brown!]

I'm going to leave you
[Shallo Brown]
Oh, I have left the wife and baby
[Shallo, Shallo Brown!]

The baby's in the cradle,
[Shallo, Shallo Brown.]
(Lines missing)

additonal verses

The packet sails tomorrow,
I'm leaving you in sorrow

And the baby in the cradle.
My love I won't decieve you!
//

[DRUNKEN SAILOR]
//
The Drunken Sailot, or, Early in the Morning

Oh, what shall we do with a drunken sailor…
Early in the morning?

Put him in the longboat till he gets sober,…

Way, hay, and up she rises,
//

[ROLL THE OLD CHARIOT ALONG]
//
We'll Roll the Golden Chariot Along

We'll roll the golden chariot along X3
[cho.] And we'll all hang on behind!

If the devil's in the road we'll roll it over him,

As given by 1927 Wood, Thomas. The Oxford Song Book, II. Oxford University Press.:

[cho.] Roll the old chariot along x3
And we'll all hang on behind

A plate of hot scouse wouldn't do us any harm x2
It would roll, roll, roll the old chariot along

A new plum duff wouldn't do us any harm,

A glass of whiskey hot wouldn't do us any harm, etc.
//

[PADDY LAY BACK]
//
Paddy, Get Back

I was broke and out of a job in the city of London.

I went down the Shadwell Docks to get a ship.
Paddy get back. Take in the slack!

Heave away your capstan, heave a pawl, heave a pawl!

'Bout ship and stations, there, be handy,

Rise tacks 'n' sheets, 'n' mains'l haul!
There was a Yankee ship a-laying in the basin.

Shipping master told me she was going to New York.
If I ever get my hands on that shipping master,

I will murder him if it's the last thing that I do!
When the pilot left the ship, the captain told us

We were bound around Cape Horn to Callao!
And he said that she was hot and still a-heating,

And the best thing we could do was watch our step.
Now the mate and second mate belonged to Boston,

And the captain b'longed in Bangor down in Maine.
The three of them were rough-'n'-tumble fighters.

When not fighting amongst themselves, they fought with us.
Oh, they called us out one night to reef the tops'ls.

There was belayin' pins a-flyin' around the deck.
We came on deck and went to set the tops'ls.

Not a man among the bunch could sing a song.
Oh, the mate he grabbed ahold of me by the collar.

"If you don't sing a song, I'll break your blasted neck!"
I got up and gave them a verse of "Reuben Ranzo."

Oh, the answer that I got would make you sick!
It was three long months before we got to Callao,

And the ship she was called a floating hell.
We filled up there at Callao with saltpetre,

And then back again around Cape Horn!
(Alternate last verse)


We filled up with saltpetre to the hatches

And then bound around Cape Horn to Liverpool.
//

[A-ROVING]
//
A-Roving (I)

In Amsterdam there lived a maid, And she was mistress of her trade,
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid!
A-roving, a-roving, Since roving's been my ruin,
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid!

This last six months I've been to sea,
And boys this maid looked good to me.

[etc, both cheeks, badly bent, red-hot Yank, up to Callao]
//

[NEW YORK GIRLS]
//
Can't They Dance The Polka!

Shipmates, if you'll listen to me, I'll tell you in my song
Of things that happened to me When I came home from Hong Kong.
To me way, you Santy, my dear honey!
Oh, you New York gals, can't they dance the polka!

As I waked down through Chatham Street, etc…

[etc, for Boston I am bound, something nice to eat, hailed a passing car, Bleeker Street, head went round and round, ship was at Shanghee, stark naked in the bed]

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES]
//
Heave Away (II)

Sometimes we're bound to New York town (New Orleans, etc.), and others we're bound to France,
Heave away, my jollies, heave away, ay!
But now we're bound to Liverpool to see the English girls dance
And away, my jolly boys, we're all bound to go!

The pilot he is waiting for the turning of the tide,
And then we are off with a good westerly wind.

[etc, the American Bar, look for a ship once more, John DaCosta's]
//

[RIO GRANDE]
//
Rio Grande (II)

Now I was born on the Rio Grande
Way, Rio!
I was born down on the Rio Grande,
And I'm bound for Rio Grande!
And away, Rio, Away, Rio
So fare you well, my bonny young gal,
We're bound for Rio Grande!

Rio Grande [New York town, Boston town, etc.] is no place for me;
I'll pack my bag and I'll go to sea.

The anchor is weighed and the sails they are set,
The girls we are leaving we'll never forget.

I'll ship down at New Orleans,
She's loaded with cotton and bound to Liverpool.
//

[SACRAMENTO]
//
Sacramento (II)

As I was out upon the road one day,
With me hoodah, and a hoodah,
As I was out upon the road one day,
And it's hoodah, doodah, day!
Blow, boys, blow, for Californyo.
There is plenty of gold, so I've been told,
On the banks of Sacramento!

Says I, "Old man, your horse is lame,"

[etc, More verses from Poor Old Man minstrel song]
//

[SACRAMENTO]
//
Sacramento (III)

As I was walking out upon the road one day,
I met a fair maid, on her arm a milk pail,

[etc, milkmaid verses]
//

[JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO]
//
Johnny Walk Along to Hilo

Oh, wake her, oh, shake her,
Oh, wake that gal with the blue dress on!
Then Johnny walk along to Hilo,
Oh, poor old man!
Oh, I once knew a nigger and his name was Ned,
And he had no hair on the top of his head,
//

[JOHN BROWN'S BODY]
//
John Brown's Body

John Brown's body lies a-mould'ring in the grave
John Brown's body lies a-mould'ring in the grave
John Brown's body lies a-mould'ring in the grave
[Then it's hip, hip, hip, hurrah!
Glory, glory, hallelujah,
Glory, glory, hallelujah
Glory, glory, hallelujah,
Then it's hip, hip, hip, hurrah!]

There's my girl with the blue dress on,
//

[SALLY BROWN]
//
Sally Brown (I)

Sally Brown was a gay old lady,
Way-ay, roll and go!
Sally Brown was a Creole lady,
Spent my money on Sally Brown

She had a farm in the isle of Jamaica,
Where she raised sugarcane, rum, an' terbacker.

[Etc, fine young daughter, seven long years I courted Sally, would not have a tarry sailor, married to a nigger soldier, left her with a nigger baby, why did you ever jilt me]
//

[SHENANDOAH]
//
Shenandoah

Shanadore, I love your daughter,
Hooway, you rolling river,
Oh, Shanadore, I love your daughter,
Hyah, bound away, To the wild Missouri!

For seven long years I've courted your daughter.
Oh, Shanadore, I want to marry.

Now, Shanadore, will you give me your word to?
Oh, Shanadore, give me your word to,

To marry your daughter, I love her dearly.
//

[SANTIANA]
//
Santy Anna (I)

Santy Anna gained the day,
Hooray, Santy Anna!
Santy Anna gained the day,
All on the plains of Mexico!

Santy Anna fought for fame,
That's how Santy gained his name,

'Twas on the field of Molino del Rey,
Old Santy lost his leg that day,
//

[LOWLANDS AWAY]
//
Lowlands (I)

Lowlands, lowlands, away, my John.
Five dollars a day is a stevedore's pay;
Five dollars and a half a day.

A dollar a day is a nigger's pay.
Lowlands, lowlands, away, my John.
I thought I heard our old man say,
Five dollars and a half a day

That he would give us grog today,
When we are leaving Mobile Bay.
//

[LOWLANDS AWAY]
//
Lowlands (II)

In the Virginia lowlands I was born,
Lowlands, lowlands, away, my John.
I worked all day down in the corn,
My dollar and a half a day.

I packed my bag and I'm going away;
I'll make my way to Mobile Bay.

In Mobile Bay, where they work all day,
A-screwing cotton by the day,

Five dollars a day is a white man's pay,
A dollar and a half is a colored man's pay.
//

[MR. STORMALONG]
//
Stormalong

Old Stormalong was a gay old man,
[To me, way, old Stormalong!
Old Stormalong was a grand old man,
[Aye, aye, aye, Captain Stormalong.]

But now he's dead, poor old Stormy's gone;
We buried old Stormy off Cape Horn,

Poor old Stormy we'll ne'er see again.
We buried Poor Stormy off Cape Horn!

We rolled him up in a silvery shroud
We lowered him down with a golden chain.

Although he's gone, he's left us a son.
How I wis I was old Stormy's son!

I'd build a ship of a thousand ton
I'd load her down with New England Rum

I'd sail this wide world round and round
And every day my crew would get their rum!

I'd pour out two drinks for the shantyman (twice)

I'd pour out drinks for every man
And a double cup for the shantyman!
//

[GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL]
//
Homeward Bound (I)

"We're homeward bound!" I've heard them say; 

Good by, fare you well, good bye, fare you well! 

We're homeward bound to Mobile Bay. 

Hurrah, my boys, we're homeward bound! 



When we get there, won't we fly round! 

With the gals we find there we will raise merry hell. 


When we are hauling in the Waterloo Dock, 

Where the boys and the gals on the pier-head do flock, 



And one to the other you'll hear them say, 

"Here comes jolly Jack and his eighteen months' pay!" 



Then we'll go up to the Dog and the Bell, 

And the landlord he'll come in with his face all in smiles, 



Saying, "Drink up, Jack, for it's worth your while!" 

But when you money is all gone and spent, 



There's none to be borrowed nor none to be lent. 

Then you'll see him come in with a frown, 



And then you'll hear him to the other man say, 

"Get up there, Jack, and let John sit down!" 



When your pocketbook's full and your name it is John, 

But when you are broke then your name it is Jack.
//

The following 2 come from recordings shared by Barnicle.

[BLOW BOYS BLOW]
//
Blow, Boys, Blow (I)

Oh, blow away, I long to hear you,
Blow, boys blow!
Oh, blow away, I long to hear you,
Blow, my bully boys, blow!

[Etc., today/tomorrow, grief/sorrow, Congo River, from Bangor, from Arizona]
//

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES]
//
Heave Away (I)

As I was a-walking one morning down by the Clarence (Waterloo) dock:
Heave away, my Johnny, heave a way-ay,
I overheard an emigrant conversing with Tapscott;
And a-way, my jolly boys, we're all bound to go!

"Good morning, Mr. Tapscott… etc

[etc, carry me over the sea, Joshuay Walker and the other the Kangaroo, ton of yallow male, Channel of St. George, stole all me yallow male!, stay all my life on the shore]
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 28 Jul 11 - 12:13 AM

From manuscript of Nathaniel Silsbee of Cohasset, Mass. Silsbee learned chanties (if I may generalize) at sea in 1880s, set them down in 1893. Melodies were taken down from his singing by Mrs. George C. Beach.

[DAMERAY]
//
John Dameray

Manuscript indicates "braces".

Aloft we all must go-oh,
John come down the backstay
In hail and frost and snow-oh,
John come down the backstay,
John Dameray!

John Dameray - John come down the backstay
John Dameray - John come down the backstay
John Dameray! [all twice]

My ma she wrote to me,
"My son, come home from sea."

Got no monay and no clo'es,
Am knocking out of doors.

My home I soon will be in,
And then we'll have some gin.

From sea I will keep clear,
And live by selling beer.
//

[BUNCH OF ROSES]
//
Come Down, You Bunch of Roses, Come Down

Oh, yes, my lads, we'll roll a-lee,
[Come down, you bunch of roses, come down,]
We'll soon be far away from sea,
[Come down, you bunch of roses, come down.]

Oh, you pinks and poses,
Come down, you bunch of roses, come down.
Oh, you pinks and poses,
Come down, you bunch of roses, come down.

Oh, what do yer s'pose we had for supper?
Black-eyed beans and bread and butter.

Oh Poll's in the garden picking peas.
She's got fine hair way down to her knees.

I went downstairs and peeked throug a crack,
And saw her staling a kiss from Jack.

I grabbed right hold of a piece of plank
and ran out quick and gave her a spank.
//

Notes also that Silsbee's collection has a variant of [GIMME DE BANJO] called "Banjyee".

***

Found in a journal of the 1860s, kept at sea by Capt. James A. Delap of Nova Scotia.

[LOWLANDS AWAY]
//
Lowlands (III)

A bully ship and bully crew,
Lowlands, lowlands, hurrah, my John,
And a bully mate to put us through,
My dollar and a half a day.

I wish I was in Liverpool,
With the Liverpool girls I would slip round.

Oh, heave her up and away we'll go
Oh, heave her up from down below.

Oh, a dollar and a half is a shellback's pay,
But a dollar and a half is pretty good pay.

Oh, rise, old woman, and let us in,
For the night is cold and I want some gin.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jul 11 - 11:58 PM

Doerflinger consulted the manuscript collection of James H. Williams. All of these items appeared in Williams' 1909 article in The Independent, which we've already discussed.

Haul Away, Joe (II) [HAUL AWAY JOE]
Boney (II) [BONEY]
Whiskey, Johnny (II) [WHISKEY JOHNNY]
Blow the Man Down (II) [BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
Blow, Boys, Blow (II) [BLOW BOYS BLOW]
A Long Time Ago (II) [LONG TIME AGO]


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 27 Jul 11 - 11:52 PM

In the next few posts I am going to dissect Doerflinger's collection. He has it organized by working-task -- something that, while popular for a while with writers, is not that useful. Like Sharp and Terry and several predecessors, he also followed the practice -- frustrating for my purposes -- of putting notes separate, in the appendix. The goal is, to some extent, to present the items as a collection of songs to enjoy. So much of his notes that accompany the scores are somewhat vague and unsupported. In almost all cases, I think his comments are quite reasonable, and I'm sure they are supported at least by what he has read. But, at this stage in the game (this stage of chanty-writing) most of his commentary IMO is not very interesting. It is an accumulation or repetition of prior knowledge. The specific notes on specific songs are interesting to see how ideas were shaped about them *individually*, but for general purposes, the notes don't add much. So, I'm trimming most of the notes except for ones attributed to informants.

And, I am rearranging the presentation in terms of his sources.

1951        Doerflinger, William Main. _Shantymen and Shantyboys: Songs of the Sailor and Lumberman_. Macmillan: New York.

I'm going off the original version. I haven't compared the revised version of 1970, which I assume only adds comments in light of more recent works like Hugill's, but which does not affect the collected raw material. I don't have my copy of the revised around, so I haven't compared it.

General comments.

Preface dated March 1950.
Songs gathered in New York, Nova Scotia, 30s and early 40s.

Omitted some verses unsuitable for printing. However, he didn't *change* anything, rather it was all transcribed meticulously, with individuals variation given. That's what makes his distinct from almost every other chanty collection.

Had editors to transcribe the music that he'd recorded.
Mary Elizabeth Barnicle made available some recordings of Dick Maitland Also consulted J. Colcord.

On vocal style, notes.

…high breaks, or "hitches," as Captain Tayluer called them……shrill breaks in the voice on one or two notes in each stanza.

I think this is the first time such ornaments were called (in print) "hitches." Something that Hugill would follow up on.

Speaks of "a revival in shantying." The ermergence of shanties circa 1830s was, in his view, a RE-emergence.

Says the white sailors brought shanties with them to cotton ports, and then left with Negro songs. This would become Hugill's "shanty mart" idea.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 16 Jul 11 - 10:13 PM

Having read one of Bullen's semi-autobiographical books I would certainly go along with the idea that he thoroughly understood the world of the tall ship sailor. No doubt it was a struggle at the time to find a way to get a book of sailor work songs published, and it's still a struggle!

Oh, here's the lyrics to Neil Downey's recorded version of "Coal Black Rose":

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
Don't ye hear the banjo
Ping-a-pong-a-pong?
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
Up aloft
This yard must go!
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
Strung up like a banjo,
Taut an' long,
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
The yard is now a-movin',
Hauley-hauley, ho!
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
The Mate he comes around, boys,
Dinging an' a dang!
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
Back in to it, boys,
Rock an' roll 'er high!
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
One more pull, boys,
Rock an' roll 'er high!
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
Don't ye hear the banjo
Ping-a-pong-a-pong?
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
Skipper's on the beach
An' he can't get none!
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
Up aloft
This yard must go!
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!

O, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose,
One more pull,
An' then belay!
On, me Rosie, Coal Black Rose!!!

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 16 Jul 11 - 05:13 PM

Lighter,

The reasons you suggest are interesting. The first suggests that his work simply was not as useful/practical. The second suggests a possible bias.

I was thinking more along the lines of Bullen being *ignored* or unread in the first place, not being reviewed and then rejected.

Your idea about the 1-2 stanzas makes a lot of sense to me. Funny that Bullen gave piano accompaniment, as if the songs were meant to be performed, and yet did not give enough verses to perform! It's highly doubtable that the score-reading conservatory musicians would actually go through with improvising verses, as Bullen suggested! His work shows a horrible clash between two worlds. I think he knew and "understood" chanties as well or as or better than any of the authors on the subject. What to do then, when the conventions of his time compelled him to present them in such a format that was at odds with essential aspects of the genre?

Your second idea is quite profound, especially in terms of some of the discussion that have gone on in this thread. My opinion is that what Bullen said about shanty origins, while less attract-ing, would not necessarily have put off readers. However, I really can't know that. The more interesting question that it does raise is whether *in general* people (readers, not scholars in this case) would have been put off by Black cultural associations, affecting a turn away from that direction, or if those associations were ignored or over-written due to emphasis (and some manufacturing) of strong English cultural associations. In other words, if, as I believe to be true, there was a shift to favoring English "origins", etc., was it because the writers that had the dominant voice were saying that, and their voices came across more loudly? Or were other voices, saying different things, actively rejected. It could have been both. But I lean towards the former. Where the latter happened, I think, was at the level of writing (not reading). Audiences have seemed more open to accept whatever is presented.

All just opinions, and maybe not very clear at that!


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 16 Jul 11 - 04:05 PM

Gibb, another reason what Bullen was ignored, I think, is that he only gave one or two stanzas per song. Nobody wants to sing just one or two stanzas! Furthermore, he emphasized the African-American side of the subject, which may have lessened the interest for white singers and musicians of the period.

Exactly why shanties have been so generally shunned by African-Americans (and African-Britons) is another minor cultural mystery.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 16 Jul 11 - 03:55 PM

Whether he meant it or not (hi, Jon!), the key part of Lighter's observation for me is that Bullen's collection has generally been neglected as a source for performers. Tom Sullivan's interpretation, from the _Salt Atlantic Chanties_ album, was based in *Hugill's* "Coal Black Rose."

And this is something to wonder -- why Bullen was ignored. It's clear why Hugill's was popular in later years. But why was Bullen less-used in earlier years? Poor distribution? Unattractive presentation? My guess, in addition to those, is that Sharp's name had pull with the folklore-oriented people, and Terry had pull with the conservatory musician people. But while they both had some disagreements with, or complained about aspects of Bullen's work, Sharp and Terry's own works were informed by Bullen. As was Hugill's.

I am trying to imagine what Hugill's work would have been like without earlier models. Although presumably he still could have given, say, his "Coal Black Rose" learned from Harding, I imagine that earlier authors' versions refreshed his memories!


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 16 Jul 11 - 10:44 AM

Thanks, Charley.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 16 Jul 11 - 09:39 AM

Lighter was musing above whether any other Bullen's shanties had been recorded. Barry Finn and Neil Downey (Finn & Haddie) recorded a spirited rendition of the shanty version of "Coal Black Rose" on Fathom This!, © 2007. "Coal Black Rose" has been traced back to a popular minstrel song of the same name and shares a verse or two. Neil (in the CD track notes) derived his version from "Tommy O'Sullivan while recording at sea on the Unicorn in the early 80's."

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 15 Jul 11 - 10:26 PM

[[Halliard Shanties]]

[BLOW BOYS BLOW]
//
15. Blow, my bully boys


1. A Yankee ship came down the river,

Blow, boys blow.

Her masts and yards they shine like silver.

Blow my bully boys blow.


2. And how d'ye know she's a Yankee packet?

The Stars and Stripes they fly above her.



3. And who d'ye think was skipper of her. (twice)



4. 'Twas Dandy Jim, the one-eyed nigger;
'Twas Dandy Jim, with his bully figure.



5. And what d'ye think they had for dinner?

Why bullock's lights and donkey's liver.



6. And what d'ye think they had for supper?

Why weevilled bread and Yankee leather.



7. Then blow my boys, and blow together.

And blow my boys for better weather.



8. A Yankee ship came down the river.

Her masts and yards they shine like silver.
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
//
16. Blow the man down

This is the shanty which is perhaps the best known among landsmen. 'Winchester Street' is in South Shields, and in the old days was the aristocratic quarter where only persons of high distinction—such as shipowners, and 'Southspainer' skippers—lived.

1. Oh blow the man down, bullies, blow the man down.

To me Way-ay, blow the man down.

Oh blow the man down, bullies, blow him away.

Oh gimme some time to blow the man down.

2. We went over the Bar on the thirteenth of May.

The Galloper jumped, and the gale came away.


3. Oh the rags they was gone, and the chains they was jammed,
And the skipper sez he, "Let the weather be hanged [damned]."



4. Äs I was a-walking down Winchester Street,

A saucy young damsel I happened to meet.



5. Ï sez to her, "Polly, and how d'you do?"

Sez she, "None the better for seein' of you."



6. Oh, it's sailors is tinkers, and tailors is men.
And we're all of us coming to see you again.



7. So we'll blow the man up, and we'll blow the man down.
And we'll blow him away into Liverpool Town.
//

[CHEERLY] Chopinesque!
//
17. Cheer'ly, men

This particular version was sung to me by Capt. R.W. Robertson. It differs but slightly from the version which I originally learnt from Sir Walter Runciman. Very few of the words were printable, and old sailors who read my version will no doubt chuckle over the somewhat pointless continuation of the verses concerning Kitty Carson and Polly Riddle. They will, of course, see the point of my having supplied a Chopinesque accompaniment to such a shanty.

1. Oh, Nancy Dawson, I-Oh.

Chee-lee men.

She robb'd the Bo'sun, I-Oh.

Chee-lee men.

That was a caution, I-Oh.

Chee-lee men.

Oh Hauly, I-Oh,

Chee-lee men.

2. Oh Sally Racket. I-Oh,
Pawned my best jacket. I-Oh,
Sold the pawn ticket. I-Oh, &c.



3. Oh Kitty Carson

Jilted the parson,

Married a mason.



4. Oh Betsy Baker

Lived in Long Acre,

Married a quaker.



5. Oh Jenny Walker

Married a hawker

That was a corker.



6. Oh Polly Riddle

Broke her new fiddle.

Right through the middle.
//


[GOOD MORNING LADIES ALL] As in 1920, with additional lyrics.
//
18. Good morning, ladies all

The title belongs to other shanties as well; but, so far as I know, this tune has never been printed until now. I learnt it from Northumbrian sailors when a very small boy, and have never heard of its use in any other than Blyth and Tyne ships. It may be a Northumbrian air, but from such knowledge as I have gleaned of Northumbrian folk-tunes, I incline to the conjecture that it may have been picked up in more southern latitudes by some Northumbrian seaman.

1. Now a long good-bye to you, my dear,

With a heave-oh haul.

And a last farewell, and a long farewell.

And good morning, ladies all.

2. For we're outward böund to New York town;

And you'll wave to us till the sun goes down.


3. Änd when we get to New York town,

Oh it's there we'll drink, and sorrows drown.



4. When we're back once möre in London Docks,

All the pretty girls will come in flocks.



5. Änd Poll, and Bet, and Sue will say:

"Oh it's here comes Jack with his three years' pay."



6. So a long good-bye to you, my dear,

And a last farewell, and a long farewell.
//

[HANGING JOHNNY]
//
19. Hanging Johnny

This cheery riot of gore is wedded to the most plaintive of tunes, and is immortalized by Masefield in his 'Sailor's Garland.' Nowadays one occasionally meets unhumorous longshore sailormen who endeavour to temper its fury to the shorn landsman by palming off a final verse, which gives one to understand that the previous stanzas have been only 'Johnny's' little fun, and which makes him bleat:
'They said I hanged for money,
But I never hanged nobody.'

I also possess a shanty collection where the words have so clearly shocked the editor that he has composed an entirely fresh set. These exhibit 'Johnny' as a spotless moralist, who would never really hang his parents, but would only operate (in a Pickwickian sense of course) on naughty and unworthy people:
'I'd hang a noted liar,
I'd hang a bloated friar.

'I'd hang a brutal mother,
I'd hang her and no other.

'I'd hang to make things jolly,
I'd hang all wrong and folly.'

Imagine a shantyman (farceur as he ever was) making for edification in that style!

1. Oh they call me hanging Johnny.

Away, boys, away.

They says I hangs for money.

Oh hang, boys, hang.

2. Änd first I hanged my daddy. (twice)



3. Änd then I hanged my mother,


My sister and my brother.



4. Änd then I hanged my granny. (twice)



5. Änd then I hanged my Annie;

I hanged her up see canny. 



6. Wë'll hang and haul together;

We'll haul for better weather.
//

[HILO BOYS]
//
20. Hilo Somebody

This is another of the shanties I learnt as a boy from Blyth sailors, and which has never been printed before. I fancy that 'blackbird' and 'crew' must be a perversion of 'blackbird and crow,' as the latter figure of speech occurs in other shanties.

1. The blackbird sang unto our crew.

Hilo boys, Hilo.

The blackbird sang unto our crew.

Oh Hilo somebody, Hilo.

2. The blackbird sang so sweet to me. (twice)



3. We sailed away to Mobile Bay. (twice)



4. And now we're bound for London Town. (twice)



5. The up aloft this yard must go. (twice)



6. I thought I heard the old man say:—

"Just one more pull, and then belay."



7. Hooray my boys, we're homeward bound. (twice)



8. The blackbird sang unto our crew. (twice)
//

[RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN]
//
21. Oh run, let the Bullgine run

The reference to the 'Bullgine' seems to suggest Transatlantic origin. There were endless verses, but no attempt at narrative beyond a recital of the names of places from which and to which they were 'running.' This version was sung to me by Mr. F.B. Mayoss, a seaman who sailed in the old China Clippers.

1. Oh we'll run all night till the morning.

Oh run, let the Bullgine run.

Way-yah, Oh-I-Oh,
run, let the Bullgine run.
2. Oh we sailed all day tö Mobile Bay.



3. Oh we sailed all nïght äcross the Bight.

4. Oh we'll run from Dover to Cällis.



5. Öh drive her captäin, drïve her.



6. Öh captain make her nöse blood.



7. She's a dandy packet and a flier too.



8. With a dandy skipper, and a dandy crew.



9. Oh we'll run all nïght till the mörning.
//

[REUBEN RANZO] Alden's (1882) version is part of the composite. Adds verses to 1920 article version.
//
22. Reuben Ranzo

Alden gives this version, and I fancy it may have once been fairly general, as several of my relatives used to sing it. The version I mostly heard from other sailors, however, began:… [melodic phrase variant – same as the one in his 1920 article]
But from Mr. Morley Roberts I had the following:… [melodic phrase variant]
Capt. Robertson's version ran thus:… [melodic phrase variant]

I think he[Whall] is right about the absence of improvization on extraneous topics, but I used to hear a good deal of improvization on the subject of Ranzo himself. I knew at least three endings of the story: (1) where the captain took him into the cabin, 'larned him navigation,' and eventually married him to his daughter; (2) where Ranzo's hatred of ablutions caused the indignant crew to throw him overboard; (3) where the story ended with the lashes received, not for his dirty habits, but for a theft:
'We gave him lashes thirty
For stealin' the captain's turkey.'

I have also heard many extemporaneous verses relating his adventures among the denizens of the deep after he was thrown overboard.

1. Oh poor old Reuben Ranzo,

Oh Ranzo boys, Ranzo.

Ah pity poor Reuben Ranzo.

Ranzo boys, Ranzo.

2. Oh Ranzo was no sailor

He shipped on board a whaler.



3. Old Ranzo couldn't steer her,
Did you ever hear anything queerer?



4. Oh Ranzo was no beauty
Why couldn't he do his duty?


5. Oh Ranzo washed once a fortnight

He said it was his birthright.


6. They triced up this man so dirty

And gave him five and thirty. 


7. Oh poor old Reuben Ranzo
Ah pity poor Reuben Ranzo.
//

[DEAD HORSE]
//
23. The dead horse

This shanty was used both for hauling and for pumping ship. It seems to have had its origin in a rite which took place after the crew had 'worked off the dead horse.' The circumstances were these: Before any voyage, the crew received a month's pay in advance, which, needless to say, was spent ashore before the vessel sailed. Jack's first month on sea was therefore spent in clearing off his advance, which he called working off the dead horse. The end of that payless period was celebrated with a solemn ceremony: a mass of straw, or whatever other combustibles were to hand, was made up into a big bundle, which sometimes did, and more often did not, resemble a horse. This was dragged round the deck by all hands, the shanty being sung meanwhile. The perambulation completed, the dead horse was lighted and hauled up, usually to the main-yardarm, and when the flames had got a good hold, the rope was cut and the blazing mass fell into the sea, amid shouts of jubilation.

1. A poor old man came riding by.

And they say so, and they hope so.

A poor old man came riding by.

Oh poor old man.

2. I said "Old man your hoss will die." (twice)



3. And if he dies I'll tan his skin. (twice)



4. And if he lives you'll ride again. (twice)



5. I thought I heard the skipper say. (twice)



6. Oh one more pull and then belay. (twice)



7. A poor old man came riding by. (twice)
//

[TOMMY'S GONE]
//
24. Tom's gone to Hilo

…I have chosen the version sung to me by Mr. George Vickers, although in the first chorus it differs somewhat from the version I learnt as a boy:…
I give Mr. Vickers's verses about 'The Victory' and 'Trafalgar,' as I had never heard them sung by any other seaman. I have omitted the endless couplets containing the names of places to which Tommy is supposed to have travelled.

1. Tommy's gone and I'll go too,

Away down Hilo.

Oh, Tommy's gone and I'll go too.

Tom's gone to Hilo.

2. Tommy's gone to Liverpool,


3. Tommy's gone to Mobile Bay.



4. Tommy's gone, what shall I do?


5. Tommy fought at Tráfalgár.

6. The old Victory led the way.
The brave old Victory led the way.


7. Tommy's gone for evermore.

Oh, Tommy's gone for evermore.
//

[WHISKEY JOHNNY]
//
25. Whisky Johnny

1. Oh whisky is the life of man.

Whiskey Johnny.

Oh whisky is the life of man.

Whisky for my Johnny.

2. Oh whisky makes me pawn my clothes.

And whisky gave me this red nose.



3. Oh whisky killed my poor old dad.

And whisky druv my mother mad.



4. Oh whisky up, and whisky down.

And whisky all around the town.



5. Oh whisky here and whisky there.

It's I'll have whisky everywhere.



6. Oh whisky is the life of man.

It's whisky in an old tin can.
//

[BONEY]
//
26. Boney was a warrior

I never met a seaman who has not hoisted topsails to this shanty…

1. Boney was a warrior.

Way-ay Yah.

Boney was a warrior.

John France-Wah.

2. Boney beat the Rooshians. (twice)



3. Boney beat the Prooshians. (twice)



4. Boney went to Möscow. (twice)



5. Moscow was a-fïre. (twice)



6. Boney he came back again. (twice)



7. Boney went to Elbow. (twice)



8. Boney went to Waterloo. (twice)



9. Boney was defeated. (twice)



10. Boney was a prisoner

'Board the Billy Ruffian. 


11. Boney he was sent away,

'Way to St. Helena.



12. Boney broke his heart, and died. (twice)



13. Boney was a warrior. (twice)
//

[[Fore-Sheet or Sweating-up Shanties:]]

[JOHNNY BOWKER] fore-sheet
//
27. Johnny Boker

This popular shanty was sometimes used for bunting-up a sail, but more usually for 'sweating-up.' Although I have allowed the last note its full musical value, it was not prolonged in this manner aboard ship. As it coincided with the pull, it usually sounded more like a staccato grunt.

1. Oh do my Johnny Boker,
Come rock and roll me over.

Do my Johnny Boker, do.

2. Oh do my Johnny Boker,
The skipper is a rover.

Do my Johnny, &c.



3.Oh do, &c.
The mate he's never sober.
Do my, &c.



4.Oh do, &c.
The Bo'sun is a tailor.
Do my, &c.



5.Oh do, &c. We'll all go on a jamboree.
Do my, &c.



6.Oh do, &c.
The Packet is a Rollin'.
Do my, &c.



7.Oh do, &c.
We'll pull and haul together.
Do my, &c.



8.Oh do, &c.
We'll haul for better weather.
Do my, &c.



9.Oh do, &c. And soon we'll be in London Town.
Do my, &c.



10.Oh do, &c.
Come rock and roll me over.
Do my, &c.
//

[HAUL AWAY JOE] fore-sheet. As in 1920 article, with added verses.
//
28. Haul away, Joe

The major version of this shanty (which appears in Part II) was more general in the last days of the sailing ship; but this minor version (certainly the most beautiful of them) is the one which I used to hear on the Tyne. The oldest of my sailor relatives never sang any other. This inclines me to the belief that it is the earlier version. The verses extemporized to this shanty were endless, but those concerning the Nigger Girl and King Louis never seem to have been omitted.

1. Way, haul away, We'll haul away the bowlin'.

Way, haul away, Haul away Joe.

2. Way haul away. The packet is a-rollin'.



3. Way haul away. We'll hang and haul together.



4. Way haul away. We'll haul for better weather.


5. Once I had a nigger girl, and she was fat and lazy.


6. Then I had a Spanish girl, she nearly druv me crazy.


7. Geordie Charlton had a pig, and it was double jointed.


8. He took it to the blacksmith's shop to get its trotters pointed.


9. King Louis was the king o' France before the Revolution.


10. King Louis got his head cut off, and spoiled his Constitution.



11. Oh when I was a little boy and so my mother told me.



12. That if I didn't kiss the girls my lips would all go mouldy.



13. Oh once I had a scolding wife, she wasn't very civil.



14. I clapped a plaster on her mouth and sent her to the divvle.
//

[BOWLINE] fore-sheet. As in 1920, with added verses.
//
29. We'll haul the bowlin'

This was the most popular shanty for 'sweating-up.' There are many variants of it. The present version I learnt from Capt. John Runciman. In this shanty no attempt was ever made to sing the last word. It was always shouted.

1. We'll haul the bowlin' so early in the morning.

We'll haul the bowlin', the bowlin' haul!

2. We'll haul the bowlin' for Kitty is my darlin'.



3. We'll haul the bowlin'; the fore-to-gallant bowlin'.



4. We'll haul the bowlin', the skipper is a growlin'.



5. We'll haul the bowlin', the packet is a rollin'.


6. We'll haul the bowlin' so early in the morning.
//

[[Bunty Shanty:]]

[PADDY DOYLE]
//
30. Paddy Doyle's boots. As in 1920. A composite.

This shanty differs from all others, as (a) it was sung tutti throughout; (b) it had only one verse, which was sung over and over again; and (c) it was used for one operation and one operation only, viz. bunting up the foresail or mainsail in furling. In this operation the canvas of the sail was folded intensively until it formed a smooth conical bundle. This was called a bunt, and a strong collective effort (at the word 'boots') was required to get it on to the yard.
Although the same verse was sung over and over again, very occasionally a different text would be substituted, which was treated in the same manner. Capt. Whall gives two alternatives, which were sometimes used:
'We'll all drink brandy and gin,'
and—
'We'll all shave under the chin.'
Mr. Morley Roberts also told me that a variant in his ship was—
'We'll all throw dirt at the cook.'

1.        To my way-ay-ay-ah,

2.        We'll pay Paddy Doyle for his boots.
Alternative verses.
2. We'll all throw dirt at the cook.


3. We'll all drink brandy and gin.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 15 Jul 11 - 10:23 PM

1921        Terry, Richard Runciman. _The Shanty Book, Part I._ London: J. Curwen & Sons.

As Bradford & Fagge's short set was the score to the earliest commercial chanty recordings, Terry's collection went on to become a main source for chanties during the 1920s commercial/mainstream shanty boom. Terry had his feet in the world of "legitimate" classical music performances; he was known in that world. And perhaps that is why his work was adopted over Sharp's. (Sharp's would be used by the folklore-oriented Revival performers.) Bullen's work, at least directly speaking, was ignored by performers. As noted earlier, however, my personal suspicions are that many of Terry's forms (most aside from those that were unique to his "Tyneside" collecting experiences) were composite, "ideal" that he created in part through referencing the major collections that preceded him (i.e. like Hugill). He justified this by citing his general familiarity with chanties that came from growing up around sailor relatives. His creations, as performance models, may be "good enough," so far as performances are expected to vary. But I am cautious of using them uncritically as evidence for historical scholarship on chanties.

From the Foreword by Sir Walter Runciman, praising Terry's a a unique new collection of someone who has the life experience to match musical skill, and validating the musical forms. Also notes shanties as part of [British] "folk-music".
//
Whatever landsmen may think about shanty words—with their cheerful inconsequence, or light-hearted coarseness—there can be no two opinions about the tunes, which, as folk-music, are a national asset.
I know, of course, that several shanty collections are in the market, but as a sailor I am bound to say that only one—Capt. W.B. Whall's 'Sea Songs, Ships, and Shanties'—can be regarded as authoritative. Only a portion of Capt. Whall's delightful book is devoted to shanties, of which he prints the melodies only (without accompaniment); and of these he does not profess to give more than those he himself learnt at sea. I am glad, therefore, to welcome Messrs. Curwen's project of a wide and representative collection. Dr. Terry's qualifications as editor are exceptional, since he was reared in an environment of nineteenth-century seamen, and is the only landsman I have met who is able to render shanties as the old seamen did. I am not musician enough to criticize his pianoforte accompaniments, but I can vouch for the authenticity of the melodies as he presents them, untampered with in any way.
//

Most of the introductory/background material comes from Terry's articles in Music & Letters (reproduced verbatim), and I will not repeat it.

More claiming of experience:

//
It may reasonably be asked by what authority a mere landsman publishes a book on a nautical subject. I may, therefore, plead in extenuation that I have all my life been closely connected with seafaring matters, especially during childhood and youth, and have literally 'grown up with' shanties. My maternal ancestors followed the sea as far back as the family history can be traced, and sailor uncles and grand-uncles have sung shanties to me from my childhood upwards. During boyhood I was constantly about amongst ships, and had learnt at first hand all the popular shanties before any collection of them appeared in print. I have in later years collected them from all manner of sailors, chiefly at Northumbrian sources. I have collated these later versions with those which I learnt at first hand as a boy from sailor relatives, and also aboard ship. And lastly, I lived for some years in the West Indies, one of the few remaining spots where shanties may still be heard, where my chief recreation was cruising round the islands in my little ketch. In addition to hearing them in West Indian seaports, aboard Yankee sailing ships and sugar droghers, I also heard them sung constantly on shore in Antigua under rather curious conditions. West Indian negro shanties are movable wooden huts,…
//

And on etymology and spelling again. He says that shanties were English, in contradistinction to French, but with his "hut" theory of etymology vaguely implies he believes shanty origins to lie in the Caribbean.
//
…The 'literary' sailors, Clark Russell and Frank Bullen, have also spelt it 'chanty,' but their reason is obvious. The modest seaman always bowed before the landsman's presumed superiority in 'book-larnin'.' What more natural than that Russell and Bullen, obsessed by so ancient a tradition, should accept uncritically the landsman's spelling. But educated sailors devoid of 'literary' pretensions have always written the word as it was pronounced. To my mind the strongest argument against the literary landsman's derivation of the word is that the British sailor cultivated the supremest contempt for everything French, and would be the last person to label such a definitely British practice as shanty-singing with a French title. If there had been such a thing in French ships as a labour-song bearing such a far-fetched title as (un) chanté, there might have been a remote possibility of the British sailor adopting the French term in a spirit of sport or derision, but there is no evidence that any such practice, or any such term, achieved any vogue in French ships. As a matter of fact, the Oxford Dictionary (which prints it 'shanty') states that the word never found its way into print until 1869…
If I wished to advance another theory more plausible still, and equally unconvincing, I might urge that the word was derived from the negro hut-removals already mentioned. Here, at least, we have a very ancient custom, which would be familiar to British seamen visiting West Indian seaports. The object moved was a shanty; the music accompanying the operation was called, by the negroes, a shanty tune; its musical form (solo and chorus) was identical with the sailor shanty; the pulls on the rope followed the same method which obtained at sea; the soloist was called a shantyman; like the shantyman at sea he did no work, but merely extemporized verses to which the workers at the ropes supplied the chorus; and finally, the negroes still pronounce the word itself exactly as the seaman did.
I am quite aware of the flaws in the above argument, but at least it shows a manual labour act performed both afloat and ashore under precisely similar conditions as to (a) its nature, (b) its musical setting; called by the same name, with the same pronunciation in each case; and lastly, connected, in one case, with an actual hut or shanty. Against this concrete argument we have a landsman's abstract speculation, which (a) begs the whole question, and (b) which was never heard of until a few years before the disappearance of the sailing ship. I do not assert that the negroid derivation is conclusive, but that from (un) chanté will not bear serious inspection.
//

More bibliographic notes:
//
…Of all these collections Capt. Whall's is the only one which a sailor could accept as authoritative. Capt. Whall unfortunately only gives the twenty-eight shanties which he himself learnt at sea. But to any one who has heard them sung aboard the old sailing ships, his versions ring true, and have a bite and a snap that is lacking in those published by mere collectors.
Davis and Tozer's book has had a great vogue, as it was for many years the only one on the market. But the statement that the music is 'composed and arranged on traditional sailor airs' rules it out of court in the eyes of seamen, since (a) a sailor song is not a shanty, and (b) to 'compose and arrange on traditional airs' is to destroy the traditional form.
Bullen and Arnold's book ought to have been a valuable contribution to shanty literature, as Bullen certainly knew his shanties, and used to sing them capitally. Unfortunately his musical collaborator does not appear to have been gifted with the faculty of taking down authentic versions from his singing. He seems to have had difficulty in differentiating between long measured notes and unmeasured pauses; between the respective meanings of three-four and six-eight time; between modal and modern tunes; and between the cases where irregular barring was or was not required. …
//

Method of presentation. He is respecting unique variants – when it comes to melodies, not lyrics. Bowdlerie lyrics.
//
As regards the tunes, I have adhered to the principle of giving each one as it was sung by some individual singer. This method has not been applied to the words. Consequently the verses of any given shanty may have derived from any number of singers. Since there was no connection or relevancy between the different verses of a shanty, the only principle I have adhered to is that whatever verses are set down should have been sung to me at some time or other by some sailor or other.
Of course I have had to camouflage many unprintable expressions, and old sailors will readily recognize where this has been done. Sometimes a whole verse (after the first line) has needed camouflage, and the method adopted is best expressed as follows:

There was a young lady of Gloucester
Who couldn't eat salt with her egg,
And when she sat down
She could never get up,
And so the poor dog had none.


Personal sources/thanks:
//
Amongst those to whom I owe thanks, I must number the Editors of The Music Student and Music and Letters, for allowing me to incorporate in this Preface portions of articles which I have written for them. Also to Capt. W.J. Dowdy, both for singing shanties to me himself, and affording me facilities for interviewing inmates of the Royal Albert Institution, over which he presides. I also wish to express my gratitude to those sailors who have in recent years sung shanties to me, especially Capt. R.W. Robertson, Mr. Geo. Vickers, Mr. Richard Allen, of Seahouses, and Mr. F.B. Mayoss. And last, but not least, to Mr. Morley Roberts, who has not only sung shanties to me, but has also given me the benefit of his ripe nautical experience.
//

[[Windlass and Capstan Shanties:]]

[BILLY BOY] As in 1920, with 2 verses added.
//
1. Billy Boy

This is undoubtedly a coast song 'made into a shanty.' I heard it in Northumberland, both on shore and in ships, when I was a boy. …The version of line 1, page 3, bars 2 and 3, is older than the one given in my arrangement for male-voice chorus (Curwen Edition 50572), so, upon consideration, I decided to give it here. There are many more verses, but they are not printable, nor do they readily lend themselves to camouflage. The tune has not appeared in print until now.

1. Where hev ye been äal the day,
Billy Boy, Billy Boy?

Where hev ye been äal the day, me Billy Boy?

I've been walkin' äal the day
With me charmin' Nancy Grey,

And me Nancy kittl'd me fancy

Oh me charmin' Billy Boy.

2. Is she fit to be yor wife
Billy Boy, Billy Boy?

Is she fit to be yor wife, me Billy Boy?

She's as fit to be me wife
As the fork is to the knife

And me Nancy, etc.



3. Can she cook a bit o' steak
Billy Boy, Billy Boy?

Can she cook a bit o' steak, me Billy Boy?

She can cook a bit o' steak,
Aye, and myek a gairdle cake

And me Nancy, etc.



4. Can she myek an Irish Stew
Billy Boy, Billy Boy?

Can she myek an Irish Stew, me Billy Boy?

She can myek an Irish Stew
Aye, and "Singin' Hinnies" too.

And me Nancy, etc.
//

[RIO GRANDE] learned from an uncle. Looks like a composite.
//
2. Bound for the Rio Grande

The variants of this noble tune are legion. But this version, which a sailor uncle taught me, has been selected, as I think it the most beautiful of all. I used to notice, even as a boy, how it seemed to inspire the shantyman to sentimental flights of Heimweh that at times came perilously near poetry.

1. I'll sing you a song of the fish of the sea.

Oh Rio.

I'll sing you a song of the fish of the sea

And we're bound for the Rio Grande.

Then away love, away,
'Way down Rio,

So fare ye well my pretty young gel.

For we're bound for the Rio Grande.

2. Sing good-bye to Sally, and good-bye to Sue,
And you who are listening, good-bye to you.

3. Our ship went sailing out over the Bar
And we pointed her nose for the South-er-en Star.

4. Farewell and adieu to you ladies of Spain
And we're all of us coming to see you again.


5. I said farewell to Kitty my dear,
And she waved her white hand as we passed the South Pier.

6. The oak, and the ash, and the bonny birk tree

They're all growing green in the North Countrie.
//

[GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL] As in 1920, with added verses.
//
3. Good-bye, fare ye well

This is one of the best beloved of shanties. So strongly did its sentiment appeal to sailors that one never heard the shantyman extemporize a coarse verse to it.

1. I thought I heard the old man say

Good-bye, fare ye well,
Good-bye, fare ye well.

I thought I heard the old man say,

Hooray my boys we're homeward bound.

2. We're homeward bound, I hear the sound. (twice)
3. We sailed away to Mobile Bay. (twice)
4. But now we're bound for Portsmouth Town. (twice)
5. And soon we'll be ashore again. (twice)
6. I kissed my Kitty upon the pier
And it's oh to see you again my dear.
7. We're homeward bound, and I hear the sound. (twice)
//

[JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO] as in 1920, with added verses.
//
4. Johnny come down to Hilo
This is clearly of negro origin. I learnt several variants of it, but for its present form I am indebted to Capt. W.J. Dowdy.

1. I nebber see de like since I bin born,

When a big buck nigger wid de sea boots on,

Says "Johnny come down to Hilo.
Poor old man."

Oh wake her, oh, shake her,
Oh wake dat gel wid de blue dress on,

When Johnny comes down to Hilo.
Poor old man.
2. I lub a little gel across de sea,

She's a Badian beauty and she sez to me,

"Oh Johnny," etc.
3. Oh was you ebber down in Mobile Bay

Where dey screws de cotton on a summer day?

When Johnny, etc.

4. Did you ebber see de ole Plantation Boss

And de long-tailed filly and de big black hoss?

When Johnny, etc.
5. I nebber seen de like since I bin born

When a big buck nigger wid de sea boots on,

Says "Johnny come down," etc.
//

[CLEAR THE TRACK] Learned "in boyhood".
//
5. Clear the track, let the Bulgine run

The tune was a favourite in Yankee Packets. It does not appear in Whall. [It did appear in the 4th edition, however] 'Bullgine' was American negro slang for 'engine.' I picked up this version in boyhood from Blyth seamen.

1. Oh, the smartest clipper you can find.

Ah ho Way-oh, are you most done.

Is the Marget Evans of the Blue Cross Line.

So clear the track, let the Bullgine run.

Tibby Hey rig a jig in a jaunting car.

Ah ho Way-oh, are you most done.

With Lizer Lee all on my knee.

So clear the track, let the Bullgine run.


2. Oh the Marget Evans of the Blue Cross Line


She's never a day behind her time.

3. Oh the gels are walking on the pier


And I'll soon be home to you, my dear.

4. Oh when I come home across the sea,

It's Lizer you will marry me. 


5. Öh shake her, wake her, before we're gone;

Oh fetch that gel with the blue dress on.
6. Oh I thought I heard the skipper say

"We'll keep the brig three points away."

7. Oh the smartest clipper you can find


Is the Marget Evans of the Blue Cross Line.
//

[LOWLANDS AWAY] As in 1920, with added verses. From John Runciman.
//
6. Lowlands away

…It was well known to every sailor down to the time of the China Clippers. My version is that of Capt. John Runciman, who belonged to that period. I have seldom found it known to sailors who took to the sea after the early seventies. The tune was sung in very free time and with great solemnity…. In North-country ships the shantyman used to make much of the theme of a dead lover appearing in the night. There were seldom any rhymes, and the air was indescribably touching when humoured by a good hand. A 'hoosier,' by the way, is a cotton stevedore. …

Lowlands, Lowlands,
Away my John,

Lowlands, away,
I heard them say,

My dollar and a half a day.



1. A dollar and a half a day is a Hoosier's pay.

Lowlands, Lowlands,
Away my John.

A dollar and a half a day is very good pay.

My dollar and a half a day.



2. Oh was you ever in Mobile Bay.

Screwing the cotton by the day.


3. All in the night my true love came,

All in the night my true love came.


4. She came to me all in my sleep. (twice)



5. And hër eyes were white my love. (twice)



6. And then I knew my love was dead. (twice)
//

[SALLY BROWN]
//
7. Sally Brown

Although its musical form is that of a halliard shanty, it was always used for the capstan. I never heard it used for any other purpose than heaving the anchor. The large-sized notes [LA TI DO] given in the last bar are those which most sailors sing to me nowadays; the small ones [RE MI DO] are those which I most frequently heard when a boy.

1. Sally Brown she's a bright Mulatter.

Way Ay-y Roll and go.

She drinks rum and chews terbacker.

Spend my money on Sally Brown.

2. Sally Brown shë has a daughter

Sent me sailin' 'cross the water.



3. Seven long years Ï courted Sally. (twice)



4. Sally Brown I'm bound to leave you

Sally Brown I'll not deceive you.



5. Sally she's a 'Badian' beauty. (twice)



6. Sally lives on the old plantation

She belongs the Wild Goose Nation.



7. Sally Brown is a bright Mulatter

She drinks rum and chews terbacker.
//

[SANTIANA]
//
8. Santy Anna

1. Oh Santy Anna won the day.

Way-Ah, me Santy Anna.

Oh Santy Anna won the day.

All on the plains of Mexico.
2. He beat the Prooshans fairly.
Way-Ah, etc.

And whacked the British nearly.
All on, etc.



3. He was a rorty gineral;

A rorty snorty gineral.



4. They took him out and shöt him.

Oh when shall we forgët him.



5. Oh Santy Anna won the day

And Gin'ral Taylor run away.
//

[SHENANDOAH] learned as a boy. As in 1920, with additional verses.
//
9. Shenandoah

…This version (sung to me by Capt. Robertson) is almost, but not quite, identical with the one I learnt as a boy. …

1. Oh Shenandoah, I long to hear you.

Away you rolling river.

Oh Shenandoah, I long to hear you.

Away, I'm bound to go
'Cross the wide Missouri.

2. Oh Shenandoah, I love your daughter. (twice)



3. 'Tis seven long years since last I see thee. (twice)



4. Oh Shenandoah, I took a notion

To sail across the stormy ocean.



5. Oh Shenandoah, I'm bound to leave you.

Oh Shenandoah, I'll not deceive you.



6. Oh Shenandoah, I long to hear you. (twice)
//

[STORMY ALONG JOHN]
//
10. Stormalong John

This is one of the many shanties with 'Stormy' as their hero. Whatever other verses were extemporized, those relating to digging his grave with a silver spade, and lowering him down with a golden chain, were rarely omitted. Other favourite verses were:
(a) I wish I was old Stormy's son.

(b) I'd build a ship a thousand ton.

1. Oh poor old Stormy's dead and gone.

Storm along boys,
Storm along.

Oh poor old Stormy's dead and gone.

Ah-ha, come along, get along,
Stormy along John.


2. I dug his grave with a silver spade. (twice)


3. I lower'd him down with a golden chain. (twice)


4. I carried him away to Mobile Bay. (twice)

5. Oh poor old Stormy's dead and gone. (twice)
//

[HOGEYE]
//
11. The Hog's-eye Man

Of the numberless versions of this shanty I have chosen that of Capt. Robertson as being the most representative. Of the infinite number of verses to this fine tune hardly one is printable. There has been much speculation as to the origin of the title. As a boy my curiosity was piqued by reticence, evasion, or declarations of ignorance, whenever I asked the meaning of the term. It was only in later life that I learnt it from Mr. Morley Roberts. His explanation made it clear why every sailor called it either 'hog-eye' or 'hog's-eye,' and why only landsmen editors ever get the word wrong. …That is all the explanation I am at liberty to give in print.

1. Oh the hog's-eye man is the man for me,
He were raised way down in Tennessee.
Oh hog's eye, oh.
Row the boat ashore for the hog's-eye.
Steady on a jig with a hog's-eye oh,
She wants the hog's-eye man.
2. Oh who's been here while I've been gone?
Söme big buck nigger, with his sea boots on?[3]

3. Oh bring me down mÿ riding cane,
For I'm off to see my darling Jane.

4. Oh Jenny's in the garden a-picking peas,
And her golden hair's hanging down to her knees.
5. Oh a hog's-eye ship, and a hog's-eye crew,
And a hog's-eye mate, and a skipper too.
//

[HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING] from Capt. Jogn Runciman.
//
12. The Wild Goose Shanty

…Allusions to 'The Wild Goose Nation' occur in many shanties, but I never obtained any clue to the meaning (if any) of the term. The verse about 'huckleberry hunting' was rarely omitted, but I never heard that particular theme further developed.

1. I'm the Shanty-man of the Wild Goose Nation.

Tibby Way-ay Hioha!

I've left my wife on a big plantation.

Hilo my Ranzo Hay!

2. Now a long farewell to the old plantation. (twice)



3. And a long farewell to the Wild Goose Nation. (twice)


4. Oh the boys and the girls went a huckleberry hunting. (twice)


5. Then good-bye and farewell yöu rolling river. (twice)



6. I'm the Shanty-man of the Wild Goose Nation.

I've left my wife on a big plantation.
//

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] as in 1920, with added verses.
//
13. We're all bound to go

I used to hear this tune constantly on the Tyne. It is one of the few shanties which preserved a definite narrative, but each port seems to have offered variants on the names of the ships that were 'bound for Amerikee.' 'Mr. Tapscott' was the head of a famous line of emigrant ships. The last word in verse 5 was always pronounced male. This has led to many shantymen treating it not as meal, but as the mail which the ship carried. As the shanty is full of Irish allusions, the probabilities are that the word was meal, to which the sailor gave what he considered to be the Irish pronunciation. Whenever I heard the shanty it was given with an attempt at Irish pronunciation throughout.

1. Oh Johnny was a rover
And to-day he sails away.

Heave away, my Johnny,
Heave away-ay.

Oh Johnny was a rover
And to-day he sails away.

Heave away my bully boys,
We're all bound to go.

2. As I was walking out one day,
Down by the Albert Dock.

I heard an emigrant Irish girl
Conversing with Tapscott.


3. "Good mornin', Mister Tapscott, sir,"
"Good morn, my gel," sez he,

"It's have you got a Packet Ship
All bound for Amerikee?"



4. "Oh yes, I've got a Packet Ship,
I have got one or two.

I've got the Jenny Walker
And I've got the Kangeroo."



5. "I've got the Jenny Walker
And to-day she does set sail,

With five and fifty emigrants And a thousand bags o' male."

6. Badluck to thim Irish sailor boys,
Bad luck to thim I say.
For they all got drunk, and broke into me bunk
And stole me clo'es away.
//

[DRUNKEN SAILOR] for "windlass and capstan." As in 1920, with added verses.
//
14. What shall we do with the drunken sailor?

This fine tune—in the first Mode—was always a great favourite. Although mostly used for windlass or capstan, Sir Walter Runciman tells me that he frequently sang to it for 'hand-over-hand' hauling. …It is one of the few shanties that were sung in quick time.

1. What shall we do with the drunken sailor,

What shall we do with the drunken sailor,

What shall we do with the drunken sailor

Early in the morning?

Hooray and up she rises,

Hooray and up she rises,

Hooray and up she rises

Early in the morning.


2. Put him in the long-boat until he's sober. (thrice)


3. Pull out the plug änd wet him all over. (thrice)


4. Put him in the scuppers with a hose-pipe on him. (thrice)


5. Heave him by the leg in a running bowlin'. (thrice)


6. Tie him to the taffrail when she's yard-arm under. (thrice)
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 13 Jul 11 - 07:42 PM

1920        Terry, R.R. "Sailor Shanties (II)." _Music and Letters_ 1(3) (July 1920):256-268.

Continuation of Part I. Here, Terry moves on to give more shanties, filed under type.

A general observation: Many of the examples given seem to me suspiciously like they were drawn from earlier collections (of which Terry sticks to just the major ones, without delving into any side articles or historical literature). They are not wholesale reproductions, but rather, composites, in order to create what Terry might have thought were 'ideal' forms. Terry does mention, at every turn, his credentials—his experience hearing chanties whilst growing up. But while he may have been familiar with the songs generally, I am skeptical as to whether he actually remembered their musical and lyrical details and whether he isn't, rather, using the works of previous others to create his examples. Many have the feel of Bullen's melodies, but the lyrics are fleshed out from other sources.

I know that Terry, like Sharp, utilized John Short as an informant. That would certainly explain some similarities. However:
1) At this point, Terry is not citing his informants, nor is he citing his desk-sources specifically. This suggests a sort of cavalier attitude, more indicative of a performing musician than a folklorist, where the songs are presumed to be "out there" as de-contextualizable (??) objects, regardless of their singers, place, time, etc. In other words, it's OK (it doesn't matter much) if one mixes up details from different sources, and there's no need to mention a sources because any other source would be the same.
2) Trying to compare all the sources, from which I argue Terry may have drawn to make his composites, is difficult. They all need to be in front of you, and it's a time-consuming process that must be done song-by-song. I am not going to do it right now. And, I am going to wait until studying Terry's big collection to see what he claims to be the source of each item.

[LOWLANDS AWAY]
//
LOWLANDS.

Lowlands, Lowlands, Away, my John!
Lowlands, away, I heard them say,
My dollar and a half a day.
A dollar and a half a day is a Hoosier's pay.
Lowlands, Lowlands, away, my John!
A dollar and a half a day is very good pay.
My dollar and a half a day.
//

[JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO]
//
Of the more rhythmic capstan shanties, the following rollicking tune (known to every sailor) is a fair sample:-

JOHNNY COMES DOWN TO HILO.

I nebber see de like since I bin born,
When a big buck nigger wid de sea boots on,
Sez Johnny come down to Hilo, O poor old man.
Oh wake her, Oh shake her, Oh wake dat gel wid de blue dress on,
When Johnny comes down to Hilo, O poor old man.
//

[GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL]
//
GOODBYE FARE YE WELL.

I thought I heard the old man say,
Goodbye, fare-ye-well, Goodbye, fare-ye-well.
I thought I heard the old man say,
Hooray, my boys, we're homeward bound.
//

//
Hauling shanties…required for "the short pull" or "sweating up." (Americans called them the long and the short drag).
//

[REUBEN RANZO]
//
REUBEN RANZO

Oh pity poor Reuben Ranzo.
Ranzo, boys, Ranzo.
Oh poor old Reuben Ranzo.
Ranzo, boys, Ranzo.
//

[BOWLINE], "sweating up"
//
HAUL THE BOWLIN'.
We'll haul the bowlin' so early in the morning.
[cho.]We'll haul the bowlin', the bowlin' haul.

So much effort was now required on the pull that it was difficult to sing a musical note at that point. The last word was therefore usually shouted.
//

[PADDY DOYLE]
//
One tune of this type (when a special collective effort was required) was that used to " bunt up " the foresail or mainsail in furling. In this operation the canvas of the sail was doubled in-tensively until it formed a smooth conical bundle. This was called a "bunt," and a strong collective effort was required to get it onto the yard. Only one short tune was ever used for this bunting operation. It differs from all other shanties in being sung tutti throughout:-

PADDY DOYLE'S BOOTS.
To me Way-ay-ay-ah.
We'll pay Paddy Doyle for his BOOTS.

The same words were sung over and over again, but very occasionally a different text would be substituted. Capt. Whall gives two alternatives which were sometimes used: "We'll all drink brandy and gin" and "We'll all shave under the chin." Mr. Morley Roberts also told me that a variant in his ship was "We'll all throw dirt at the cook."
//

The following passage shows that Terry had little or no experience with shanties as they were sung aboard ship.
//
For "pull-and-haul" shanties, the shantyman took up his position near the workers (he did no work himself) and announced the shanty,-sometimes by singing the first line. This established the tune to which they were to supply the chorus. For capstan shanties he usually did the same. He is generally shown in pictures as sitting on the capstan, but so far as I can learn, he more usually took up his position on or against the knightheads.
//

Nature of lyrics again, extemporized, often dirty.
//
Each shanty had one or two stereotyped verses, after which the shantyman extemporised on any topics he chose. There was no need for any connection or relevancy between one verse and another, nor were rhymes required. The main thing that mattered was that the rhythm should be preserved, and that the words should be such as would keep the workers merry. Great license was taken in this respect, and the intimacy of the shantyman's topics was such as to make his extemporised verses unprintable. As Capt. Whall says-no seaman in a cargo-carrying ship ever heard a "decent " shanty, and in passenger vessels the shantyman was given the option of "decent words or no shanty." He mentions the notorious "Hog's-eye man" (to which I refer later) as a case in point.
//

[HAUL AWAY JOE]
//
It is curious that some of the loveliest melodies were those to which the lewdest kind of words were usually fitted. The following is an instance. Only a few verses are fit for print: --

HAUL, HAUL AWAY.

Way haul away, We'll haul away the bow lin'.
[cho.] Haul away, Haul away JOE.

King Louis was the King of France, Before the Revolution.
Way haul away, etc.

King Louis got his head cut off, And spoiled his constitution.
Way haul away, etc.
//

Some quasi-narrative chanties.
//
A few shanties had a definite narrative which was adhered to, extemporaneous verses being added only if the regulation ones did not spin out to the end of the job in hand. One of the most popular of these was " Reuben Ranzo " above quoted. It had two usual versions, one with a happy ending (the captain took him into his cabin and "learned him navigation," afterwards marrying him to his daughter) and the other concluding with the tragedy of Ranzo being led to the gangway to receive "five-and-furty " lashes for his dirty habits. (In yet another version the indignant crew threw him overboard).
//

Role of shantyman.
//
The importance of a shantyman could not be overestimated. A good shantyman with a pretty wit was worth his weight in gold. He was a privileged person, and was excused all work save light or odd jobs.
//

The next part gives clear evidence for my suspicions of Terry's shady presentation. After slamming scholars for looking for "modes", he claims [STAND TO YOUR GROUND" is "modal." However, what he has done is reproduce Whall's example having removed the accidentals (G#'s)! I just don't get it.
//
Like all traditional tunes, some shanties are in the ancient modes, and others in the modern major and minor keys. It is the habit of the " folksonger " (I am not alluding to our recognised folk-song experts) to find "modes " in every traditional tune. It will suffice therefore, to say that shanties follow the course of all other traditional music. Many are modern, and easily recognisable as such; others are modal in character, e.g.:

STAND TO YOUR GROUND
Sally am de gal dat I lub dearly.
Way, sing Sally;
O, Sally am de gal dat I lub dearly.
Hilo, John Brown, stand to your ground.
//

[DRUNKEN SAILOR]
//
WHAT SHALL WE DO WITH THE DRUNKEN SAILOR.

What shall we do with the drunken sailor?
What shall we do with the drunken sailor?
What shall we do with the drunken sailor,
Early in the morning. etc.
//

[HOGEYE] It compares to Sharp's / Short's version in English Folk-Chanteys.
//
THE HOG'S-EYE MAN.

Oh, de Hog's eye man is de man fer me;
He war raised'way down in Tennessee
Oh, Hog's-eye, oh;
Row de boat a- shore fer de Hog's-eye,
Steady on a jig with the Hog's-eye, Oh;
She wants de Hog's-eye man.
//

[MR. STORMALONG]
//
Others fulfil to a certain extent modal conditions, but are never-theless in keys.

STORMALONG.

Old Stormy he was a bully old man,
Tib-by way-oh Stormalong.
Oh poor old Stormy's dead and gone,
Ay, ay, ay, Mister Storm along.
//

Major and minor key switch. Much speculation.
//
Like many other folk-songs, certain shanties originally no doubt in a mode were, by the insertion of leading notes, converted into the minor, key. There was also the tendency on the part of the modem sailor to turn his minor key into a major one. I sometimes find sailors singing in the major nowadays, tunes which the very old men of my boyhood used to sing in the minor. A case in point is "Haul away Joe," already quoted. Miss Smith is correct in giving it the minor form which once obtained on the Tyne, and I am inclined to hazard the opinion that that was the original form, and not, as now, the following …
In later times I have also heard The Drutnken Sailor (a distinctly modal tune) sung in the major as follows…
I have generally found that these perversions of the tunes are due to sailors who took to the sea as young men in the last days of the sailing ship, and consequently did not imbibe to the full the old traditions. With the intolerance of youth they assumed that the modal tum given to a shanty by the older sailor was the mark of ignorance since it did not square with their ideas of a major or minor key.
//

In this long passage, Terry talks up his awareness of fieldwork issues, yet he then justifies his presentation of ideal forms, deprecating the "variant" collection of Sharp's ilk and putting down "undeducated" informants.
//
This experience is common to all folk-tune collectors. Other characteristics, for example :-(a) different words to the same melody, (b) different melodies to the same or similar words, need not be enlarged upon here as they will be self-evident when a definitive collection is published. Of the usual troubles incidental to folk-song collecting it is un-necessary to speak. But the collection of shanties involves difficulties of a special kind. In taking down a folk-song from a rustic, one's chief difficulty is surmounted when one has broken down his shyness and induced him to sing. There is nothing for him to do then but get on with the song. Shanties however, being labour songs, one is "up against" the strong psychological connection between the song and its manual acts. …An incident related to me quite casually by Sir Walter Runciman throws a similar light on the inseparability of a shanty and its labour. He described how one evening several north country ships happened to be lying in a certain port. All the officers and crews were ashore leaving only the apprentices aboard, some of whom as he, remarked were " very keen on shanties," and their suggestion of passing away the time by singing some was received with enthusiasm. The whole party of about thirty apprentices at once collected themselves aboard one vessel, sheeted home the main topsail, and commenced to haul it up to the tune of "Boney was a warrior," changing to " Haul the Bowlin' " for " sweating up." In the enthusiasm of their singing and the absence of any officer to call " 'Vast hauling" they continued operations until they broke the topsail yard in two, when the sight of the wreckage and the fear of consequences brought the singing to an abrupt conclusion. In my then ignorance, I naturally asked "Why couldn't you have sung shanties without hoisting the topsail? " and the reply was:-" How could we sing a shanty without having our hands on the rope? " …The only truly satisfactory results which I ever get nowadays from an old sailor are when he has been stimulated by conversation to become reminiscent, and croons his shanties almost sub-consciously. Whenever I find a sailor willing to declaim shanties in the style of a song I begin to be a little suspicious of his seamanship... Of course I have had sailors sing shanties to me in a fine declamatory manner, but I usually found one of three things to be the case :-the man was a "sea lawyer"; or had not done much deep-sea sailing; or his seaman-ship only dated from the decline of the sailing vessel. It is doubtless interesting to the folksonger to see in print shanties taken down from an individual sailor with his individual melodic twirls and twiddles. But since no two sailors ever sing the same shanty quite in the same manner, there must necessarily be some means of getting at the tune, unhampered by these individual idiosyncrasies, which are quite a different thing from what folk-song students recognise as "variants." The power to discriminate can only be acquired by familiarity with the shanty as it was in its palmy days. The collector who now comes upon the scene at this late time of day must necessarily be at a disadvantage. The ordinary methods which he would apply to a folk-song break down in the case of a labour song. Manual actions were the soul of the shanty; eliminate these and you have only the skeleton of what was once a living thing. It is quite possible, I know, to push this line of argument too far, but everyone who knows anything about seamanship must feel that a shanty nowadays cannot be other than a pale reflection of what it once was. That is why I deprecate the spurious authenticity conferred by print upon isolated versions of shanties sung by individual old men. When the originals are available it seems to me pedantic and academic to put into print the comic mispronunciations of well-known words by old and uneducated seamen. And this brings me to the last difficulty which confronts the collector with no previous knowledge of shanties. As a mere matter of dates, any sailors now remaining from sailing ship days must necessarily be very old men. I have found that their octo-genarian memories are not always to be trusted. On one occasion an old man sang quite glibly a tune which was in reality a pasticcio of three separate shanties all known to me. I have seen similar results in print, since the collector arrived too late upon the scene to be able to detect the tricks which an old man's memory played him. I have already spoken of shanties which were derived from popular songs, also the type which contained a definite narrative. Except where a popular song was adapted, the form was usually rhymed or more often unrhymed couplets. The topics were many and varied but the chief ones were (1) popular heroes such as Napoleon, and " Santy Anna." …(2) The sailor had mythical heroes too; e.g. " Ranzo " (already mentioned) and " Stormy" who was the theme of many shanties. …(3) High sounding, poetic, or mysterious words such as " Lowlands," " Shenandoah," " Rolling river," " Hilo," " Mobile Bay," " Rio Grande " had a great fascination, as their constant recurrence in many shanties shows. (4) The sailor also sang much of famous ships, such as "The Flying Cloud," " The Henry Clay," or " The Victory," and famous lines such as " The Black Ball."... (5) Love affairs (in which Lizer Lee and other damsels constantly figured) were an endless topic. (6) But chiefly did Jack sing of affairs connected with his ship. He never sang of "the rolling main," " the foaming billows," " the storm clouds," etc. These are the stock-in-trade of the landsman; they were too real for the sailor to sing about. He had the instinct of the primitive man…
//

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES]
//
WE'RE ALL BOUND TO GO.

Oh Johnny was a rover and today he sails away.
Heave away my Johnny, Heave away-ay
Oh Johnny was a rover and today he sails away.
Heave away my bully boys, We're all bound to go.

As I was walking out one day, Down by the Albert Dock.
Heave away, etc.
I heard an emigrant Irish girl Conversing with Tapscott.
Heave away, etc.

Good morning, Mr. Tapscott, sir; "Good morn, my gel," sez he.
Heave away, etc.
It's have you got a Packet Ship All bound for Amerikee.
Heave away, etc.
//

The example of "knock a man down" that he uses in the following argument does not work. Because Adams (and others), not only Sharp, had attested a "knock a man down." Moreover, Sharp got the version from John Short – is Terry alleging that Sharp changed the lyrics?
//
…One feature of the words may be noted. The sailor's instinct for romance was so strong that in his choruses at least (no matter how " hair curling " the solo might be) he always took the crude edge off the concrete and presented it as an abstraction if possible. For example; he knew perfectly well that one meaning of "to blow " was to knock or kick. He knew that discipline in Yankee packets was maintained by corporeal methods; so much so that the mates (to whom the function of knocking the " packet rats" about was delegated) were termed 1st, 2nd, and 3rd " blowers" or strikers, and in the shanty he sang "Blow the man down." " Knock " or " kick " (as I have recently seen in a printed collection) was too crudely realistic for him. In like manner the humorous title "Hogs-eye" veiled the coarse intimacy of the term which it represented. And that is where--when collecting shanties from the " longshore " mariner of to-day--I find him (if he is un-educated) so tiresome. He not only wants to explain to me as a landsman the exact meaning (which I know already) of terms which the old type of sailor, with his natural delicacy, avoided discussing, but he tries where possible to work them into his shanty,-- a thing the sailor of old time never did. So that when one sees in print expressions which sailors did not use, it is presumptive evidence that the collector has been imposed upon by a salt of the "sea lawyer" type. Perhaps I ought to make this point clearer. Folk-song collecting was once merely an artistic pursuit. Now it has become a flourishing industry of high commercial value. From the commercial point of view it is essential that results should be printed and circulated as widely as possible. Some knowledge of seamanship is an absolute necessity where folk-shanties are concerned. The mere collector nowadays does not possess that knowledge; it is confined to those who have had practical experience of the sea, but who will never print their experiences. The mere collector must print his versions…
//

Getting profound… then a bit snide, about insider knowledge. And more notes on the nature of "dirty" lyrics.
//
…What is unprinted must remain unknown; what is printed is therefore accepted as authoritative, however misleading it may be. Many highly educated men, of which Captain Whall is the type, have followed the sea. It is from them that the only really trustworthy information is forthcoming. But so far as I can judge, it is uneducated men who appear to sing to collectors nowadays, and I have seen many a quiet smile on the lips of the educated sailor when he is confronted with printed versions of the uneducated seaman's performances. For example, one of the best known of all Shanties is "The Hog's-eye man." I have seen this entitled "The Hog-eyed man," and even "The Ox-eyed Man." Every old sailor knew the meaning of the term. Whall and Bullen, who were both sailors, use the correct expression, "Hog-eye." The majority of sailors of my acquaintance called it "Hog's-eye." Did decency permit I could show conclusively how Whall and Bullen are right and the mere collector wrong. It must suffice, however, for me to say that the term " Hog's-eye " or "Hog-eye" had Nothing whatever to do with the optic of the "Man" who was sung about. I could multiply instances, but this one is typical and must suffice. We hear a great deal of the coarseness and even lewdness of the shanty, but I could wish a little more stress were laid on the sailor's natural delicacy. Jack was always a gentleman in feeling. Granted his drinking, cursing, and amours; but were not these until Victorian times the hall mark of every gentleman ashore? The Rabelaisian jokes of the shantyman were solos, the sound of which would not travel far beyond the little knot of workers who chuckled over them. The choruses--shouted out by the whole working party -- would be heard all over the ship, and even penetrate ashore if she were in port. Hence, in not a single instance do the choruses of any shanty contain a coarse expression.
//

Terry makes a distinction in shanty performance style that I have not seen before. I'm not sure what to make of it yet.
//
One final remark about collectors which has an important bearing upon the value of their work. There were two classes of sailing vessels that sailed from English ports, --the coaster or the mere collier that plied between the Tyne or Severn and Boulogne, and the Southspainer, under which term was comprised all deep-sea vessels. On the collier or short voyage vessel the crew was necessarily a small one, and the Shanty was more or less of a makeshift, adapted to the capacity of the limited members of the crew. Purely commercial reasons precluded the engagement of any Shantyman specially distinguished for his musical attainments. Consequently, so far as the Shanty was concerned, "any old thing would do." On the Southspainer, however, things were very different. The Shantyman was usuallv a person of considerable musical importance, who sang his songs in a more or less finished manner; his melodies were clean clear-cut things without any of the folk-songer's quavers and wobbles. I heard them in the 'seventies and 'eighties before the sailing-ship had vanished, consequently I speak of the things I know.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 Jul 11 - 08:00 PM

1920        Terry, R.R. "Sailor Shanties (I)." _Music and Letters_ 1(1):35-44.

This would be Terry's first published work on shanties, the first of 2 articles which would later become his book collection.

After some generic/stereotypical comments, Terry takes note of the literature on chanties that had grown since their demise in practice.
//
When the sailing ship ruled the waters and the shanty was a
living thing, no one appears to have paid heed to it. To the
landsman of those days—before folk-song hunting had begun—the
haunting beauty of the tunes would appear to have made no appeal.
This may be partly accounted for by the fact that he would never
be likely to hear the sailor sing them ashore, and partly because of
the Rabelaisian character of the words to which they were sung
aboard ship. We had very prim notions of propriety in those
days, and were apt to overlook the beauty of the melodies, and to
speak of shanties in bulk as "low vulgar songs." Be that as it
may, it was not until the early 'eighties—when the shanty was
beginning to die out with the sailing ship—that any attempt was
made to form a collection. W. L. Alden in Harper's Magazine,
and James Runciman—in the St. James' Gazette [1884, I think – LA Smith quoted him] and other papers—wrote articles on the subject, and gave musical quotations.
//

Critique of LA Smith:
//
In 1888 Miss L. A. Smith of Newcastle-on-Tyne published The Music
of the Waters, a thick volume into which was tumbled indiscrimi-
nately and uncritically a collection of all sorts of tunes from all
sorts of countries which had any connection with seas, lakes,
rivers, or their geographical equivalents. Scientific folk-song
collecting was not understood in those days, and consequently all
was fish that came to the authoress's net. Sailor shanties and
landsmen's nautical effusions were jumbled together higgledy-
piggledy, …But this lack of discrimination, pardonable in those days,
was not so serious as the inability to write the tunes down cor-
rectly. So long as they were copied from other song-books they
were not so bad. But when it came to taking them down from the
seamen's singing the results were deplorable. Had the authoress
been able to give us correct versions of the shanties, her collection
would have been a valuable one. One example (of what runs all
through the book) will be sufficient to show how a lack of the rudi-
ments of music renders valueless what would otherwise have been
a document of importance. This is the Tyneside version of "Johnny Boker," one of the best known of all shanties :
[score]

Here follows the version of Miss Smith; she gives no words, and
entitles it "Johnny Polka" :—
[score]

It will be seen that the notes are given correctly, but their respective
time values are all wrong, and the barring which this involves
makes the version a travesty.
//

Continues, comparing his Tyneside work to Smith's.
//
The book contains altogether about thirty-two shanties collected
from sailors in the Tyne seaports. [Actually, probably only 14-18 of them at most were collected by Smith.] Since both Miss Smith and
myself hail from Newcastle, her "hunting ground " for shanties
was also mine, and I am consequently in a position to assess the
importance or unimportance of her work. I may therefore say
that although hardly a single shanty is noted down correctly, I can
see clearly (having myself noted the same tunes, in the same dis-
trict,) what she intended to convey, and furthermore can vouch
for the accuracy of some of the words which were common to north
country sailors, and have not appeared in other collections. As
examples I may mention those of " Rio Grande," " Lowlands,"
" Blow the man down," " Hilo my Ranzo Way," " Santy Anna,"
and " Heave away my Johnny." If I have dealt at some length
with Miss Smith's book it is not because I wish to disparage a well-
intentioned effort, but because I constantly hear The Music of
the Waters quoted as an authoritative book on sailor shanties ;
and since the shanties in it were all collected in the district where
I spent boyhood and youth, I am familiar with all of them, and can
state definitely that they are in no sense authoritative. I should
like however to pay my tribute of respect to Miss Smith's industry,
and to her enterprise in calling attention to tunes that then seemed
in a fair way to disappear.
//

Now, on to critiquing Davis/Tozer:
//
About the same time appeared a collection entitled Sailors'
Songs or Chanties, in which the music was "composed and arranged on traditional sailor airs " by Dr. Ferris Tozer. These two
pieces of information rule the book out of court, since (a) a sailor
song is not a shanty, and (b) to "compose and arrange on traditional
airs" is to destroy the traditional form.
//

On Whall.
//
Other collections have since appeared, but (for reasons into which
I prefer not to enter here) none of them are genuinely authoritative
save Capt. W. B. Whall's -Sea Songs, Ships, and Shanties. Capt.
Whall studied music under Sir John Stainer, consequently we have
the necessary combination (which all the other collections lack) of
seamanship and musicianship.
//

Establishing his authority.
//
Since I follow the profession of a
church organist, it may reasonably be asked "by what authority "
I speak concerning shanties, and shanty collecting. I ought there-
fore to explain that my maternal ancestors have followed the sea
as far back as the family history can be traced. I have "grown
up with" sailor shanties,—sung to me by sailor uncles and grand-
uncles since I was a child. I have in later years collected shanties
from all manner of sailors, but chiefly from Northumbrian sources.
I have collated these later versions with the ones which I learnt at
first hand from sailor relatives as a boy. And lastly, I lived for
some years in the West Indies,—one of the few remaining spots
where the shanty is still alive.
//

Etymology/spelling again.
//
The derivation of the word is unknown. Two have been pro-
posed, but without producing any evidence that could satisfy a
philologist. One of them, (un) chanti has the disadvantage of
suggesting that the word rhymes with "auntie"; and when, in
consequence of this derivation, the word is spelt "chanty," the
ordinary reader is led to pronounce it " tchahnty " which arouses
the irritation and contempt of the sailor, who always, everywhere
makes it alliterate with " shall " and rhyme with " scanty." Its
pronunciation is best represented by "Shanty " as in the Oxford
Dictionary, which assigns 1869 for its introduction into literature.
There is very little to be said for the derivation from shanty, a hut,
but that from (un) chani will not bear serious inspection.
As to the origin of shanty tunes I have a third explanation, but
it cannot be printed. They would appear to have been sung in
British ships as early as the 15th century. But as Capt. Whall
deals with this point in his book, nothing further need be said here.
The varied character of the sailor's tunes indicates a variety of
sources. Mediterranean voyages would account for Italian in-
fluence, as, for example, in the following, which has not been
printed before. Although sung to me by a Northumbrian sailor,
it is redolent of the languor of Venetian lagoons, of moonlight, and
swift stealing gondolas, and the tinkling guitar, with ite unchanging
tonic and dominant harmonies :—

My Johnny. [w/ score]

We're homeward bound today But where is my Johnny;
My own dear Johnny, My own dear Johnny,
Well drink and court and play, But always think of Johnny.
My lively Johnny, Goodbye.

This is clearly a definite song annexed wholesale, and fitted with
English words. Its modern tonality will not attract folk-song
collectors, but my sailorman informed me that it was a favourite
"interchangeable" shanty in his ship.
//
The above "Italian influenced" song was reprinted in Hugill, and I've rendered it here:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=04a09UGm_X8

Begins to present his uniquely collected items, with [BILLY BOY]:
//
Folk-songs learnt ashore in his native fishing village provided
much of the material from which the sailor's shanty was fashioned.
Sometimes there would be no adaptation, and the song (especially
if it had a double refrain) would be sung complete, as in the following
example. It is Northumbrian in origin, and deals with the same
topic as "My boy Billy" collected by Dr. Vaughan-Williams.

Both words and tune are different from Dr. Vaughan-Williams's,
but the idea is the same :—" Billy " has been out courting, and
undergoes cross-questioning concerning the qualifications of his
lady-love as housewife. The theme seems common (with varying
words and tune) to several English counties.

BILLY BOY.

Where hev ye been aal the day, Billy Boy, Billy Boy?
Where hev ye been aal the day, me Billy Boy?
I've been walkin' aal the day with me charm-in' Nancy Grey,
And me Nancy kittl'd [=tickled] me fancy,
Oh me charmin' Billy Boy.

Solo Is she fit to be yor wife, Billy Boy, Billy Boy ?
Chorus Is she fit to be yor wife, My Billy Boy ?
Solo She's as fit to be me wife As the fork is to the knife,
Chorus And me Nancy kittled, etc.
//

[GOOD MORNING LADIES ALL]
//
Although I had the following from a Northumbrian sailor, I
should hesitate to ascribe the tune to a Northumbrian source with-
out further corroboration. Again the theme—or at least the title—
is a familiar one, but I have not come across the tune (or variants
of it) in any other part of the country. It was used as a halliard
shanty :—

GOOD MORNING, LADIES ALL.

Now a long good-bye to you my dear.
With a heave Oh haul!
And a last farewell and a long farewell.
And good morning ladies all.
//

Another item that Terry remembers from youth in a fishing village. However, its use as a chanty is dubious.
//
The following beautiful tune I used to hear when a child in the
fishing villages of Cresswell and Hauxley. I have the authority of
Mr. James Runciman for its being used as a capstan shanty. I
cannot remember the words, but Mr. Runciman printed two verses
in his book The Romance, of the Coast. I can now find no one
in the district who remembers the song, and my efforts to recapture
the words (by enquiries in Newcastle newspapers) have so far
proved fruitless. Sir Walter Runciman—who knows practically
all the shanties which had a vogue in Blyth ships—tells me that he
nevef heard this particular tune so used. He thinks it must have
been " made into a shanty " only aboard the ship in which Mr.
James Runciman heard it. I give the chorus, as my memory is
not to be trusted for the rest of the words :—

Hev ye seen owt o' maa bonny lad.
And are ye sure he's weel—Oh?
He's gyen ower land, Wiv his stick in his hand.
He's gyen te moor the keel—Oh.
//

A long explanation why he thinks some chanties were localized in his native area. Basically, well-trained sailors tended to stay with the same ship.
//
In my boyhood the Northumbrian coast was specially rich in
folk-songs known to the inhabitants of every fishing village. A
considerable proportion of these were bilinear in form, with a lilt
or refrain after each line. The presence of this double chorus
made such folk-songs specially suitable for shanties. Up to now
I do not think it has ever been satisfactorily explained in print why
shanties' of this type were so strictly localised. The facts would
seem to be these. At Blyth and Amble, for example, there was a
flourishing Seaman's Union. Its objects were not so pronounced
as the Seamen's Unions of to-day. It was to some extent a benefit
club, and only on matters of grave importance did it approach
shipowners in its corporate capacity. The duty on which it most
prided itself, and which it carried out with the utmost rigour was
the examination of apprentices when they bad completed their
indentures. Every apprentice when " out of his time " aspired to
a position as Able Seaman either aboard' the vessel in which he had
served his apprenticeship, or some other ship belonging to the
same port. But sailors in those days were very jealous of their
prestige and their privileges. In their pride of seamanship they
resented the presence of a lubber aboard their ship. Consequently
before they would consent to sail with any time-expired apprentice,
the latter was obliged to appear before a small board or committee
of the sailors of the union, and undergo a very searching exami-
nation on all points of practical seamanship. If he passed this
severe test he was at liberty to sail in any ship, and was received
by any crew as a comrade and an equal. If he failed, he could
only ship aboard a vessel as " Half Marrow," receiving only half
an ordinary AB's pay. In such contempt was the Half Marrow
held, that many ships' crews would not sail with one, and I have
even known engagements (contracted during apprenticeship) broken
off because a girl's pride would not allow her to marry a sailor
whom she regarded as a discredit to his profession. I have also
known cases where a Half Marrow, scorned by every ship in his
native seaport, was obliged to migrate to the Tyne or even to
Bristol, in order to obtain employment aboard a type of ship which
carried a miscellaneous crew, and where the corporate pride of
seamanship was not so pronounced. In those days sailors became
so attached to their ship that they were content to spend their
whole lives in her, and almost broke their hearts if circumstances
obliged them to make a change. It will thus be seen that any
local folk-song which obtained a footing aboard the ships of any
one port would not be likely, owing to the more or less fixed
personnel of the crews, to travel farther afield.
//

I am surprised how much his [ROLL THE COTTON DOWN] resembles Bullen's, and that after just referring to Bullen's ideas. It is very similar, and yet seems to be subtley changed at liberty! (And what's the deal with not mentioning Bullen by name?
//
Another source of shanties was undoubtedly negroid. The
following well-known shanty is a type with which sailors would
necessarily become familiar at cotton seaports :—

ROLL THE COTTON DOWN.

I'm bound to Alabama
Oh roll the cotton down,
I'm bound to Alabama
Oh roll the cotton down.

I have seen it stated in the preface to a recent collection of
shanties that those of negro origin are characterized by what we
should now call ragtime. This is far from being the case. If there
is one thing more than another which distinguishes negro music,
it is its direct and insistent rhythm. Everything the negro does
is rhythmic… Ragtime is a product of the stage nigger,
not of the real negro. I never found any negro use syncopation.
The popular impression that he does so is no doubt due to careless
observation of the way in which he beats time to any given tune,
viz :—by a tap of the foot followed by a clap of the hands. The
foot-tap always comes on the strong beat, and the hand-clap on
the weak one. Since the bare foot makes no sound, the casual
observer does not notice its action, but he does both see and hear
the hand-clap (off the beat) and thinks he is listening to syncopation.
A moment's reflection will show that ragtime or any other form of
syncopated music is just the thing which could not be used for a
shanty where the pull on the rope must necessarily occur on the strong beat of the music.
//
I can agree that the "business" parts of a chanty are not to be syncopated, but to say that Black music contains no syncopation…???!

"American influence." [SHENANDOAH]
//
American influence both as regards music and phraseology is
traceable throughout the history of the shanty. One quotation
of a beautiful tune—known to every sailor—will suffice :—

SHENANDOAH.

Oh, Shenandore, I long to hear you
Away you rolling river;
Oh, Shenandore, I long to hear you,
Away I'm bound to go 'cross the wide Missouri.
//

Mention of borrowing from longshore material, eg [A-ROVING], [JOHN BROWN'S BODY], [SACRAMENTO].
//
Another source about which there is a certain amount of mis-
apprehension is to be found in popular airs which were annexed in
their entirety. " A-roving," " John Brown's Body," and others
were used in this way. "Camptown Races" became "The Banks
of Sacramento " and so on. As an old sailor once said to me " You
can make anything into a shanty."
//

Then makes an argument for a different origin of [PADDY ON THE RAILWAY], saying it was developed from or originally was a shanty. I believe his facts are not straight!
//
Bullen included in his collection the equally well-known " Poor Paddy works on the Railway," and his expressed dislike for it was doubtless due to the commonly accepted opinion that it was not a genuine shanty, but
had been imported wholesale from "The Christy Minstrels" who
flourished in the 'fifties. But I think it is not sufficiently under-
stood that just as sailors borrowed and adapted tunes from any
and every source, so did the Christy Minstrels. Without wishing
to be dogmatic, I have the following reason for thinking that "The
Christies " annexed " Poor Paddy " from the sailor, and not vice
versa. Mr. James Runciman (who died in 1891 [born 1852!]) gave me a shanty which he had learnt from a great-uncle of his, the melody of which
is nothing more or less than that of " Poor Paddy." I place the
two side by side for purposes of comparison :—

THE SHAVER.

When I was a little tiny boy, I went to sea in Stormy's employ.
I sail'd away across the sea, When I was just a Shaver, a Shaver.
It's I was weary of the sea, when I was just a Shaver.

Solo Oh they whacked me up, and they whacked me down.
The Mate he cracked me on the crown.
They whacked me round, and round, and round.
Chorus When I was just a Shaver. It's I was weary, etc.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VEIfuL_dIOY

POOR PADDY WORKS ON THE RAILWAY.

In eighteen hundred and forty one, My cordaroy breeches I put on,
My cordaroy breeches I put on, To work upon the railway, the railway. I'm weary of the railway, Oh poor Paddy works on the railway.

So here at any rate we have an instance of a tune, universally
attributed to the Christy Minstrels, but which (whatever its original
source) was actually sung at sea before the Christy Minstrels came
into existence. [OK, but they came into existence in 1843.] (A " Shaver "—by the way—is the north country equivalent of the Cockney term " Little Nipper.")
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 Jul 11 - 05:02 PM

1915        Terry, Richard Runciman. "Sea Songs and Shanties."_ Journal of the Royal Music Association_ 11(41): 135-140.

On May 18, 1915, R.R. Terry (1865-1938) addressed members of the [Royal] Musical Association. Terry, an expert in liturgical music and the organ, was presumably in the midst of his project of collecting chanties. Here he uses a bit of his clout as a descendant of sea-farers to gain some leverage among his colleaugues. This is a transcript or summary of his address, from the proceedings of the meeting, followed by points from the discussion.

Terry is jumping into the fray after the 1914 showdown between Bullen and Sharp.
//
There is a great deal of literature on the subject, but the lecturer has been long familiar with Shanties from hearing his own sailor relatives sing them. There is this to be said about sailors' Shanties: there are so many variants of all the tunes that there is plenty of material for a lecture without having recourse to compiling from existing literature.
//
So, he proposes to make is own musicological contribution.

On spelling:
//
As regards the spelling of the word" Shanties," every person
who has had any connection with the Sea knows that the word
is pronounced in that way; there is no reason therefore why the
spelling should not correspond.
//

//
A Shanty was not sung by way of recreation, but was used to
lighten labour. …They flourished with the sailing ship and the coming of steam has killed them. Their origin so far as the composers are concerned is not known. In those unsophisticated days some sailor on
board ship more musical than the others probably collated the
tunes he knew, and the result was the Shanty. It had been
asserted that most of them were of negro origin, and that they
suggest ragtime. But there is nothing less suggestive of ragtime
than the Shanty; it has a clean, definite, rhythm which would
help the men at their work.
//
This is a response to Bullen.

He continues,
//
The negro in the West Indies is not the American negro. It is the latter that sings ragtime, and not so much he as the people who caricature him. The negro of the more primitive type is a person with a keen sense of persistent rhythm. In the West Indies one can hear Shanties to this day.
Here, perhaps, if one wants to get it, can be found the derivation
of the word Shanty, for the negro huts are called by this name. When a negro quarrels with his neighbour, and the relations between them are too strained for them to live any longer together, then one arranges to have his shanty moved. They are moved on trolleys, which are pulled by men at the end of ropes stretching down the road; and as they pull, the shantyman sits on top of the roof astride and sings the solo part of
some "pull and haul" Shanty. If the word is derived by some
from the French verb chanter, possibly this West Indian custom
is also a plausible explanation.
//
This may be the start of the "hut" theory? I'm not sure; I've tended to gloss over that in readings. What I find more interesting is the way he negotiates Bullen and Sharp. To essentialize their positions (!): Bullen says "Chanties are mainly Negro origin…I know through lived experience", Sharp says, "No, not really…I doubt it based on my musicological analysis." And Terry says, "OK, Negro, but *Caribbean*…this explains the musical inconsistencies." Personally, I think they are mixing up dance song and work song, which share some features (being a product of the same culture's musical system), but which shouldn't be compared so closely.

Seems to be rehashing Bullen, on the nature of shanty lyrics:
//
As regards the words, there are a few stereotyped verses at
the beginning and then the shanty-man used to invent the rest
which had to do with shipping, politics, personal characteristics.
the food, &c., all of which came in for a share of sarcasm
according to his extemporising capacity. Napoleon was a
favourite subject of the men, and so was a certain mythical
person called Starmy. [sic] The average sailor Shanty after the first
verse or so was simply unprintable, and that is especially so with
"The Hog's Eye Man," one of the most beautiful of the lot.
On an East Indiaman it was a great event for the passenger to
come and listen to the sailors' Shanties, and this particular one
was a great favourite on nearing port, but the singing of it was
absolutely forbidden except when the Captain could be assured
that a printable version would be used.
//

Taking a jab at Sharp's ilk here—interesting for someone familiar with modes from Latin liturgical music (his expertise):
//
One hears a great deal about modal evidence in Shanties.
The mistake of most Shanty books is that modal melodies are
often treated as if they were in keys, while on the other hand
there are a great many which are really either major or minor,
but are called modal. Modes seem to have a fascination for the
folk-song hunter; he finds Mode in everything; but a tune may
fulfil the conditions of Modal melody and yet not be in a Mode.
//

Minstrel sources recognized.
//
There are several types of Shanty which are without doubt
taken from published songs, some of them sung by the original
Christy Minstrels. Many a Christy Minstrel melody was adopted
on board ship, for anything could be made into a Shanty.
//

A plug for his forthcoming book?:
//
The ideal collection has yet to come. The sailor must combine
with the musician, and there must be a distinction between
tunes in Modes and in keys, but all is lost labour unless there is
real sympathy with and a certain practical knowledge of the
[li]fe at sea.
//

Following this, a choir performed some examples, then, discussion.

//
THE CHAIRMAN: It is quite clear that Dr. Terry is steeped in
Shantyism! …However, Dr. Terry did not go to sea [and thus didn't perish], and so we have been able to enjoy the benefit of his research and of his accumulated knowledge concerning shanties. As to his philological
remarks about the spelling of the word, I would seriously advise
him not to set foot in the class-rooms of Oxford University, and
utter such fearful heresy about "shanty." More than a dozen
professors would rise and ask if he had ever been to school, and
if so whether he had forgotten the Latin verb cano, which surely
must be the original root of words standing for singing and
chanting. We must not have a philological discussion, but I
cannot agree as to his spelling of "shanties," it hurts one's eyes
terribly. The suggestion has been made that it has connection
with the shanty or hut of the negroes, which is very ingenious and
clever. And there are shanties in Ireland, funny little places
where you get something stronger to drink than water. Well, the
imbibing of such potations leads to a certain amount of singing,
therefore it might be said that the word "shanties" comes from
these places where you get whisky! …
//
So, the "ch" spelling had been fairly well entrnched up to this point (e.g. in Englishmen Sharp and Bullen, though not in Whall), and what now seems to be the Commonwealth spelling preference of "sh" did not form until later.

Feedback from the Chairman on the lyrical nature:
//
…The words may seem foolish and silly if looked at coldly, but I
remember a time when in singing certain songs they did not think
so much of the words as of the music; to make out the rhythm
and accent and carryon the measure to the end they used to
insert all sorts of words. So with the sailors, they had to finish
their measure, and if necessary improvise words, there is nothing
very remarkable in that. As to some of the lines being
unprintable, I have in my collection Campion's Songs, written for
the lute, bass viol, and voice. He was a musician in the time of
Queen Elizabeth, and wrote some beautiful hymns and poetry, but
some of the songs are unprintable, though they stood for the feeling
of the day. Sailors in singing their shanties were not supposed
to have listeners, and they just said anything that came into their
head; one cannot blame them for that.
//

//
Mr. J. H. MAUNDER: Dr. Terry referred to the Christy
Minstrels in connection with shanties. Does he know if some of
the Christy Minstrels' songs were taken from shanties or vice versa,
and could he give us an idea of the time the Christy Minstrels
started? I remember hearing as a boy that the Moore and
Burgess troupe was developed from the Christy Minstrels.
//
JOHN, GRAHAM: …I have heard lectures on shanties on several
occasions, but I have not come across anyone with such a grip
of his subject as Dr. Terry has shown, nor with his enthusiasm.
I think the plan adopted this afternoon is peculiarly interesting. I
do not think it has been done before--that of giving a number
of shanties in a set. It seems to me there is a great chance of
shanties being sung by men's choirs and so on in this form.
Whereas one shanty might be put aside as being insignificant,
when we have a kind of fantasia of them in this way they become
exhilarating. I have enjoyed the singing; there has been a real
hit of British style about it: and in the coming years probably
we shall cultivate more and more of the rollicking, true John
Bull kind of song and tune.
//

//
Dr. TERRY: I am pleased to find that my -few n:marks have
been well received; but I am disappointed that I have not had
the man-handling I expected on several debatable points raised
with the express purpose of provoking discussion. I was not
unmindful of the derivation given by the Oxford Dictionary. My
suggestion has been spoken of as clever and ingenious. leaving it
to be inferred that like most clever, ingenious things, it is
worthless because too clever by half. But I would point out that
the British tar seems to have derived hardly any words from a
foreign tongue. An important reason why we should spell the
word as shanty, is that we want future generations to pronounce
the word as the sailors did; even our Chairman once or twice
pronounced it "shanty." [Does he mean "tchanty"?] As to the derivation of the word given in the Oxford Dictionary, some quite good authorities dissent from it.

I have been paid too great a compliment in having it thought
that I have dived deeply into an out-of-the-way subject. Had I
not come of a sailor family, or had I been living in London all
my life, it would have taken a considerable amount of time to
collect the material. As it was, it has been no trouble: I could
not help it, I have grown up with it: therefore I cannot claim
the credit of having spent long laborious nights wasting the
midnight oil collating information; one could not help imbibing
these things as a youngster. In regard to what has been said about
words being unprintable, I remember once being asked by a
Musical Club to give them something that had not been in print,
something old that had not been printed in England before.
Well, I arranged a quartet, and we sang it in public-myself,
a professional singer, a minor Canon, and another clergyman,
I think-something in medireval Italian which we pronounced as
modern Italian. You can imagine how startled and shocked we
were to find later what we had really been saying! Luckily no
scholar of medireval I talian happened to be present, so it was
never found out. As to the question raised about the Christy
Minstrels, .I went into that point, and showed that some shanties
were derived from Christy Minstrels and vice versa. I ought to
know the date when Christy Minstrels began, but I do not. But
Mr. Britten, whom I see here, is an authority on all these matters.
I am sorry Mr. Britten has not spoken, for it would have been an
enlivening and intellectual exercise.
Mr. BRITTEN: The date was about 1858.
Dr. TERRY: If Mr. Britten says 1858 or thereabouts you may
take it that he is right.
//
Britten was wrong! :-)


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: GUEST,Lighter
Date: 12 Jul 11 - 04:41 PM

Gibb, nice work! I don't think any of Bullen's shanties (except "Ten Stone"?) have ever been recorded.

His "Shenandoah" really is hardly more than a chant, but with a whole crew behind it it must have sounded "wild"...in the 19th Century Romantic sense.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 12 Jul 11 - 08:54 AM

These are too good, and interesting to miss: "Shenandoah" & "Poor Lucy Anna"


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1be-0VjCtxE


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDb1oGugh2E


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 12 Jul 11 - 08:47 AM

Gibb, thanks for the Bullen materials. I've read all of this before but it's always amazing what one misses! I find this statement intriguing:

"The tunes of both the Chanties and the American Revival Hymns spring from one common source—negro music."

Is it possible that we have parallel developments going on with "chanties" and "spirituals" both evolving from the plantation slave work songs? The call-response pattern, before the "spirituals" were polished up, is common to all three genres. And of course we could add the fourth group which would be modern chain gang songs. What continues to be striking here is that "chanties" come from the same source as "spirituals" and "chain gang songs".

Having a common source in things like corn-shucking songs would partially explain why chanties didn't "come from" spirituals. It still puzzles me though that there was not more crossover between spirituals and chanties. Maybe the "sacred/profane" boundary was strict on board ship.

I'm wondering if Sharp wasn't more likely referring to "English" hymnody than to the spiritual tradition. He showed a marked lack of interest in "Black music" on his Southern Appalachian tours.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 Jul 11 - 02:53 AM

[[HALLIARD CHANTIES]]

[TOMMY'S GONE]
//
23. Toms Gone to Hilo.

Tommy's gone an' I'll go too
Away, to Hilo O
O Tommy's gone to Liverpool
Tom's gone to Hilo.
//

[HANGING JOHNNY]
//
24. Hanging Johnny.

Oh they call me hangin Johnny
Away ay ay ay
Because I hang fer money
Oh hang, boys, hang!
//

[ONE MORE DAY]
//
25. One More Day.

Only one more day my Johnny,
One more day
To rock an' roll me over,
One more day.
//

[ROLL THE COTTON DOWN]
//
26. Bound to Alabama.

Oh I'm bound to Alabama
Ter rollthe cotton dow-own
I'm boun ter Alabama ter roll the cotton down.
//

[YANKEE JOHN STORMALONG]
//
27. Liza Lee

Oh you Lize-er Lee
Yankee John Stormalong
Lize-er Lee is de gal fer me
Yankee John Stormalong
//

[REUBEN RANZO]
//
28. Reuben Ranzo.

Poor old Reuben Ranzo
Ranzo boys Ranzo!
Poor old Reu-uben Ranzo
Ranzo boys Ranzo.
//

[DEAD HORSE]
//
29. Poor Old Man. (Dead Horse.)

Poor old man your horse will die
an' they say so, an' they hope so
Poor old man your horse will die,
Oh poor old man!
//

//
…I learned it from a Spaniard, a stevedore engaged in stowing a cargo of mahogany which I shipped when I was mate of a pretty little barquentine in Tonala, Mexico. They, the stevedores, used many Chanties hauling the big logs about the hold, but this was a new one to me and hearing it so often I absorbed it, feeling that it was a very good one.

30. Hilo Come Down Below.

Said the black bird to the crow
Hilo, come down below
Come down below wid de whole yer crew,
Hilo come down below
//

[BONEY]
//
31. Boney Was a Warrior. (John François.)

Boney was a warrior
Way ay yah!
Boney was a warrior
John France-wah!
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]
//
32. Blow the Man Down.
Oh blow the man down bullies blow him away
Way ay! Blow the man down
Oh blow the man down bullies blow him away
Gimme some time to blow the man down.
//

[COAL BLACK ROSE]
//
33. Coal Black Rose.

[cho.] Oh my Rosy Coal black Rose
Don't you hear de banjo Pinka a pong a-pong
[cho.] Oh my Rosy Coal black Rose.
//

[WHISKEY JOHNNY]
//
34. Whiskey Johnny.

Oh Whisky is the life of man,
Whisky Johny
oh Whisky is the life of man,
oh Whisky for my Johnny.
//

[BLOW BOYS BLOW]
//
35. Blow Boys Blow.

A Yankee ship came down de ribber,
Blow boys blow
A Yankee ship came down de ribber
Blow my bully boys blow!
//

[RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN]
//
36. The Bullgine.

Oh she's lovely up alo-oft an' she's lovely down below
Oh run let de Bullgine run
Way ya a Ah-o-oh
oh-oh run let de Bullgine run.
//

[[FORE SHEET CHANTIES]]

[BOWLINE]
//
37. Haul the Bowlin'.

Haul the Bowline, the skipper he's a growlin
[cho.] Haul the Bowline, the Bowline haul! (_shout_)
//

[JOHNNY BOWKER]
//
38. Do My Johnny Bowker.

Do my Johnny Bowker, come rock and roll me o-over,
[cho.] Do my Johnny Bowker do.
//

[HAUL AWAY JOE]
//
39. Haul Away Jo.

Way haul away For Kitty she's me da-arlin.
[cho.] Way haul away haul away Joe!
//

[[BUNT CHANTY}}

[PADDY DOYLE]
//
40. Paddy Doyle's Boots.

Ay way ay yah
We'll pay Paddy Doyle for his boots.
//

Then, sea songs, "41. Farewell and Adieu to You Spanish Ladies" (minor mode melody) and "42. Lowlands Low" [GOLDEN VANITY].


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 Jul 11 - 02:52 AM

Bullen 1914, cont.

[SHENANDOAH] (usual style)
//
…ordinary windlass or pump type…

Shanandoh, I long ter hear ye;
A way, you rolling river;
Oh Shanandoh I can't get near ye
Ha ha! I'm bound away on the wide Missouri!
//

[A-ROVING]
//
…sounds suspiciously like some old English melody that has been pressed into sea service as a chanty…

12. A-Roving.

In Amsterdam there lived a maid and she was tall and fair,
her eyes were blue, her cheeks were red and she had auburn hair
but I'll go no more a ro-oving with you fair maid.
A roving, a roving since rovings' been my ru-i-n
I'll go no more a ro-oving with you fair maid.
//

[LOWLANDS AWAY]
//
13. Lowlands Away.

Lowlands away I heard them say
Lowlands, lowlands away my John
Lowlands away I heard them say,
My dollar an' a half a day.
//

[RIO GRANDE]
//
14. Rio Grande.

Oh Captain, oh Ca-apten heave yer ship to;
Oh! you Rio
For I have got letters to send home by you.
And I'm bound to Rio
Grande
And away to Rio Oh to Rio
sing fa-are you well my bonny young gal,
For I'm bound to Rio grande.
//


The tune of the following is rendered here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDb1oGugh2E
//
…so mournful that one suspects it of being the lament of some just sold slaves sent from one State to another without reference to any human ties they may have possessed. This Chanty was very seldom used except where negroes formed a considerable portion of the crew…

15. Poor Lucy Anna.

Oh the mountens so high an de ribbers so wide
Poor Lucy Anna
De mountens so high an' de ribbers so wide
Ise just gwine ober de mounten!
//

[SANTIANA]
//
…I first made its acquaintance in Sant Ana itself, a lawless mahogany port in the Gulf of Mexico.

16. Santy Anna.

Santy Anna's gone away
Hurrah! Santy Anna!
Santy Anna's go-one a way
Across the plains of Mexico.
//

[DRUNKEN SAILOR] Interesting seeing eye-dialect here ("de mawnin'").
//
…I gladly confess that my most pleasnt recollections of it are connected with the Savage Club where its fine chorus used to be uplifted strenuously by the full force of the brother Savages assembled.

17. What Shall We Do with a Drunken Sailor.

What shall we do with a drunken sailor,
what shall we do with a drunken sailor,
what shall we do with a drunken sailor,
Early in de mawnin'
Hooray an up she rises,
hooray an up she rises,
hooray an up she rises,
Early in de mawnin'.
//

[PADDY ON THE RAILWAY] Bullen says he didn't like this one, and never sang it as chantyman.
//
18. Poor Paddy.

In eighteen hundred an sixty one I thought I'd do a li-itle run,
I thought I'd do-oo a li'itle run
an' work up on a railway a railway
I'm weary on a railway
Oh! Poor Paddy works on the railway.
//

[HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING]
//
Oh! what did you give fer yer fine leg o' mutton
To me way ay ay you Ranzo way
Oh-h what did yer give fer yer fine leg o' mutton,
to me Hilo: me Ranzo way.
//

[HOGEYE]
//
20. Hog-eye Man.

Oh! de hog-eye man is de man for me,
He wuk all day on de big levee
Oh! Hog-eye Pig-eye!
Row de boat a shore fer de hog-eye O!
an all she wants is de hog eye man.
//

[NEW YORK GIRLS]
//
21. Can't You Dance the Polka.

My fancy man is a loafer, he loafs along de shore!
Git up you lazy sailor man an lay down on de floor!
Away! You santy my dear man
Oh you New York gals, cant ye dance the polka
//

[SACRAMENTO] Tune is closer to "Camptown Ladies" than to the "traditional" Sacramento.
//
22. The Banks of the Sacramento.

New York City is on fire
With a hoodah an a doodah!
New York City is on fire
hoodah doodah day.
Blow boys blow for Californyo
There's plenty of gold, so I've been told,
on the banks of the Sacramento.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 12 Jul 11 - 02:50 AM

1914        Bullen, Frank. T. and W.F. Arnold. _Songs of Sea Labour._ London: Orpheus Music Publishing.

Bullen, born c.1858, first went to sea in 1869 at age 11.

Bullen's collection is a unique and detailed repository of chanties as learned by a "hardcore" chantyman of the 1870s, without the prejudice of Captain Whall's earlier selections. Bullen's singing was transcribed by Arnold, an academically trained musician.

While Sharp read and acknowledge the work, it does not seem to have had much/any influence on later performers (/the Revival) until Hugill re-printed some of the items. Bullen was known for a couple books earlier. I wonder what happened with this one. Was it poorly distributed? Did it not carry much clout for some reason?

Intro, dated 1913. Critiques predecessors for not having experience.
//
But I, unwillingly enough, had to spend over a decade of my sea life in various sailing ships' forecastles, engaged in trades where Chanties were not only much used on board, but where many new ones were acquired in the harbours; I allude to the West Indies and the Southern States of America.

Being possessed of a strong and melodious voice and a tenacious memory, Chanty singing early became a passion with me, and this resulted in my being invariably made Chantyman of each new vessel I sailed in, a function I performed until I finally reached the quarter-deck, when of course it ceased…I was before the mast in sailing ships from 1869 to 1880…I was never apprenticed and consequently was a member of many different ships' companies and sailed in many varying trades in that time.
//

The nature of chanty lyrics: Impromptu, dirty.
//
The stubborn fact is that they had no set words beyond a starting verse or two and the fixed phrases of the chorus, which were very often not words at all. For all Chanties were impromptu as far as the words were concerned. Many a Chantyman was prized in spite of his poor voice because of his improvisations. Poor doggerel they were mostly and often very lewd and filthy, but they gave the knowing and appreciative shipmates, who roared the refrain, much opportunity for laughter… And although many a furtive smile will creep over old sailors' faces, when they hear these Chanties and remember the associated words that went with them, those words are not down here.
//

Notes on "The Music of the Chanties," by Arnold, 1913.
//
Seeing that the majority of the Chanties are Negroid in origin, perhaps a few remarks on Negro music will not be out of place here…
//

Musicological talk follows. About pentatonic scale. Comparison with example from "Slave Songs of the United States." "Snap" rhythm. Ending melodies on other tones than the tonic. "Rag-time" vs. "raggy" nature of chanty tunes. Comparison to Sankey hymns (and also quoting Jekyll's work on Jamaican music).
//
Many of the Chanty tunes bear a strong resemblance to hymn tunes of the Sankey and Moody type. …after the War of Emancipation troupes of negro singers toured the Northern States of America, introducing the traditional slave tunes to all classes of the community, including the negroes of the North, who adapted some of the songs into their religious services. …negro songs and singers became "the rage." …many of the traditional tunes already used as hymns by the negroes, and others because of their quasi religious flavour, were adapted to words of a devotional nature. Mr. Bullen himself told the writer that on one occasion he overheard a South Carolina negro, employed on a sperm whaling ship as harpooner, crooning what was ostensibly a Sankey hymn, but, on being questioned, the singer submitted the information that he had never heard of either Sankey or Moody, and what he was singing was a South Carolina slave song, "The little Octoroon"… Mr. Bullen however, knew the tune as "Ring the bells of heaven" one of the best known of the Sankey collection. …There is not the slightest doubt that many of the hymns in that famous collection had their origin in the old traditional negro tunes…The tunes of both the Chanties and the American Revival Hymns spring from one common source—negro music.
//

"Note to the Chanties"
//
It is a wild thought of mine I know, but I have imagined the improvising of words to these Chanties becoming a favourite country house Drawing Room diversion…
//

Chanties not sung off duty.
//
Unlike the old folk-songs, which are used for pleasure or diversion, the Sailor's Chanties were never sung in the forecastles after labour, nor in all my experience have I ever heard a song sung in a ship's forecastle that would be recognized as a sailor's song.
//

//
…But the great majority of these tunes undoubtably emanated from the negroes of the Antilles and the Southern states, a most tuneful race if ever there was one, men moreover who seemed unable to pick up a ropeyarn without a song… I have never seen any men work harder or more gaily than negroes when they were allowed to sing….
//

[[WINDLASS AND CAPSTAN CHANTIES]]

[MUDDER DINAH] Sharp also gave this (from informant Conway), and we know it as a rowing song from South Carolina.
//
…when I first heard the Chanty which I have called "Mudder Dinah!"…We were discharging general cargo in the Demerara River off Georgetown, and all the wonder I could spare, being a first voyage laddie, was given to the amazing negroes who, not content with flinging their bodies about as they hove at the winch, sang as if their lives depended upon maintaining the volume of sound at the same time… I became most anxious to learn it, so I asked one of our two boat-boys to teach me…HE set about his pleasnt task at once but was very soon pulled up by his mate who demanded in indignant tones what he meant by teaching "dat buckra chile" dem rude words. They nearly had a fight over it and then I learned that the words didn't matter, that you varied them according to taste, but as taste was generally low and broad the words were usually what my negro friend called, in cheerful euphemism, rude.

1. Mudder Dinah.

Good mornin' Mudder Dinah, how does yer shabe yer peepul?
Sing! Sally oh! Right fol de ray!
Hooray-ay-ay-ay-ay-ay-ay, For ole mudder di-inah-h
Sing Sally oh. Right fol der ray.
//

//
In this way [i.e. from stevedores in Demerara on his first voyage] I acquired numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 in this collection and I have never heard them anywhere else. They are negro Chanties all right enough, but they were not in common use on board ship.
//

[SISTER SUSAN] Harlow also gave this as a stevedore's song.
//
2. Sister Seusan.

Sister Seusan my aunt Sal
Gwineter git a home bime-by-high!
All gwineter lib down Shinbone Al,
Gwineter git a home bime-by.
Gwineter git a home bime-by-e-high
Gwineter git a home bime-by.
//

//
3. Ten Stone.

I nebber seen de like sence I ben bawn!
Way ay ay ay ay!
Nigger on de ice an a hoe-in up corn
Way ay ay ay ay
Ten stone! Ten stone, ten stone de win' am ober!
Jenny git along Jenny blow de horn,
As we go marchin' ober!
//

A "Shenandoah" lyrical theme, however, the form/tune here is unique. This is probably related to the now-popular "Down Trinidad/Sunnydore" song, and perhaps to "Shiny O".
My rendition: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1be-0VjCtxE
//
4. Shenandoah

Oh Shenandoh my bully boy I long to hear you holler;
Way ay ay ay ay Shenandoh
I lub ter bring er tot er rum en see ye make a swoller;
Way ay ay ay Shenandoh!
//

[SALLY BROWN] Bullen notes with this (and later with "Drunken Sailor") having heard it sung for enjoyment by gentlemen of London's Savage Club. Am I to suppose that many of the Club's members would have included retired seamen (does anymone know more about it)? I guess the question for me would be what period he is talking about and what that would imply. To wit, was this after the era (first decade of 20th c.) when chanties had spread to the general public – in which case these two songs were, in a way, pop songs? Or, was it at an earlier time, such that the singers had all really remember the songs from their working experience?
//
…But my most pleasant memory of it is not when weighing the anchor or working the flywheel pumps, but on sundry Saturday nights at the Savage Club, when the delighted Savages did their best to lift the roof off the great Clubroom at Adelphi Terrace, and the mighty volume of sound must have been heard on the farther bank of the Thames….

5. Sally Brown.

Sally Brown she's a bright Mulatto
Way ay –ay roll and go!
She drinks rum and chews terbacker;
Spend my money on Sally Brown.
//

First appearance of this, though we've had WALKALONG SALLY. Tune resembles "Tom's Gone to Hilo" a bit.
//
…typically negro and no white man could hope to reproduce the extraordinary effects imparted to it by a crowd of enthusiastic black men.

6. Walk Along Rosey.

Rosy here an Ro-o-sy dere,
A way you Rosy walk along
Oh Rosy here, an Rosy dere!
Walk along my Rosy!
//

[GOODBYE FARE YOU WELL]
//
…an old, old favourite with the white sailor, but it is full of melancholy…probably more frequently sung than any other Chanty when getting under weigh either outward or homeward bound.

7. Good-bye, Fare-you-well.

I thought I heard our old man say
Good bye fare you well , good bye fare you well
I thought I heard our old man say
Hurah my boys we're ho-omeward bound!
//

[MR. STORMALONG]
//
8. Storm-along.

Stormy he was a good old man.
To my way, You Stormalong!
Oh Stormy he is dead and gone!
Ay! Ay! Ay! Mister Stormalong.
//

[LEAVE HER JOHNNY]
//
To sing it before the last day or so on board was almost tantamount to mutiny, and was apt even at the latest date to be fiercely resented by Captain and Officers.

9. Leave her Johnny.

Leave her Johnny and we'll work no-o more
Leave her Johnny, leave her!
Of pump or drown we've had full store;
Its time for us to leave her.
//

[JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO] was supposedly last heard off Calcutta by Bullen – in the 1870s, I suppose. Interesting in the lyrics here is the "[A]merican man." Bullen gives the lyrics in a Black [eye-]dialect, and in that context I'm not sure just what was meant by "American." Is the singing subject supposed to be a Black man of the Caribbean, or….?
//
…brings to my mind most vividly a dewy morning in Garden Reach where we lay just off the King of Oudh's palace awaiting our permit to moor. I was before the mast in one of Bates' ships, the "Herat," and when the order came at dawn to man the windlass I raised this Chanty and my shipmates sang the chorus as I never heard it sung before or since…I have never heard that noble Chanty sung since…

10. Johnny Come Down to Hilo.

I nebber seen de like, Since I ben born
When a 'Merican man wid de sea boots on
Says Johnny come down to Hilo.
Poor old man!
Oh! wake her! Oh! Shake her
Oh wake dat gal wid der blue dress on,
When Johnny comes down to Hilo!
Poor old man!
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 11 Jul 11 - 06:29 PM

Thanks, Charlie and John, for giving some company!

John--

Thanks for the link and your compliment. Making these links on Mudcat has always been a pain, and I forget to do 'em when I pasted my text from elsewhere.

The brief mention of hymn-tunes by Sharp is quite possibly a reference to what he had been reading. His intro to the book reads as a dialogue with or comment on what had recently been published. Masefield was one person that said a couple tunes (Shenandoah and Hanging Johnny) sounded like hymns. But it was Bullen (or perhaps Arnold, in that book) who said more. He did in fact make a connection. If I had to guess, Sharp was acknowledging that (he deferred to the 'experience' writers) rather than proposing an original idea. I hope to have notes up on Bullen, soon.

I would imagine that these authors, all English, were familiar with these "hymn" tunes from the "spirituals" of the touring Fisk Jubilee Singers and such.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 11 Jul 11 - 11:58 AM

Gibb, I really like your rendition of "Roll & Go" that you mention above. Somehow I missed that version of "Sally Brown" when I was going through your collection. And just so it stands out and is easily available for others, here it is again:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9MrvUgTMMU

Also, I was interested in what Sharp had to say about hymns and hymn tunes. To my - limited - knowledge, this is the only time in our discussion where hymns have been mentioned as a source for chanties. I have wondered about this in the past. And I have wondered why there seem to be no connections between Black "spirituals" as call/response songs and chanties.

I appreciate your treatment of Sharp and your making his collection available like this.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Charley Noble
Date: 10 Jul 11 - 08:27 PM

Gibb-

More good work.

Keep it coming.

Cheerily,
Charley Noble


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 10 Jul 11 - 07:40 PM

[[PULLING CHANTEYS]]

[HAUL AWAY JOE] John Short.
//
… Short described it as a "tacks and sheets" chantey…

27. Haul Away, Joe.

Haul away, haul away, haul away, my Rosie,
Way, haul away, haul away, Joe.
O you talk about your Aver [Havre] girls,
And round the corner Sally ;
Way, haul away, haul away, Joe.

But they cannot come to tea
With the girls in Booble Alley.

O ! once I loved a nigger girl,
And I loved her for her money.

O ! once I had a nice young girl,
And she was all a posy.

And now I've got an English girl,
I treat her like a lady.

We sailed away for the East Indies,
With spirits light and gay.

We discharge our cargo there, my boys,
And we took it light and easy.

We loaded for our homeward bound,
With the winds so free and easy.

We squared our yards and away we ran,
With the music playing freely.

Now, up aloft this yard must go,
We'll pull her free and easy.

Another pull and then belay,
We'll make it all so easy.
//

[SALLY BROWN] Charles Robbins. Chromatic tune. This was also in Sharp's 1914 JFSS article. Incidentally, I think this is the first "along with Sally Brown" that I've seen. Is this a place where Sharp "softened" the phrase (no pun intended)? It is likely the source of Sweeney's Men's (and Planxty's) popular, adapted version of the song.
//
28. Sally Brown.

I shipped on board of a Liverpool liner ;
Way, ho, rolling go;
And I shipped on board of a Liverpool liner,
For I spent my money 'long with Sally Brown.



Sally Brown was a Creole lady.

O Sally Brown was a bright mulatto.

O seven years I courted Sally.

And now we're married and we're living nice and comfor'ble.
//

[ISLAND LASS] Richard Perkins.
//
29. Lowlands Low.

Lowlands, Lowlands, Lowlands, lowlands, low.
Our Captain is a bully man;
Lowlands, Lowlands, lowlands, low.
He gave us bread as hard as brass;
Lowlands, Lowlands, lowlands, low.
//

[SHALLOW BROWN] First version. John Short.
//
30. Shallow Brown.

Shallow O, Shallow Brown,
Shallow O, Shallow Brown.
A Yankee ship came down the river;
Shallow O, Shallow Brown.
A Yankee ship came down the river ;
Shallow O, Shal-low Brown.

And who do you think was master of her ?

A Yankee mate and a lime-juice skipper.

And what do you think they had for dinner ?

A parrot's tail and a monkey's liver.
//

[MUDDER DINAH] George Conway.
//
31. Sing, Sally O.

O I say my Mammy Dinah, What is the matter?
Sing Sally O ; Fol lol de day.
O hurrah! hurrah ! My Mammy Dinah.
Sing Sally O ; Fol lol de day.

O have you heard the news to-day ?
For we are homeward bound.
//

[REUBEN RANZO] John Short.
//
32. Poor Old Reuben Ranzo.

Ranzo, boys, Ranzo.
O poor old Reuben Ranzo,
Ranzo, boys, Ranzo
O Poor old Reuben Ranzo,
Ranzo, boys, Ranzo.

O! Ranzo was no sailor.

He shipped on board a whaler.

He shipped with Captain Taylor.

The man that shot the sailor.

He could not do his duty.

He couldn't boil the coffee.

The Captain being a good man.

He taught him navigation.

We took him to the gratings.

And gave him nine and thirty.



O ! that was the end of Ranzo.
//

[GENERAL TAYLOR} John Short.
//
33. General Taylor.

General Taylor gained the day;
Walk him along, Johnny, carry him along.
General Taylor gained the day;
Carry him to the burying ground.
Oo oo oo.... oo you stormy,
Walk him along, Johnny, carry him along;
oo-oo you stormy,
Carry him to the burying ground.

Dan O' Connell died long ago;
Dan O' Connell died long ago
//

[MR. STORMALONG] John Short.
//
34. Old Stormey.

I wish I was old Stormey's son;
To my way, yah, stormalong,
I'd give those sailors lots of rum;
Aye, aye, aye, Mister Stormalong.

I'd build a ship both neat and strong
To sail the world around all round.

Old Stormey's dead, I saw him die.

We dug his grave with a silver spade.

We lowered him down with a golden chain.

And now we'll sing his funeral song.
//

[BULLY IN ALLEY] John Short.
//
35. Bully in the Alley.

So help my bob I'm bully in the alley ;
Way-ay bully in the alley,
So help my bob I'm bully in the alley;
Way-ay bully in the alley.
Bully down in our alley ;
So help my bob I'm bully in the alley,
Way-ay bully in the alley ;
Bully in Tin-pot alley
Way-ay bully in the alley.

Have you seen our Sally ?

She's the girl in the alley.
//

[YANKEE JOHN STORMALONG] John Short.
//
36. Liza Lee.

Liza Lee she promised me ;
Yankee John, Stormalong ;
She promised for to marry me;
Yankee John, Stormalong.
//

[BOWLINE] John Short.
//
37. Haul on the Bow-line.

Haul on the bowline, O Kitty you are my darling,
Haul on the bowline, the bowline, haul.
Because she had a foretop, fore and main to bowline;
Haul on the bowline, the bowline haul.

Because she had a main-top main and mizen to bowline ;
Haul the bowline, the bowline haul.

Haul on the bowline, O Kitty you are my darling,
Haul on the bowline, the bowline haul.
//

[PADDY DOYLE] John Short. bunting
//
38. Paddy Doyle.

To my way ay. ay ay ay yah,
We'll pay Paddy Doyle for his boots…

We'll order in brandy and gin.

We'll all throw dirt at the cook.

The dirty old man on the poop.
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN] John Short.
//
… I have supplemented Mr. Short's words — he could only remember two stanzas — with lines from other versions…

39. Knock a Man Down.

[Cho.] Knock a man down, kick a man down ;
way ay knock a man down,
knock a man down right down to the ground,
O give me some time to knock a man down.

The watchman's dog stood ten foot high ;

A lively ship and a lively crew.

O we are the boys to put her through

I wish I was in London Town.

It's there we'd make the girls fly round.
//

[JOHNNY BOWKER] John Short. bunting
//
40. Johnny Bowker.

Do my Johnny Bowker. Come rock and roll over
Do my Johnny Bowker, do.
//

[TALLY] Mr. Rapsey. Published in earlier journal article.
//
41. Tiddy I O.

O now you forbid us to bid you adieu ;
Tid-dy I - o, I - o;.
O now you forbid us to bid you adieu ;
Tiddy I-o, I-o, I-o.

We're homeward bound to Bristol Town.

We're homeward bound with sugar and rum

And when we arrive in Bristol docks.

O then the people will come down in flocks.
//

[ROUND THE CORNER] John Short.
//
42. Round the Corner, Sally.

O around the corner we will go;
Around the corner, Sally,
O Mademoiselle we'll take her in tow ;
Around the corner, Sally
We will take her in tow to Callio ;
Around the corner, Sally.

O ! I wish I was at Madame Gashees.

O ! it's there, my boys, we'd take our ease.
//

[HANDY MY BOYS] John Short.
//
43. So Handy.

So handy, my girls, So handy.
Be handy in the morning;
So handy, my girls, So handy,
Be handy in the morning;
So handy, my girls, So handy.

Be handy at your washing, girls.

My love she likes her brandy.

My love she is a dandy.

I thought I heard our Captain say :

At daylight we are bound away.

Bound away for Botany Bay.
//

[LONG TIME AGO] has an unusual 'tag' chorus at the end. James Tucker.
//
44. A Long Time Ago.

Away down south where I was born ;
To my way-ay-day, Ha !
Away down south where I was born ;
A long time ago.
'Twas a long, long time and a very long time,
A long time ago

O ! early on a summer's morn.

I made up my mind to go to sea.
//

[CHEERLY] John Short.
//
… Mr. Short told me this was the first chantey he learned and he thought it must have been the " first chantey ever invented." …

45. Cheerly Man.

O oly-i-o Cheerly Man.
Walk him up O
Cheerly man.
Oly-i-o, oly-i-o
Cheerly Man.
//

[BOTTLE O] John Short.
//
46. The Sailor Likes His Bottle O.

So early in the morning The sailor likes his bottle O.

A bottle of rum and a bottle of gin,
And a bottle of old Jamaica Ho!
So earIy in the morning The sailor likes his bottle O.
//

[DEAD HORSE] John Short.
//
47. The Dead Horse.

A poor old man came a-riding by,
And they say so, And I hope so,
A poor old man came a-riding by,
O poor old man.

Says I : Old man your horse will die.

And if he dies I'll tan his skin.

And if he don't I'll ride him again.

After very hard work and sore abuse.
They salted me down for sailors' use.

And if you think my words not true,
Just look in the cask and you'll find my shoe.

But our old horse is dead and gone,
And we know so, and we say so,
//

[WHISKEY JOHNNY] James Tucker.
//
48. Whisky for My Johnny.

Whisky is the life of man
Whisky, Johnny,
Whisky is the life of man,
Whisky for my Johnny.

I'll drink whisky while I can.

Whisky in an old tin can.

Whisky up and whisky down.

Pass the whisky all around.

Whisky polished my old nose.

Whisky made me go to sea.

My wife drinks whisky, I drink gin.

Whisky killed my mam and dad.

Whisky killed our whole ship's crew.

Whisky made me pawn my shirt.
//

[BONEY] John Short.
//
49. Bonny Was a Warrior.

Bonny was a warrior; Way-ay-yah
Bonny was a warrior, Jean François.

Bonny went to Moscow.

Moscow was on fire.

It took the Duke of Wellington

O to defeat old Bonny.

Hurrah, hurrah, for Bonny.

A bully, fighting terrier.
//

[BLOW BOYS BLOW] John Short.
//
50. Blow, Boys, Come Blow Together.

Blow, boys, come blow together ;
Blow, boys, blow.
Blow, boys, come blow together ;
Blow, my bully boys, blow.

A Yankee ship came down the river.


And who do you think was Master of lier ?

Why Bully Brag of New York City.

And what do you think we had for supper ?

Belaying-pin soup and a roll in the gutter.
//

[HANGING JOHNNY] John Short.
//
51. Hanging Johnny.

And they calls me hanging Johnny;.
Hooray, hooray.
And they calls me Hanging Johnny,
So hang, boys, hang.

They hanged my poor old father.

They hanged my poor old mother.

They say I hanged for money.

But I never hanged nobody.
//

[HUNDRED YEARS] John Short.
http://www.wildgoose.co.uk/wildgoose-media/samples/WGS381CD-T4.mp3 (Jeff Warner)
//
52. A Hundred Years on the Eastern Shore.

A hundred years on the eastern shore ;
O yes O
A hundred years on the eastern shore ;
A hundred years ago.

A hundred years have passed and gone.

And a hundred years will come once more.
//

[SHENANDOAH] Second version. James Thomas. 4 pulls are indicated in one chorus!
//
… This, a shortened form of No. 11, was one that Mr. Thomas often heard
on " The City of Washington," in which ship he sailed to America in 1870….

53. Shanadar.

Shanadar is a rolling river, E-o, I-o, E-o, I-o.
//

[LONG TIME AGO] Captain Hole.
//
54. In Frisco Bay.

In Frisco bay there lay three ships
To my way ay ay o,
In Frisco bay there lay three ships
A long time ago.

And one of those ships was Noah's old Ark,
And covered all over with hickory bark.

They filled up the seams with oakum pitch.

And Noah of old commanded this Ark.

They took two animals of every kind.

The bull and the cow they started a row.

Then said old Noah with a flick of his whip :
Come stop this row or I'll scuttle the ship.

But the bull put his horn through the side of the Ark ;
And the little black dog he started to bark.

So Noah took the dog, put his nose in the hole ;
And ever since then the dog's nose has been cold.
//

[SHALLOW BROWN] Second version. Robert Ellison.
//
55. Shallow Brown.

O I'm going to leave her
Shallow O Shallow Brown.
O I'm going to leave her
Shallow O Shallow Brown.

Going away to-morrow,
Bound away to-morrow.

Get my traps in order.

Ship on board a whaler.

Bound away to St. George's.

Love you well, Julianda.

Massa going to sell me.

Sell me to a Yankee.

Sell me for the dollar.
Great big Spanish dollar.
//

[WON'T YOU GO MY WAY] John Short. First time.
//
56. Won't You Go My Way.

I met her in the morning ;
Won't you go My way?
I met her in the morning ;
Won't you go My way?

In the morning bright and early.

O Julia, Anna, Maria.

I asked that girl to mairy,

She said she'd rather tarry.

Oh marry, never tarry.
//

[STORMY] Robert Ellison.
//
57. Wo, Stormalong.

Whenever you go to Liverpool ; Wo, stormalong;
When ever you go to Liverpool ; Stormalong, lads stormy.

And Liverpool that Yankee School.

And when you go to Playhouse Square,

My bonny girl she do live there.

We're bound away this very day.

We're bound away at the break of day.
//

John Short.
//
58. O Billy Riley.

O Billy Riley, little Billy Riley,
O Billy Riley O;
O Billy Riley, wake him up so cheer'ly.
O Billy Riley O.

O Mister Riley, O Missus Riley.

O Miss Riley, O Billy Riley.

O Miss Riley, screw him up so cheer'ly.
//

[TOMMY'S GONE] John Short.
//
59. Tom is Gone to Hilo.

My Tom is gone, what shall I do?
Oo - way, you I - o - o - o,
My Tom is gone, what shall I do?
My Tom is gone to Hilo.
//

John Short. A significantly different tune.
//
… Mr. Short said that this was used not only as a pulling chantey but also when they were screwing cotton into the hold at New Orleans …

60. Tommy's Gone Away.

Tommy's gone, what shall I do ?
Tommy's gone away,
Tommy's gone, what shall I do ?
Tommy's gone away.
//

[END]


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 10 Jul 11 - 07:38 PM

[[CAPSTAN CHANTEYS]]

[SANTIANA] John Short.
//
1. Santy Anna.

Santy Anna run away;
Ho-roo, Santy Anna ;
Santa Anna run away all on the plains of Mexico

General Taylor gained the day,

Mexico you all do know,

The Americans'll make Ureta* [Huerta] fly,
//


[LEAVE HER JOHNNY] First Version. John Short.
//
2. Leave Her Johnny.

O the times are hard and the wages low;
Leave her Johnny leave her;
O the times are hard and the wages low,
It's time for us to leave her.


The bread is hard and the beef is salt,

O, a leaking ship and a harping crew,

Our mate he is a bully man,
He gives us all the best he can.

I've got no money, I've got no clothes,

O, my old mother she wrote to me

I will send you money, I will send you clothes.
//

Second Version. Richard Perkins.
//
3. Leave Her Johnny.

The times are hard and the wages low,
Leave her Johnny leave her,
O the times are hard and the wages low,
It's time for us to leave her.
//

[OLD MOKE] John Short.
//
… " Hoo-roo " may be a reminiscence of "Shule Agra," and the reference to "the railroad " a memory of " Poor Paddy works on the railway." Both words and tune show negro influence. The chantey is not included in any other collection…

4. He-back, She-back.

He-back, she-back, daddy shot a bear,
Shot him in the back and he Never turned a hair,
I'm just from the railroad, too-rer-loo,
Oh the old moke picking on the banjo.
Hoo-roo! What's the matter now?
I'm just from the railroad, too-rer-loo,
I'm just from the railroad, too-rer-loo,
Oh the old moke picking on the banjo.
//

[HOGEYE] John Short.
//
…The tune of this chantey shows negro influence, especially in the curious and characteristic rhythm of the chorus.

5. The Hog-eyed Man.

O who's been here since I've been gone?
Some big black nigger with his sea-boots on,
And a hog-eye, Steady up a jig and a hog-eye,
Steady up a jig, And all she wants is her hog-eyed man.

The hog-eyed man is the man for me,
He brought me down from Tennessee.
//

[CLEAR THE TRACK] George Conway. This may be the first to use contain the somewhat sketchy phrase "clear away", which I *think* earmarks some Revival versions sourced from Sharp.
//
… The tune, the final cadence of which is very similar to that of Santy Anna, is clearly related to that of Shule Agra…

6. Clear the Track.

I wish I was in London town
Ha-hee, ha-oo, are you most done
I wish I was in London town ;
So clear away the track and let the bullgine run.
With my hi-rig-a-jig and a low-back car,
Ha-hee, ha-oo, are you most done,
To My pretty little yaller girl fare thee well,
So clear away the track and let the bullgine run.

Twas there I saw the girls around.
//

[DRUNKEN SAILOR] James Tucker. The melody has the typical shape, and yet it's different – almost like a harmony part to the usual tune.
//
… The tune in the text — obviously a bagpipe air…

7. Drunken Sailor.

What shall we do with a drunken sailor?
What shall we do with a drunken sailor?
What shall we do with a drunken sailor
Early in the morning?
Way ay and up she rises,
Way ay and up she rises,
Way ay and up she rises
Early in the morning.

Put him in the long-boat till he gets sober.

Keep him there and make him bail her.
//

[DOODLE LET] Makes its first appearance. John Short.
//

… Mr. Short always sang " doodle let me go."…

8. Do Let Me Go.

It's of a merchant's daughter belonged to Callio;
Hooraw, my yaller girls, do let me go
Do let me go, girls, Do let me go,
Hooraw, my yaller girls, do let me go.
//

[JAMBOREE] John Short. I suspect The Spinners' interpretation was developed from this?
//
Now Cape Clear it is in sight,
We'll be off Holy head by tomorrow night,
And we'll shape our course for the Rock Light;
O Jenny get your oatcake done.
Whip jamboree, whip jamboree,
O you long- tailed black man poke it up behind me,
Whip jamboree, Whip jamboree,
O Jen-ny get your oatcake done.

Now my lads, we're round the Rock,
All hammocks lashed and chests all locked,
We'll haul her into the Waterloo Dock,
O, Jenny, get your oat-cake done.

Now, my lads, we're all in dock
We'll be off to Dan Lowrie's on the spot;
And now we'll have a good roundabout,
O, Jenny, get your oat-cake done.
//

This "Roll and Go" is distinct from the typical "Sally Brown". John Short.
[One of my favourite chanties! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9MrvUgTMMU]
//
10. Roll and Go.

Way ay roll and go.
O Sally Brown she promised me,
A long time ago.
She promised for to marry me;
Way ay roll and go
O she promised for to marry me,
A long time ago.

O, Sally Brown's the girl for me,
O, Sally Brown, she slighted me.

As I walked out one morning fair,
It's then I met her, I do declare.
//

[SHENANDOAH] John Short.
//
11. Shanadar.

O Shanadar I love your daughter,
Hooray you rolling river.
Shanadar I love your daughter
Ha Ha, I'm bound away to the wild Missouri.


O seven years I courted Sally.

And seven more I couldn't gain her.

She said I was a tarry sailor.

Farewell my dear I'm bound to leave you;
I'm bound away but will ne'er deceive you.
//

[ROLLER BOWLER] first time. John Short.
//
12. Roller, Bowler.

Hooray you roller, bowler;
In my hi-rig-a-jig and a ha ha.
Good morning ladies all.
O the first time that I saw her
'Twas down in
Playhouse Square,
To my hi-rig-a-jig and a ha ha.
Good morning ladies all.

As I walked out one morning,
As I walked out one morning,
Down by the river side,

O ladies short and ladies tall,
O ladies short and ladies tall
I love them all,
//

[RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN] John Short.
//
13. Let the Bullgine Run.

We'll run from night till morning.
O run, let the bullgine run.
Way yah, oo-oo oo-oo-oo,
O run, let the bullgine run.

We'll run from Dover to Calais.

We sailed away from Mobile Bay.

We gave three cheers and away we went.

Now up aloft this yard must go.

We're homeward bound for Liverpool Docks.
//

[HUCKLEBERRY HUNTING] John Short.
//
14. Huckleberry Hunting

The boys and the girls went a huckleberry hunting;
To my way-ay-ay-ay-ay-ay yah;
All the boys and the girls went a huckleberry hunting;
To my Hilo, my Ranzo-ray.
//

[ONE MORE DAY] John Short.
//
15. One More Day.

One more day, my Johnny,
For one more day;
O rock and roll me over
For one more day.

There is one thing more that grieves me
There is my poor wife and baby

I'm bound away to leave you
Don't let my parting grieve you
//

[JOHNNY COME DOWN TO HILO] John Short.
//
… Presumably, Hilo is the seaport of that name on the east coast of Hawaii Island…

16. O Johnny Come to Hilo.

O a poor old man came a-riding by,
Says I : old man your horse will die.
O Johnny come to Hilo,
O poor old man.
O wake her, O shake her,
O shake that girl with the blue dress on,
O Johnny come to Hilo;
Poor old man.
//

[GOOD MORNING LADIES] John Short.
//
17. Good Morning, Ladies All.

Aye yo o, aye yo o.
I thought I heard our captain say:
Aye yo. O, aye yo o.
O go on board your pilot boat And roll her down the bay.
Ha, ha, my yaller girls, Good morning, ladies all.

Our Captain on the quarter-deck
Was looking very sad.
//

[LOWLANDS AWAY] Henry Bailey.
//
… The words of the fourth verse were given me by Mr. Short. "Matelors "
means " sailors," as Mr. Short well knew ; and an "oozer," he said, was a
cotton stevedore…

18. Lowlands Away.

Lowlands, lowlands away, my John ;
I'm bound away, I heard him say,
My lowlands away, my John ;
A dollar and a half is a oozer's pay,
A dollar and a half a day.

A dollar and a half won't pay my way ;
A dollar and a half is a white-man's pay.

We're bound away to Mobile Bay ;

What shall we poor matelors do ?
//

[RANZO RAY] John Short.
http://www.wildgoose.co.uk/wildgoose-media/samples/WGS381CD-T10.mp3 (Tom Brown)
//
… Mr. Short always sang " rodeling " for " rolling."…

19. The Bully Boat.

Ah the bully boat is coming,
Don't you hear the paddles rolling?
Rando, rando, hooray, hooray
The bully boat is coming,
Don't you hear the paddles rolling?
Rando, rando, ray.

Ah! the bully boat is coming
Down the Mississippi floating.

As I walked out one May morning
To hear the steam-boat rolling.
//

[STORMY ALONG JOHN} John Short.
//
20. Stormalong John.

I wish I was old Stormy's son ;
To my way–ay Stormalong John.
I wish I was old Stormy's son,
Ha ha, come along get along, Stormy along John.

I'd give those sailors lots of rum.

O was you ever in Quebec?

A-stowing timber on the deck.

I wish I was in Baltimore.

On the grand old American shore.
//

[RIO GRANDE] John Short.
//
21. Rio Grand.

I think I heard the old man say:
o you Rio,
I think I heard the old man say:
We're bound for Rio Grand.
And away for Rio,
O you Rio,
So fare you well, my bonny young girl,
We're bound for Rio Grand.

O Rio Grand is my native land.

It's there that I would take my stand.

She's a buxom young maid with a rolling black eye.

She came from her dwelling a long way from here.

I wish I was in Rio to-day.

Buckle [bucko] sailors you'll see there,

With long sea-boats and close cropped hair.
//

[LUCY LONG] John Short.
//
22. Lucy Long.

Was you ever on the Brumalow,
Where the Yankee boys are all the go?
To my way-ay-ay ha, ha
My Johnny, boys, ha ha
Why don't you try for to wring Miss Lucy Long?

O! as I walked out one morning fair,
To view the views and take the air.

'Twas there I met Miss Lucy fair,
'Twas there we met I do declare.
//

[BLACKBALL LINE] John Short.
//
23. The Black Ball Line.

In Tapscott's line we're bound to shine ;
A way, Hooray, Yah;
In Tapscott's line we're bound for to shine,
Hooray for the Black Ball Line.

In the Black Ball Line I served my time.

We sailed away from Liverpool Bay.

We sailed away for Mobile Bay.

It was there we discharged our cargo, boys.

We loaded cotton for the homeward bound.

And when we arrived at the Liverpool Dock.

We ran our lines on to the pier.

We made her fast all snug and taut.

The skipper said: That will do, my boys.
//

[FIRE DOWN BELOW] John Short.
//
24. Fire! Fire!

There is fire in the galley, There is fire down below,
Fetch a bucket of water, girls, There's fire down below.
Fire! Fire!
Fire down below.
It's fetch a bucket of water girls, There's fire down below.

There is fire in the fore-top,
There's fire in the main;
Fetch a bucket of water, girls,
And put it out again.

As I walked out one morning fair
All in the month of June.
I overheard an Irish girl
A-singing this old tune.
//


[A-ROVING]
//
25. A-Roving.

In Plymouth town there lived a maid;
Bless you, young women;
In Plymouth town there lived a maid ;
O mind what I do say ;
In Plymouth town there lived a maid
And she was mistress of her trade;
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid.
A-roving, a-roving, Since roving's been my ru-i-in
I'll go no more a-roving with you, fair maid.

I took this fair maid for a walk,
And we had such a loving talk.

I took her hand within my own,
And said: I'm bound to my old home.
//

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] John Short.
//
26. Heave Away, My Johnny.

It's of a farmer's daughter, so beautiful I'm told
Heave away my Johnny, heave away.
Her father died and left her five hundred pound in gold;
Heave away. my bonny boys, We're all bound away.

Her uncle and the squire rode out one summer's day.

Young William is in favour, her uncle he did say.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 10 Jul 11 - 07:03 PM

1914        Sharp, Cecil K. 1914. _ English Folk-Chanteys._ London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co. Ltd.

60 chanteys. Majority heard from John Short of Watchet, Somerset.
The format is similar to Sharp's publication in issues of the Folk Song Society journal (e.g., sort sets of verses, lots of stringing out/half-couplets), but the entries have a dual purpose in that they are set to piano arrangements, as if they are to be performed. Indeed, the notes for the items are put (inconveniently, for our purposes) in a separate section at the end.

In his intro to the collection, Sharp reveals his basic intent and biases. His a priori assumption is that this repertoire primarily belongs to a song tradition of the English people. Therefore (for example), he seeks to connect the tunes to other English folk or popular songs – not necessarily a bad move in all cases, but an assumption, nonetheless, that closes the door on other possibilities. He talks about songs exhibiting "Negro influence", which seems to me a way of assuming again that some core English repertoire is at the center, which Black songs can only "influence"; Black song traditions cannot be at the center in this sort of discussion.

What is wonderful about Sharp's collected shanties is that we have them for posterity, and more so that he has recorded the musical and lyrical peculiarities of specific singers (i.e. he has been descriptive). This is as opposed by giving a 'generic' quasi-composite version of the chanties, such as some of the earlier authors had done. However, that benefit is somewhat diminished in this particular collection; unlike in his journal articles, Sharp does create composite/ideal/prescriptive versions to some extent.

One can also critique Sharp's relative ignorance of the subject. He had gained familiarity by this point, but I think that what he didn't know about shanties comes through now and again in misperceptions of what his informants sang. (Incidentally, when Hugill went on to re-present many of these items, he "corrected" some of the lyrics to reflect what one better acquainted with the subject would assume must have been the intended words.)

The opening of the intro reflects Sharp's assumption that chanties were at the core of some ~ancient~ English song tradition. He thought they were a hold-over from a larger body of English work songs…the rest of which mysteriously vanished. He does not think that the dearth of other work songs besides chanties might indicate that they were borrowed from non-English culture!
//
THE sailors' chantey is, I imagine, the last of the labour-songs to survive in this country. In bygone days there must have been an enormous number of songs of this kind associated with every rhythmical form of manual labour ; but the machine killed the landsman's work-song too long ago for it now to be recoverable. The substitution, too, of the steam-engine for the sail in deep-sea craft has given the death-blow to the chantey; …
//

Origin ideas, with little evidence. Does not distinguish "Complaynt" from more recent work songs, and yet the issue is "beyond question."
//
How old the chantey may be it is impossible to say, but that the custom
amongst sailors of singing in rhythm with their work was in vogue as far back at least as the fifteenth century, the vivid description of the voyage in " The Complaynt of Scotland" (c. 1450) places beyond question.
//

Etymology, orthography. Doesn't use much literature to make an argument; seems just like a random decision.
//
Notwithstanding the antiquity of the chantey the word itself is quite
modern ; indeed, the compilers of the Oxford Dictionary are unable to cite its use in literature earlier than 1869. Moreover, although the authorities are more or less in agreement regarding the derivation of the word (Fr. chante), its spelling is still in dispute. The Oxford Dictionary (1913) gives the preference to "shanty"; Webster's New International
Dictionary (1911) to "chantey"; while the Century Dictionary (1889) prints both forms "chantey" and " shanty." Clark Russell and Kipling write it " chantey," and Henley "chanty." As the balance of expert opinion appears to favour "chantey " that spelling is adopted here.
//

Prior writings consulted; he seems to have looked at collections mainly, and perhaps not other articles and sources.
//
Considering the interest which this subject must have for antiquaries,
musicians, folk-lorists and others, its bibliography is remarkably slender. //

Mentions LA Smith, Davis/Tozer, Whall, Bullen.
//
Of these, the last two are at once the most recent and, in my opinion, the
most authoritative. Each is the compilation of a professional sailor and
avowedly a one-man collection, containing those chanteys only which its
author had himself heard and learned at sea. Here, of course, Mr. Whall and Mr. Bullen have the advantage of me. I have no technical or practical knowledge whatever of nautical matters ; I have never even heard a chantey sung on board ship. But then I approach the subject from its aesthetic side my concern is solely with the music of the chantey and with its value as an art-product and this I contend is quite possible even for one who is as ignorant as I am of the technical details of the
subject.
//
So, he is mainly interested in tune-forms, and connecting them to other folk song tunes.

Personal sources.
//
Counting variants, I have collected upwards of 150 chanteys, all of which
have been taken down from the lips of old sailors now living in retirement at St. Ives, Padstow, Watchet, Bridgwater, Clevedon, Bristol, Newcastle and London.
//

Sharp's criteria for inclusion, which includes the funky decision not to include "popular" songs whose tunes are "not of folk-origin" – meaning that very many of the common shanties would have to be excluded…and also meaning that Sharp assumes shanties that are included do not have popular origins (for example, Haul Away Joe).
//
In making my selection for the purposes of this book I have been
guided by the following considerations. I have limited my choice to those
chanteys which I had definite evidence were actually used within living
memory as working-songs on board ship; I have excluded every example
of the sea-song or ballad, which is, of course, not a labour-song at all; I have omitted certain popular and undoubtedly genuine chanteys, such as
"The Banks of the Sacramento," " Poor Paddy works on the Railway," "Can't you dance the Polka," "Good-bye, Fare you Well," etc., all of which are included, I believe, in one or other of the Collections above enumerated on the ground that the tunes are not of folk-origin, but rather the latter-day adaptations of popular, "composed" songs of small musical value; and finally, to save space, I have excluded several well-known chanteys, e.g. "Farewell and Adieu to you, Ladies of Spain," "Cawsand Bay," "The Coasts of High Barbary," etc., all of which have been repeatedly published.
//

On Sharp's informants.
//
A reference to the Notes will show that thirty-nine of the chanteys in this
Collection have already seen the light in some form or other. The remaining twenty-one are, I believe, now published for the first time.
Fifty-seven of the chanteys in my Collection, and forty-six of those in this
volume, were sung to me by Mr. John Short of Watchet, Somerset. Although seventy-six years of age he is apparently, so far as physical activity and mental alertness go, still in the prime of life. He has, too, the folk-singer's tenacious memory and, although I am sure he does not know it, very great musical ability of the uncultivated, unconscious order. He now holds the office of Town Crier in his native town, presumably on account of his voice, which is rich, resonant and powerful, and yet so flexible that he can execute trills, turns and graces with a delicacy and finish that would excite the envy of many a professed vocalist. Mr. Short has spent more than fifty years in sailing-ships and throughout the greater part of his career was a recognised chanteyman, i.e. the solo-singer who led the chanteys. It would be difficult, I imagine, to find a more experienced exponent of the art of chantey-singing, and I account myself peculiarly fortunate in having made his acquaintance in the course of my investigations and won his generous assistance. Of the other singers who have been good enough to sing to me, Mr. Perkins of St. Ives and the late Mr. Robbins of London deserve especial mention. …
//

A word more on John Short (1839-1933), who our friend Tom Brown has helped us to know better through the Short Sharp Shanties project. Short ("Yankee Jack") started his deepwater career circa 1857/8 and retired from that circa 1873-75.

Many of the shanties which Sharp got from Short are ones rarely collected elsewhere. Quite often, the only other version is one supplied –miraculously?—by Hugill. TomB made the following observation on Mudcat in March '09:

"It's fascinating to find that, of those shanties that Sharp/Terry published from John Short, which were not in other publications, Stan almost invariably a his own version either from 'Harding the Barbadian' or 'picked up in the West Indies'. Makes you wonder!"

The next passage, which begins a theory of the origins of worksongs, includes a phrase matching what Harlow later included as a sing outs.
//
…A simple way of securing this end was explained to me by a practical seaman, who told me that on such occasions he would recite, slowly and impressively and to the following rhythm, this sentence,

[musical score w/ lyrics:]
I sell brooms, squeegees and swabs.

instructing the men to make their effort on the word swabs….
//

On the nature of lyrics, and how the present collection treats them:
//
In most chanteys, e.g. " Ranzo," it is one line only in each stanza that has to be improvised, so that the demands made upon the singer's powers of invention are not overwhelming. Every chanteyman, too, has a number of stock lines, or "tags," stored up in his memory, such as

"Up aloft this yard must go," "I think I heard the old man (i.e. the captain) say"

upon which he can always draw when inspiration fails him. The
paucity of singable words vitiates to some extent the practical
value of a Collection such as this; on the other hand it should not be difficult for the amateur to emulate the chanteyman and invent words of his own. It should, perhaps, be added that the words in the text are those that were actually sung to me. I have not "edited" them in any way beyond excising a few lines and softening two or three expressions.
//
So, he bowdlerized a bit.

On singing style—possibly reflects how his aged informants were singing to him:
//
Traditionally, the chantey is sung very slowly and deliberately and the
tune embellished especially by the chanteyman himself with numberless
trills and graces, with every now and again a curious catch in the voice (a
kind of hiccough), and numerous falsetto notes. These embellishments are highly characteristic, but they are very difficult, and the amateur would be well advised not to attempt to imitate them. He must remember, however, to sing the chanteys slowly and impressively and, the majority of them at any rate, without accompaniment. Accompaniments, it is true, are given in the text, but this is only that the melodies may, if required, be played as instrumental airs.
//

Origins again, and Sharp's assumptions about the inherently English nature of chanties, or the essentialized English sailor.
//
The origin of the chantey-tune is a question beset with difficulty. A great many of the airs I should be inclined to say a majority of them must originally have been drawn from the stock of peasant-tunes with which the memory of every country-bred sailor would naturally be stored. In most cases these have, in the process of adaptation, undergone many changes, although there are instances where the folk-ballad has been "lifted " bodily into the service of the chantey without any alteration whatever, as for example "Blow away the Morning Dew " (Whall, p. 35) and "Sweet Nightingale " (Songs of the West, No. 15). The latter was given me as a capstan-chantey by Mr. Short who told me that he had himself converted it into a chantey, and that it had always become a favourite with the crews he had sailed with. Very often too for the sailors' taste is comprehensive rather than particular popular street-songs were added to the sailors' repertory of chanteys, e.g. " Champagne Charlie," "Doo-dah-day," etc. Another source, too, from which the chantey seems to have been replenished is the hymn-book ; at any rate there are many chanteys that have hymn-tune characteristics, e.g. "Leave her Johnny" (No. 3), etc.
The resemblance may be adventitious, i.e. the short, concise phrases peculiar to the chantey may have led naturally to the construction of tunes of this character ; or, on the other hand, as the sailor is a great singer of hymn-tunes of the more emotional type, it may be that he has consciously or unconsciously introduced some of the phrases of his favourite tunes into the chantey.

Lastly, there is the vexed question of negro influence. Mr. Arnold, the musical editor of Mr. Bullen's Collection, holds that " the majority of the chanteys are negroid in origin." I cannot subscribe to this opinion, although I admit that the negro has undoubtedly left his impress upon a certain number of chantey-tunes. The technical peculiarities of negroid music are not easy to define with precision. Mr. A. H. Fox Strangways has, however, drawn my attention to the prevalence in negro music of the "melodic-third," i.e. of a shape of melody which implies a preference for harmonising in thirds, instead of the fourth, which is, of course, the basic interval of European folk-song … Then there is that characteristic form of syncopated rhythm, popularly known as "rag-time," which, however, although undoubtedly negro in origin, is found very rarely, if at all, in the chantey. … That the chantey should have been affected by the negro is not surprising when we remember that sailing-ships, engaged in the Anglo-American trade, commonly carried " chequered " crews, i.e. one watch of coloured men and one of white. It is necessary, however, to distinguish between music of negroid origin and European music that has been modified by the negro.
…However, I do not wish to be dogmatic. Sufficient material has not yet
been amassed upon which to found a sound theory of the origin of the chantey-tune ; and it may be that when further evidence is available the somewhat speculative opinions above expressed will need material modification.
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 06 Jul 11 - 07:48 PM

Here's the last of the chanty articles by the Folk-Song Society crew, that I know of, to be discussed.

1916        Sharp, Cecil J., A.G. Gilchrist, Lucy E. Broadwood, Frank Kidson, and Harry E. Piggott. 1916. "Sailors' Chanties." _Journal of the Folk-Song Society_ 5(20):297-315.

Another batch of chanties, collected by Cecil J. Sharp and Harry E. Piggott.

[JAMBOREE], for capstan. Sung by Harry Perrey (age 61) in 1915. Perrey was a American who spent 40+ years in sailing ships. So, his songs may go back to the 1870s.
//
Whip Jamboree.

First version.

O now, my boys, we'll give three cheers,
For the Irish coast is drawing near;
Tomorrow we will sight Cape Clear,
O Jenny, get your oat cake done.
O Jamboree, whip Jamboree,
O you long-tailed black man step it up behind me,
O Jamboree, whip Jamboree,
O Jenny, get your oatcake done.

Now my boys, we're off Holyhead,
No more salt beef, no more salt bread,
One man in the chains for to heave the lead,
O Jenny get your oat-cake done.
O Jamboree, etc.
//

"Southern Ladies" is a song I've never seen elsewhere (except in Hugill's reprint). (Incidentally, I used it as the tune for my chanty dedicated to Barry Finn). Given as a capstan chantey, sung by Perrey in 1915.
//
19. Southern Ladies.

What will you fetch your Julia?
Way-ay-ay-ay,
What will you fetch your Julia?
She's a southern lady…all the day.

One bottle of Floridy water.
Way-ay-ay-ay.
One bottle of Floridy water,
She's a southern lady all the day.

This is a negro labour-song of the cotton stations of the Southern States which, like many others of a similar character, has been commandeered by the sailor.
-C. J. S.
//

[BANKS OF NEWFOUNDLAND] appears here, for the first time, I think, as a capstan chanty.
//
20. The Banks of Newfoundland.

You rambling boys of Liverpool, I'll have you to beware,
When you go a-packet sailing No dungarees don't wear;
But have a monkey jacket All unto your command,
For there blows some cold nor'westers On the banks of Newfoundland.
We'll wash her and we'll scrub her down, With holy stones and sand.
And we'll bid adieu to the Virgin Rocks On the banks of Newfoundland.

We had one Lynch from Balla na Lynch,
Jimmy Murphy and Mike Moor;
It was in the winter of sixty-two
Those sea-boys suffered sore.
They pawned their clothes in Liverpool
And sold them out of hand,
Not thinking of the cold nor'-westers
On the banks of Newfoundland.

We had one lady passenger on board,
Bridget Riley was her name;
To her I promised marriage
And on me she had a claim.
She tore up her flannel petticoats
To make mittens for our hands,
For she couldn't see the sea-boys frozen
On the banks of Newfoundland.

Now my boys, we're off Sandy Hook
And the land's all covered with snow;
The tug-boat will take our hawser
And for New York we will tow;
And when we arrive at the Black Ball dock
The boys and girls there will stand;
We'll bid adieu to packet-sailing
And the banks of Newfoundland.
//

Also here for the first time as a capstan chanty is [LIVERPOOL GIRLS].
//
21. Row, Bullies, Row.
[The Liverpool Girls.]

From Liverpool to 'Frisco a-roving I went,
For to stay in that country it was my intent;
But drinking strong whiskey, like other damned fools.
I was very soon shanghai'd back to Liverpool.
Singing row…row, bullies, row,
Those Liverpool girls they have got us in tow.

One day off Cape Horn, sure I ne'er will forget,
O it's O don't I sigh when I think on it yet;
The mate was knocked out and the sails was all wet
And she was running twelve knots with her main sky-sail set.
Singing row, row, etc.

O it's now we are sailing down on to the line,
When I think over it yet, sure we had a hard time;
The sailors was pulling the yards all around,
Trying to beat that flash clipper called the Thacka McGowan.
Singing row, row, etc.

O it's now we're arrived in Bramley-Moor Dock,
Where the fair maids and lasses around us will flock.
The barley's run dry and sixty dollars advance,
I think it's high time to get up and " dust." [i.e. " strike out for another
country."]
//

[SHALLOW BROWN], a "pulling" chanty.
//
Shallow Brown.
[I'm Going Away to Leave You.]

I'm going away to leave you,
Shallow, O Shallow Brown.
I'm going away to leave you,
Shallow, O Shallow Brown.

Get my clothes in order.

The steam-boat sails to-morrow.

I'm bound away for Georgia.

No more work on plantation.
I'll cross the wide Atlantic.

I'll cross the Chili mountains.

To pump them silver fountains. [i.e. work the silver mines.]
//

[FIRE DOWN BELOW] for capstan.
//
23. Fire! Fire!

First version.

Fire! Fire! Fire! My boys, Don't you kick up any noise,
To my way-ay-ay-ay-ay.
O it's fire in the foretop and in the hole below,
It's fire down below.
The Captain's on the poop with his spyglass in his hand,
To my way-ay-ay-ay-ay.
The mate is on the focosle head a-looking out for land,
O it's fire down below.
//

[JAMBOREE] sung by George Conway (age 70) in 1914. This melody in major mode.
//
Whip Jamboree. Second Version.

O Jamboree, O Jamboree,
Long time a-coming that pretty, little yaller girl,
O Jamboree, O Jamboree,
O Jenny get your oat-cake done.
//

[FIRE DOWN BELOW]
//
Second Version.

Fire up the middle door, Fire down below,
O Fire in the maintop, Fire down below.
[cho.] Fire! Fire! Fire! O here's an awful go!
Let's hope that we shall never see fire down below.

Fire in the mizen top.

Fire in the fore-top.
//

[HANDY MY BOYS], a "pulling" chanty, sung by Robert Ellison (age 78) in 1914.
//
O handy, my boys, we're bound away,
So handy, my boys, so handy,
O handy, my boys, we're bound away,
So handy, my boys, so handy.

I thought I heard the Captain say.

At daylight, boys, we're bound away.

Bound away for Botany (Hobson's) Bay.

Whenever you go to Playhouse Square.

Gipsy Pole she do live there.
//

A pulling chanty. Sure, it's similar to "Sally Brown," but not necessarily any more so than other chanties. My quick rendition:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MsHHHbnY9Vc
//
25. What is in the Pot A-boiling?

What is in the pot a-boiling?
O row, heave and go.
Two sheep's spunks and an apple dumpling,
O row, heave and go.
//

[RIO GRANDE] for windlass, sung by John Rerring in 1912.
//
26. Rio Grande.

I thought I heard our Captain say,
Oh Rio
I thought I heard our Captain say
"We are off to Rio Rande"
Then away Rio…Away Rio,
So fare you well my bonny young girl,
We are off to Rio Grande.

So heave up your anchor and let us away.

We've a jolly goo(I ship and a jolly good crew.
A jolly good mate and a good captain too.

So set all your sails, 'tis a favouring wind;
Say good-bye to the lass you are leaving behind.

For twelve long months we'll be away.
And then return with our twelve months' pay,
//

[HEAVE AWAY MY JOHNNIES] for windlass.
//
27. Heave Away, My Johnny.

As I was walking Liverpool streets a-wearing out my shoes,
Heave away, my Johnny, heave away…
I stepped into a shipping office, just to hear the news.
Heave away, my jolly boys, we're all bound to go.

"Good Morning, Shipping Master," " Good Morning, Jack," says he.
"O have you got a fine ship to carry me over the sea "

"Oh yes, I have a fine ship, a ship of noted fame;
She's lying in the Canning Dock, the Annie is her name.

The wages are a pound a month, and half a month's advance;
And whilst you haven't got a ship, you'd better take the chance."

So I went on board the Annie and I sailed to a foreign clime;
But I'll ne'er forget the girl I loved and left in tears behind.
//

[HEAVE AWAY CHEERILY] "hauling"
//
Off to the South'ard We'll Go.

Oh our ship is refitted, we are going for a trip,
Cheer'ly my lads, let her go
We're a jolly fine crew and a jolly fine ship,
As off to the south'ard we'll go.

So set all your sails, it's a favouring wind,
Say good-bye to the friends you are leaving behind,

We shall soon clear the Channel and be well off the land;
Then the steward will serve out the grog to each man.

But the wind is increasing, we must reduce sail.
Take a reef in the topsails and weather the gale.

Under low canvas four days we have been.
Four passing ships homeward bound we have seen.

But now we will set all our sails again.
And think nothing more of the wind and the rain.

The chanty of this name in Tozer's Sailors' Songs is a modern production both tune and words-but seems to have been founded on something older…A.G.G.
//

[HANDY MY BOYS], "hauling"
//
A Handy Ship.

A handy ship and a handy crew,
So handy, my boys, so handy.
A handy ship and a handy crew,
So handy, my boys, so handy.

A handy mate to pull us through.
A handy mate to pull us through.

The mate will tell us when to belay.
I think that's just what he's going to say

So up aloft on this yard we must go.
So up aloft on the yard we must go.
//

Piggott gives a note to acknowledge improvisation and stock verses, as explained by his informant.
//
… In connection with this and the chanties which follow, it must be remembered that the words are extemporized and often trans-
ferred from one chanty to another. Mr. Perring said to me " Of course, I can't think of words to sing now. I am out of practice. Besides it is so different singing in a room. If I were on board, with all the fellows round me, I should know their names and all about them and I was a good hand at making up little rhymes which would fit in; I should think of the next verse while they were singing the chorus." He went on to explain how he had certain rhymes or jingles which he fell back upon when he could no longer think of topical verses, such as:
" The captain is a-growling,
The wind it is a-howling."
" Haul and pull together,
Haul for better weather."
//

[HAUL AWAY JOE], a "setting up" chanty
//
Haul Away, Joe.

Away haul away, Haul away together,
Away, haul away, haul away Joe!

Away, haul away,
The gale it is a-brewing;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe!

Away, haul away,
Haul and pull together;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe !

Away, haul away,
The captain is a-growling;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe!

Away, haul away,
All for better weather;
Away, haul away,
Haul away, Joe!

The "setting up " or " sweating up " chanties were sung as a solo or by a few voices; all joining in with a shout on the last word, as they fell back on the rope.
-H. E. P.
//

[JOHNNY BOWKER] for "setting up"
//
Johnny Poker.

Oh, do my Johnny Poker, Oh! will you not give over?
Oh do, my Johnny Poker, Do!

This is sung in the same manner as the last, with impromptu variations to the second strain, such as :

"The captain is a-growlin'."
"The gale it is a howlin'."
"We'll either break or bend her."
"My sweetheart young and tender." -H. E. P
//

[BOWLINE] "setting up"
//
Haul on the Bowline.

Haul on the owline, the main to'gallant bowline.
Haul on the bowline, the bowline, Haul.

Haul on the bowline, the captain is a-growlin',
Haul on the bowline, the bowline, haul.

and so on, with such variations as:

" Our ship she is a-rolling."
" Haul for better weather."
" Haul and pull together."
"The wind it is a-howlin'." etc.

The last note is sometimes indicated simply as a shout. This is probably one of our oldest English chanties….-A. G. G.

This is apparently the opening phrase of a variant of the tune made famous by Tom Moore's arrangement as " The Song of Fionnuala" (" Silent, oh Moyle "). Moore took his air from Holden's Irish Tunes, where it appears as " Arah, my dear Evleen." Holden's version is spoilt by its sharpened seventh; Moore retained this, and Sir Charles Stanford has changed it to what he believes to be the old form (see below). The Irish tune " Savourneen Deelish " (used by Moore for his song "'Tis gone, gone for ever," and by Thomas Campbell for his poem " There came
to the beach a poor exile of Erin "), seems allied to " Arah, my dear Evleen." The opening phrases of the songs are given here for comparison, and very interesting notes on them are in Moffat and Kidson's Minslrelsy of Ireland, pp. 224, 262, and Appendix, p. 341.-L. E. B.
[with tunes given for comparison]
//

Gilchrist and Broadwood, above, were keen on connecting the last chanty to earlier English or Irish sources.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: John Minear
Date: 06 Jul 11 - 08:26 AM

Let me say again, under my own name this time, that I'm glad to see you back at it, Gibb. This is some good work and I appreciate having it available like this. And I do hope you had a good 4th. J.


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 06 Jul 11 - 05:56 AM

The following source contains several original versions or variations of chanties. Many of these were later reproduced by Stan Hugill. The notes in the chanties are not very insightful; I've mainly broken out the lyrics here.

1914        Sharp, Cecil J., A.G. Gilchrist, and Lucy R. Broadwood. "Sailors' Chanties." _Journal of the Folk-Song Society_ 5(18):31-44.

Several chanties collected by the authors, from individuals who presumably learned them in the 2nd half of the 19th century.

From Charles Robbins (age 66): [HAUL AWAY JOE], sung in 1908.
//
1. Haul Away, Joe.

Away, audle away, O audle away my rosy,
O away, audle away, O audle away Joe

O once I had a nigger girl
She had a nigger baby;
O away, audle away,
O audle away Joe.

O now I've got an English girl,
I treat her like a lady;
O away, etc.

We sailed away for the East Indies,
With spirits light and gay;
O away, etc.

We discharged our cargo there, my boys,
And we took it light and easy;
O away, etc.

We loaded for our homeward bound,
With our minds so free and easy;
O away, etc.

We squared our yards and away we ran,
With the music playing freely;
O away, etc.

Now up aloft this yard must go,
We'll pull her free and easy;
O away, etc.

Another pull and then belay,
We'll make it all so easy;
O away, etc.

Now when we landed in English Town,
We landed free and easy;
O away, etc.

We made her fast and made her run,
And made her free and easy;
O away, etc.
//

[SANTIANA] Sung in 1909
//
2. Santy Anna.

O Santy Anna gained the day,
O away O Santy Anna;
O Santy Anna gained the day,
Ordle on the plains of Mexico.

Mexico is a place of renown, etc.

We'll spread her wings and let her go, etc.
O up aloft this yard must go, etc.

We're homeward bound with a pleasant gale, etc.

We're bound away for Liverpool Town, etc.

We gave three cheers and away we ran, etc.

We sailed away with our spirits light and gay, etc.
//

[BLACKBALL LINE] as capstan chanty. Sung in 1908.
//
6. The Black Ball Line.

O the Black Ball Line I served my time,
Haul a way, Haul away O,
The Black Ball Line I served my time,
Then Hurrah! for the Black Ball Line.

O the Black Ball line is the line for to shine, etc.

We sailed away from Liverpool Bay, etc.

We sailed away with spirits light and gay, etc.

We sailed away for Mobile Bay, etc.

It was there we discharged our cargo, boys, etc.

And we loaded cotton for the homeward bound, etc.

We sailed away with spirits light and gay, etc.

Up aloft this yard must go, etc.

And when we arrived at Liverpool Docks, etc.

We ran our lines unto the pier, etc.

We have around with the same ordle (old) song, etc.

We made her fast all snug and taut, etc.

Now the skipper said, " Now that will do my boys," etc.
//

[REUBEN RANZO], topsail hailyards. Sung in 1908.
//
Ranzo.

O Ranzo was no sailor,
O Ranzo, boys, Ranzo;
O Ranzo was no sailor.
O Ranzo, boys, Ranzo.

He shipped on board of a sailer, etc.

They took him to the gangway, etc.

They gave him five and twenty, etc.

They sailed to Mobile Bay, etc.

It was there they discharged their cargo, etc.

They shipped another cargo, etc.

We are homeward bound to Liverpool, etc.

Now the captain he being a good man, etc.

He took him to the cabin, etc.

He learned him navigation, etc.

O that was the end of Ranzo, etc.
//

[RUN LET THE BULGINE RUN] sung in 1908. Capstan.
//
9. The Bullgine.

O the Bullgine ran in the morning,
O run, let the Bullgine run;
We-O, Away, Ha! Ha!
Run, let the Bullgine run.

We sailed away for Mobile Bay, etc.

We spread our sales with a favourable gale, etc.

Now up aloft this yard must go, etc.

We're homeward bound for Liverpool docks, etc.

Now we gave three cheers and away we went, etc.
//

[SALLY BROWN] sung in 1909. With chromatic or blue note sort of melody.
//
12. Sally Brown.

I shipped on board of a Liverpool liner,
Way-Ho, a rolling go,
And we shipped on board of a Liverpool liner,
For I spent my money 'long with Sally Brown.

Now up aloft this yard must go, etc.

And we spread her wings and we let her go free boys, etc.

Now we sailed three days when a storm arose boys, etc.

We screw in cotton by the day boys, etc. (i.e. screw it in bales).

O Sally Brown was a bright mulatter, etc.

Now we spread her wings and away we sail boys, etc.

O seven years I courted Sally, etc.

And now we're married and we're living nice and comfor'ble, etc.
//

[FISHES] Sung by Wm. Wooley (aged 84) in 1908.
//
3. Blow the Wind Wester.

First Version.

It's up jumps the sprat, the smallest of them all;
She jumped on the foredeck, well done, my lads all.
So blow the wind wester, blow the wind blow!
Our ship she's in full sail, how steady she goes.

Then up jumps the eel, with his slippery tail;
He jumped on the fore deck and glistened the sail.

Then up jumps the nirl-log, with his pretty spots;
He jumped on the fore deck and looked on the top.

Then up jumps the shark, with his rolling teeth;
He said: " Mr. Captain, shall I cook your beef ?"

Then up jumps the roter, the king of the sea;
He jumped on the fore deck and turned the key.
//

Second Version. Sung by Mrs. L. Hooper, 1904.
//
Up jumps the salmon, The largest of 'em all;
He jumps on our foredeck, Saying: Here's meat for all.
O blow the wind whistling, O blow the winds all!
Our ship is still-hearted boys, How steady she go!

Up jumps the shark, The largest of all;
He jumps on our fore-deck: You should die all!

Then up jumps the sprat, The smallest of all;
He jumps on our fore-deck, Saying: We shall be drowned all!
//

[TALLY] Sung by Mr. Rapsey (age 58) in 1906.
//
4. Tiddy I-O

O now you forbid us to bid you adieu,
Tiddy i-o io;
We're homeward bound to Bristol town,
Tiddy i-o i-o i-o.

We're homeward bound with sugar and rum,
Tidy i-o, i-o;
We're homeward bound with sugar and rum,
Tidy i-o, i-o.

When we arrive in the Bristol Docks
Tidy i-o, i-o;
Now the people come down in flocks,
Tidy i-o, i-o.
//

[LEAVE HER JOHNNY], a capstan chanty
//
Leave Her, Johnny.

The times is hard and the wages low,
Leave her, Johnny, leave her;
The bread is hard and the beef is salt,
But it's time for us to leave her.

O the mill to the pump is our relief
I thought I hear our captain say.

Ten long months on salt beef all
O now I hear our captain say.
//

[REUBEN RANZO] Attributed to "Sailors at Liverpool" Quite a different and unusual tune.
//
Oh, Ramso was no sailor!
Ramso, boys, Ramso!
Oh, Ramso was no saior!
Ramso, boys, Ramso!
He shipp'd on board a whaler,
Ramso, boys, Ramso!
He shipp'd on board a whaler,
Ramso, boys, Ramso!

But he could not do his duty, etc.
So they gave him six and thirty, etc.

Now the captain was a very good man, etc.
He taught him navigation, etc.

Now Ramso got so handy, etc.
That he drank all the captain's brandy, etc.
//

[RANZO RAY] marked as 'Capstan Chanty' Sung by W. Bolton, retired sailor (age 66) in 1905.
//
Ranzo.
I'm bound away to leave you, But I never will deceive you,
Ranzo, Ranzo, away, away;
We're bound to Giberaltar And our cargo's bricks and mortar,
Ranzo, Ranzo, 'way.
//

Another [RANZO RAY], capstan chanty, sung by James Saunders (age 77) in 1910.
//
8. The Bully Boat is Coming.

The bully boat is coming, Don't you hear her paddles roaring?
Ranzo, Ranzo, away
We've ploughed the ocean over, And we're all bound for Dover,
It's my Ranzo, Ranzo away.
//

[HOGEYE]. sung in 1910.
//
11. The Hog-eyed Man.

O a hog-eyed man is the man for me
O a long black beggar and you don't ride me.
With his hog eye,
And you rowed about the shore, Says the hog-eyed man.

[HOGEYE] Sung by John Allen (age 67), in 1909. A "warping" chanty.
//
O who's been here since I've been gone,
A Yankee boy with his sea boots on,
Ha! Ha!
Ha! Ha!
//

//
13. Shanadar.

O Shanadar I'll have your daughter;
Way-o, you rolling ruin;
I love her as I love the water,
Ha! Ha!
I'm bound away across the wild Missouri.

O Shanadar what is the matter ?
Way O, you rolling ruin;
Your daughter's here and I am at her,
Ha ! ha!
I'm bound away across the wild Missouri.
//

Also quotes Whall's version of HOGEYE from his Yachting Monthly article. It's like his later collction, only says "rare old" instead of "railroad."


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Jul 11 - 09:49 PM

1936        Eisdell, J.W. _Back Country or the Cheerful Adventures of a bush parson in the eighties._ London: Oxford UP.

During a voyage to Melbourne 1882, on the SS NORTHUMBERLAND. Three chanties.

Haven't seen the book; getting this second hand through site of Warren Fahey, http://warrenfahey.com/maritime-3.htm.

[DEAD HORSE]
//
I came to a river but I couldn't get across
Chorus: And we say so & we hope so
Solo - so I gave ten bob for an old blind horse

Chorus: Oh poor man
[etc]
//

//
Old Dad

O my old Daddy, he went for a swim etc
Be hung his clothes on a hickory limb
Now there were some boys who thought it great fun etc
So they stole his clothes and away they did run etc
Now my old Mammy went fishing for chad etc
And the first thing she caught was my old dad etc
//

[BLOW THE MAN DOWN]


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
Date: 05 Jul 11 - 09:15 PM

1902[April]        Parsons, W.D. "Charleston and the Exposition with Impressions of the South." _Inter-state Journal_ 4-5(6) (April 1902).        

Opinions/observations on Charleston at turn of century from a New Englander. Mentions stevedores singing, described as "peculiar."

//
The colored laborers do the manual toil in the South which the Dagoes and other European riff-raff do at the North, and a prominent wholesale merchant of Charleston expressed himself as unwilling to make an exchange if he could. Whatever we may say of him, the negro is not an Anarchist, nor a serious menace to society; the stevedores at the docks heave their loads to the accompaniment of a peculiar musical song or cry, and everywhere the negro is light-hearted and happy at his work; …
//


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Subject: RE: The Advent and Development of Chanties
From: Gibb Sahib
D